566910_leseprobe

July 16, 2017 | Author: Tebuan Comot Comey | Category: Switch, Automation, Inductor, Vacuum Tube, Sensor
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Sensors in pneumatics

Festo worldwide

Belarus IP Festo Minsk, 220035 Mascherov Prospekt, 78 Belarus Tel. ++375 (0)17/204 85 58, Fax 204 85 59 E-mail: [email protected] Belgium Festo Belgium sa/nv Rue Colonel Bourg 101 1030 Bruxelles/Brussel Tel. ++32 (0)2/702 32 11, Fax 702 32 09 E-mail: [email protected] Brazil Festo Automação Ltda. Rua Guiseppe Crespi, 76 KM 12,5 - Via Anchieta 04183-080 São Paulo SP-Brazíl Tel. ++55 (0)11/50 13 16 00, Fax 50 13 18 68 E-mail: [email protected] Bulgaria Festo EOOD 1592 Sofia 9, Christophor Kolumb Blvd. Tel. ++359 (0)2/960 07 12, Fax 960 07 13 E-mail: [email protected] Canada Festo Inc. 5300 Explorer Drive Mississauga, Ontario L4W 5G4 Tel. ++1 (0)905/624 90 00, Fax 624 90 01 E-mail: [email protected] Chile Festo S.A. Mapocho 1901 6500151 Santiago de Chile Tel. ++56 (0)2/690 28 00, Fax 695 75 90 E-mail: [email protected] China Festo (China) Ltd. 1156 Yunqiao Road Jinqiao Export Processing Zone Pudong, 201206 Shanghai, PRC Tel. ++86 (0)21/58 54 90 01, Fax 58 54 03 00 E-mail: [email protected] Colombia Festo Ltda. Avenida El Dorado No. 98-43 Bogotá Tel. ++57 (0)1/404 80 88, Fax 404 81 01 E-mail: [email protected]

Singapore Festo Pte. Ltd. 6 Kian Teck Way Singapore 628754 Tel. ++65/62 64 01 52, Fax 62 61 10 26 E-mail: [email protected]

Finland Festo OY Mäkituvantie 9, P.O. Box 86 01511 Vantaa Tel. ++358 (09)/87 06 51, Fax 87 06 52 00 E-mail: [email protected]

Korea South Festo Korea Co., Ltd. 470-1 Gasan-dong, Geumcheon-gu Seoul #153-803 Tel. ++82 (0)2/850 71 14, Fax 864 70 40 E-mail: [email protected]

Slovakia Festo spol. s r.o. Gavlovicová ul. 1 83103 Bratislava 3 Tel. ++421 (0)2/49 10 49 10, Fax 49 10 49 11 E-mail: [email protected]

France Festo Eurl Numéro Indigo Tel. 0820/204640, Fax 204641 ZA des Maisons Rouges 8 rue du Clos Sainte Catherine 94367 Bry-sur-Marne cedex Tel. ++33 (0)1/48 82 64 00, Fax 48 82 64 01 E-mail: [email protected]

Latvia Festo SIA Deglava 60 1035 Riga Tel. ++371 67/57 78 64, Fax 57 79 46 E-mail: [email protected]

Slovenia Festo d.o.o. Ljubljana IC Trzin, Blatnica 8 1236 Trzin Tel. ++386 (0)1/530 21 00, Fax 530 21 25 E-mail: [email protected]

Lithuania Festo UAB Karaliaus Mindago pr. 22 3000 Kaunas Tel. ++370 (8)7/32 13 14, Fax 32 13 15 E-mail: [email protected]

South Africa Festo (Pty) Ltd. 22-26 Electron Avenue, P.O. Box 255 Isando 1600 Tel. ++27 (0)11/971 55 00, Fax 974 21 57 E-mail: [email protected]

Malaysia Festo Sdn.Berhad 10 Persiaran Industri Bandar Sri Damansara, Wilayah Persekutuan 52200 Kuala Lumpur Tel. ++60 (0)3/62 86 80 00, Fax 62 75 64 11 E-mail: [email protected]

Spain Festo Pneumatic, S.A. Tel. 901243660 Fax 902243660 Avenida Granvia, 159 Distrito económico Granvia L'H ES-08908 Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona Tel. ++ 3493/261 64 00, Fax 261 64 20 E-mail: [email protected]

Germany Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG Postfach 10 07 10 73707 Esslingen Rechbergstraße 3 73734 Esslingen Tel. ++49 (0)711/3467-0 Fax ++49 (0)711/347-54 88500 E-mail: [email protected] Greece Festo Ltd. 40 Hamosternas Ave. 11853 Athens Tel. ++30 210/341 29 00, Fax 341 29 05 E-mail: [email protected] Hong Kong Festo Ltd. Unit C&D, 7/F, Leroy Plaza 15 Cheung Shun Street Cheung Sha Wan, Kowloon Hong Kong Tel. ++ 852/27 43 83 79, Fax 27 86 21 73 E-mail: [email protected] Hungary Festo Kft. Csillaghegyi út 32-34. 1037 Budapest Tel. ++36 1/436 51 11, Fax 436 51 01 E-mail: [email protected] India Festo Controls Private Ltd. 237B, Bommasandra Industrial Area, Bangalore Hosur Highway, Bangalore 560 099 Tel. ++91 (0)80/22 89 41 00, Fax 783 20 58 E-mail: [email protected] Indonesia PT. Festo JL. Sultan Iskandar Muda No.68 Arteri Pondok Indah Jakarta 12240 Tel. ++62 (0)21/27 50 79 00, Fax 27 50 79 98 E-mail: [email protected] Iran Festo Pneumatic S.K. # 2, 6th street, 16th avenue, Tehran 1581975411 Km 8, Special Karaj Road, P.O.Box 15815-1485 Tehran 1389793761 Tel. ++98 (0)21 44 52 24 09, Fax ++98 (0)21 44 52 24 08 E-mail: [email protected]

Mexico Festo Pneumatic, S.A. Av. Ceylán 3 Col. Tequesquinahuac 54020 Tlalnepantla, Edo. de México Tel. ++52 (01)55/53 21 66 00, Fax 53 21 66 55 E-mail: [email protected]

Sweden Festo AB Stillmansgatan 1, P.O. Box 21038 20021 Malmö Tel. ++46 (0)40/38 38 40, Fax 38 38 10 E-mail: [email protected]

Netherlands Festo B.V. Schieweg 62 2627 AN Delft Tel. ++31 (0)15/251 88 99, Fax 261 10 20 E-mail: [email protected]

Switzerland Festo AG Moosmattstrasse 24 8953 Dietikon ZH Tel. ++41 (0)44/744 55 44, Fax 744 55 00 E-mail: [email protected]

New Zealand Festo Limited MT. Wellington Auckland NZ Tel. ++64 (0)9/574 10 94, Fax 574 10 99 E-mail: [email protected]

Taiwan Festo Co., Ltd. Head Office 24450, No. 9, Kung 8th Road Linkou 2nd Industrial Zone Linkou Hsiang, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel. ++886 (0)2 26 01 92 81, Fax ++886 (0)2 26 01 92 86-7 E-mail: [email protected]

Nigeria Festo Automation Ltd. Motorways Centre, First Floor, Block C Alausa, Ikeja, Lagos, NIGERIA Tel. ++234 (0)1/794 78 20, Fax 555 78 94 E-mail: [email protected] Norway Festo AS Ole Deviks vei 2 0666 Oslo, Norway Tel. ++47 22 72 89 50, Fax ++47 22 72 89 51 E-mail: [email protected] Peru Festo S.R.L. Calle Amador Merino Reyna #480, San Isidro Lima, Perú Tel. ++51 (0)1/222 15 84, Fax 222 15 95 Philippines Festo Inc. KM 18, West Service Road South Superhighway 1700 Paranaque City, Metro Manila Tel. ++63 (0)2/776 68 88, Fax 823 42 19 E-mail: [email protected]

With CD-ROM

G

United Kingdom Festo Limited Applied Automation Centre, Caswell Road Brackmills Trading Estate Northampton NN4 7PY Tel. ++44 (0)1604/66 70 00, Fax 66 70 01 E-mail: [email protected]

Croatia Festo d.o.o. Nova Cesta 181 10000 Zagreb Tel. ++385 (0)1/619 19 69, Fax 619 18 18 E-mail: [email protected] Czech Republic Festo, s.r.o. Modøanská 543/76 147 00 Praha 4 Tel. ++420 261 09 96 11, Fax 241 77 33 84 E-mail: [email protected]

Israel Festo Pneumatic Israel Ltd. P.O. Box 1076, Ha'atzma'ut Road 48 Yehud 56100 Tel. ++972 (0)3/632 22 66, Fax 632 22 77 E-mail: [email protected]

Romania Festo S.R.L. St. Constantin 17 010217 Bucuresti Tel. ++40 (0)21/310 29 83, Fax 310 24 09 E-mail: [email protected]

United States Festo Corporation (New York) Call Toll-free 800/993 3786 Fax Toll-free 800/963 3786 395 Moreland Road, P.O.Box 18023 Hauppauge, N.Y. 11788 Tel. ++ 1(0)314/770 01 12, Fax 770 16 84 E-mail: [email protected]

Denmark Festo A/S Islevdalvej 180 2610 Rødovre Tel. ++45 70 21 10 90, Fax ++45 44 88 81 10 E-mail: [email protected]

Italy Festo S.p.A Via Enrico Fermi 36/38 20090 Assago (MI) Tel. ++39 02/45 78 81, Fax 488 06 20 E-mail: [email protected]

Russia Festo-RF OOO Michurinskiy prosp., 49 119607 Moskow Tel. ++7 495/737 34 00, Fax 737 34 01 E-mail: [email protected]

Venezuela Festo C.A. Av. 23, Esquina calle 71, No. 22-62 Maracaibo, Edo. Zulia Tel. ++58 (0)261/759 09 44, Fax 759 04 55 E-mail: [email protected]

4 2

3

22 20 mA 16 14 12

Turkey Festo San. ve Tic. A.S. Tuzla Mermerciler Organize Sanayi Bölgesi, 6/18 TR 34956 Tuzla - Istanbul/TR Tel. ++90 (0)216/585 00 85, Fax 585 00 50 E-mail: [email protected] Ukraine Festo Ukraina Borisoglebskaja 11 Kiev 04070 Tel. ++380 (0)44/239 24 33, Fax 463 70 96 E-mail: [email protected]

1 U I

Thailand Festo Ltd. 67/1 Moo 6 Phaholyothin Road Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 Tel. ++66 29 01 88 00, Fax ++66 29 01 88 33 E-mail: [email protected]

Ireland Festo Limited Unit 5 Sandyford Park Sandyford Industrial Estate Dublin 18 Tel. ++ 353(0)1/295 49 55, Fax 295 56 80 E-mail: [email protected]

Poland Festo Sp. z o.o. Janki k/Warszawy, ul. Mszczonowska 7 05090 Raszyn Tel. ++48 (0)22/711 41 00, Fax 711 41 02 E-mail: [email protected]

Workbook TP 240

I

Austria Festo Gesellschaft m.b.H. Linzer Straße 227 1140 Wien Tel. ++43 (0)1/9 10 75-0, Fax 9 10 75-250 E-mail: [email protected]

Japan Festo K.K. 1-26-10 Hayabuchi, Tsuzuki-ku Yokohama 224-0025 Tel. ++81 (0)45/593 56 10, Fax 593 56 78 E-mail: [email protected]

10 8 6 4 2

Workbook TP 240

Australia Festo Pty. Ltd. Head Office (Melbourne) 179-187 Browns Road, P.O. Box 261 Noble Park Vic. 3174 Call Toll Free 1300 88 96 96 Fax Toll Free 1300 88 95 95 Tel. ++ 61(0)3/97 95 95 55, Fax 97 95 97 87 E-mail: [email protected]

Estonia Festo OY AB Eesti Filiaal Laki 11B 12915 Tallinn Tel. ++372 666 15 60, Fax ++372 666 15 61 E-mail: [email protected]

Sensors in pneumatics

Argentina Festo S.A. Edison 2392 (B1640 HRV) Martinez Prov. Buenos Aires Tel. ++54 (0)11/47 17 82 00, Fax 47 17 82 82 E-mail: [email protected]

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Festo Didactic 566910 EN

Order number: Revision level: Authors: Graphics: Layout:

566910 11/2009 Frank Ebel, Markus Pany Doris Schwarzenberger 02/2010, Beatrice Huber, Frank Ebel

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 73770 Denkendorf, Germany, 2010 Internet: www.festo-didactic.com E-mail: [email protected] The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.

Table of contents Use for intended purpose __________________________________________________________________ IV Preface ______________________________________________________________________________ V Introduction ____________________________________________________________________________ VII Work instructions and safety precautions ____________________________________________________ VIII Training package, sensors in pneumatics (TP 240) ______________________________________________X Learning objectives _______________________________________________________________________ XI Allocation of learning objectives per exercise _________________________________________________ XII Equipment set __________________________________________________________________________ XIV Allocation of components per exercise _______________________________________________________ XVI Tools for the trainer _____________________________________________________________________ XVII Structure of the exercises _________________________________________________________________ XIX Component designations __________________________________________________________________ XIX CD-ROM contents ________________________________________________________________________ XX

Exercises and solutions Exercise 1: Automating a feed separator _______________________________________________________1 Exercise 2: Repairing a transfer unit ___________________________________________________________7 Exercise 3: Commissioning a test device _____________________________________________________ 15 Exercise 4: Tensioning a belt _______________________________________________________________ 26 Exercise 5: Stamping parts ________________________________________________________________ 34 Exercise 6: Clamping boards _______________________________________________________________ 44 Exercise 7: Inspecting plastic bottles ________________________________________________________ 52 Exercise 8: Transferring beverage bottles_____________________________________________________ 60 Exercise 9: Measuring the flow characteristics of a one-way flow control valve ______________________ 66 Exercise 10: Suction monitoring for lenses____________________________________________________ 72

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

566910

III

Use for intended purpose The training package for sensors in pneumatics may only be used: • For its intended purpose in teaching and training applications • When its safety functions are in flawless condition The components included in the training package are laid out in accordance with the latest technology, as well as recognised safety rules. However, life and limb of the user and third parties may be endangered, and the components may be impaired if they are used improperly. The training system from Festo Didactic has been developed and manufactured exclusively for training and vocational education in the fields of automation technology. The respective training companies and/or trainers must ensure that all trainees observe the safety precautions which are described in this workbook. Festo Didactic hereby excludes any and all liability for damages suffered by trainees, the training company and/or any third parties, which occur during use of the set of devices in situations which serve any purpose other than training and/or vocational education, unless such damages have been caused by Festo Didactic due to malicious intent or gross negligence.

IV

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

566910

Preface Festo Didactic’s training system for automation technology is geared towards various educational backgrounds and vocational requirements. The training system is therefore broken down as follows: • Technology oriented training packages • Mechatronics and factory automation • Process automation and control technology • Robotino® – training and research with mobile robots • Hybrid learning factories

The technology packages deal with various technologies including pneumatics, electro-pneumatics, hydraulics, electro-hydraulics, proportional hydraulics, programmable logic controllers, sensor technology, electrical engineering and electric drives.

The modular design of the training system allows for applications which go above and beyond the limitations of the individual packages, such as, for example, PLC actuation of pneumatic, hydraulic and electrical drives.

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 566910

V

All training packages have the same, identical structure: • Hardware • Teachware • Software • Seminars The hardware is comprised of industrial components and systems that are specially designed for training purposes. The structure of the teachware corresponds to that of the hardware. It includes: • Textbooks (with exercises and examples) • Workbooks (with practical exercises, supplementary instructions and solutions) • Book of exercises (with practical exercises and supplementary explanations) • Transparencies and videos (for dynamic instruction) The teaching and learning media are available in several languages. They’re intended for use in classroom instruction, but are also suitable for self-study. Where software is concerned, computer training programs, as well as simulation, visualisation, project engineering, design engineering and programming software, are made available. A wide range of seminar offerings covering the contents of the training packages round out the programme for training and vocational education.

If you have any suggestions or feedback about this manual, please send us an e-mail at [email protected] The authors and Festo Didactic look forward to your comments.

VI

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

566910

Introduction This workbook is part of the training system for automation technology from Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG. The system provides a solid basis for practice-oriented training and vocational education. Training package TP 240 deals with the subject of sensors in pneumatics. The subject of pressure sensors, flow sensors, analogue position transmitters for pneumatic cylinders, signal converters and sensors for vacuum technology is treated in depth. A permanent workstation equipped with a Festo Didactic profile plate is a prerequisite for setting up the controllers. The profile plate has 14 parallel T-slots at 50 mm intervals. A power supply unit with shortcircuit protection is used as a direct voltage source (input: 230 V, 50 Hz, output: 24 V, max. 5 A). A portable compressor with silencer (230 V, approx. 50 l/min, max. 800 kPa = 8 bar) can be used for compressed air supply. Working pressure should not exceed 600 kPa (6 bar). Ideal control sequence reliability can be achieved by operating the controller at a working pressure of 500 kPa (5 bar) without oil. In addition to equipment set TP 240, you’ll also need components from equipment set TP 201 in order to complete the 10 exercises. Data sheets for the individual components are also available (cylinders, sensors etc.).

Training materials The book of exercises for this workbook is provided as training material for trainees and pupils: •

Sensors in pneumatics, order no. 566915

The book of exercises can be ordered separately without the workbook. The worksheets can thus be easily made available to trainees and pupils.

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 566910

VII

Work instructions and safety precautions

General • Trainees should only work with the circuits under the supervision of a trainer. • Observe specifications included in the data sheets for the individual components and in particular all safety instructions! • Faults which may impair safety must not be generated in the training environment and must be eliminated immediately. Mechanical setup • Only reach into the setup when it’s at a complete standstill. • Mount all the components securely onto the profile plate. • Adhere to instructions regarding positioning of the components. Electrical setup • Use low voltage only (max. 24 V DC). • Electrical connections must only be established and interrupted in the absence of voltage! • Only use connecting cables with safety plugs for electrical connections. • Only pull the plug when disconnecting connecting cables – never pull the cable. Pneumatics • Do not exceed the maximum permissible pressure of 600 kPa (6 bar). • Do not activate compressed air until all the tubing connections have been completed and secured. • Do not disconnect tubing while under pressure. • Danger of injury when switching compressed air on! Cylinders may advance and retract automatically. • Danger of accident due to tubing slipping off! – Use shortest possible tubing connections. – Wear safety glasses. – In the event that tubing slips off: Switch compressed air supply off immediately. • Pneumatic circuit setup: Connect the components with plastic tubing with an outside diameter of 4 or 6 mm. Push the tubing into the push-in connector as far as it will go. • Switch compressed air supply off before dismantling the circuit. • Dismantling the pneumatic circuit: Press the blue release ring down, after which the tubing can be pulled out.

VIII

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

566910

Mounting technology The mounting boards for the components are equipped with mounting variant A, B or C: • Variant A, snap-in system Lightweight components that are not load-bearing (e.g. directional control valves and sensors). Simply clip the components into the slot on the profile plate. Release components from the slots by actuating the blue lever. • Variant B, bolt system Components with medium load capacity (e.g. pneumatic cylinders). These components are clamped onto the profile plate using T-head bolts. The blue, knurled nut is used for clamping and loosening. • Variant C, screw system For components with high load capacity and components which are seldom removed from the profile plate (for example on-off valve with filter-regulator). The components are secured with socket head screws and T-head bolts. Recommended accessories A digital multimeter is required in order to evaluate the circuits after setting them up. The following are measured with the digital multimeter: • operating voltage, output voltage and output current.

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 566910

IX

Training package, sensors in pneumatics (TP 240) The TP 240 training package consists of a multitude of training materials. The subject matter of this package is sensors in pneumatics. The individual components included in the TP 240 training package can also be included in other packages. Important components of TP 240 • Permanent workstation with Festo Didactic profile plate • Equipment sets or individual components (e.g. sensors, pneumatic cylinders, set of objects, positioning slide) • Complete laboratory setups Media The teachware for the TP 240 training package consists of a textbook, a workbook and a book of exercises. The textbook imparts basic physical and technical knowledge regarding sensors. The workbook includes the exercise sheets as well as the solutions for each of the 10 exercises and a CD-ROM. The book of exercises consists of a complete set of ready-to-use worksheets for each exercise. Data sheets for the hardware components are made available along with the training package, and on the CD-ROM. Media Textbook

Proximity switches

Workbook

Sensors in pneumatics

Book of exercises

Sensors in pneumatics

Set of transparencies

Sensor technology

Digital training program

WBT for sensor technology 1 – Sensors in pneumatics

Overview of media for the TP 240 training package

A digital training program (WBT for sensor technology 1 – Sensors in pneumatics) is available as software for training package TP 240. This training program takes an in-depth look at sensors in pneumatic controllers used in automated systems. With the help of a complex example based on actual industrial practice, the learner works through the basic principles of sensor technology and is able to select suitable sensors. You’ll find further training materials in our catalogue and on the Internet. The training system for automation technology is continuously updated and expanded. Transparency sets, videos, CD-ROMs, DVDs and training programs, as well as additional teachware, are offered in several languages.

X

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

566910

Learning objectives Magnetic proximity switches Become familiar with the setup and function of a magnetic proximity switch. Become familiar with proximity switches with which a cylinder’s end-position can be detected. Become familiar with terminology from the field of proximity switch technology. Become familiar with various types of proximity switches. Become familiar with the setup and function of a magneto-resistive proximity switch. Become familiar with circuit symbols for proximity switches. Learn to select proximity switches for monitoring the end-positions of cylinders. Learn to install and adjust a magnetic proximity switch.

Position transmitters Become familiar with the function and the circuit symbol of a position transmitter. Learn to record and evaluate the characteristic curve of a position transmitter. Become familiar with the range of applications of a position transmitter. Become familiar with the operating mode of a signal converter. Learn to use a signal converter for recording and evaluation.

Pressure sensors Become familiar with the setup and function of a pneumatic-electric converter. Learn to categorise pressure sensors according to the measuring method used. Learn to describe the function of a pressure sensor. Learn to classify the pneumatic connections and electrical terminals of an analogue pressure sensor. Learn to adjust a pressure sensor. Learn to record the characteristic curve of a pressure sensor. Become familiar with the setup and function of pressure sensors. Become familiar with the terminology used to describe the switching characteristics of sensors. Learn to use a pressure sensor to detect leaks. Become familiar with the setup and function of a vacuum switch. Learn to select and adjust a vacuum switch for a given application.

Flow sensors Become familiar with the setup and function of a flow sensor. Learn to record the characteristic curve of a one-way flow control valve. Learn to record the characteristic curve of a flow sensor. Become familiar with the range of applications of flow sensors.

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 566910

XI

Allocation of learning objectives per exercise Exercise

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Learning objectives Become familiar with the setup and function of a magnetic proximity switch.



Become familiar with proximity switches with which a cylinder’s end-position can be detected.



Become familiar with terminology from the field of proximity switch technology.



Become familiar with various types of proximity switches.





Become familiar with the setup and function of a magneto-resistive proximity switch.



Become familiar with circuit symbols for proximity switches.



Learn to select proximity switches for monitoring the end-positions of cylinders. Learn to install and adjust a magnetic proximity switch. Become familiar with the function and the circuit symbol of a position transmitter. Learn to record and evaluate the characteristic curve of a position transmitter.

• • • •

Become familiar with the range of applications of a position transmitter.



Become familiar with the operating mode of a signal converter.



Learn to use a signal converter for recording and evaluation.



Become familiar with the setup and function of a pneumatic-electric converter.



Learn to categorise pressure sensors according to the measuring method used.



Learn to describe the function of a pressure sensor.



Learn to classify the pneumatic connections and

XII

electrical terminals of an analogue pressure sensor.



Learn to adjust a pressure sensor.





© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

566910

Exercise

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Learning objectives Learn to record the characteristic curve of a pressure sensor. Become familiar with the setup and function of pressure sensors.

• •

Become familiar with the terminology used to describe the switching characteristics of sensors.



Learn to use a pressure sensor to detect leaks.



Become familiar with the setup and function of a vacuum switch. Learn to select and adjust a vacuum switch for a given application.

• •

Become familiar with the setup and function of a flow sensor.



Learn to record the characteristic curve of a oneway flow control valve.



Learn to record the characteristic curve of a flow sensor. Become familiar with the range of applications of flow sensors.

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 566910

• •

XIII

Equipment set The equipment set TP 240 expands the learning contents of training package TP 201 by including the subject of sensors in pneumatics. The expanded contents range from the use of pressure and flow sensors, as well as analogue position transmitters including the integration of signal converters, up to sensors for vacuum technology. The components from the TP 201 package are required for the implementation of projects.

Equipment set for sensors in pneumatics (TP 240), order no. 566908

XIV

Component

Order no.

Quantity

Pressure regulator with pressure gauge

539756

1

Signal converter for position transmitter

548621

1

Electronic pressure sensor, 0 to 10 bar

548622

1

Pressure switch, 0 to -1 bar

548624

1

Flow sensor, -1 to 1 l/min., analogue

548625

1

Flow sensor, 0.5 to 10 l/min., analogue

548626

1

Vacuum generator

548628

1

Limit stop, adjustable

548630

1

Double-acting profile cylinder

549832

1

Position transmitter, 0 to 50 mm, analogue

560124

1

Suction gripper, 10 mm diameter

560158

1

One-way flow control valve

560159

1

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

566910

Graphic symbols, equipment set Component

Graphic symbol

Component

Graphic symbol

Pressure regulator with pressure gauge

ISO 1219-1

Electronic pressure sensor, 0 to 10 bar

EN 60617-7

1

p1 p2

2

2

1

3 ISO 1219-1

3

p1 p2

Vacuum generator

4

ISO 1219-1

Pressure switch, 0 to -1 bar

1

2

p

EN 60617-7

3

1

p

4

2 3 Double-acting profile cylinder

ISO 1219-1 ISO 1219-1

p

Suction gripper, 10 mm diameter

ISO 1219-1

Flow sensor, -1 to 1 l/min., analogue

EN 60617-7

1

q U

4 2 5

3 One-way flow control valve

ISO 1219-1

ISO 1219-1 2 2

q 1

Signal converter for position transmitter

EN 60617-7

Flow sensor, 0.5 to 10 l/min., analogue

1 US

4 2

EN 60617-7

1

q U

3 Position transmitter, 0 to 50 mm, analogue

4 2 5

3 ISO 1219-1

EN 60617-7

G

1 U I

4 2

2

q

3

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 566910

XV

Allocation of components per exercise

Note Exercise 1 is a theoretical exercise for which no components are required.

TP 240 equipment set Exercise

1

2

3

4

1

1

5

6

7

1

1

8

9

10

Component Pressure regulator with pressure gauge Signal converter for position transmitter

1

1

Electronic pressure sensor, 0 to 10 bar

1

Pressure switch, 0 to -1 bar

1

1

1

Flow sensor, -1 to 1 l/min., analogue

1

Flow sensor, 0.5 to 10 l/min., analogue

1

Vacuum generator Limit stop, adjustable Double-acting profile cylinder

1

Position transmitter, 0 to 50 mm, analogue

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Suction gripper, 10 mm diameter One-way flow control valve

1

1

9

10

1

1

TP 201 equipment set Exercise

1

2

3

4

5

6

2

2

1

7

8

Component One-way flow control valve

2

Proximity switch, electronic

2

5/2-way solenoid valve with LED

1

1 1

Pressure sensor with display

XVI

1

1

1

1

Signal input, electrical

1

1

1

1

1

Relay, 3-wayf

1

1

3

1

1

1

Distributor block

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

On-off valve with filter-regulator

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

566910

Optional components Exercise

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Component Digital multimeter

1

Ruler

1

24 V DC power supply unit

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

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1

Tools for the trainer Learning objectives The basic learning objective of this workbook is to become familiar with sensors in pneumatics, as well as the practical setup of circuits on the profile plate. This direct interaction involving both theory and practice ensures faster progress and longer-lasting learning. The more specific learning objectives are documented in the matrix. Concrete, individual learning objectives are assigned to each exercise. Required time The time required for working through the exercises depends on the learner’s previous knowledge of the subject matter. For apprentices in the field of metalworking or electrical installation the time required is approx. 2 weeks. For a skilled labourer it is approx. 1 week Equipment set components The workbook, the book of exercises and the equipment set match each other. You’ll need the components included in the TP 240 device set for all 10 exercises. You’ll also need some of the components from the TP 201 device set. Each exercise can be set up on a profile plate with a width of at least 350 mm. Standards The following standards are used in this workbook: DIN ISO 1219-1: Fluid power systems and components – Graphic symbols and circuit diagrams EN 60617-7: Graphical symbols for circuit diagrams EN 61346-2: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products – Structuring principles and reference designations Identification within the workbook Solutions and supplements in graphics or diagrams appear in red.

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Identification within the book of exercises Texts which require completion are identified with blank lines or grey table cells. Graphics which require completion include a grid. Training notes These notes provide additional information about the individual proximity switches. They are not included in the book of exercises. Solutions The solutions in the workbook are the results of test measurements. The results of your measurements may deviate from these. Learning topics The table below contains an overview of the learning topics offered by educational institutions on the subject matter of “sensors for object detection”, broken down by profession. Vocation

Subject matter

Electrician for automation technology

Analysing and adapting controllers Systems analysis and safety testing Programming and implementing controllers for systems Selecting and integrating drive systems Commissioning and approving automation systems Maintaining and optimising automation systems

Mechatronics technician

Implementing mechatronic subsystems Commissioning, troubleshooting and repair

Industry mechanic

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Installing and commissioning control systems

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Structure of the exercises All 10 exercises have the same structure and are broken down into: • Title • Learning objectives • Presentation of the problem • Layout • Project assignment • Work tools • Worksheets The workbook includes the solutions for all 10 exercises.

Component designations Pneumatic components are designated in circuit diagrams in accordance with DIN-ISO 1219-2. All the components included in any given circuit have the same primary identifying number. Letters are assigned depending on each respective type of component. Consecutive numbers are assigned if several components of the same type are included within a single circuit. Pressure lines are designated with a P and are numbered separately. Cylinders: Valves: Sensors: Signal input: Accessories:

1A1, 2A1, 2A2 ... 1V1, 1V2, 1V3, 2V1, 2V2, 3V1 ... 1B1, 1B2 ... 1S1, 1S2 ... 0Z1, 0Z2, 1Z1 ...

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CD-ROM contents Included on the CD-ROM are the workbook (in PDF format) as well as additional media. The CD-ROM contains the following folders: • Operating instructions • Images • Data sheets • Presentations • Product information Operating instructions Operating instructions for various components included in the training package are available. These instructions are helpful when using and commissioning components. Images Photos and graphics of components and industrial applications are made available. These can be used to illustrate individual tasks or to supplement project presentations. Data sheets The data sheets for the components included in the training package are supplied along with the equipment set and are also available as PDF files. Presentations This directory contains short presentations for the components included in the training package. They can be used, for example, to create project presentations. Product information The manufacturer’s product information is provided for selected components. The representations and descriptions of the components in this format are intended to demonstrate how they are presented in an industrial catalogue. Additional information regarding the components is also included.

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Exercise 1 Automating a feed separator Learning objectives After completing this exercise: • You’ll be familiar with the setup and function of a magnetic proximity switch. • You’ll be familiar with proximity switches with which a cylinder’s end-position can be detected. • You’ll be familiar with terminology from the field of proximity switch technology. • You’ll be familiar with various types of proximity switches.

Presentation of the problem Workpieces are transported to a processing unit on a conveyor belt. The workpieces have to be separated upstream of the processing unit. The separating cylinder’s end positions are monitored using magnetic proximity switches.

Layout

Feed separator

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Exercise 1 – Automating a feed separator

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Project assignment Describe the function of a magnetic proximity switch. Select a suitable proximity switch for monitoring the end position of a cylinder. Explain terminology from the field of proximity switch technology. Determine whether or not a solenoid valve can be directly actuated by a proximity switch. Describe different types of proximity switches.



Work tools Data sheets

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Exercise 1 – Automating a feed separator

Setup and function of a magnetic proximity switch –

Describe the setup and function of a magnetic proximity switch (reed switch). Reed switches are magnetically actuated proximity switches. They consist of two contact reeds which are located in a glass tube which is filled with inert gas. When a magnetic force is applied, the two reeds make contact allowing electrical current to flow. In the case of reed switches which function as NC contacts, the contact blades are preloaded with small magnets. This preloading is overpowered by the significantly stronger switching magnet. Reed switches have a long service life and minimal switching times (approx. 0.2 ms). They’re maintenance-free, but mustn’t be used at locations with strong magnetic fields (e.g. in proximity to resistance welding units).

Sensing the end position of a pneumatic cylinder The front end-position of a drive cylinder is to be sensed with a proximity switch. The output signal from the proximity switch will be processed with a programmable logic controller. Any of the proximity switches listed below can be selected. –

Select suitable proximity switches and explain how the specified requirements are fulfilled.  Pneumatic proximity switch  Reed proximity switch  Inductive proximity switch A pneumatic limit switch generates a pneumatic output signal which cannot be processed by the electronic controller. Proximity switches are contactless and require no mechanical actuation. Proximity switches are insensitive to contamination. The magnetic field of a permanent magnet attached to the pneumatic cylinder’s piston can be sensed by Reed proximity switches. As the piston rod and the trip cam are made of metal, inductive proximity switches can be used.

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Exercise 1 – Automating a feed separator

Terminology from the field of proximity switch technology. The output switching characteristics of proximity switches are frequently specified in data sheets with the abbreviations NO and NC. –

Explain the meanings of these terms. NO: normally open A sensor is designated NO (normally open) when it reads logic 0 (zero voltage) in the normal state (no object detected). Logic 1 is only transmitted to the controller when the sensor detects an object. Seen from a switching technology standpoint, this sensor thus corresponds to normally open contacts. NC: normally closed A sensor is designated NC (normally closed) when it reads logic 1 in the normal state (no object detected). When an object is detected, the switching output transmits logic 0 to the controller. Seen from a switching technology standpoint, this sensor thus corresponds to normally closed contacts.

Characteristic

Value

Operating voltage range, DC

10 to 30 V

Switching output

PNP

Switching element function

Normally open contact

Max. output current

200 mA

Protection against short-circuit

Yes

Measuring method

Inductive

Reverse polarity protection

For all electrical connections

Switching status display

Yellow LED

Response times on/off

≤ 0.5 ms

Max. switching frequency

1000 Hz

Max. DC switching power

6W

Voltage drop

≤ 1.8 V

Switching point reproducibility

± 0.1 mm

Data sheet for magnetic proximity switch (excerpt)



Determine the output switching characteristics of the magnetic proximity switch with the help of the data sheet, and enter them on the worksheet. The magnetic proximity switch has a PNP output and a “normally open” output function.

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Exercise 1 – Automating a feed separator

Directly actuating a solenoid valve A solenoid valve with spring return will be switched using a magnetic proximity switch. Characteristic

Value

Valve function

3/2-way, closed, single solenoid

Actuation type

Electrical

Standard nominal flow rate

500 l/min.

Operating pressure

200 to 800 kPa

Design

Piston spool

Type of reset

Pneumatic spring

Exhaust function

Without flow control

Manual override

Detenting

Type of actuation

Piloted

Pilot air supply

Internal

Response times on/off

20 ms

Coil characteristics

24 V DC, 1.5 W

Operating medium

Dried compressed air, lubricated or unlubricated

Pneumatic connection

QS-6

Data sheet for 3/2-way solenoid valve (excerpt)



Calculate how much output current will have to be supplied by the proximity switch in order to switch the solenoid coil. Use the data included in the data sheet for the solenoid valve. Operating voltage is 24 V DC. Power consumption of the coil is 1.5 W. The power equation ( P = U · I ) is turned around and current is calculated as follows: I=



P 1.5 W = = 0.0625 A = 62.5 mA 24 V U

Compare the results with the technical data for the magnetic proximity switch and supplement the following data. Switching current of the coil: Maximum proximity switch output current: Maximum proximity switch switching capacity:

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62.5 mA 200 mA 6W

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Exercise 1 – Automating a feed separator



Can the proximity switch be used to directly actuate the solenoid valve? Which factors must be taken into consideration? Yes, the 3/2-way solenoid valve can be switched using the magnetic proximity switch. To be determined is whether or not the proximity switch can reliably switch the inductive load over long periods of time without a protective circuit.

Types of proximity switches –

Describe the difference between contactless and contacting proximity switches, and provide an example of each. Contactless proximity switches In the case of contactless proximity switches, no moving contacts are switched. Instead, the sensor’s output is electronically connected to either supply voltage or earth (= output voltage of 0 V). Examples: Magnetic contactless proximity switches (inductive magnetic, magneto-resistive), inductive proximity switches, capacitive proximity switches, optical proximity switches Contacting proximity switches In the case of contacting proximity switches, the contact blades are closed, for example, when a magnet approaches, so that electrical current is able to flow and the sensor’s output is connected either to supply voltage or earth (= output voltage of 0 V). Example: Reed switch



What are the advantages of contactless proximity switches compared to contacting proximity switches? Advantages of contactless proximity switches: • No contact problems, e.g. bounce • Reliable, bounce-free switching characteristics without dual switching points • No wear, as opposed to metallic contacts, and thus long service life • Insensitive to contamination and vibration

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