53534403 Siemens Switchboard and Protection Manual

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SIEMENS...

Description

Totally Integrated Power TM Application Manual

Application Manual

www.siemens.com/tip

The information provided in this brochure contains merely general descriptions or characteristics of performance which in actual case of use do not always apply as described or which may change as a result of further development of the products. An obligation to provide the respective characteristics shall only exist if expressly agreed in the terms of contract.

Connecting the worlds of building construction and power distribution with integrated solutions for commercial and industrial buildings

totally integrated

power

Siemens AG Automation and Drives

Power Transmission and Distribution

Siemens Schweiz AG

Nominal charge: 30.00 euro

Gleiwitzer Straße 555

Paul-Gossen-Straße 100

Building Technologies Group

Order no.: E20001-A70-M104-X-7600

D-90475 Nuremberg

D-91052 Erlangen

International Headquarters Gubelstrasse 22 CH-6301 Zug

2nd Edition

Conversion Factors and Tables

Volume flow rate

Volume Non-metric unit in3

SI unit cm3

Pressure

Non-metric unit

SI unit

Non-metric unit

SI unit

1 gallon/s

3.785 l/s

1 in HG

0.034 bar

1 ft3

28.317 dm3 = 0.028 m3

1 gallon/min

0.227 m3/h = 227 l/h

1 psi

0.069 bar

1 yd3

0.765 m3

1 ft3/s

101.941 m3/h

1 lbf/ft2

1 fl oz

29.574 cm3

1 ft3/min

1.699 m3/h

4.788 x 10-4 bar = 4.882 x 10-4 kgf/cm2

1 quart

0.946 dm3 = 0.946 l

1 lbf/in2

0.069 bar = 0.070 kgf/cm2

1 tonf/ft2

1.072 bar = 1.093 kgf/cm2

1 tonf/in2

154.443 bar = 157.488 kgf/cm2

1

1 pint 1 gallon 1 barrel

SI unit

1

cm3

1 dm3 =1l 1

m3

16.387

0.473

dm3

3.785

dm3

158,987 = 159 l

SI unit

= 0.473 l = 3.785 l

dm3

= 1.589

m3

1 l/s

0.264 gallons/s

1 l/h

0.0044 gallons/min

1 m3/h

4.405 gallons/min = 0.589 ft3/min = 0.0098 ft3/s

Non-metric unit

0.061

in3

= 0.034 fl oz Force Non-metric unit

0.629 barrels

1 lbf

4.448 N

1 kgf

9.807 N

1 tonf

9.964 kN

SI unit

Non-metric unit

SI unit

1 ft/s

0.305 m/s = 1,098 km/h

1 mile/h

0.447 m/s = 1,609 km/h Non-metric unit

1 m/s

3.281 ft/s = 2.237 miles/h

1 km/h

0.911 ft/s = 0.621 miles/h

0.100 tonf

Torque, moment of force Non-metric unit

28.35 g

1 lb

0.454 kg = 453.6 g

1 sh ton

0.907 t = 907.2 kg Non-metric unit

29.53 in Hg = 14.504 psi = 2088.54 lbf/ft2 = 14.504 lbf/in2 = 0.932 tonf/ft2 = 6.457 x 10-3 tonf/in2 (= 1.02 kgf/cm2)

Non-metric unit

1 lbf in

0.113 Nm = 0.012 kgf m

1 lbf ft

1.356 Nm = 0.138 kgf m

0.746 kWh = 2.684 x 106 J = 2.737 x 105 kgf m

1 ft lbf

0.138 kgf m

1 Btu

1.055 kJ = 1055.06 J (= 0.252 kcal)

SI unit

Non-metric unit

1 kWh

1.341 hp h = 2.655 kgf m = 3.6 x 105 J

1J

3.725 x 10-7 hp h = 0.738 ft lbf = 9.478 x 10-4 Btu (= 2.388 x 10-4 kcal)

1 kgf m

3.653 x 10-6 hp h = 7.233 ft lbf

Non-metric unit 8.851 lbf in = 0.738 lbf ft (= 0.102 kgf m)

SI unit

1 hp h

SI unit

SI unit

1 oz

Non-metric unit

Energy, work, heat content

0.225 lbf = 0.102 kgf

Mass, weight

SI unit

Non-metric unit

1 kN

1 Nm

Non-metric unit

SI unit

1N

SI unit

SI unit 1 bar = 105 pa = 102 kpa

61.024 in3 = 0.035 ft3 = 1.057 quarts = 2.114 pint = 0.264 gallons

Velocity

SI unit

Non-metric unit

Moment of inertia J Numerical value equation:

J=

Non-metric unit 1 lbf

ft2

1g

0.035 oz

1 kg

2.205 lb = 35.27 oz

SI unit

1t

1.102 sh ton = 2,205 lb

1 kg m2

GD2 = Wr 2 4

SI unit 0.04214 kg

m2

Non-metric unit 23.73 lb ft2

Btu = British thermal unit Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour lbf = pound force tonf = ton force

Conversion Factors and Tables

Conductor cross sections in the Metric and US System

Temperature

Linear measure

Metric cross sections acc. to IEC

American Wire Gauge (AWG)

°F

°C

Conductor cross section

Equivalent metric CSA

320°

160°

[mm2]

AWG or MCM

305° [mm2]

Non-metric unit

150°

290° 140° 275°

0.75

1.50

2.50

4.00

0.653

19 AWG

0.832

18

1.040

17

1.310

16

1.650

15

2.080

16.00

35.00

Non-metric unit

SI system

260°

230°

3.281 ft = 39.370 in = 1.094 yd

14

212°

100°

1 km

0.621 mile = 1,094 yd

2.620

13

200°

3.310

12

245°

120°

90° 185°

4.170 5.260

11 10

6.630 8.370

9 8

155°

70°

10.550

7

140°

60°

Non-metric unit

13.300

6

16.770

5

50°

1 in2

26.670 33.630

4 3 2 1 1/0

70.00

2/0

95.00

85.030

3/0

107.200 126.640 152.000

4/0 250 MCM 300

202.710

400

240.00

253.350

500

300.00

304.000 354.710 405.350 506.710

600 700 800 1000

400.00

1.609 km = 1,609 m

0.394 in

67.430

500.00 625.00

0.914 m

1 mile

1m

53.480

185.00

30.48 cm = 0.305 m

1 yd

110°

50.00

150.00

2.54 cm = 25.4 mm

1 ft

39.37 mil

42.410

120.00

0.0254 mm

1 in

1 cm

21.150 25.00

1 mil

1 mm

6.00

10.00

130°

SI system

80° Square measure

170°

125° 110°

40° 95° 30° 80° 65°

20°

50°

10° 0°

1

0.093 m2 = 929 cm2

1

yd2

0.836 m2

1 acre

4046.9 m2

1

mile2

SI unit 1 mm2 cm2

–10°

–10°

2.59 km2 Non-metric unit 0.00155 in2 0.155 in2

1 m2

10.76 ft2 = 1,550 in2 = 1.196 yd2

1 km2

0.366 miles2

20° 5°

6.452 cm2 = 654.16 mm2

ft2

1 32°

SI unit

–20°

–25°

–30°

–40°

–40°

Btu = British thermal unit Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour lbf = pound force tonf = ton force

Conversion Factors and Tables

Electrical power

Examples of decimal multiples and fractions of metric units

Non-metric unit

SI unit

1 hp

0.746 kW = 745.70 W = 76.040 kgf m/s (= 1.014 PS)

1 ft lbf/s

1.356 W (= 0.138 kgf in/s)

1 kcal/h

1.163 W

1 Btu/h

0.293 W

1 km2 = 1,000,000 m2; 1 m2 = 10,000 cm2; 1 cm2 = 100 mm2 1 m3 = 1,000,000 cm3; 1 cm3 = 1,000 mm3

Non-metric unit

SI unit

1 km = 1,000 m; 1 m = 100 cm = 1,000 mm

1 t = 1,000 kg; 1 kg = 1,000 g 1 kW = 1,000 W

1 kW

1.341 hp = 101.972 kgf m/s (= 1.36 PS)

1W

0.738 ft lbf/s = 0.86 kcal/h = 3.412 Btu (= 0.102 kgf m/s)

Specific steam consumption Non-metric unit

SI unit

1 lb/hp h

0.608 kg/kWh Non-metric unit

SI unit 1 kg/kWh

1.644 lb/hp h

Temperature Non-metric unit °F

°C

°F

K

SI unit 5 (ϑ – 32) = ϑ F C 9 5 ϑ + 255.37 = T 9 F

Non-metric unit

SI unit °C

°F

K

°F

5 ϑ + 32 = ϑ F 9 C 5 ϑT – 459.67 = ϑ F 9

Note: Quantity

Symbol

Unit

ϑ F*

°F

Temperature in degrees ϑC* Celsius (centigrade)

°C

Temperature in Fahrenheit

Thermodynamic temperature

T

K (Kelvin)

Btu = British thermal unit Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour lbf = pound force tonf = ton force * The

letter t may be used instead of ϑ

Contents 1

Introduction

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2

Power Distribution Planning for Commercial and Industrial Buildings

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2.1. 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6

Basics for Drafting Electrical Power Distribution Systems Requirements to Electrical Power Systems in Buildings Network Configuration Power Supply Systems Routing/Wiring Switching and Protective Devices Planning Aid

2/2 2/3 2/4 2/6 2/8 2/8 2/11

2.2

Power System Planning Modules

2/12

3

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3/2

3.1. 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4

Definitions Protective Equipment and Features Low-Voltage Protection Equipment Assemblies Selectivity Criteria Preparation of Current-Time Diagrams (Grading Diagrams)

3/2 3/3 3/4 3/4 3/6

3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4

Protective Equipment for Low-Voltage Systems Circuit-Breakers with Protective Functions Switchgear Assemblies Selecting Protective Equipment Miniature Circuit-Breakers (MCB)

3/9 3/9 3/16 3/20 3/27

3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2

Selectivity in Low-Voltage Systems Selectivity in Radial Systems Selectivity in Meshed Systems

3/33 3/40 3/49

3.4

Protection of Capacitors

3/51

3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2

Protection of Distribution Transformers Protection with Overreaching Selectivity Equipment for Protecting Distribution Transformers

3/52 3/52 3/58

4

Medium Voltage

4/2

4.1

Medium-Voltage and Circuit-Breaker Switchgear for Primary Power Distribution Withdrawable Circuit-Breaker Switchgear, Air-Insulated Fixed-Mounted Circuit-Breaker Switchgear, SF6-Insulated

4/3 4/4 4/26

Secondary Distribution Systems, Switchgear and Substations

4.3 4.4

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2

4.5

5

6

Low Voltage

6/2

6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3

6/3 6/6 6/11

6.1.6 6.1.7 6.1.8 6.1.9

Low-Voltage Switchgear and Distribution Systems SIVACON 8PS – Busbar Trunking Systems SIVACON Low-Voltage Switchgear SIKUS Universal and SIKUS Universal HC for the Switchgear Manufacturer Floor-Mounted ALPHA 630 Universal and ALPHA 630 DIN Distribution Boards Wall-Mounted ALPHA 400/160, ALPHA Universal and ALPHA 400 Stratum Distribution Boards ALPHA-ZS Meter and Distribution Cabinets for Germany SIMBOX Small Distribution Boards SMS Rapid Mounting System 8HP Insulated Distribution System

6/24 6/27 6/29 6/31 6/34

6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.2.7

Protective Switching Devices and Fuse Systems Circuit-Breakers Fuse Systems Fuse Switch-Disconnectors Miniature Circuit-Breakers Residual-Current-Operated Circuit-Breakers Lightning Current and Surge Arresters 3LD2 Main Control and EMERGENCY STOP Switches

6/36 6/38 6/41 6/49 6/54 6/61 6/71 6/88

6.3

Modular Devices

6/89

6.4

Maximum-Demand Monitors

6/102

6.5

Switches, Outlets and Electronic Products

6/104

6.6

SIMOCODE pro – Motor Management System

6/110

7

Communications in Power Distribution

7/2

8

Protection and Substation Control

8/2

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4

Power System Protection Relay Design and Operation Relay Selection Guide Typical Protection Schemes

8/11 8/16 8/25 8/29

9

Power Management

9/2

10

Measuring and Recording Power Quality

10/2

4/44

10.1 10.2 10.3

Overview SIMEAS Q SIMEAS R

10/2 10/3 10/8

Medium-Voltage Equipment, Product Range

4/72

11

Meters and Measuring Instruments

11/2

PQM® – Power Quality Management and Load Flow Control

4/84

Planning of Systems for Primary and Secondary Power Distribution Exemplified by the Automotive Industry

4/87

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

SIMEAS P Power Meter SIMEAS T Transducers for High-Current Power Quantities Meters / Measuring Instruments as Modular Devices 4NC3 and 4NC5 Current Transformers

11/2 11/14 11/20 11/28

Transformers

5/2

12

SIMARIS design – the Program for Dimensioning Electrical Power Distribution

12/2

Appendix

13/2

6.1.4 6.1.5

13

6/19 6/22

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totally integrated

power

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1 We focus your energy… … and everything gets so easy Totally Integrated Power is more than mere planning of the power distribution in buildings or industrial plants. Totally Integrated Power encompasses the philosophy to render you support with our advice, with a service that is focused on you. A new project is under way: planning for a complete power distribution system – for a hospital, an office or industrial building. You know what this means: the system has to be designed not just to meet the needs of today but the future as well. Thus, cost calculations and construction timetables are kept under control, and expensive rework is avoided. This is where we offer you our support. But this is not enough: the requirements of building contractors go far beyond this. They demand cross-system thinking and integral concepts right from the project start. The goal is an optimization of building services realized by customer-focused overall solutions. To respond to this demand, Siemens has developed a portfolio which features total functionality. The optimized interplay of all functions creates benefits for everyone involved in the project: the building contractors, the users and building operators, the consulting engineers and, last but not least, the installation company.

components such as medium-voltage switchgear, transformers, low-voltage switchgear and low-voltage distribution boards to the power consumer. Costs, whether for new systems or extensions, are always transparent and controllable. The majority of the electrical power consumers belongs to the facilities for supply management, in particular those for heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, drinking water supply and lighting. The latter is to be seen in a functional relation to integrated room automation, including sun protection, daylight control technologies and motion detection (i.e. presence of persons in a building). Air conditioning technology is in a functional relation to smoke detection and fire alarm systems. Safe power supply must be ensured for all operating modes.

Totally Integrated Power, a concept which offers electrical consultants and installation companies integrated and coordinated power distribution, from medium voltage to low voltage with load feeder right down to the final outlet – the best foundation for quick and easy planning. Integrated project planning combines individual

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Totally Integrated Power makes everything so easy for distribution board manufacturers and electricians: C Designing TTA systems, for example, is no problem: the components are completely compatible C Minimum integration expense when installing: the distribution board manufacturers and electricians simply use the data from the planning tools C Saving time and money all around by a simplification of the workflow C They make use of the evolution of technical and system know-how by Siemens and benefit from it – and they will have a partner for the future C Optimum cross-functional system tuning, coordination of all requirements and support from Siemens as the leading technology manufacturer in the field of automation and alarm technologies

Take advantage of our focused know-how When all the components fit together smoothly, safe and secure power distribution is guaranteed. And your system will be economical. Now you can make use of a system that offers you a complete range of products with integrated solutions from hardware with bus interfaces to easy-to-use software. Your partner also offers you professional expertise and tailored solutions for monitoring, automation, service optimization and operational management of the entire building installations – of course utilizing planning tools for efficient project management. Totally Integrated Power takes into consideration the demands of the liberalized energy markets as well as simple and secure configuration, thus creating the foundation for economical operation. These developments call for a new way of thinking when planning. Low energy import costs are now more than ever a focus of attention. The basis for this is knowledge of the load profiles, the key loads and consumption-based billing. Here, the individual solutions and systems from Totally Integrated Power and Total Building Solutions bring transparency, and thus optimization possibilities within reach. Totally Integrated Power integrates systems and components together with a functional software package for operator control and monitoring.

Safety technology

Building control systems

Information technology

Totally Integrated Power

Heating, ventilation air conditioning

Automation technology

………

Progressive, holistic operation and building management is implemented with systems by Siemens. These systems communicate with each other on the basis of globally standardized communication protocols, such as BACnet, KNX/EIB, ASi and PROFIBUS. System integrations are proficiently carried out using internationally accepted open methods like OPC, LonMark, Modbus and M-Bus. Functions such as consumption recording, cost center allocations or load management can thus be performed, which renders a comprehensive power management system.

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Advantage: operators can optimize their installations in terms of maintenance expense, power consumption and availability. Of course, you expect the optimum solution for every investment you make, and it is only natural that system costs are increasingly being determined by operating costs. But what people are often not aware of is the fact that data networks and the data they generate can be used to achieve the optimization of electrical power distribution processes. Electrical power supply is the fundamental basis of all processes and control procedures, and most of the things we take for granted today would not function without electrical energy. This is why it is important to make use of information networking in the field of electrical power distribution. Siemens can implement this because we are completely at home in this field. Totally Integrated Power offers electrical power distribution for all functions in a building: heating, ventilation, air conditioning, production and manufacturing processes, and information technology with clearly defined communication interfaces. This ensures reliable power supply, safe working conditions, appropriate sizing, transparent system status and consumption-based cost structures.

Seite 4

A building automation and control system comprises: C Field devices (sensors, signal sources, switches and actuating devices such as butterfly and control valves, or sensors and actuators) C Local priority control units C Cabling, data networks and communication units C Control panels, variable speed drives (SED 2) and automation stations (PX), or room controllers (RX) C Management and server stations, interactive operator terminals and computer terminals C Software for functions, communications, data management and operation (rights of use, licenses) C Services and tools for the installation of a BACS system (engineering) C Web services and system maintenance

1.1 Total Building Solutions DESIGO building automation Building automation includes all facilities, software and services for automatic control, monitoring and load optimization as well as operation and management aimed at energy-efficient, economical and safe operation of all technical building installations. Fig. 1/1 Systems of the technical building equipment

1/4

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

DESIGO RX integrated room automation comprises application-specific devices and functions for zone or single-room control. This includes an integrated monitoring, control and optimization of room-related building equipment which is interconnected through their communication functions. DESIGO PX ensures that the operation of the building, i.e. of its technical installations, is performed in a safe, ecological and economically optimized manner which is also a lowexpense mode of operation. The building automation and control system reliably implements control strategies regarding HVAC. It has been optimized for the performance of operating time optimization, maximum-load limiting and the calculation of enthalpy and heating curves. It informs the operator about trends and present and previous operating states. The building automation and control system provides the data required for operating cost controlling and the documentation of an ecological audit system. It is possible to demonstrate no-fault operation. Technical equipment data and statistics which are relevant for maintenance are made available through the building automation and control system. It can also be employed as a tool for management tasks such as analysis, adjustment and continuous optimization of the modes of operation.

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Introduction

1.2 Life Safety and Security Management While building automation mainly deals with the data of HVAC and electrical subsystems, which create the basis for process optimization, the information rendered by protective and security installations is often vitally important. Life safety and security management means the limitation and containment of a multitude of risks and encompasses taking rigorous action against the most diverse hazardous events that might occur. This guarantees the protection of human life and property and the maintenance of operations within a building. The main task of life safety and security management is the easy and safe handling of critical alarms and events. The purpose is to fight hazards immediately and with the most suitable means to prevent greater damage. Life safety and security management is typically associated with the specific tasks of security systems. It must, however, be extended to any potential hazard that may be inherent in any other technical installation. Examples are for instance the temperature and humidity limits in museums, critical faults in the power distribution system of a hospital, elevator alarms, etc.

Differences from the user's point of view Control and optimization One aspect is the control and optimization of the performance of technical building installations to supply both the technical conditions for which buildings have been designed and to ensure their users' productivity by providing appropriate ambient conditions. Operator tasks are only carried out under high time pressure and psychological stress in the event of a fault, as they normally deal with longterm trends and system performance analyses. Such management functions do not require any permanent support in commercial and industrial buildings. Those who operate these functions need adaptive graphic displays that facilitate the user's intuitive orientation and enable actions to be performed which are typical for monitoring a complex system. A good operator interface provides a broad range of options with functions for generating status reports and user-specific statistics and data views.

Operators of life safety and security management systems need simple, guided operator interfaces with restricted choices of action to be able to respond fast, safely and efficiently even in a panic situation. Support from Siemens Total Building Solutions by Siemens focus on the performance of the tasks detailed above and the surplus value to be gained by the customer. The type of building control defines both the complexity of the building automation and control system and its life safety and security management, and the structure of the organizations involved in its operation. Total Building Solutions enables product and service offers to be adapted to real customer needs, thus optimizing benefits for the user. Detailed descriptions of the available building solutions can be obtained at: www.sbt.siemens.de

Signaling and alarms The other – often crucial – aspect deals with sudden system malfunctions. Normally, those events do not represent any hazard to the building or its users. In some cases, however, human life, infrastructure elements or manufacturing processes might be put at risk. The treatment of those cases is the objective of life safety and security management. It means the limitation and control of various hazards in the building and a rigorous treatment of different potential emergency cases in a building.

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SIMARIS Planning Software SIMARIS With the SIMARIS range of software products, Siemens offers integrated tools for fast and effective planning and calculation of power distribution systems for commercial and industrial buildings. The tools are designed for international use, taking

SIMARIS design Thanks to its Windows look and feel, SIMARIS design is easy to operate and can be used without any extra software training. From its contents, this software offers a scope of functionality that facilitates sizing considerably. In the planning stage, for example, you can dimension the entire supply circuit with SIMARIS design on the basis of real products. In the implementation stage, this helps to avoid extra costs arising from badly coordinated systems. Suitable components and distribution systems are selected automatically. You can focus on what’s important in planning your electrical power distribution system

SIMARIS SIVACON The SIMARIS SIVACON® software tool supports the sales and manufacturing process for the SIVACON 8PT low-voltage switchboard system which was specially designed for franchise switchgear manufacturers. The project-planning data from

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into consideration the respective standards and rules of the country where they are to be used. The language can also be freely selected – both for working with the program and for planning results.

and needn’t spend hours looking up product data in catalogs. Per download from our homepage, you can easily keep up to date the product data contained in the SIMARIS design database. Every configuration of an electric power distribution is subject to many changes and adaptations both in the planning and implementation stage. SIMARIS design integrates each modification into the supply concept and automatically checks it for compliance with the relevant standards and regulations. Selectivity, for example for installations in the safety power supply system, data can also be easily verified with SIMARIS design. All of these steps will automatically and accu-

SIMARIS design can also be used directly by this program. In addition, the forwarding of order data to the Siemens Mall on the Internet, for example, is completely trouble-free.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

rately be documented in SIMARIS design, exactly following the specifications you have defined.

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Introduction

Power Management Energy distribution at a glance The actual status of the power distribution system can be displayed online. This enables you to easily keep a check on all important parameters: every breaker position, every power requirement, every upper and lower limit as well as possible over-

Perfect records All changes in power distribution are recorded by the system. Regardless of whether they were remotely controlled or were performed locally, all events are precisely recorded, together with their date and time. The event log created is archived in a database and can then be evaluated

Optimum energy flow The utilization of a power distribution system can be determined by the measurement of the energy flows. This analysis is the basis for the optimization of power consumption or the system structure. Future power requirements can also be calculated by studying the load curves: the ideal prerequisite for any strat-

Maintenance planning The information required for maintenance is gathered from the system. All evaluations that can be derived from operating cycles, runtimes or scheduled times are contained within the module. Maintenance measures, current status and maintenance due dates are shown.

loads. An invaluable opportunity to keep on top of the condition of your power distribution system – and, if required, to control it from a remote location.

by other programs. Selected status signals can also be transmitted directly by SMS via mobile phone, allowing faults to be rectified by the technical staff as quickly as possible.

U I cos o P W

Status central ON OFF local ON OFF tripped

Event logs Time 22:59:03 23:16:24 01:12:45 03:35:02

Status signal local OFF local incoming circuit breaker off local ON local incoming circuit breaker off Power > 20 A Power < 1600 A

egy involving Load curves Load management Prognoses continuous purchasing contracts or the buying of power on the energy markets. To ensure demand values become too high, optimum utilization of current concan automatically add extra capacity tinuous purchasing contracts, power that is not directly required for opermanagement monitors the conation. sumption values and, if maximum

Extensive information such as personnel requirements and necessary spare parts is also given. The user of the system is always informed of the maintenance measures currently being carried out or which are due to be carried out, and can therefore plan both staff and material requirements well in advance.

Frame: Installation Distribution Maintenance measure

Hall 1 Distribution 3 Feeder II

check HVAC change ACB contacts change meter

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Seite B

Power Distribution Planning for Commercial and Industrial Buildings

2.1 Basics for Drafting Electrical Power Distribution Systems 2.2 Power System Planning Modules

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Seite C

Power Distribution Planning for Commercial and Industrial Buildings

chapter 2

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2 Power Distribution Planning for Commercial and Industrial Buildings 2.1 Basics for Drafting Electrical Power Distribution Systems

Framework parameter analysis:

Totally Integrated Power comprises products, systems and services from Siemens for a homogenous implementation concept for power distribution from a medium-voltage switchgear station to the transformer and from there to the floor distribution board or final circuit. With Totally Integrated Power, Siemens responds to customer requirements, such as C Simplification of operational management by transparent, simple power system structures C Low power loss costs, e.g. by medium-voltage-side power transmission to the load centers C High supply and operational safety of the installations even in the event of individual equipment failures (redundant supply, selectivity of the power system protection, and high availability) C Easy adaptation to changing load and operational conditions C Low operating cost thanks to equipment that is easy to maintain C Sufficient transmission capacity of the equipment under normal operating conditions as well as in fault conditions to be handled

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Power system concept: – Analysis – Selection of the network configuration – Type of connection to ground – Technical features

Building Rooms, type of use Operation

Network calculation: – Load flow – Short-circuit calculation – Energy balance

Lists of consumers Temperatures ...

Rating: – Transformers – Cables – Protective/switching devices – Provisions for redundant supply

Priorities and prognoses for the electrical power system etc.

Fig. 2/1 Power system planning tasks

C Good quality of the power supply, i.e. few voltage changes due to load fluctuations with sufficient voltage symmetry and few harmonic distortions in the voltage C Compliance with IEC/EN/VDE specifications and project-related stipulations for special installations The efficiency of a power supply system rises and falls with good planning. For this reason, power supply concepts must always be evaluated in the context of their framework parameters and project goals. When focusing on power supply in the field of building infrastructure, the spectrum of reasonable options can be narrowed down.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Siemens supports your power system planning with service offers and tools such as SIMARIS design. The following design aids can be obtained from Siemens: C Application manual C SINCAL C SIGRADE C Specific product catalogs

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

2.1.1 Requirements on Electrical Power Systems in Buildings When planning electrical power systems, the largely ambivalent requirements of the three project stages, Investment – Installation – Operation, must be taken into consideration. Further influencing factors The main characteristics of a power system are determined by the following requirements: C Use/consumers or purpose of power distribution, i.e. energy balance, power density and load centers C Architecture, e.g. low building or high-rise building C Operating and environmental conditions C Legal provisions, stipulations by public authorities, e.g. building authorities, safety at work regulations C By the supplying public utilities company – Technical specifications regarding voltage, short-circuit power, agreed maximum connected load, permissible equipment – Use of power management to operate the power system economically within the agreed electric rates options.

Investment

Installation

Operation

Implementation cost

minimum

maximum

irrelevant

Implementation time

minimum

minimum

irrelevant

Technology/equipment

low-cost

easy installation flexible operation

Space requirements for equipment minimum

maximum

irrelevant

Period of use

maximum

irrelevant

maximum

Fire load

irrelevant

irrelevant

minimum

Operating cost (e.g. insurance rates)

irrelevant

irrelevant

minimum

Table 2/1

Project stages

Type of use

Features

Residential

Many small Low nominal currents at Back-up protection consumer devices comparatively high line short-circuit power

Offices

Requirements

Action

Users are no electrical engineering experts

Protection against direct Residual currentand indirect contact operated circuitbreakers are mandatory!

Many PC workstations

Voltage stability and reliable power supply

High proportion of Counter action in the capacitive loads event of harmonics

Inductor-type compensation

General escape routes

Safety power supply

Generator supply

DP server rooms

Communications equipment (network)

Good electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

TN-S system to minimize stray fault currents

Medical

Life-saving machines

High reliability of supply

Redundancy, selective grading, powerful safety power supply (SPS)

Intensive care, EKG

Good electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

TN-S system to minimize stray fault currents

Local limitation of fault currents

IT system

Mainly motor loads

High power quantities required per area

Busbar trunking systems

Minimize downtimes

High reliability of supply

Redundant supply, meshed electrical networks

Industrial

Different processes Table 2/2

Selective grading

Examples for different types of building use and their impact on electric power systems/equipment

2/3

2

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2.1.2 Network Configuration

IEC Regional

America PAS

Europe CENELEC

Australia

Asia

Africa

National

USA: ANSI CA: SCC BR: COBEI ...

DE: DIN VDE I: CEI F: UTE GB: BS

AUS: SA NZ: SNZ

CN: SAC J: JISC …

SA: SABS

DIN VDE

German Industrial Standard, Association of German Electrical Engineers

CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique)

IEC

International Electrical Engineering Commission

JISC

Japanese Industrial Standards Committee

CEI

PAS

Pacific Area Standards

SABS

South African Bureau of Standards

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

BS

British Standards

COMITATO ELETTROTECNICO ITALIANO Italian Electrical Engineering Committee

COBEI

Comitê Brasileiro de Eletricidade, Eletrônica, Iluminação e Telecomunicações

SAC

Standardisation Administration of China

Table 2/3

SA

Standards Australia

SCC

Standards Council of Canada

SNZ

Standards New Zealand

UTE

UNION TECHNIQUE DE L’ELECTRICITE ET DE LA COMMUNICATION Technical Association of Electrical Engineering & Communications

Interdependencies of national, regional and international standards for electrical engineering

Standards To minimize technical risks and/or to protect persons involved in handling electric equipment or components, major planning rules have been compiled in standards. Technical standards are desired conditions stipulated by professional associations which are however made binding by legal standards such as safety at work regulations. Furthermore, the compliance to technical standards is crucial for any approval of operation granted by authorities or insurance coverage.

now been agreed upon that drafts shall be submitted at the central (IEC) level and then be adopted as regional or national standards. Only provided that IEC is not interested in dealing with the matter or, if there are any time constraints, a standard shall be drafted regionally.

An optimum configuration should particularly meet the following requirements: C Simple structure C High reliability of supply C Low losses C Favorable and flexible expansion options The following characteristics shall be selected accordingly: C Type of meshing C Number of feeder points C Type of feed Meshing Low-voltage-side power distribution shall preferably be designed in a radial topology. The clearly hierarchical structuring offers the following advantages: C Easy monitoring of the power system C Fast fault location C Simple power system protection C Easy operation

The interrelation of the different standardization levels is illustrated in Fig. 2/2. A complete list of IEC members and links to more detailed information can be obtained at www.iec.ch q structure & management q iec members.

While in the past, standards were mainly drafted at a national level and debated in regional (i.e. European, American etc.) committees, it has

2/4

As detailed above, the supply task determines the configuration of a power system. Buildings featuring different power densities can therefore be distinguished according to the type of their configuration.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Fig. 2/2 Unmeshed power system (radial)

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Radial network with changeover reserve

Simple radial network

a) Partial load reserve

T1

LVMD

T1

LVGPS MD1

n.c.

b) Full load reserve - transformers not fully utilized - Use transformers with forced-air cooling

T2

LVSPS MD2

n.o.

T1

LVMD1

T2

n.c.

LVMD2

T3

n.c.

LVMD3

n.c.

n.o.

n.o.

K1 2

K1 2

K2 3

Complete power failure

Continued operation of selected consumers

Continued operation of all consumers

SN,T1 ≥ Ptotal / cosϕ

(n-1) 8 SN,i ≥ PSV / cosϕ

(n-1) 8 ai 8 SN,i ≥ Ptotal / cosϕ; a: Utilization factor

n.c.

Fig. 2/3 Radial topology variants

As the operation of a meshed system places high demands on the equipment, the radial system is generally preferred at the infrastructure level for economical reasons. Ring-type systems are mainly used in highly consumptive industrial processes in

combination with high-current busbar trunking systems, as these systems have the advantage of safe and flexible supply for the consumers. They are also used for public supply systems at the > 1 kV level.

Number of feeder points The availability of the radial power system can be optimized by means of its infeed configuration. Fig. 2/3 shows an optimization of the radial network assuming one fault in the infeed.

2/5

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Seite 6

Type of infeed Electrical energy can be fed into the power system in different ways, determined by its primary function. For general power supply (GPS) by C Direct connection to the public grid: normally up to 300 kW at 400 V C Supply from the medium-voltage system (up to 52 kV) via distribution transformers up to 2 MVA For redundant power supply (RPS), power sources are selected in dependency of the permissible interruption time. C Generators for safety power supply C Second independent system infeed with automatic changeover for safety-supply consumers C Static uninterruptible power supply (USP) from a rectifier/inverter unit or storage battery C Rotating USP consisting of motor and generator set

Type

Example

General power supply (GPS)

Supply of all installations and consumer devices available in the building

Safety power supply (SPS)

Supply of life-protecting facilities in cases of danger C Safety lighting C Elevators for firefighters C Fire-extinguishing equipment

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Supply of sensitive consumer devices which must be operated without interruption in the event of a GPS failure: C Emergency lighting C Servers/computers C Communications equipment

Fig. 2/4 Supply types

T-1

T-2

T-3 G

A constellation as described in Fig. 2/4 has proven itself for the building infrastructure level.

GPS system

UPS

RPS system

2.1.3 Power Supply Systems Electric systems are distinguished as follows: C Type of current used: DC; AC ~ 50 Hz C Type and number of live conductors within the system: L1, L2, L3, N, PE C Type of connection to ground: low-voltage systems: IT, TT, TN medium-voltage systems: isolated, low-resistance, compensated

2/6

GPS consumer

SPS consumer

UPS consumer

Fig. 2/4 Type of infeed

The type of connection to ground must be selected carefully for the MV or LV system, as it has a major impact on the expense required for protective measures. It also determines electromagnetic compatibility regarding the low-voltage system.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

From experience, the best cost-benefit ratio for electric systems within the general power supply is achieved with C Low-resistance neutral for medium-voltage applications C TN-S systems for low voltage

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Section A

Section B

3*

3*

Transformer Generator 1* 2*

1* 2*

L1 L2 L3 PEN (isolated) PE

L1 L2 L3 PEN (isolated) PE

1*

Central grounding point dividing bridge

4*

4*

L1 L2 L3 N PE Branches Circuit A

1* The PEN conductor must be wired isolated along the entire route, this also applies for its wiring in the low-voltage main distribution (LVMD) 2* The PE conductor connection between LVMD and transformer chamber must be configured for the max. short-circuit current that might occur (K2S2 ≥ Ik2tk).

L1 L2 L3 N PE Main equipotential bonding

3* There must be no connection between the transformer neutral to ground or to the PE conductor in the transformer chamber. 4* All branch circuits must be designed as TN-S systems, i.e. in case of a distributed N conductor function with a separately wired N conductor and PE conductor. Both 3-pole

Branches Circuit B

and 4-pole switching devices may be used. If N conductors with reduced cross sections are used (we do not recommend this), a protective device with an integrated overload protection should be used at the N conductor (example: LSIN).

Fig. 2/5 EMC-friendly power system, centrally installed (short distances)

The advantage of a TN-S system lies in the fact that the short-circuit current generated in the event of a fault is not fed back to the voltage source via a connection to ground but via a conductor. The comparatively high 1-pole ground fault current enables rather simple protective devices to be used, such as fuses or circuit-breakers tripping in the event of a fault.

When TN-S systems are used, residual currents in the building can be avoided because current flows back via a separate N conductor. Magnetic fields depend on the geometrical arrangement of the connections.

As according to IEC 60364-5-54, a TN-S system is only permissible in a central arrangement of the feed system, we recommend to always use the TN-C-S system as shown in Fig. 2/5. In case of distributed infeed, 4-pole switching/protective devices must be provided at the infeeds and changeover equipment (parallel operation inhibited).

2/7

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Seite 8

t a (s) Ir IrN

1000

Ik min tr Ik max

100

2.1.4 Routing/Wiring 10

Nowadays the customer can choose between cables and busbars for power distribution. Some features of these different options are listed below:

Isd 0

C Cable laying + Lower material costs + When a fault occurs along the line, only one distribution board including its downstream subsystem will be affected – High installation expense – Increased fire load C Busbar distribution + Rapid installation + Flexible in case of changes or expansions + Low space requirements + Reduced fire load – Rigid coupling to the building geometry

2/8

tg

0,1

Ii

tsd

0,01

0,5

1

„L“ L Overload release 2

S

These aspects must be weighted in relation to the building use and specific area loads when configuring a specific distribution. Connection layout comprises the following specifications for wiring between output and target distribution board C Overload protection Ib ≤ Ir ≤ Iz and Iz > I2/1.45 C Short-circuit protection S2K2 >= I2t C Protection against electrical shock in the event of indirect contact C Permissible voltage drop

Ig

Standard I t Optionally I 4t Short-time delayed short-circuit release „S“ Standard tsd Optionally I 2t

5

I

N G

10

50

100 x In

Instantaneous short-circuit release „I“ Standard On Optionally Off Neutral conductor protection Standard 0.5-1 x Ir Optionally Off Ground fault release Standard t g Optionally I 2t

Fig. 2/6 Characteristic curve variants

2.1.5 Switching and Protective Devices As soon as the initial plans are drafted, it is useful to determine which technology shall be used to protect the electric equipment. The technology that has been selected affects the behavior and properties of the power system and hence also influences certain aspects of use, such as C Safety of supply C Mounting expense C Maintenance and downtimes

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Types of protective equipment Protective equipment can be divided into two categories, which can however be combined. C Fuse technology + Good current-limiting properties + High switching capacity up to 120 kA + Low investment cost + Easy installation + Safe tripping, no auxiliary power required + Easy grading between fuses

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Protective tripping P = I 2* R

This energy (area below the curve) is also transported in the contacts and hence in the switch I

Current flow when zero-current interrupters are used Current flow when current-limiting circuitbreakers are used 4 ms

10 ms t

Fig. 2/7 Current limiting

– Downtime after fault – Reduces selective tripping in connection with circuit-breakers – Fuse ageing – Separate protection of personnel required for switching high currents C Fuseless technology + Clear tripping times for overload and short circuit + Safe switching of operating and fault currents + Fast resumption of normal operation after fault trip + Various tripping methods adapted to the protective task + Communications-capable: signaling of system states – Coordination of the protection concept requires a calculation of short circuits – Higher investment costs

Above all when fuseless technology is employed, the selection of the tripping unit is crucial for meeting the defined objectives for protection.

Q1

In power systems for buildings, selective tripping is gaining more and more importance, as this results in a higher supply safety and quality. While standards such as DIN VDE 0100 Part 710 or DIN VDE 0108 demand a selective behavior of the protective equipment for safety power supply or certain areas of indoor installations, the proportion of buildings where selective tripping is also desired for the general power supply is rising.

Fig. 2/8 Selective tripping

Generally speaking, a combined solution using selective and partially selective network sections will be applied in power systems for buildings when economic aspects are considered.

Q2

In this context, the following device properties must be taken into account: Current limiting: A protective device has a current-limiting effect if it shows a lower letthrough current in the event of a fault than the prospective short-circuit current at the fault location. Selectivity: When series-connected protective devices cooperate for graded tripping, the protective device which is closest upstream of the fault location must trip first. The other upstream devices remain in operation. The temporal and spatial effects of a fault will be limited to a minimum.

Q2

Trip

Q3

Q1

Trip

Trip

Q3

Fig. 2/9 Back-up conditioned fault tripping

Back-up protection: The provision is that Q1 is a currentlimiting device. If the fault current is higher than the rated breaking capacity of the downstream device in the event of a line shorting, it will be protected by the upstream protective device. Q2 can be selected with Icu Ikmax, Q2. This results in partial selectivity.

2/9

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Seite 10

Supply section 800 kVA

ACB ≥ 1,250 A LSI

Supply section 400 kVA

Supply section 30 kVA

Fuse ≤ 400 A

MCCB ≤ 630 A LSI

Fuse 63 A

Fuse 80 A

MCB ≤ 16 A

Fig. 2/10

Supports the priority of cost minimization

MCB ≤ 25 A

Grading for a supply section of 800 kVA

Grading in the supply section Starting from the smallest supply unit in a building, e.g. a household or a shop, different protective devices are preferably suited to meet the requirements of power supply and protection. TIP: If an 800 kVA supply section is fed by a transformer and if selective tripping is a major requirement, a circuit-breaker with definite-time overcurrent-time protection must also be selected for the medium-voltage system. For more detailed information in particular regarding the tripping characteristics, please refer to C Chapter 3 Power System Protection and Safety Coordination C Chapter 4 Medium Voltage C Chapter 6 Low Voltage in the Application Manual. Power requirements The power requirements of the entire distribution largely determine the layout of the main distribution as well as the transformer and/or generator rating. This equipment then determines the amount of investment involved.

2/10

Supports the priority of selective fault tripping

Smax in kVA <

SN in kVA

n

ukr

Ikmax in kA

1260 1600 1890 2400 2520 3000 3200

630 800 630 800 630 1000 800

2 2 3 3 4 3 4

6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6%

30 40 45 60 65 75 80

Table 2/5

Proven transformer constellations for buildings

Power requirements are established by Smax = Pmax /cosϕB, With Pmax = Σ(Pi 8 ai) 8 g cosϕB Power factor, purchased quantity a Utilization factor g Simultaneity factor (demand) When the dimensioning rule Icu ≥ Ik“ is applied, a minimization of the purchased power results in a minimization of the short-circuit strength for the operating equipment. This means cost savings in investment and operation. Transformer: 100 % Ik, max ≈ Σ u IrTransformer, i kr, i Please note that the lower limit for the short-circuit current is at ~15 kA , in order to ensure both a sufficient

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

voltage stability and safe shutdown in the event of a fault. Consequently, transformers shall only be selected for outputs up to 400 kVA, in order to increase the short-circuit current. For building power supplies, economical transformer outputs are between 630 and 1,000 kVA. Table 2/5 shows useful constellations for transformers connected in parallel per supply section. Higher outputs must therefore be divided into several (>2) separate supply sections to gain manageable power system data and hence economical solutions.

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Seite 11

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts 2.1.6

Planning Aid

Different individual decisions made regarding the power supply of buildings can be combined as follows:

Functional areas: Offices Meeting rooms Computing center Catering kitchen and canteen Heating–Ventilation– Air Conditioning Fire protection Logistics

Commercial building? yes Radial system with partial load reserve

TN-C-S system, LVMD with central grounding point

Tip: Given ground area = a2 Length l ≤ 100 m = 2 8 a; max. no. of floors i ≤ 100 - 2a/h

no

i < 5?

High-rise building

Low building

no

A ≤ 2000 m2 ?

Tip: Smax = P/cosϕ Smax < 630 kVA; ukr 4% Smax ≥ 630 kVA; ukr 6%

Separation into several supply sections per area, i.e. number of floor distribution boards ≥ 2

yes

no

i ≤ 10?

i ≤ 20?

Smax ≤ 2 MVA? Central utilities room, supplytransformerLVMD

no

no

yes

Centralized MV supply, distributed transformers to LVMD

Distributed MV supply to transformers to LVMD

Interlocked changeover with 4-pole devices

Low building, type 1

Low building, type 2

High-rise building, type 1: centralized, cables

High-rise building, type 2: centralized, busbar

yes

High-rise building, type 3: transformers at remote location

High-rise building, type 4: distributed, cables

High-rise building, type 5: distributed, busbar

yes yes

Tip: Use busbar trunking systems if requirements are mainly set for ease of use, such as good expandability, fire load minimization

Fig. 2/11

Cables?

no

Busbars?

Overview of power supply concept modules

2/11

2

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Seite 12

2.2 Power System Planning Modules The following modules may be used for an easy and systematic power distribution design for typical building structures.

FF elevators

1st floor

UPS1.2

SPS2.2

2nd floor

UPS2.2

SPS3.2

3rd floor

UPS3.2

GPS4.2

GPS4.2 GPS3.2

4th floor

UPS4.2

HVAC-SPS

SPS1.2

Low building, type 1: One supply section

HVAC

GPS2.2

Up-to-date, detailed descriptions on a variety of applications can be obtained on the Internet at www.siemens.com/tip

Elevators

GPS1.2

These are schematic solution concepts which can then be extended to meet specific customer project requirements. When the preplanning stage has been completed, the power system can easily be configured and calculated with the aid of the SIMARIS design software.

LVMD

GPS 1

SPS

2

MVD

z

Basement From PCO GPS

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO

Power company or system operator

FF

Firefighters

HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning MVD

Medium-voltage distribution

LVMD Low-voltage main distribution

2/12

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

G 3~

UPS

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Seite 13

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts Building type

Low building

Number of floors

4

Ground area / total area

2,500 m2 / 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power required

85% utilized area, 15% side area

Power required

1,000 to 2,000 kW

Supply types

100% total power from the public grid 10 – 30% of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5 – 20% of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility, high safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network configuration Smax = 1,200 kVA, cosϕ = 0.85

Central transformer supply close to load center

Supply at the load center, short LV cables low losses

Low costs, time savings during installation

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault localization

Transformer module with 2 x 630 kVA, Voltage stability ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 30 kA lighter design Redundant supply unit: – Generator 400 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

– UPS: 200 kVA (15 %)

Optimized voltage quality, economical

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108

Supply of sensitive and important consumers

Uninterruptible supply of consumers, e.g. during power failure of the public grid

Medium-voltage supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for electric utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation

Economical

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PWE and N to the TN-S system

Protection from electromagnetic interference (e.g. to prevent lower transmission rates at communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Cables

Cost transparency

Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, cost center allocation

2/13

2

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Seite 14

Low building, type 2: Two supply sections

Elevators HVAC FF-elevators

GPS MVD Basement From PCO GPS

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO

Power company or system operator

FF

Firefighters

HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning MVD

Medium-voltage distribution

LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

2/14

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

2 z

G 3~

UPS4.2 UPS2.2 UPS1.2

LVMD

1

UPS3.2

SPS4.2 SPS2.2 SPS1.2

GPS3.2 GPS2.2 GPS1.2

SPS3.2

GPS4.2

UPS4.1 UPS2.1 UPS1.1

UPS3.1

SPS4.1 SPS2.1

1st floor

SPS1.1

2nd floor

GPS2.1

3rd floor

GPS1.1

GPS3.1

4th floor

SPS3.1

GPS4.1

HVAC-SPS

UPS

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Seite 15

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts Building type

Low building

Number of floors

4

Ground area / total area

2,500 m2 / 2 x 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power required

85 % utilized area 15 % side area

Power required

> 2,000 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid 10 – 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5 – 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility

Proposal for concept finding Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network configuration Smax = 2,400 kVA cosϕB = 0.85

Two supply sections per floor

Supply at the load center, short LV cables low losses

Low costs, no extra utilities room necessary, time savings during installation

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault localization

Transformer module with 3 x 800 kVA, Minimization of voltage fluctuations; Optimized voltage quality, ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 60 kA low static requirements on building cost minimization in the structures building construction work Redundant supply unit: – Generator 730 kVA (30%) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

– UPS: 400 kVA (15 %)

Supply of important consumers on all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid

Increased safety of supply

Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108

Supply of sensitive and important consumers

Uninterruptible power supply, e.g. during power failure of the public grid

Medium-voltage supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for distribution board room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation

Economical

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system

EMC-friendly power system

Protection from electromagnetic interference (e.g. to prevent lower transmission rates at communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Cables

Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, cost center allocation

Cost transparency

Two outgoing distribution board feeders per floor

Shorter cable routes, lower voltage drop

Economical

2/15

2

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Seite 16

High-rise building, type 1: Central power supply

GPS

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO Power company or system operator FF

Elevators

FF elevators

HVAC

HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

1st floor

Firefighters

HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning

LVMD

MVD Medium-voltage distribution

GPS

LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

2/16

1 MVD Basement From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

2 z

G 3~

UPS

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Seite 17

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

≤ 10

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / ≤ 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power required

80 % utilized area 20 % side area

Power required

≤ 1,800 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid 10 – 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5 – 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network configuration

Central transformer supply close to load center

Simple network configuration, low power losses

Only one electric utilities room required, easy and low-cost operation of electric system

Smax = 1,000 kVA cosϕ = 0.85 Floors: 8

Transformer module with 2x 630 kVA, Voltage stability, lighter design Ukr = 6%, i.e. Ik ≤ 30 kA Redundant supply unit: – Generator 400 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

Optimized voltage quality, economical

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108

– UPS: 200 kVA (15 %)

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault localization

Medium-voltage supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Compact design, independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Compact design, independent of climate

Economical

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system

EMC-friendly power system

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. to prevent lower transmission rates at communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Cables

Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, central recording

Cost center allocation at minimum expense

Cost savings

2/17

2

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High-rise building, type 3: Transformers at remote location

3

GPS

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO Power company or system operator FF

4

Elevators

FF elevators

HVAC

HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

1st floor

Firefighters

HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning

LVMD

MVD Medium-voltage distribution

GPS

LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

2/18

1

z Basement From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

2 MVD

G 3~

UPS

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

10 to 20

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / ≤ 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power required

80 % utilized area 20 % side area

Power required

≥ 1,500 kW; for 2 MW or higher, a relocation of the transformers should be considered even if the number of floors is less than 10

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid 10 – 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5 – 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network configuration Smax = 1,800 kVA cosϕ = 0.85 Floors: 20

Splitting into two supply sections

Short LV cables, low power losses, reduction of fire load

Economical, eased fire protection

2 transformer modules with (2 + 1) x 630 kVA, Ukr = 6% i.e. Ik ≤ 45 kA

Voltage stability, lighter design

Optimized voltage quality, economical

Redundant supply unit: – Generator 800 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108

– UPS: 400 kVA (15 %)

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault localization

Medium-voltage supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station, independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation

Economical

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system (4-pole switches in the feeding lines and at the changeover point)

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. lower transmission rates for communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Cables

Central data processing

Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, centrally per floor in LVMD

2/19

2

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Seite 20

High-rise building, type 4: Distributed supply

Elevators FF elevators 4

GPS

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO Power company or system operator FF

5

6

HVAC

G 3~

UPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

1st floor

Firefighters

HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning

LVMD

MVD Medium-voltage distribution

GPS

LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

2/20

HVAC-SPS

1

2

z Basement From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

3 MVD

G 3~

UPS

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Seite 21

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

> 20

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / > 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power required

80 % utilized area 20 % side area

Power required

≥ 2,000 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid 10–30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5–20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network configuration Smax = 3,600 kVA cosϕ = 0.85 Floors: 25

Splitting into two supply sections

Short LV cables, low power losses, reduction of fire load

Economical solution, simplified fire protection

2 transformer modules with 3 x 630 kVA, Voltage stability, lighter design Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 45 kA Redundant supply unit: – Generator 2 x 500 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

Optimized voltage quality, economical

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108

– UPS: 2 x 250 kVA (15 %)

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault localization

Medium-voltage supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station, independent of climate

Minimized space requirements; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation without any special precautions

Economical

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system (4-pole switches to connect to the low-voltage main distribution)

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. lower transmission rates for communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Cables

Cost transparency

Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, cost center allocation

Cost savings

2/21

2

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Seite 22

High-rise building, type 2: Central busbars

GPS

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO Power company or system operator FF

Elevators

FF elevators

HVAC

HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

1st floor

Firefighters

HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning

LVMD

MVD Medium-voltage distribution

GPS

LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

2/22

1

z Basement From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

2 MVD

G 3~

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

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Seite 23

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

≤ 10

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / ≤ 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power required

80 % utilized area 20 % side area

Power required

≤ 1,800 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid 10–30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5–20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network configuration Smax = 1,500 kVA cosϕ = 0.85 Floors: 8

Central transformer supply close to load center

Simple network configuration, low power losses

Only one electric utilities room required, easy and low-cost operation of electric system

Transformer modules with 2 x 800 kVA, Optimized voltage quality Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 40 kA Redundant supply unit: – Generator 400 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

Operation that is gentle on the user's equipment, economical equipment

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108

– UPS: 200 kVA (15 %)

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault localization

Medium-voltage supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station, independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation without any special precautions

Economical

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. lower transmission rates for communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Busbars to the subdistribution boards

Low fire load, flexible power distribution

Safety, time savings at restructuring

Few branches in the distribution, small distribution

Minimized space requirements for for electric utilities room

Small, minimized rising main busbar Less space requirements for supply lines

2/23

2

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Seite 24

High-rise building, type 5: Distributed busbars

Elevators FF elevators 4

5

6

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO Power company or system operator FF

G 3~

HVAC-SPS

UPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

System disconnecting point

System disconnecting point

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

GPS

HVAC

1st floor

FD-UPS System disconnecting point

Firefighters

HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning MVD Medium-voltage distribution LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

2/24

GPS 1 LVMD Basement From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

2

SPS

3 z

MVD

G 3~

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

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Seite 25

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

> 20

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / ≥ 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power required

80 % utilized area 20 % side area

Power required

> 2,000 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid 10–30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5–20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network configuration Smax = 4,000 kVA cosϕ = 0.85 Floors: 21

Splitting into two supply sections

Short LV cables, low power losses, reduction of fire load

Lower cost

2 transformer modules with 3 x 800 kVA, Voltage stability lighter design Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 60 kA Redundant supply unit: – Generator 2 x 630 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

Optimized voltage quality, economical

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault localization

Medium-voltage supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station, independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation

Economical

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system (4-pole switches in the feeding lines and at the changeover point)

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. lower transmission rates for communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Busbars to the subdistribution boards

Low fire load, flexible power distribution

Safety, time savings when restructuring work is carried out

Few branches in the distribution, small distribution

Minimized space requirements for for electric utilities room

– UPS: 2 x 300 kVA (15 %)

Small, minimized rising main busbar Less space requirements for supply lines

2/25

2

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Seite 26

Appendix Short-circuit currents Calculated acc. to DIN VDE 0102 EN 60909, dated 07-01-2002

[V]

Rated current Ir Impedance oltage Ukr [A] [%]

Reduced power losses Pk [kVA]

Max. secondary-side short-circuit current [kA]

10 10 10 10

400 400 400 400

577 909 1,155 1,443

4 4 4 4

4.3 6.4 7.8 8.9

16 25 31 39

400 630 800 1,000 1,250 1,600

10 10 10 10 10 10

400 400 400 400 400 400

577 909 1,155 1,443 1,804 2,309

6 6 6 6 6 6

4.3 6.4 7.6 8.5 10.5 11.4

10 17 21 26 33 42

400 630 800 1,000

20 20 20 20

400 400 400 400

577 909 1,155 1,443

4 4 4 4

3.9 6.0 7.5 8.7

16 25 31 39

400 630 800 1,000 1,250 1,600

20 20 20 20 20 20

400 400 400 400 400 400

577 909 1,155 1,443 1,804 2,309

6 6 6 6 6 6

4.1 6.4 7.9 9.6 10.5 12.3

10 17 21 26 33 42

Rated power

HV voltage

LV voltage

[kVA]

[kV]

400 630 800 1,000

2/26

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

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Seite B

System Protection and Safety Coordination

3.1 Definitions 3.2 Protective Equipment for Low-Voltage Systems 3.3 Selectivity in Low-Voltage Systems 3.4 Protection of Capacitors 3.5 Protection of Distribution Transformers

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Seite C

System Protection / Safety Coordination

chapter 3

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3 System Protection and Safety Coordination System configuration While in building and industrial power systems star-type system configurations are normally used for medium voltage, radial system configurations are normally preferred for the lowvoltage side (radial systems, double spur systems). A number of switchgear stations and distribution boards are required for distributing power from the infeed to the load. The protective equipment of these devices is connected in series. Objectives of system protection The objective of system protection is to detect faults and to selectively isolate faulted parts of the system. It must also permit short clearance times to limit the fault power and the effect of arcing faults. High power density, high individual power outputs, and the relatively short distances in industrial and building power systems mean that lowvoltage and medium-voltage systems are closely linked. Activities in the LV system (short circuits, starting currents) also have an effect on the MV system. If the situation is reversed, the control state of the MV system affects the selectivity criteria in the secondary power system. Mutual system interference It is therefore necessary to adjust the power system and its protection throughout the entire distribution system and to coordinate the protective functions. This chapter basically comprises the installation of electrical equipment in LV systems. Therefore, also when dealing with network protection, the emphasis lies on the low-voltage side. Specific network protection re-

3/2

quirements for medium voltage are dealt with in Chapter 4 “Medium Voltage” and in Chapter 8 ”Substation Control and Protection Systems”.

3.1 Definitions Electrical installations in a power system are protected either by protective equipment allocated to the installation components or by combinations of these protective elements. Rated short-circuit breaking capacity The rated short-circuit breaking capacity is the maximum value of the short circuit that the protective device is able to clear according to specifications. The protective device may be used in power systems for rated switching capacities up to this value. Back-up protection If a short circuit, which is higher than the rated switching capacity of the protective device used, occurs at a particular point in the system, back-up protection must provide protection for the downstream installation component and for the protection device by means of an upstream protective device (grading). Selectivity Selectivity, in particular, has become a topic for discussion in the previous years. Partly, it has become a general requirement in tender specifications. Due to the complexity of this issue, information about proper selection and application is often insufficient. These requirements as well as the effects of full or partial selectivity in power distribution systems within the context of the relevant standard, industry, country, system configuration or structure should be clarified in

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

advance with the network planners, installation companies and system operators involved. The system interconnection together with the 5 rules of circuit dimensioning must also be taken into account. Some terms and definitions shall be described in this chapter for a better understanding of the issue. If you wish to obtain more detailed information regarding further applications, please contact your Siemens representative. Full selectivity To maintain the supply safety of power distribution systems, full selectivity is increasingly demanded. A power system is considered fully selective, if only the protective device upstream of the fault location disconnects from supply, as seen in the direction of energy flow (from the infeed to the load). Note: Full selectivity always refers to a dead, three-phase, i.e. maximum, fault current at the mounting location. Partial selectivity In certain situations, partial selectivity (up to a particular short-circuit current) is sufficient. The probability of faults occurring and the effects of these on the load must then be considered for unfavorable scenarios.

1) For descriptions and modes of operation of low-voltage protection devices, controlgear and switchgear, please also refer to the Siemens handbook ”Switching, Protection and Distribution in Low-Voltage Networks”, published by Publicis MCD, Erlangen.

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Seite 3

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Inverse time-delay t

t

Inverse

Definite time-delay I 2 . t = constant Definite

LV HRC fuse

Instantaneous LV circuit-breaker with releases

HV HRC fuse

Protective characteristic of LV HRC fuse and LV circuit-breaker with releases

3.1.1 Protective Equipment and Features Low-voltage protective devices1) Low-voltage high-rupturingcapacity fuses Low-voltage high-rupturing-capacity (LV HRC) fuses have a high breaking capacity. They fuse quickly to restrict the peak short-circuit current to the utmost degree. The protective characteristic is determined by the selected utilization category of the LV HRC fuse (e. g. full-range fuse for overload and short-circuit protection, or partial range fuse for short-circuit protection only) and the rated current (Fig. 3/1). Low-voltage circuit-breakers, IEC 60947-2 Circuit-breakers for power distribution systems are distinguished according to their type design (open or compact design), mounting type (fixed mounting, plug-in, withdrawable), rated current (maximum nominal current of the switch) method of operation (current limiting: MCCB; or non-current-limiting: ACB), protective functions (see releases), communication capability (capability to transmit data to and from the switch), utilization category (A or B, see IEC 609472). Releases / protective functions The protective function of the circuitbreaker in the power distribution system is determined by the selection of

MV circuit-breaker with time-overcurrent protection I

I

Variable operating zones and setting ranges

Variable characteristic curves and setting ranges

Fig. 3/1

Instantaneous release

Fig. 3/2

Protective characteristic of HV HRC fuse and MV time-overcurrent protection

the appropriate release. Releases can be divided into thermo-magnetic releases (previously also called electromechanical releases) and electronic tripping units (ETU). C Overload protection Designation: “L” or earlier “a” (“L” for long-time delay). Depending on the type of release, inverse time-delay overload releases are also available with optional characteristic curves. C Short-circuit protection, instantaneous Designation: “I “ (previously also called ”n” release), e.g. solenoid releases. Depending on the application, I-releases are also offered with a fixed settable or OFF function. C Short-circuit protection, with delay Designation: “S”, previously also “z” release (“S” for short-time delay). For a temporal adjustment of protective functions in series connections. Besides the standard curves and settings, there are also optional functions for special applications. Definite-time-delay overcurrent releases: For this “standard S-function,” the desired delay time tsd is set to a definite value when a set current value (limit-value Isd) is exceeded (definite time; similar to the DMT function in medium voltage) Inverse-time-delay overcurrent release: For this optional S-function applies I 2 t = constant. This function

is generally used to ensure a higher degree of selectivity (inverse time; similar to the inverse-time delay function in medium voltage) C Ground fault protection Designation: ”G” (previously also called ”g” release). Besides the standard function (definite-time), there is also an optional function (I 2 t = inverse-time delay). C Fault current protection Designation: RCD (= residual current device). To detect differential fault currents up to 3 A, similar to the RCCB function for the protection of persons (up to 500 mA). In addition, electronic releases also permit new tripping criteria which are not possible with electromechanical releases. Protective characteristics The protective characteristic curve is determined by the rated circuitbreaker current as well as the setting and the operating values of the releases (see Table 3/5). Low-voltage miniature circuitbreakers (MCB) Miniature circuit-breakers are distinguished according to their method of operation – either high or low current limiting. Their protective functions are determined by electromechanical releases:

3/3

3

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Seite 4

Releases C Overload protection by means of inverse time-delayed overload releases, e.g. bimetallic releases C Short-circuit protection by means of instantaneous overload releases, e.g. solenoid releases. Medium-voltage protection equipment High-voltage high-breakingcapacity fuses High-voltage high-breaking-capacity (HV HRC) fuses can only be used for short-circuit protection. They do not provide any overload protection. A minimum short-circuit current is therefore required for correct operation. HV HRC fuses restrict the peak short-circuit current. The protective characteristic is determined by the selected rated current (Fig. 3/2). Medium-voltage circuit-breakers Circuit-breakers can provide timeovercurrent protection (definite and inverse), time-overcurrent protection with additional directional function or differential protection. Distance protection is rarely used in the distribution systems described here. Protective characteristics Secondary relays, whose characteristic curves are also determined by the actual current transformation ratio, are normally used as protective devices in medium-voltage systems. Static numerical protection devices are increasingly preferred.

3.1.2 Low-Voltage Protection Equipment Assemblies Protection equipment assemblies With series-connected distribution boards, it is possible to arrange the following protective devices in series (relative to the direction of power flow): C Fuse with downstream fuse

3/4

C Circuit-breaker with downstream miniature circuit-breaker C Circuit-breaker with downstream fuse C Fuse with downstream circuit-breaker C Fuse with downstream miniature circuit-breaker C Several parallel infeeds with or without coupler units with downstream circuit-breaker or downstream fuse Current selectivity must be verified in the case of meshed LV systems. The high- and low-voltage protection for the transformers feeding power to the LV system must be harmonized and adjusted to the additional protection of the secondary power system. Appropriate checks must be carried out to determine the effects on the primary MV system. In MV systems, HV HRC fuses are normally only installed upstream of the transformers in the LV infeed. With the upstream circuit-breakers, only time-overcurrent protection devices with different characteristics are usually connected in series. Differential protection does not affect, or only slightly influences the grading of the other protective devices.

3.1.3 Selectivity Criteria In addition to factors such as rated current and rated switching capacity, a further criterion to be considered when implementing a protection device is selectivity. Selectivity is important because it ensures optimum supply reliability. The following criteria can be applied for selective operation of series-connected protection devices: C Time difference for clearance (time grading) C Current difference for operating values (current grading)

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C Combination of time and current grading (inverse time grading) Power direction (directional protection), impedance (distance protection) and current difference (differential protection) are also used. Requirements for the selective behavior of protective devices Protective devices can only behave selectively if both the highest and the lowest short-circuit currents for the relevant system points are known at the project planning stage. As a result: C The highest short-circuit current determines the required rated short-circuit switching capacity Icu/ Ics of the circuit-breaker. Criterion: Icu/ Ics > IKmax C The lowest short-circuit current is important for setting the overcurrent release; the operating value of this release must be less than the lowest short-circuit current at the end of the line to be protected, since only this setting of Id /Isd guarantees that the instantaneous overcurrent release can carry out its personnel and system protection functions. Note: With these settings, the admissible tolerance limit of ± 20% must be observed! Criterion: Isd ≤ IKmin – 20 % C The observance of specified tripping conditions determines the maximum conductor lengths or their cross sections. C Selective current grading is only possible if the short-circuit currents are known. C In addition to current grading, partial selectivity can be achieved using combinations of carefully matched protective devices.

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Ik

tg2

ta1

Operating time of breaker Q1

ta2

Operating time of breaker Q2

te1

Disengaging time of breaker Q1 Disengaging time of breake Q2

td2

Delay time of breaker Q2 ≈ grading time tst2

a

te2

L S

Q2

t d2 ≈150 ms

td2 ≈ tst2

ta2

te2

tL2

to2

to1

ta1

L S

Q1

M

Fig. 3/3

to1 = 3 to 30 ms depending on circuit-breaker type and magnitude of short-circuit current

te1

tg1

tL1

to1

Opening time of breaker Q1

to2

Opening time of breaker Q2

tL1

Arcing time of breaker Q1

tL2

Arcing time of breaker Q2

tg1

Total clearance time of breaker Q1

tg2

Total clearance time of breaker Q2 (tg = to+tL)

Safety margin

t

Time sequence for the breaking operation of two graded LV circuit-breakers in the event of a short circuit

C The highest short-circuit current can be both the three-phase and the single-phase short-circuit current. C With infeed into LV power systems, the single-phase fault current will be greater than the threephase fault current if transformers with the Dy connection are used. C The single-phase short-circuit current will be the lowest fault current if the damping zero phase-sequence impedance of the LV cable is active. With large installations, it is advisable to determine all short-circuit currents using a special computer program. Here, our SIMARIS design® planning software comes as the optimum solution (see Chapter 12).

Grading the operating currents with time grading

Grading of the operating currents is also taken into consideration with time grading, i.e. the operating value of the overcurrent release of the upstream circuit-breaker must be at least 1.25 times the operating value of the downstream circuit-breaker. Scattering of operating currents in definite-time-delay overcurrent releases (S) is thus compensated (≤ ±10%).

Plotting the tripping characteristics of the graded protective devices in a grading diagram will help to verify and visualize selectivity.

Fig. 3/3 illustrates the individual time-related terms using two graded LV circuit-breakers as an example. Grading time, delay time

The grading time tsd is the interval required between the tripping characteristics of two series-connected protection devices to ensure correct operation of the protective device immediately upstream of the fault. The delay time to be set at the circuit-breaker tsd is obtained from the sum of the grading times.

Time sequence for circuit-breakers

When grading the operating currents, the time sequence of the breaking operation of the circuit-breakers must also be taken into consideration.

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Q1

120 100 40 t 20 min 10

Q2

Ik1

L (cold)

4 2 1

4 2 1 400 200 100

Manual preparation General notes When characteristic tripping curves are entered on log-log graph paper, the following must be observed: C To ensure positive selectivity, the tripping curves must neither cross nor touch. C With electronic inverse-time delay (long-time delay) overcurrent releases, there is only one tripping curve, as it is not affected by preloading. The selected characteristic curve must therefore be suitable for a motor or transformer at operating temperature. C With mechanical (thermal) inversetime delay overload releases (L), the characteristic curves shown in the manufacturer catalog apply for cold releases. The opening times to are reduced by up to 25% at normal operating temperatures. Tolerance range of tripping curves C The tripping curves of circuit-breakers given in the manufacturer catalogs are usually only average values and must be extended to include tolerance ranges (explicitly shown in Fig. 3/4, 3/20 and 3/24 only). C With overcurrent releases – instantaneous (I) and definite-time delayed releases (S) – the tolerance may be ±20% of the current setting (according to EN 60947-2 / IEC 60947-2 / VDE 0660 Part 101). Significant tripping times For the sake of clarity, only the delay time (td) is plotted for circuit-breakers with definite-time-delay overcurrent releases (S), and only the opening time (to) for circuit-breakers with instantaneous overcurrent releases (I).

3/6

20 10

s

3.1.4 Preparation of CurrentTime Diagrams (Grading Diagrams)

Ik2

ms

i

40 20 10 2 3 4 6 102

2 3 4 6 103

2 3 4 6 104 2 3 4 6 105 Current I (r.m.s. value)

Grading diagram with tripping curves of the circuit-breakers Q1 and Q2 shown in Fig. 3/3

Grading principles Delay times and operating currents are graded in the opposite direction to the flow of power, starting with the final circuit. C Without fuses, for the load breaker with the highest current setting of the overcurrent release. C With fuses, for the fused outgoing circuit from the busbars with the highest rated fuse-link current. Circuit-breakers are preferred to fuses in cases where fuse links with high rated currents do not provide selectivity vis-à-vis the definite-time-delay overcurrent release (S) of the transformer feeder circuit-breaker, or only with very long delay times tsd (400 to 500 ms). Furthermore, circuitbreakers are used where high system availability is required as they help to clear faults faster and the circuitbreakers’ releases are not subject to aging – especially with consumers with very long infeed distances. Procedure with two or more voltage levels In the case of selectivity involving two or more voltage levels (Fig. 3/39 ff.), all currents and tripping curves on the high-voltage side are converted and referred to the low-voltage side on the basis of the transformation ratio.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

t d2 ≈180 ms to1 < 30 ms

2 101

Fig. 3/4

s t st2 ≈150 ms

Tools for preparing grading diagrams C Standard forms with paired current values for commonly used voltages, e. g. 20/0.4 kV, 10/0.4 kV, 13.8/0.4 kV, etc. C Templates for plotting the tripping curves Fig. 3/4 shows a hand-drawn grading diagram with tripping curves for two series-connected circuit-breakers, not taking into account tolerances. The time sequence for the breaking operation illustrated in Fig. 3/3 was used here (time selectivity). When the SIMARIS design planning software is used, a manual preparation of grading diagrams is no longer necessary.

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Low-voltage time grading

Grading and delay times Only the grading time tgt and delay time tsd are relevant for time grading between several series-connected circuit-breakers or in conjunction with LV HRC fuses (Fig. 3/5). The delay time tgt2 of breaker Q2 can be equated approximately with the grading time tgt2 ; the delay time tgt3 of breaker Q3 is calculated from the sum of the grading times tgt2 + tgt3. The resulting inaccuracies are corrected by the calculated grading margins. In the interests of simplicity, only the grading times are added. Proven grading times tgt

Series-connected circuit-breakers: Those so-called "proven grading times" are guiding values or rules of thumb. Precise information must be obtained from the device manufacturer. C Grading between two circuit-breakers with electronic overcurrent releases (Q1 and Q2) should be

about 70-80 ms C Grading between two circuit-breakers with different release types (Q2 = ETU and Q3 = TM) should be about 100 ms C For circuit-breakers with ZSI (zoneselective interlocking, i.e. short-time grading control) the grading distance has been defined as 50 ms

Irrespective of the type of S-release (mechanical or electronic), a grading time of 70 ms to 100 ms is necessary between a circuit-breaker and a downstream LV HRC fuse. Between an LV HRC fuse and a downstream circuit-breaker, a grading time tgt (safety margin) of at least 1 s must be maintained from the prearcing-time/current characteristic of the LV HRC fuse to the point at which the tripping curves L and I or S intersect, in order to allow for the scatter band of the L-release (Fig. 3/6).

to1

Opening time of breaker Q1

tgt2 Grading time of breaker Q2

a Q3

L S

td3

tgt3 Grading time of breaker Q3

t d3 ≈ (t gt2 + ttgt3)

ttgt3

Q2

L S

td2

t d2 ≈ t gt2

td2

Delay time of breaker Q2

td3

Delay time of breaker Q3

L

Inverse-time delay, Ir

S

Definite-time delay, Id, td

I

Instantaneous, Ii

Grading margin

t o1

Q1

L I

to1

M

Safety margin

t

Fig. 3/5

Time grading for several series-connected circuit-breakers

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Back-up protection Current I

According to the Technical Supply Conditions of the power supply companies (see ”Electrical Installations Handbook”), miniature circuit-breakers must be fitted with back-up fuses with a rated current of 100 A (max.) to prevent any damage being caused by short-circuit currents.

Time setting for back-up protection Short-circuit current

Time setting for protection

Operating current

Grading time t gt Command time tc Spread of Spread of Spread of protection circuit-breaker protection response time clearance time response time

Load current

The DIN VDE and IEC standards also permit a switching device to be protected by one of the upstream protective devices with an adequate rated short-circuit switching capacity if both the feeder and the downstream protective device are also protected (back-up protection).

Clearance time of circuit-breaker

t Release time

Grading margin

Total clearance time t g of circuit-breaker

Fig. 3/6

Time grading in medium-voltage switchgear

Bibliography Literature on LV installations For more information about low-voltage switching and protective devices, please refer to the Siemens publication “Switching, Protection and Distribution in Low-Voltage Networks” and the ”Electrical Installations Handbook”, published by Publicis MCD Verlag, Erlangen.

Medium-voltage time grading Command time and grading time The following must be observed when determining the grading time tgt on the medium-voltage side: Once the protective device has been energized (Fig. 3/6), the set time must elapse before the device issues the tripping command to the shunt or undervoltage release of the circuitbreaker (command time tc). The release causes the circuitbreaker to open. The short-circuit current is interrupted when the arc has been extinguished. Only then does the protection system revert to the normal/rest position (release time). The grading time tgt between successive protective devices must be greater than the sum of the total clearance time tg of the breaker and the release time of the protection system.

3/8

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Since a spread of time intervals, which depends on a number of factors, has to be expected for the protective devices (including circuitbreakers), a safety margin is incorporated in the grading time. Whereas grading times tgt of less than 400 to 300 ms are not possible with protective devices with mechanical releases, the more modern electronic and digital releases permit grading times of only 300 or 250 ms.

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3.2 Protection Equipment for Low-Voltage Power Systems Tables 3/1 and 3/2 provide an overview of the protection equipment for LV systems. The protection equipment in the MV system of outgoing transformer feeders has also been listed in Table 3/2. Overcurrent protection for lines and cables Overcurrent protection devices must be used to protect lines and cables against overheating which may result from operational overloads or dead short circuits (”Electrical Installations Handbook”, Publicis MCD Verlag, Erlangen, Section 1.7). The protective switching devices and safety systems dealt with in this chapter are further described in Chapter 6.

3.2.1 Circuit-Breakers with Protective Functions Protective functions of LV circuit-breakers Circuit-breakers are used, first and foremost, for overload and short-circuit protection. In order to increase their protective functions, they can also be equipped with additional releases, e.g. for clearance with undervoltage, or with supplementary modules for detecting fault/residual currents (also see Chapter 6). The circuit-breakers are distinguished according to their protective function: C Circuit-breakers for system protection acc. to EN 60947-2/ IEC 609472/DIN VDE 0660-101 C Circuit-breakers for motor protec tion acc. to EN 60947-2/ IEC 60947-2 / DIN VDE 0660-101

C Circuit-breakers used in motor star ters acc. to EN 60947-4-2/ IEC 60947-4-2 / DIN VDE 0660-102 C Miniature circuit-breakers for cable and line protection acc. to EN 60898/ IEC 60898 / DIN VDE 0641-11 Zero-current interrupters / current limiters Depending on their method of operation, circuit-breakers are available as: C Zero-current interrupters or C Current limiters (fuse-type current limiting). When configuring selective distribution boards, zero-current interrupters are more suitable as upstream protection devices and current limiters as downstream protection devices.

Overcurrent protection devices

Standard

Overload protection

Short-circuit protection

See Section

Fuses gL

EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636

×

×

Section 6.2.2

Miniature circuit-breakers

EN 60 898/IEC 60 898/DIN VDE 0641-11

×

×

Section 6.2.4

Circuit-breakers with overload and overcurrent releases

EN 60 947-2/IEC 60 947-2/DIN VDE 0660-101

×

×

Section 6.2.1

Switchgear fuses aM

EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636



×

Section 6.2.2

Switchgear assemblies with back-up fuse, utilization category gL or aM, and contactor with overload relay

EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636



×

EN 60 947-4-1/IEC 60 947-4-1/DIN VDE 0660-102

×



or starter circuit-breaker and contactor with overload relay

EN 60 947-2/IEC 60 947-2/DIN VDE 0660-101 EN 60 947-4-1/IEC 60 947-4-1/DIN VDE 0660-102

– ×

× –

× Protection provided Table 3/1

– No protection provided.

Overview of line and cable overcurrent protection devices discussed in this manual together with their protection ranges

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MV

Switch-disconnectors, HV HRC fuses

LV

Circuit-breakers or LV HRC fuses Low

Cost

Circuit-breakers, transducer, timeovercurrent protection

Switch-disconnectors, HV HRC fuses

Tie breaker

Circuit-breakers

Network circuit-breakers and network master relays

Justifiable

High

Low

Medium-voltage side

Transformers with thermal release or full thermal protection Low-voltage side with various series-connected protection devices in radial systems, and parallel-connected LV HRC fuses in interconnected systems

I> I>>

HV HRC MV LV Individual and parallel operating customary

Optional ≤ 630 A

HV HRC MV LV

Individual and parallel operating customary

MV LV Only parallel operation customary

S

LV HRC

(interconnected system)

≤ 50 A, ≤ 100 A

I> I>> S

Table 3/2

3/10

HV or LV HRC fuses

Circuit-breaker

Definite-time-overcurrent protection, twolevel I> and I>>, via current transformer

Drawout circuit-breaker (with safe clearance)

Network master relay (directional power relay) via current transformer and system voltage Power-factor correction controller

Contactor

Switch-disconnector

Overload relay

Overview of protection grading schemes discussed in this manual for outgoing transformer and LV feeders

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Overload and overcurrent protection Tables 3/3 and 3/4 provide an overview of releases and relays in LV circuit-breakers. Table 3/5 contains the operating ranges of the overcurrent releases. According to the standards specified in Table 3/1, the operating value at which the releases trigger may deviate by ± 20% from the set value. Overcurrent releases The instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent releases have either fixed or variable settings, whereas the electronic overcurrent releases used in Siemens circuit-breakers all have variable settings. Modules The overcurrent releases can be integrated in the circuit-breaker or supplied as separate modules for retrofitting or replacement. Possible exceptions are indicated in the manufacturer specifications. Overload releases Mechanical (thermal) inverse-time-delay overload releases (L-releases) are not always suitable for networks with a high harmonic content. Circuitbreakers with electronic overload releases must be used in such cases. Short-circuit protection with S-releases In the case of circuit-breakers with definite (short-)time-delay overcurrent releases (S) used for time-grading short-circuit protection, it should be noted that the circuit-breakers are designed for a specific maximum permissible thermal and dynamic load. If, in the event of a short circuit, the time delay results in this load to be exceeded, an I-release must also be used to ensure that the circuitbreaker is opened instantaneously with very high short-circuit currents. The information supplied by the

Protective function

Siemens symbol

Time-delay characteristics of release

Graphical symbol acc. to EN 60 617/DIN 40 713 Circuit diagram or

Overload protection

L

Inverse-time delay

Selective short-circuit protection

S1)

Definite-time delay by timing element or inverse-time delay

Fault current/ residual current/ earth fault protection

G1)

Definite-time delay or inverse-time delay

Short-circuit protection

I

Block diagram

I> I>

I

Instantaneous

I>> I>

1)

For SENTRON 3WL and SENTRON 3VL circuit-breakers, protection also includes “zone-selective interlocking” (ZSI) In the following, combinations of releases will be referred to by their code letters only (L-, S- and I-releases).

Table 3/3

Symbols for releases according to protective functions

Function

Release

Relay

Overload protection

Overload release Inverse-time delay or electronic delay

Overload relay Thermal delay or electronic delay Thermistor protection release devices

Short-circuit protection

Overcurrent release Instantaneous electromagnetic or electronic

Overcurrent relay Instantaneous electromagnetic release

Selective short-circuit protection

Overcurrent release Instantaneous electromagnetic or electronic



Table 3/4

Circuit-breaker releases and relays with protective functions

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manufacturer should be consulted when the release type is selected. Reclosing lockout after short-circuit tripping A number of circuit-breakers can be fitted with a mechanical and/or electrical reclosing lockout which prevents reclosing to the short-circuit after short-circuit tripping. The circuit-breaker can only be closed again after the fault has been eliminated and the lockout has been reset manually. Fault-current/residual-current protection The global importance of fault-current protection devices has grown in the field of protection technology due to the high level of protection they provide (protection of human life and property) and their extended scope of protection (alternating and pulsating current sensitivity). Apart from residual-current-operated circuit-breakers, miniature circuitbreaker assemblies, e. g. miniature circuit-breakers with fault-current tripping, are being used to an increasing extent for commercial and industrial applications.

3/12

Applications (primarily for short-circuit current clearance)

Time-delay characteristic

Operating ranges of inverse-time-dealy overcurrent release as multiple of set value Ir

Circuit-breaker for generator protection

Instantaneous or short-time delay

Approx. 3 to 6 · Ir

Circuit-breaker for line protection

Instantaneous

Approx. 6 to 12 · Ir

Circuit-breaker for motor protection

Instantaneous or short-time delay1)

Approx. 8 to 15 · Ir

1)

Poss. short-time delay for rush current shunting

Table 3/5

Operating ranges of the overcurrent releases (acc. to EN 60 947 / IEC 60 947/DIN VDE 0660)

MCBs with fault-current tripping These circuit-breaker assemblies are available as compact factory-built devices or may be assembled from a miniature circuit-breaker as the basic device and an add-on module. Circuit-breakers with fault-current/ residual-current tripping The assembly comprising a circuitbreaker and add-on module has established itself for circuit-breakers with rated currents In of up to 400 A and fault-current/residual-current tripping. Technical features The add-on module for residual-current tripping used in system protection applications includes such technical features as: C Rated residual current I∆n, adjustable in steps, e.g. 30 mA/ 100 mA/300 mA/500 mA/1,000 mA/3,000 mA C Tripping time ta, adjustable in steps, e. g. instantaneous/60 ms/ 100 ms/250 ms/500 ms/1,000 ms C Operation depends on system voltage C Sensitivity: tripping with alternating and pulsating DC fault currents C Reset button ”R” for resetting after residual-current tripping

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C Test button ”T” for testing the circuit-breaker assembly C Status display for the current leakage / residual current I∆ in the downstream circuit, e. g. by means of colored LEDs: – green: I∆ ≤ 0.,5 I∆n – yellow: 0,25 I∆n < v∆ ≤ 0.5 v∆n – red: cA > I∆ > 0.5 I∆n IA = Tripping current of additional residualcurrent module C Disconnection of the electronics overvoltage protection prior to insulation measurement in the installation C ”Remote tripping” C ”Auxiliary switch (AS)” Interface to bus systems With appropriate interfaces, the circuit-breaker assemblies can be equipped to bus systems to enable the exchange of information and interaction with other components in the electrical installation. AC/DC sensitive circuit-breaker assemblies In industrial applications, circuitbreaker assemblies which are sensitive to AC/DC currents are required for electrical installations in which smooth DC fault currents or currents with a low residual ripple occur in the event of a fault.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn (r.m.s. value) kA 4.5 6 10 20 50

< < < < <

Table 3/6

I I I I I

≤ 6 ≤ 10 ≤ 20 ≤ 50

Power factor cos ϕ

Minimum value n short-circuit making capacity n= short-circuit breaking capacity

0.7 0.5 0.3 0.25 0.2

1.5 1.7 2.0 2.1 2.2

Correlation n between rated short-circuit making and breaking capacity and the respective power factor (for AC circuit-breakers)

The rated short-circuit breaking capacity is indicated using two values:

Icu

Ics

Rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity

Rated service short-circuit breaking capacity

Test sequence

O-t-CO

O-t-CO-t-CO

Test of

• ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity Testing • the overload tripping • the insulation resistance • the overheating

• service short-circuit breaking capacity Testing • the overload tripping • the insulation resistance • the overheating

Switching capacity

O Opening (O = Open) CO Opening and closing (C = Close) t Interval (t = time) Table 3/7

Switching performance categories acc. to EN 60947 / IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660 and IEC 157-1

Standards The standards EN 60947-2/ IEC 60947-2 / DIN VDE 0660-101 apply for circuit-breakers with addon fault-current or residual-current modules. Selection criteria for circuitbreakers When selecting the appropriate circuit-breaker for system protection, special attention must be paid to the following characteristics: C Type of circuit-breaker and its releases according to the respective protective function and tasks C Rated voltages

C Short-circuit strength Icu/ Ics and rated short-circuit making (Icm) and breaking capacity (Icn) C Rated and maximum load currents The system voltage and system frequency are crucial factors for selecting the circuit-breakers according to C Rated insulation voltage Ui and C Rated operating voltage Ue. Rated insulation voltage Ui The rated insulation voltage Ui is the standardized voltage value for which the insulation of the circuit-breakers and their associated components is rated in accordance with HD 625 / IEC 60664 / DIN VDE 0110, Insulation Group C.

Rated operating voltage Ue The rated operating voltage Ue of a circuit-breaker is the voltage value to which the rated short-circuit making and breaking capacities and the shortcircuit performance category refer. Short-circuit current The maximum short-circuit current at the installation location is a crucial factor for selecting the circuit-breakers according to C Short-circuit strength Icu/ Ics , as well as C Rated short-circuit making Icm and breaking capacities Icn. Dynamic short-circuit strength The permissible dynamic short-circuit strength is indicated as the peak shortcircuit current. It is the highest permissible instantaneous value of the prospective short-circuit current along the conducting path with the highest load. Thermal fault withstand capability (1-s current) The permissible thermal short-circuit strength is referred to as the rated short-time current Icw . It is the maximum current which the breaker is capable of withstanding for X s without any damage occurring. Generally, the Icw current refers to 1 s. Other time values can be converted assuming Icn = constant. Rated switching capacity The rated switching capacity of the circuit-breakers is specified as the rated short-circuit making capacity and rated short-circuit breaking capacity.

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Circuit-breaker type

Rated current

Application example

Air circuit-breaker (ACB)

630A to 6,300 A

Protection of distribution systems, motors, transformers and generators

SENTRON 3WL1

– High rated short-time current for time selectivity – Two series, SENTRON WL1 and SENTRON WL6 with high and medium rated switching capacity – Electronic, microprocessor-based overcurrent releases independent of external voltages – Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI) with total delay time of 50 ms

Current-limiting circuit-breaker (MCCB) SENTRON 3VL

Designed and tested in compliance with EN 60947 / IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660 Possible applications:

Tripping characteristic L S I

G

L S I

TM release: 16 A to 630 A ETU release: 63 A to 1,600 A

For system protection up to 1,600 A Optional adjustable overload and overcurrent release: Precise adaptation to protection requirements

ETU release: 63 A to 500 A

For motor protection up to 500 A Electronic overload release with adjustable time-lag class: Effective protection when motor is under full load

L I

L I

M release: 63 A to 500 A

M release: 100 A to 1,600 A

Circuit-breaker 3RV1

0.16 to 100 A

For starter combinations up to 500 A Unsusceptible to inrush currents: Breaker not tripped by direct-on-line motor starting

I

As isolating circuit-breaker (load interrupter) up to 2,000 A with integrated overcurrent releases, no back-up fuse required

I

3 RV1 circuit-breaker for motor protection with overload and overcurrent protection

L I I

L Overload tripping Table 3/8

3/14

S Short-time delay overcurrent tripping

I Instantaneous overcurrent tripping

Application examples for modern Siemens circuit-breakers and their typical tripping characteristics

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

G Ground fault tripping

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Rated short-circuit making capacity Icm The rated short-circuit making capacity Icm is the short-circuit current which the circuit-breaker is capable of making at the rated operating voltage +10%, rated frequency and a specified power factor. It is expressed as the maximum peak value of the prospective short-circuit current, and is at least equal to the rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn , multiplied by the factor n specified in Table 3/6. Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn The rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn is the short-circuit current which the circuit-breaker is capable of breaking at the rated operating voltage +10%, rated frequency and a specified power factor cos ϕ. It is expressed as the r.m.s. value of the alternating current component. Switching capacity category Switching capacity categories, which specify how often a circuit-breaker can switch its rated making and breaking current as well as the condition of the breaker after the specified switching cycle, are defined for circuit-breakers in EN 60947 / IEC 60947/ DIN VDE 0660 and in accordance with IEC 157-1 (Table 3/7). The rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn is based on the test sequence O-t-CO-t-CO. The rated service short-circuit breaking capacity Ics can also be specified on the basis of the shortened switching sequence O-t-CO (see Table 3/7 for explanation of O, t, and C).

Rated circuit-breaker currents The rated duty, e.g. continuous operation, intermittent operation or short-time operation, plays a decisive role in selecting the switchgear according to its rated currents. The following rated currents are distinguished according to the thermal characteristics:

Application examples and tripping curves Application examples for circuitbreakers with protection The principal application examples and typical tripping curves of modern circuit-breakers currently available from Siemens are specified in Table 3/8.

C Rated thermal current Ith C Rated continuous current Iu C Rated operating current Ie. Conventional rated thermal current Ith , rated continuous current Iu The conventional rated thermal current Ith or Ithe for motor starters in enclosures is defined as an 8-h current in accordance with EN 60947-1, -4-1, -3 / IEC 60947-1, -4-1, -3 / DIN VDE 0660-100, -102, -107. It is the maximum current which can be carried during this time without the temperature limit being exceeded. The rated continuous current Iu can be carried for an unlimited time. With adjustable inverse-time-delay releases and relays, the maximum current setting is the rated continuous current Iu. Rated operating current Ie The rated operating current Ie is the current that is determined by the operating conditions of the switching device, the rated operating voltage and rated frequency, rated switching capacity, the rated duty, utilization category1), contact life and the degree of protection. 1) The utilization category describes the switching devices’ application and stress, see device standards EN 60947 / IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660.

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t

Circuitbreaker

L Inverse-time-delay overload release

Fuse Fuse

I Instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent release

L Circuitbreaker

A

Icn Rated short-circuit breaking capacity

A I

3.2.2 Switchgear Assemblies Switchgear assemblies are seriesconnected switching and protection devices which perform specific tasks for protecting a system component; the first device (relative to the flow of power) provides the short-circuit protection.

Ik Prospective sus-

tained short-circuit current at mounting location

Ik Ik

Icn

A Safety margins Operates Clears

Fig. 3/7

L release

I release

Circuit-breaker

Fuse

I

Fuse + circuit-breaker

Switchgear assembly comprising fuse and circuit-breaker

Switchgear assemblies with fuses Fuses and molded-case circuitbreakers If the prospective short-circuit current Ik exceeds the rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn of the circuitbreaker at its point of installation, the latter must be provided with upstream fuses (Fig. 3/7). Protection and operating ranges Defined protection and operating ranges are assigned to each device in the switchgear assembly. The L-release monitors overload currents, while the I-release detects short-circuit currents up to the rated short-circuit breaking capacity of the circuitbreaker. The circuit-breaker provides protection against all overcurrents up to its rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn and ensures all-pole opening and reclosing. The fuses are only responsible for short-circuit clearance with higher short-circuit currents Ik . In this case too, the circuit-breaker disconnects all-pole almost simultaneously via its I-release, triggered by the letthrough current ID of the fuse. The fuse must, therefore, be selected such that its let-through current ID is less than the rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn of the circuitbreaker.

3/16

Fuse, contactor, and thermal inverse-time-delay overload relay The contactor is used to switch the motor on and off. The overload relay protects the motor, motor supply conductors and contactor against overloading. The fuse upstream of the contactor and overload relay provides protection against short circuits. For this reason, the protection ranges and characteristics of all the components (Fig. 3/8) must be carefully coordinated with each other. The switchgear assembly comprising contactor and overload relay is referred to as a motor starter or, if a three-phase motor is started directly, a direct-on-line starter. Specifications for contactors and motor starters The standards EN 60947-4-1 / IEC 60947-4-1 / DIN VDE 0660-102 apply for contactors and motor starters up to 1,000 V for direct-online starting (with maximum voltage). When short-circuit current protection equipment is selected for switchgear assemblies, a distinction is made between various types of protection according to the permissible degree of damage as defined in EN 60947-4- / IEC 60947-4-1 / DIN VDE 0660-1021):

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Type a

Destruction and replacement of individual components or complete switching device

Type b

Welding of contacts and permanent change in characteristic values of overload relay

Type c

Welding of contacts without permanent change to operating values of over load relay.

Protection and operating ranges of equipment Grading diagram for motor starter The protection ranges and the relevant characteristics of the equipment constituting a switchgear assembly used as a motor starter are illustrated in the grading diagram in Fig. 3/8.

1) The standards EN 60 947-1 / IEC 60 947-4-1/ DIN VDE 0660-102 comprise modified descriptions for short-circuit behavior as follows: Coordination type ”1”: Destruction of contactor and overload relay are permissible. The contactor and/or over load relay must be replaced if necessary. Coordination type ”2”: The overload relay must not be damaged. Contact welding at the contactor is, however, permissible, given the contacts can easily be separated or the contactor can easily be replaced.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Assembly comprising LV HRC fuse, contactor, and thermal overload relay (motor starter)

t

1 1 min 2

3

2 Destruction characteristic of thermal overload relay 3 Rated breaking capacity of contactor 4 Characteristic of contactor for easily separable welding of contacts

B A

1 Tripping characteristic of (thermal) inversetime-delay overload relay

4 (Depends on current limiting by fuse) 5 C 6

1 ms

5 Prearcing-time/current characteristic of fuse, utilization category aM 6 Total clearance-time characteristic of aM fuse

I

A, B, C

Fig. 3/8

Safety margins for reliable short-circuit protection

Switchgear assembly comprising fuse, contactor, and thermal inverse-time-delay overload relay

The fuses in this assembly must satisfy a number of conditions: C The time-current characteristics of fuses and overload relays must allow the motor to be run up to speed. C The fuses must protect the overload relay from being destroyed by currents approximately 10 times higher than the rated current of the relay. C The fuses must interrupt overcurrents beyond the capability of the contactor (Ie currents approximately 10 times higher than the rated operating current Ie of the contactor). C In the event of a short circuit, the fuses must protect the contactor to such an extent that any damage does not exceed the specified degrees of damage mentioned above (depending on the rated operating current Ie, contactors must be able to withstand motor start-up currents of between 8 and 12 Ie without the contacts being welded). To satisfy these conditions, the following safety margins A, B and C must be maintained between certain characteristic curves of the devices:

Protection of overload relay In order to protect the overload relay, the prearcing-time/current characteristic of the fuse (an LV HRC switchgear fuse of utilization category aM was used in this example; refer to the following section ”Selecting fuses”) must lie in margin A below the intersection of the tripping curve of the overload relay (1) with its destruction curve (2). Protection of contactor In order to protect the contactor against excessively high breaking currents, the prearcing-time/current characteristic curve of the fuse, starting from the current value which corresponds to the breaking capacity of the contactor (3), must lie in margin B below the tripping characteristic of the overload relay (1). In order to protect the contactor against contact welding, time-current characteristic curves can be specified for each contactor indicating which load currents can be applied as maximum currents so that C contact welding is avoided, or else C welded contacts can easily be separated (characteristic curve 4 in Fig. 3/8).

Therefore, in both cases, the fuse must respond in good time. The total clearance time characteristic of the fuse (6) must lie in margin C below the characteristic curve of the contactor for easily separable contact welding (4) (total clearance time = prearcing time + extinction time). Selecting fuses LV HRC switchgear fuses Fuses for motor starters are selected according to the aforementioned criteria. Compared with LV HRC fuses of utilization category gL used to protect lines and cables, LV HRC switchgear fuses of utilization category aM provide the advantage of weld-free short-circuit protection for the maximum motor power which the contactor is capable of switching. Owing to their more effective current limiting abilities (as compared with those of line-protection fuses), they are very effective in relieving contactors of high peak short-circuit currents ip since they respond more rapidly in the upper short-circuit range as shown in Fig. 3/9. It is therefore preferable to use switchgear fuses rather than lineprotection fuses with relay settings > 80 A at higher operating currents with correspondingly lower shortcircuit current attenuation. Table 3/9 shows the classification of the fuses based on functional features.

3/17

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Functional category Designation

Utilization category

Rated continuous Rated breaking Designation current ≤ current

Protection of

t s Prearcing time for fuse 104 s t s 103

Full-range fuses

In

g

≥ Ia min

gL/gG gR gB

Cables and lines Semiconductors Mining installations

Back-up fuses a

102

Utilization category gL aM

101 100 10-1

In

≥ 4 In ≥ 2.7 In

aM aR

Switchgear Semiconductors

Ia min Minimum rated breaking current

10-2 10-3

8 4 102

103

104 I

Table 3/9

Classification of LV HRC fuses based on their functional characteristics defined in EN 60269-1/ IEC 60269-1/DIN VDE 0636-10

Classification of LV HRC fuses and comparison of characteristic curves of gL and aM utilization categories LV HRC fuses are divided into functional and utilization categories in accordance with their type design. They can continuously carry currents up to their rated current. Functional category g (full-range fuses) Functional category g applies to fullrange fuses which can interrupt currents from the minimum fusing current up to the rated short-circuit breaking current. Utilization category gL/gG This category includes fuses of utilization category g/gG used to protect cables and lines. Functional category a (back-up fuses) Functional category a applies to backup fuses which can interrupt currents above a specified multiple of their rated current up to the rated short-circuit breaking current. Utilization category aM This functional category applies to switchgear fuses of utilization category aM, the minimum breaking current of which is approximately four

3/18

times the rated current. These fuses are thus only intended for short-circuit protection. For this reason, fuses of functional category a must not be used above their rated current. A means of overload protection, e.g. a thermal time-delay relay, must therefore always be provided. Comparison of characteristic curves for utilization categories gL and aM The prearcing-time/current characteristics of LV HRC of utilization category gL and aM for 200 A are compared in Fig. 3/9. Switchgear assemblies without fuses (fuseless design) Back-up protection (cascade-connected circuit-breakers) If two circuit-breakers with I-releases of the same type are connected in series along one conducting path, they will open simultaneously in the event of a fault (K) in the vicinity of the distribution board (Fig. 3/10, 3/11). The short-circuit current is thereby detected by two series-connected interrupting devices and effectively extinguished. As a result, the downstream circuit-breaker with a lower rated switching capacity can be in-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Fig. 3/9

5 [A]

Comparison of prearcing-time/ current characteristics of LV HRC fuses of utilization categories gL and aM, rated current 200 A

stalled at a location where the possible short-circuit current exceeds its rated switching capacity. Protection and operating ranges of the circuit-breakers Fig. 3/10 shows the single-line diagram and Fig. 3/11 the principle of a cascade connection. The rated current of the upstream circuit-breaker Q2 is selected in accordance with its rated operating current. The circuitbreaker Q2 can, for example, be used as a main circuit-breaker or group circuit-breaker for several feeders in sub-distribution boards. Its I-release is set to a very high operating current, if possible to the rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn of the downstream circuit-breakers.

Circuit-breaker with I-release

Q2

and Q1

Circuit-breaker with L I-release

K

Fig. 3/10

Single-line diagram of a back-up circuit (cascade connection) in a sub-distribution board

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

The outgoing circuit-breaker Q1 provides overload protection and also clears autonomously relatively low short-circuit currents which may be caused by short circuits to exposed conductive parts, insulation faults or short circuits at the end of long lines and cables. The upstream circuitbreaker Q2 is only involved at the same time if high short-circuit currents occur as a result of a dead short circuit in the vicinity of the outgoing circuit-breaker Q1 (restricted selectivity). Circuit-breakers with L- and I-releases and contactor Protection and operating ranges of devices The circuit-breaker provides overload and short-circuit protection also for the contactor, while the contactor performs switching duties (Fig. 3/12). The requirements that must be fulfilled by the circuit-breaker are the same as those that apply to the fuse in switchgear assemblies comprising fuse, contactor and overload relay (see Fig. 3/8). Starter circuit-breaker with I-release, contactor, and overload relay (a) Readiness for reclosing Overload protection is provided by the overload relay in conjunction with the contactor, while short-circuit protection is provided by the starter circuit-breaker. The operating current of its I-release is set as low as the starting cycle will permit, in order to include low short-circuit currents in the instantaneous breaking range as well (Fig. 3/13). The advantage of this switchgear assembly is that it is possible to determine whether the fault

was an overload or short circuit according to whether, via the overload relay, the contactor or the starter circuit-breaker has opened. Further advantages of the starter circuit-breaker following short-circuit tripping are three-phase circuit interruption and immediate readiness for reclosing.

ip i i D1 i D(1+2)

The switchgear assemblies with the starter circuit-breaker are becoming increasingly important in fuseless control units.

t

Switchgear assemblies with thermistor motor-protection devices u

Overload relays and releases cease to provide reliable overload protection when it is no longer possible to establish the winding temperature from the motor current. This is the case with: C C C C

ue u B(1+2) u B1

t

High switching frequencies Irregular, intermittent duty Restricted cooling and High ambient temperatures

In these cases, switchgear assemblies with thermistor motor-protection devices are used. The switchgear assemblies are designed with or without fuses depending on the installation’s configuration. Temperature sensor in motor winding The degree of protection that can be attained depends on whether the motor to be protected has a thermally critical stator or rotor. The operating temperature, coupling time constant and the position of the temperature sensor in the motor winding are also crucial factors. They are usually specified by the motor manufacturer.

ip

Maximum asymmetrical shortcircuit current (peak value)

i D1

Let-through current Q1

i D (1+ 2) Actual let-through current (less than i D1) ue

Source voltage (opening voltage)

u B (1+ 2) Sum of arc voltages of upstream circuit-breaker Q2 and outgoing circuit-breaker Q1 u B1

Fig. 3/11

Arc voltage of outgoing circuit-breaker Q1

Principle of a back-up circuit (cascade connection)

3/19

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Seite 20

Circuitbreaker with li releases

t

Circuit-breaker with I-release for starter assemblies

t

a

Contactor Inverse-timedelay overload relay with L-release

Contactor

L 1

2 n

Setting range I

Icn

3

Icn Trip

L-release

I-release

Opens

Contactor

Circuit-breaker

I

I

1 Rated breaking capacity of contactor 2 Rated making capacity of contactor 3 Characteristic of contactor for easily separable contact welding

Fig. 3/12

L Characteristic of inverse-time-delay overload release I Characteristic of instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent release Icn Rated short-circuit breaking capacity of circuit-breaker

L Characteristic curve of (thermal) inverse-time-de lay overload relay

Switchgear assembly comprising circuit-breaker and contactor

a)

b)

Fig. 3/13

Switchgear assembly comprising circuit-breaker, adjustable overcurrent release, contactor, and overload relay

c)

Fuse

Characteristic curve of ad justable instantaneous overcurrent release

I

d)

Fuse

Circuit-breaker with L- and I-releases Contactor

Circuit-breaker with L- and I-releases

Circuit-breaker with L- and I-releases

Contactor

Contactor

Overload relay Thermistor motor protection

Fig. 3/14

Thermistor motor protection

M

M

M

M









Switchgear assemblies with thermistor motor-protection devices plus additional overload relay or release (block diagram)

Motors with thermally critical stators Motors with thermally critical stators can be adequately protected against overloads and overheating by means of thermistor motor-protection devices without overload relays. Feeder cables are protected against short circuits and overloads either by fuses and circuit-breakers (Fig. 3/14a) or by fuses alone (Fig. 3/14b).

3/20

Overload relay Thermistor motor protection

Thermistor motor protection

Motors with thermally critical rotors Motors with thermally critical rotors, even if started with a locked rotor, can only be provided with adequate protection if they are fitted with an additional overload relay or release. The overload relay or release also protects the cabling against overloads (Fig. 3/14a, c and d).

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

3.2.3 Selecting Protective Equipment Short-circuit protection of branch circuits Branch circuits in distribution boards and control units can be provided with short-circuit protection by means of fuses or by means of circuit-breakers without fuses. The level of anticipated current limiting, which is higher in fuses with low rated currents than in current-limiting circuit-breakers with the same rated current, may also be a

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System Protection / Safety Coordination [kA] 100

2h

cos ϕ 0.25 cos ϕ 0.3

ip , i D

63 A i D

cos ϕ 0.5

13 10

iD

8

cos ϕ 0.7

t

ip a, a´

100 A



10 s a

63 A 1

iD b 10 ms

1

10 22 Short-circuit current I k

iD Let-through currents ip Peak short-circuit current

100 [kA]

e.g. where Ik = 10 kA: iD Fuse (100 A) 7.5 kA iD Circuit-breaker 8 kA

Current-limiting characteristics of circuit-breaker (63 A) and LV HRC fuses (63 and 100 A)

crucial factor in making a choice in favor of one or the other solution. Comparing the protective characteristics of fuses with those of current-limiting circuit-breakers The following should be taken into consideration when comparing the protection characteristics of fuses and circuit-breakers: C The rated short-circuit breaking capacity, which can vary considerably; C The level of current limiting which, with fuses of up to 400 A, is always higher than for current-limiting circuit-breakers with the same rated current; C The shape of the prearcing time/current characteristic curves of fuses and the tripping curves of circuit-breakers;

1 2 3 A

Current limiting range Overload range Short-circuit current range Test range for fuse currents

Fig. 3/16

3

B A

1 1.3 1.6 Ir,(Ie) 1.05 1.2

1

Fig. 3/15

2

b

Icn Ik I

100 [kA]

B Test range for limiting tripping currents of circuit-breaker Icn Rated short-circuit breaking capacity

Characteristics and rated switching capacities of fuse (a) and circuit-breaker (b) with I-releases

C Clearance conditions in accordance with HD 384.4.41 / IEC 60 364-4-41/ DIN VDE 0100-410, Section 6.1.3 ”Protection measures in TN systems” (see ”Electrical Installations Handbook”, Chapter 2).

Comparison between the tripping curves and rated short-circuit breaking capacity of fuses with those of circuit-breakers with the same rated current and a high switching capacity

Comparison of current-limiting characteristics

Tripping curves and rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn The prearcing-time/current characteristic curve a of the 63 A fuse link, utilization category gL, and the “I” tripping characteristic b of a circuitbreaker are, by way of example, plotted in the time-current diagram in Fig. 3/16. The current setting for the inverse-time-delay overload release of the circuit-breaker corresponds to the rated current of the fuse link.

Current limiting with LV HRC fuses and circuit-breakers Fig. 3/15 shows the current-limiting characteristics of a circuit-breaker with rated continuous current of 63 A, at 400 V and 50 Hz compared to an LV HRC fuse of type 3NA, utilization category gL, rated currents 63 A and 100 A. Owing to the high motor starting currents, however, the rated current of the fuse must be higher than the rated operating current of the motor, i.e. a circuit-breaker with a minimum rated current of 63 A or a fuse with a minimum rated current of 100 A is required for a 30 kW motor.

Current limiting range (1) The typical test range for fuse currents (A) is, for example, between 1.3 and 1.6 times the rated current while the test range for the limiting tripping currents of the overload release (B) is between 1.05 and 1.2 times the current setting. The adjustable overload release enables the current setting and, therefore, the limiting tripping current to be matched more closely to the continuous loading capability than it would be possible with a fuse, the different current ratings of which only permit approximate matching.

3/21

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Seite 22

Although the limit current of the fuse is adequate for providing overload protection for lines and cables, it is not sufficient for the starting current of motors where a fuse with the characteristic a’ would be needed. Overload range (2) In the overload range (2), the prearcing- time/current characteristic curve of the fuse is steeper than the tripping curve of the overload release. Short-circuit current range (3) In the short-circuit current range (3), the instantaneous release of the circuit-breaker detects short-circuit currents above its operating value faster than the fuse. At higher currents, the fuse trips more quickly and therefore, limits the short-circuit current more effectively than a circuit-breaker.

Extremely high rated switching capacity of LV HRC fuses This results in an extremely high rated breaking capacity for fuses of over 100 kA at an operating voltage of 690 V AC. The rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn of circuit-breakers, however, depends on a number of factors, e.g. the rated operating voltage Ue and the type. A comparison between the protection characteristics of fuses, circuitbreakers and their switchgear assemblies can be found in Tables 3/10 and 3/11. Selecting circuit-breakers for distribution boards with and without fuses Distribution boards and control units can be constructed with or without fuses. Distribution boards with fuses The standard design of distribution boards with fuses (Table 3/12) includes switchgear assemblies comprising circuit-breakers and fuses, whereby a specific task is allocated to each protection device. The feeder circuit-breaker provides overload protection and selective shortcircuit protection for the transformer and distribution board. The Siemens circuit-breakers SENTRON WL and 3VL are ideal for this purpose.

3/22

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

The switchgear assemblies comprising fuse and circuit-breaker, which provide system protection, protect the lines to the sub-distribution board against overloads and short circuits. The switchgear assemblies comprising fuse and circuit-breaker, which provide motor protection, as well as fuses, contactor and overload relay protect the motor feeder cable and the motor against overloads and short circuits. Distribution boards without fuses (fuseless design) In distribution boards without fuses (Table 3/13), short-circuit protection is provided by circuit-breakers for system protection and for load switching, furthermore circuit-breakers fulfill motor protection tasks only or protect starter assemblies together with the contactor. The protection ranges of the switchgear assemblies comprising circuit-breaker, contactor and overload relay have already been dealt with in this chapter. For further technical data, please refer to the literature supplied by the manufacturer.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Characteristic

Fuse

Circuit-breaker

Rated switching capacity (AC)

> 100 kA, 690 V

f (Ir Ue type1))

Current limiting

f ( I r I k)

f (Ir Ik Ue type1))

Additional arcing space

None

f (Ir Ik Ue type1))

External indication of operability

Yes

No

Operational reliability

With additional costs2) Yes

Remote switching

No

Automatic all-pole breaking

With additional costs3) Yes

Indication facility

With additional costs4) Yes

Interlocking facility

No

Yes

Readiness for reclosing after clearing overload clearing short circuit

No No

Yes f (condition)

Interrupted operation

Yes

f (condition)

Maintenance costs

No

f (number of operations and condition)

Selectivity

No additional costs

With additional costs

Replaceability

Yes5)

With unit of same make

Short-circuit protection cable motor

Very good Very good

Good Good

Overload protection cable motor

Adequate Not possible

Good Good

1)

2)

The term ”type” embraces: current extinguishing method, short-circuit strength through internal impedance, type of construction For example, by means of shockproof fuse switch-disconnectors with snapaction closing

Yes

3) 4) 5)

By means of fuse monitoring and associated circuit-breakers By means of fuse monitoring Due to standardisation

Table 3/10 Comparison between the protective characteristics of fuses and circuit-breakers

3/23

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Protection devices with fuses

Fuse Circuit-breaker Contactor Overload protection Thermistor motor protection M 3~

M 3~

M

M

M

M









Overload protection – Cable – Motor (with thermally critical stator) – Motor (with thermally critical rotor)

++ ++1) ++1)

++ ++ ++

+ ++ +

+ ++ +

++ ++ ++

++ ++ ++

Short-circuit protection – Cable – Motor

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

Switching rate



++



++



++

Equipment to be protected and switching rate

Protection devices without fuses

– Circuit-breaker Contactor Overload protection Thermistor motor protection M 3~

M 3~

M

M





M 3~

M +ϑ

Overload protection – Cable – Motor (with thermally critical stator) – Motor (with thermally critical rotor)

++ ++1) ++1)

++ ++ ++

++ ++ ++

++ ++ ++

++ ++1) ++1)

+ ++ ++

Short-circuit protection – Cable – Motor

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

Switching rate

+

+

+

+





1)

Protection with slight functional loss following failure of phase conductor ++ Very good + Good – Poor

Table 3/11 Comparison between the protective characteristics of different switchgear assemblies (block diagrams)

3/24

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Seite 25

System Protection / Safety Coordination

No. Type of circuitbreaker

Type code

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity

Icn

Type of release/relay L S Adjus- Fixed Adjustable settable ting

Back-up fuse

Fixed setting

Adjustable Icn > 100 kA

≥ Ik1

×



×

I

Tripping characteristic



TIP_Kap3_E

Adjustable

↔ release

Feeder circuit-breaker 1 1

Circuitbreaker for selective protection

3W



×



Icn t Ik1 I

Ik1

Distribution circuit-breaker 2

2

Fuse 3NA and 3VF circuit-breaker 3VL for system protection

≥ Ik2 ≤ Ik2 ≤ Ik2

– – –

– × ×

– – –

– × ×

– – –

× – –

Icn t Ik2 I

Ik2

Load circuit-breaker 4

3

3

Ik3

Table 3/12

≥ Ik3 ≤ Ik3

Fuse and direct-on-line starter

≥ Ik3 ≥ Ik3 ≤ Ik3

– ×

– –

– –

– ×

– –

× –

Icn t Ik3 I

Ik3

4 M 3~

Fuse 3NA and 3RV1 circuit-breaker for motor protection

M 3~

3NA 3ND 3TW

– – ×

– – –

– – –

– – –

– – –

× × –

Icn t Ik3

I

Power distribution boards with fuses and circuit-breakers

3/25

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Seite 26

No. Type of circuitbreaker

Type code

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity

Fixed setting

Adjustable

Icn

Type of release/relay L S Adjus- Fixed Adjustable settable ting

Tripping characteristic

≥ Ik1

×



×

I



TIP_Kap3_E

Adjustable

↔ release

Feeder circuit-breaker 1 1 Ik1

Circuitbreaker for selective protection

3W



×

Icn t Ik1 I

Distribution circuit-breaker 2

2

3

Ik2

Ik2

Circuit-breaker 3VF for system 3VL protection

≥ Ik2 ≥ Ik2

– –

× ×

– –

× ×

– –

Icn t Ik2 I

3

Circuitbreaker for selective protection

SEN- ≥ Ik2 TRON WL

×



×



×

Icn t Ik2 I

Load circuit-breaker 4

5

4

5 Ik3

M 3~

Ik3

M 3~

Circuitbreaker for motor protection

3RV1

Circuit3RA breaker 3TW and direct-online starter

≤ Ik3

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens





×



Icn t Ik3

≥ Ik3 –

Table 3/13 Power distribution with circuit-breakers without fuses

3/26

×

– ×

– –

– –

– –

× –

I Icn

t Ik3

I

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.2.4 Miniature CircuitBreakers (MCBs) Task Miniature circuit-breakers are mainly designed for the protection of lines and cables against overload and short circuit, thus ensuring the protection of electrical equipment against excessively high heating according to the relevant standards, e.g. DIN VDE 0100-430.

1st condition 2nd condition Ib ≤ In ≤ I z I2 ≤ 1.45 · Iz Ib Iz

In

1.45·Iz

I2

I1

Iz

Permissible continuous load current for one conductor where the permanent temperature limit for the insulation is not exceeded

I

1.45 ·Iz Maximum permissible timelimited overload current where a short-term exceeding of the continuous limit temperature will not yet result in a safety-relevant reduction of insulation properties.

I2

I3

In

Rated current, i.e. the current for which the miniature circuit-breaker has been rated and to which other parameters refer (set value)

I1

Small test current, i.e. the current which does not result in tripping in defined conditions

I2

Large test current, i.e. the current which is broken within one hour in defined conditions (In ≤ 63 A)

I3

Tolerance limiting

I4

Seal-in current of the instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent release (shortcircuit release)

I5

Tripping current of the instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent release (shortcircuit release)

I3

Application Miniature circuit-breakers are used in all distribution networks, both for commercial buildings and industrial buildings. Due to a wide range of versions and accessories (e.g. auxiliary contacts, fault signal contacts, opencircuit shunt releases), they are able to meet the various requirements of the most diverse areas of application.

I5

I4

Tripping characteristics

C Tripping characteristic A is particularly suitable for the protection of transducers in measuring circuits, for long-line circuits and where disconnection within 0.4 s is required in accordance with HD 384.4.41 S2 / IEC 60 364-4-41/

Rated operating current to be expected, i.e. load-determined current during normal operation

time t

Under certain conditions, MCBs in a TN system also provide protection against electrical stroke at excessively high contact voltage due to wrong insulation, e.g. according to HD 384.4.41/ IEC 364-4-41 / DIN VDE 0100-410.

Four tripping characteristics A, B, C and D are available for the actual type of application corresponding to the equipment being connected in the circuit to be protected.

Ib

I

Fig. 3/17

Typical values of lines and protective devices

DIN VDE 0100-4110. C Tripping characteristic B is the standard characteristic for wall-outlet circuits in residential and commercial buildings.

3/27

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C Tripping characteristic C is advantageous wherever equipment with higher inrush currents, e.g. luminaires and motors, is used. C Tripping characteristic D is adapted to highly pulse-generating equipment, such as transformers, solenoid valves or capacitors. Operating method Miniature circuit-breakers are protective switches for manual operation, including overcurrent remote tripping (via thermal overcurrent instantaneous release). Multi-pole devices are coupled mechanically at the outside via handles and simultaneously inside via their releases. Standards The international basic standard is IEC 60898. The European standard EN 60 898 and the German national standard DIN VDE 0641-11 are based upon it. Device sizes are described in DIN 43880. For the protection against personal injury, the disconnecting requirements according to the relevant standards, e.g. HD 384.4.41 S2 / IEC 60364-4-41 / DIN VDE 0100-410 have to be met.

Versions MCBs are available in many different versions: 1-pole, 2-pole, 3-pole, 4-pole and with connected neutral 1-pole+N and 3-pole+N. Corresponding to the preferred series according to IEC 60898 and DIN 43880, MCBs are allocated the following rated currents: C Devices with 55 mm depth 0.3 A to 63 A C Devices with 70 mm depth 0.3 A to 125 A Depending on the device type, an auxiliary switch (AS), fault-signal contact (FC), open-circuit shunt release (ST), undervoltage release (UR) or residual-current-operated circuit-breaker (RCCB module) can be retrofitted. Auxiliary switches (AS) signal the switching state of the MCB and indicate whether it has been switched off manually or automatically. Faultsignal contacts (FC) indicate tripping of the MCB due to overload or short circuit. Open-circuit shunt releases (ST) are suitable for remote switching of MCBs. Undervoltage releases (UR) protect devices connected in the circuit against impacts of insufficiently low supply voltage. By fitting an RCCB module to an MCB, you will receive an RCBO assembly, which – as a complete system – can be used for line protection as well as for protection against electrically ignited fires and personal injury in the event of direct or indirect contact voltages.

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By connecting the AS and the FC to an instabus®EIB® binary input, the signals may also be read into an instabus EIB system. When using an instabus EIB binary output, the MCB which is tripped via the open-circuit shunt release (AA) can also be remotely tripped via instabus EIB. Depending on the device type, miniature circuit-breakers by Siemens have the following features: C Excellent current limiting and selectivity characteristics C Identical terminals on both sides for optional infeed from the top or bottom C Installation and dismantling without the use of tools C Rapid and easy removal from the system C Terminals safe-to-touch by fingers or the back of the hand according to VDE 0106-100 (VBG4) C Combined terminals for simultaneous connection of busbars and feeder cables C Main switch characteristics according to EN 60 204 / IEC 60204/ VDE 0113 C Separate switch position indicator AC current type MCBs are suitable for all AC and three-phase networks up to a voltage of 240/415 V and all DC networks up to 60 V (1-pole) and 120 V (2-pole). The MCB voltage rating is 230/400 V AC. AC/DC current type MCBs may also be used for 220 V DC (1-pole) and 440 V DC (2-pole).

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Rated cross section qn mm2 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 Table 3/14

Rated current In of the MCB when protecting 2 conductors under load 3 conductors under load A A 16 25 32 40 63 80 100 125

Iz (line) Permissible continuous load current with 2 conductors under load 3 conductors under load A A

16 20 32 40 50 63 80 100

19.5 26 35 46 63 85 112 138

17.5 24 32 41 57 76 96 119

Allocation of miniature circuit-breakers to conductor cross sections Example: flat-webbed cable, stranded cables on or in the wall, installation type C1) at an ambient temperature of 30°C 1) Installation type C acc. to DIN VDE 0298-4 and DIN VDE 0100-430, Supplement 1. Cables are fixed in such a way that the spacing between them and the wall is smaller than 0.3 times the outer cable diameter.

For line-overcurrent protection, the MCBs usually have two independent releases. In the event of overload, a bimetal contact opens inverse-time delayed corresponding to the current value. If a certain threshold is exceeded in the event of a short circuit, however, an electro-magnetic overcurrent release instantaneously trips without delay. The tripping range (time-current threshold zone) of the MCB according to EN 60898 / IEC 60898 / DIN VDE 0641-11 is defined via parameters I1 to I5 (Fig. 3/18). The line parameters Ib and Iz (see Fig. 3/17) are related to it.

300 timet

MCBs with tripping characteristics B, C, D acc. to EN 60 898 / IEC 60 898 / DIN VDE 0641-11

I1 I2

A1)

60 minutes

In order to avoid damaging of the conductor insulation in case of faults, temperatures must not rise above certain values. For PVC insulation, these values are 70 °C permanently or 160 °C for a maximum of 5 s (short circuit).

10

B

C

D

I1 (t > 1h)

1.13 x In 1.13 x In 1.13 x In 1.13 x In

I2 (t < 1h)

1.45 x In 1.45 x In 1.45 x In 1.45 x In

I4 (t > 0.1s)

2 x In

3 x In

5 x In

10 x In

I5 (t < 0.1s)

3 x In

5 x In

10 x In

20 x In

1)

Specifications in compliance with DIN VDE 0100-410

I3 1

10 5 seconds

TIP_Kap3_E

I3

1 0.4

A B I4

Fig. 3/18

C

I5

0.1

0.01

Breaking condition acc. to HD 384.4.41S2/ IEC 60 364-4-41 DIN VDE 0100-410

1

2

I4

D

I5 I4

3 4

I5

I5

I4

6 8 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 x rated current In

MCB time-current limit ranges

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When the IEC 60898 was published, new characteristics B, C and D were defined internationally. They were also adopted in EN 60898 and DIN VDE 0641-11. The new tripping requirements of MCBs facilitate their assignment to conductor cross sections. In the relevant German standards, e.g. DIN/VDE 0100-430, the following conditions are listed: 1st condition Ib ≤ In ≤ Iz (Rated current rule), 2nd condition I2 ≤ 1,45 · Iz (Tripping current rule). The 2nd condition automatically being fulfilled with the new characteristic curves due the fact that these curves have been defined (Iz = In), the MCB merely needs to be selected according to the simplified criterion In ≤ Iz . Resulting from this, a new allocation of rated currents for MCBs and conductor cross sections can be given (see Table 3/14), related to an ambient temperature of 30 °C, as it is considered appropriate according to DIN VDE 0100-430, Supplement 1, and in dependence of the type of installation and accumulation of equipment.

Standard

Siemens MCBs are available with the tripping characteristics B, C and D, bearing, among other things, the VDE mark based upon the CCA procedure (CENELEC-CertificationAgreement). Figure 3/19 represents all tripping characteristics. Due to the position of the tripping bands, the following features vary in intensity with a rising degree from curve A to D C Current pulse withstand strength, rising C Permissible line and cable length for the protection of persons, decreasing Temperature impact The tripping characteristics are standard defined at an ambient temperature of +30 °C. At higher temperatures, the thermal tripping curve in Fig. 3/18 shifts to the left, and to the right at lower temperatures. This means that tripping becomes effective even with lower currents present (higher temperatures) or only with higher currents (lower temperatures). This has to be taken into account in particular for an installation in hot rooms, in encapsulated distribution boards where, owing to the currentinduced heat losses of the built-in devices, higher temperatures may prevail and for distribution boards installed outdoors. MCBs can be

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity classes

EN 60 898 / IEC 60 898 / DIN VDE 0641-11

1,500 A 3,000 A 4,500 A 6,000 A 10,000 A 15,000 A 20,000 A 25,000 A

Table 3/15 Rated short-circuit breaking capacity classes for miniature circuit-breakers

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used at temperatures ranging from –25 °C to +55 °C. The relative humidity may be 95%. Resistance to climate Miniature circuit-breakers by Siemens are resistant to climate according to IEC 68-2-30. They were successfully tested in six climatic cycles. Degree of protection As MCBs are mainly installed in distribution boards, their degree of protection must meet the requirements of the respective type of room. MCBs without an encapsulation can reach IP 30 according to EN 60529/ IEC 60529 / DIN VDE 0470-1 provided that they have sufficient terminal covers. All MCBs are equipped with a snapon fixing for rapid fitting on 35-mm wide standard mounting rails according to DIN EN 50022. Some versions may additionally be screwed on mounting plates. Installation Moreover, some type series are available with a rapid wiring system for manual handling without the use of tools, which even enables the removal of individual MCBs from the busbar system.

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[A2 s] I2 t Permissible value I 2 t of 1.5 mm2 cable

Transformer

1

Fuse 50 A

2

3

Fuse B 16 MCB

104 Ik

[A] i

i Ieff

B 16

0

3

2

1 Sinusoidal semiwave

5 t

Fig. 3/19

10 [ms]

103 10-1

3

6

100

3

6 Ik

101 [kA]

Selectivity of MCBs with current limiting classes1[ 2 and3 towards back-up fuses. Curve B16 applies to 16 A Siemens breakers, tripping characteristic B.

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Besides a reliable adherence to characteristic curves, an important performance feature of MCBs is their rated short-circuit breaking capacity. It is divided into short-circuit breaking capacity classes and indicates up to which level short-circuit currents can be broken according to EN 60898 / IEC 60898/ DIN VDE 0641-11 (Table 3/18). Depending on their design, MCBs by Siemens have short-circuit breaking capacity ratings up to 25,000 A and VDE approval (VDE is the Association of German Electrical Engineers).

Current limiting classes As a selectivity indicator with regard to upstream fuses, miniature circuitbreakers with characteristic B and C up to 40 A are divided into three current limiting classes according to their current limiting capability. For permissible let-through I 2t values, please refer to the standards EN 60898/ IEC 60898 / DIN VDE 0641-11. For reasons of selectivity, only Class 3 MCBs with a rated switching capacity of at least 6,000 A may be used in distribution boards connected downstream of the meter for residential and commercial buildings in compliance with the Technical Supply Conditions of German power supply companies.

Devices must be labeled 6000 3 Selectivity Selectivity means that only that protective device will trip in the event of a fault which is closest to the fault location in the course of the current path. This enables maintaining energy flow in circuits which are connected in parallel. In the diagram in Fig. 3/19, the current sequence in a disconnection process is illustrated with regard to current limiting classes. MCBs of type B16 by Siemens reduce the energy flow to much lower values than defined for current limiting class 3.

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Figure 3/19 shows the selectivity limits of MCBs with different current limiting classes as the intersection of the MCB tripping curve with the melting curve of the fuse. The highly effective current limitation of the MCB also affects the high current discrimination towards the upstream fuse. Characteristic B16 relates to 16 A Siemens breakers, tripping characteristic B. Back-up protection If the short-circuit current at the point where the MCB is installed exceeds its rated switching capacity, another short-circuit protecting device has to be connected upstream. Without affecting the operability of the breaker in such cases, the switching capacity of such an assembly will be increased up to 50 kA.

Although circuit-breakers have a high inherent rated breaking capacity, they do not switch sufficiently current-limiting in the range of the MCB switching capacity limit (6 kA/10 kA) so that they cannot provide much support. Therefore, miniature circuitbreakers with a rated current of 6 A to 32 A are only protected by an upstream circuit-breaker (type 3VF1 to 3VF6 and SENTRON WL1/WL5) up to the defined rated switching capacity of the MCB (back-up protection). A more detailed description can be found in Chapter 6.1.2. Further product information on MCBs by Siemens is contained in the Siemens Catalog ”BETA Built-in installation devices”, Order No. E86060-K8220-A101-A6-7600.

In some countries, circuit-breakers rather than LV HRC fuses are connected upstream instead, which – depending on the type – reduces the combined switching capacity considerably.

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3.3 Selectivity in LowVoltage Systems Selectivity and selectivity types With two series-connected protective devices, full selectivity in the event of a fault is achieved if only the protective device directly upstream of the fault location disconnects from supply. Selectivity types / selectivity limit A distinction is made between two types of selectivity: C Partial selectivity acc. to IEC 60947-2, 2.17.2: Overcurrent discrimination of two series-connected overcurrent pro tection devices, where the loadside protective device takes over the full protection task up to a defi ned overcurrent level without the other protective device being active. C Full selectivity acc. to IEC 60947-2, 2.17.2: Overcurrent discrimination of two series-connected overcurrent pro tection devices, where the loadside protective device takes over the full protection task without the other protective device being active. Selectivity types C Current selectivity: Selective disconnection by grading the instantaneous short-circuit releases. Circuit-breakers with LI characteristics. C Time selectivity: Grading of the configurable tripping times (tsd in the S-part) of the short-circuit releases. This applies to standard as well as to optional characteristic curves. Circuit-breakers with LSI characteristics. It is often required in main distribution boards and at transfer points using devices of different manufacturers.

C Dynamic/energy selectivity Selectivity based on the evaluation of the let-through energy of the downstream devices and the tripping energy of the upstream protective device. Selectivity determination According to IEC 60947-2, Appendix A, the determination or verification of the desired type of selectivity is divided in two time ranges. Time range > 100 ms: The time range above 100 ms can be analyzed by a comparison of characteristic curves in the L- or S-range, taking the tolerances, required protective settings, curve representation in identical scales etc. into account. Time range < 100 ms: According to Fig. A2 in this standard, selectivity in this time range must be verified by testing. Due to the fact that the time and cost expense involved being very high, different devices being used in the power distribution system, selectivity limits can often be obtained from renowned equipment manufacturers only. In practice, let-through currents are therefore often compared to the operating or pickup currents or, the letthrough currents of the protective devices are compared to each other. The prerequisite being that the relevant data is available from the equipment manufacturer and that it is analyzed thoroughly.

All characteristic curves must – if not already specified by the manufacturer – be assigned a scatter band to determine selectivity reliably. In the case of switchgear, EN 60947–2 / IEC 60 947–2 / DIN VDE 0660–101 specify a scatter of ± 20% for the instantaneous overcurrent release. The operating times, which are sometimes considerably shorter at normal operating temperatures, must be taken into account for electromechanical overload releases. Determination of the selectivity limit As a rule, all selectivity limits between two protective devices can be determined by carrying out measurements or tests. These measurements are virtually indispensable, particularly when assessing selectivity in the event of a short circuit, owing to the extremely rapid switching operations when current-limiting protection equipment is used. The measurements can, however, be very costly and complicated, therefore many manufacturers publish selectivity tables for their switchgear (see Table 3/16). When using SIMARIS design, all criteria are automatically considered.

Comparing characteristic curves Three diagram types can be used for comparing characteristics: C Time-current diagram C Let-through current diagram C Let-through energy diagram Since these characteristic curves are compared over several orders of magnitude, they are usually plotted on log-log paper.

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Upstream circuit-breakers System protection

Characteristics In li

Type 3VL3 TM

TM 160-200

3VL4 TM 200-250

160-200

200-250

250-315

A

1,000-2,000 1,200-2,500 1,000-2,000 1,250-2,500 1,575-3,150

Icn

40-100

40-100

45-100

45-100

45-100

Downstream circuit-breakers

[A]

[A]

kA

Selectivity limits (kA)

Type

5SY4

Characteristics

LI

6 10 13 16 20 25 32 40 50 63

B B B B B B B B B B

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

T T T T 9.2 8.6 7.5 7.7 6.7 6.2

T T T T T T T T T 9.0

T T T T 9.1 8.6 7.6 7.6 6.6 6.2

T T T T 8.8 8.0 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.1

T T T T T T T T T 8.0

6 10 13 16 20 25 32 40 50 63

C C C C C C C C C C

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

T T T T 8.6 8.5 8.5 7.5 6.6 6.2

T T T T T T T T 9.7 8.7

T T T T 8.5 8.5 8.5 7.6 6.5 6.1

T T T T 7.1 8.1 7.8 6.9 6.5 6.1

T T T T T T T T T 8.0

6 10 13 16 20 25 32 40 50 63

B B B B B B B B B B

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

T T T T 9.2 8.6 7.5 7.7 6.7 6.2

T T T T T T 14.3 11.1 11.1 9.0

T T T T 9.1 8.6 7.6 7.6 6.6 6.2

T T 12.9 11.5 8.8 8.0 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.1

T T T T T T 12.4 11.8 10.7 8.0

6 10 13 16 20 25 32 40 50 63

C C C C C C C C C C

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

T T T T 8.5 8.5 8.5 7.5 6.6 6.2

T T T T T 14.7 14.7 13.0 9.7 8.7

T T T T 8.5 8.5 8.5 7.6 6.5 6.1

T 14.3 11.1 11.1 7.1 8.1 7.8 6.9 6.5 6.1

T T T T T 13.7 13.4 12.0 10.2 8.0

Characteristics

LI

Type

5SY7

Characteristics

LI

Characteristics

Table 3/16

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LI

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898 Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3VL5 TM 315-400

250-315

315-400

400-500

500-630

3VL5 ETU 10/20

3VL6 ETU 10/20

3VL7 ETU 10/20

252-630

320-800

400-1,000

3VL8 ETU 10/20 500-1,250

640-1,600

2,000-4,000 1,575-3,150 2,000-4,000 2,500-5,000 3,150-6,500 788-6,300

1,000-6,400 1,250-11,000 1,563-12,500 2,000-14,400

45-100

45-100

45-100

45-100

45-100

45-100

50-100

50-100

50-100

50-100

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T 14.6

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T 13.8 13.0

T T T T T T T T 14.2 13.3

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T 13.4

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T 14.2 12.0

T T T T T T T T 14.6 12.3

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T

T = Full selectivity up to Icn = rated shortcircuit breaking capacity of the lower-rated protective device M = Electromagnetic release TM = Thermomagnetic release ETU = Electronic tripping unit

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Downstream circuit-breakers

Upstream circuit-breakers System protection 3WL1 ETU25/27

Type Series Characteristics IR

1,000-2,500 1,280-3,200 1,600-4,000 2,000-5,000 2,520-6,300 li Icn

MCCB

50,000

50,000

50,000

50,000

50,000

55-100

80-100

100

100

100

[A]

[A]

[kA]

3VL1 Line Pro LI TM

16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160

300 300 300 300 600 600 600 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,500

40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

3VL2 Line Pro LI TM

40-50 50-63 63-80 80-100 100-125 125-160 25-63 40-100 64-100

300-600 300-600 400-800 500-1,000 625-1,250 800-1,600 80-693 125-1,100 200-1,760

40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

3VL2 Line Pro LI TM ETU

160-200 200-250 80-200 100-250

1,000-2,000 1,250-2,500 250-2,200 312-2,750

40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

3VL4 Line Protect TM

160-200 200-250 250-315 315-400 126-315 160-400

1,000-2,000 1,250-2,500 1,575-3,150 2,000-4,000 400-3,465 500-4,400

45-100 45-100 45-100 45-100 45-100 45-100

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

ETU

250-315 315-400 400-500 500-630 252-630

1,575-3,150 2,000-4,000 2,500-5,000 3,250-6,500 788-6,300

45-100 45-100 45-100 45-100 45-100

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

3VL6 Line Pro LI

320-800

1,000-6,400

50-100

T

T

T

T

T

3VL7 Line Pro LI ETU

400-1000 500-1250

1,250-11,000 1,562-12,500

50-100 50-100

41.4 41.4

41.4 41.4

41.4 41.4

41.4 41.4

41.4 41.4

3VL8 Line Pro LI

640-1,600

2,000-14,400

50-100

41.4

41.4

41.4

41.4

41.4

ETU

ETU

3VL5 Line Protect LI TM

Table 3/16

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Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898 Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2 (continued)

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3LW1-3B ETU45B 500-1,250

640-1,600

800-2,000

1,000-2,500

1,280-3,200

1,600-4,000

2,000-5,000

252-630

320-800

400-1,000

787.5-7560

1,000-9,600

1,250-12,000 1,562.5-15,000 2,000-19,200 2,500-24,000 3,125-30,000

4,000-38,400 50,000

50,000

50-65

100

100

100

100

55-100

80-100

100

100

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T

T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T T

T T

T T

T T

T T

T T

T

T

T

T

T

55-100

T = Full selectivity up to Icn = rated shortcircuit breaking capacity of the lower-rated protective device M = Electromagnetic release TM = Thermomagnetic release ETU = Electronic tripping unit

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Downstream circuit-breakers

Upstream circuit-breakers System protection 3VL1 TM

Type Series Characteristics IR li Circuit-breaker for motor protection

16

20

25

32

40

50

63

[A]

300

300

300

300

600

600

600

Icn

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

[A]

[A]

[kA]

Selectivity limits [kA]

3RV1.1

LI

0.70-1.00 0.90-1.25 1.10-1.60 1.40-2.00 1.80-2.50 2.20-3.20 2.80-4.00 3.50-5.00 4.50-6.30 5.50-8.00 7-10 9-12

12 15 19 24 30 38 48 60 76 96 120 144

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 50

T T T 2.5 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

T T T 2.5 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

T T T 2.5 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

T T T 2.5 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

T T T T T 2.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8

T T T T T 2.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8

T T T T T 2.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8

3RV1.2

LI

0.70-1.00 0.90-1.25 1.10-1.60 1.40-2.00 1.80-2.50 2.20-3.20 2.80-4.00 3.50-5.00 4.50-6.30 5.50-8.00 7-10 9-12.5 11-16 14-20 17-22 20-25

12 15 19 24 30 38 48 60 76 96 120 150 192 240 264 300

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 50 50

T T T T T 5.0 2.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

T T T T T 5.0 2.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5

T T T T T 5.0 2.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5

T T T T T 5.0 2.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5

T T T T T T T 20.0 6.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

T T T T T T T 20.0 6.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

T T T T T T T 20.0 6.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

3RV1.3

LI

11-16 14-20 18-25 22-32 28-40 36-45 40-50

192 240 300 384 480 540 600

50 50 50 50 50 50 50

0.5

0.5 0.4

0.5 0.4 0.4

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6

3RV1.4

LI

11-16 14-20 18-25 22-32 28-40 36-50 45-63 57-75 70-90 80-100

192 240 300 384 480 600 756 900 1080 1140

100 100 100 100 50-100 50-100 50-100 50-100 50-100 50-100

0.5

0.5 0.4

0.5 0.4 0.4

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

Table 3/16

3/38

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898 Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2 (continued)

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Disconnector 3VL1 M

System protection 3VL2 TM

80

100

125

160

100

160

40-50

50-63

63-80

80-100

100-125

125-160

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,500

1,800

1,800

300-600

300-600

400-800

500-1,000 625-1,250

800-1,600

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-100

40-100

40-100

40-100

40-100

40-100

T T T T T T 8.0 3.0 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.2

T T T T T T 8.0 3.0 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.2

T T T T T T 8.0 3.0 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.2

T T T T T T T T 8.0 3.0 3.0 2.5

T T T T T T T T 30 6 4 4

T T T T T T T T 30.0 6.0 4.0 4.0

T T T T 4.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6

T T T T 4.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6

T T T T T 4.0 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.8

T T T T T 30.0 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2

T T T T T T 5.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.2

T T T T T T T 5.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 1.5

T T T T T T T T 20.0 15.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.5

T T T T T T T T 20.0 15.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.5

T T T T T T T T 20.0 15.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.5

T T T T T T T T T T 10.0 8.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 3.0

T T T T T T T T T T 30.0 12.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 4.0

T T T T T T T T T T 30.0 12.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 4.0

T T T T T 20.0 8.0 2.5 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6

T T T T T 20.0 8.0 2.5 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6

T T T T T T T 20.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

T T T T T T T 20.0 6.0 4.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0

T T T T T T T T 40.0 25.0 5.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.5

T T T T T T T T 40-50 30.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

3.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0

3.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0

3.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0

6.0 4.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.0

10.0 6.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.5

10.0 6.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.5

0.8 0.8 0.6

0.8 0.8 0.6

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6

1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.6

3.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.6 0.6

4.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.6 0.6

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.6 0.6

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.6 0.6

5.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

8.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

8.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6

1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.6

2.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 0.6 0.6

3.0 2.0 2.0 1.2 0.6 0.6

T = Full selectivity up to Icn = rated shortcircuit breaking capacity of the lower-rated protective device M = Electromagnetic release TM = Thermomagnetic release ETU = Electronic tripping unit

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Seite 40

[s]

ts 100 A size 00

200 A (160 A)

200 A size 1

Ik =1300 A 1.4

3.3.1 Selectivity in Radial Systems

50 A

50 A

100 A Ik =1300 A

Selectivity between series-connected fuses The incoming feeder lines and the outgoing feeders of the busbar of a distribution board carry different operating currents and, therefore, also have different cross-sections. Consequently, they are usually protected by fuses with different rated currents which ensure selectivity on account of the different operating behavior. Selectivity between series-connected fuses with identical utilization categories When fuses of the same utilization category (e.g. gL or gG) are used, selectivity is ensured across the entire overcurrent range up to the rated breaking capacity (absolute selectivity) if the rated currents differ by a factor of 1.6 or higher (Fig. 3/20). The Joulean heat values (I 2t-values) should be compared in case of high short-circuit currents. In the example shown, a 160 A LV HRC fuse would also have absolute selectivity with respect to a 100 A LV HRC fuse.

1.37 s 0.03

K1 101 a) Selective isolation of short circuit K1 Fig. 3/20

104 I

[A]

Selectivity between series-connected LV HRC fuses with identical utilization categories (example)

Selectivity between seriesconnected circuit-breakers Selectivity by grading the operating currents of instantaneous overcurrent releases (current grading) Selectivity can be achieved by grading the operating currents of instantaneous overcurrent releases (I-releases) (Fig. 3/21). Prerequisites for this are: Current grading with different short-circuit currents The short-circuit currents in the event of a short circuit at the respective locations of the circuit-breakers are sufficiently different.

5-second breaking and lineprotection conditions In complying with the 5-second breaking condition specified in HD 384.4.41 / IEC 60364-4-41 / DIN VDE 0100-410 or the 5-second line-protection condition specified in DIN VDE 0100-430 (if line protection cannot be provided in any other way),

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

103 1.3

b) Prearcing times where Ik =1300 A

Current grading with differently configured I-releases The rated currents and, therefore, the I-release values of the upstream and downstream circuit-breakers differ accordingly.

3/40

102

the I-release must generally be set to 4,000 A so that even very small short circuits are cleared at the input terminals of the downstream circuitbreaker Q1 within the specified time. Only partial selectivity can be established by comparing characteristic curves for current grading since the increased appearance of broken lines in the curve in the range < 100 ms, which result from the complicated dynamic switching and tripping operations, does not permit conclusions to be drawn with regard to selectivity. Possible solution: dynamic selectivity Selectivity through circuit-breaker coordination (dynamic selectivity) With high-speed operations, e.g. in the event of a short circuit, and the interaction of series-connected protection devices, the dynamic processes in the circuit and in the electromechanical releases have a considerable effect on selectivity behavior, particularly if current limiters are used.

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Seite 41

System Protection / Safety Coordination [s] Opening time t 104 102

Sr = 400 kVA at 400 V, 50 Hz

min.

U kr = 4% I r = 577 A I k ≈ 15 KA

II

101 Q1 Ir = 600 A (L-release) Ie = 4000 A (I-release)

Q2

I k = 10 kA

10

I

3

Q2

102 100

L

L

101 I (6000 A)1) II

Q1

4.8 kA

100

Ir = 60 A (L-release) Ii = 720 A (I-release)

I (720 A)

I (4000 A)

10-1

I 2.1 kA

a)

10-2 M 3~

Single-line diagram

Q1 Circuit-breaker for motor protection (current-limiting)

4 5

102

2

5

103

2

5

104 2 Current I

5 [A]

b) Tripping curves L Inverse-time delay overload release I Instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent release

Q2 Circuit-breaker (zero-current interrupter) 1)

Fig. 3/21

Maximum setting range

Current selectivity for two series-connected circuit-breakers at different short-circuit current levels (example)

Selectivity is also achieved if the downstream current-limiting protection device trips so quickly that, although the let-through current does momentarily exceed the operating value of the upstream protection device, the ”mechanically slow” release does not have time to trigger. The let-through current depends on the peak short-circuit current and current limiting characteristics. Selectivity limits of two series-connected circuit-breakers A maximum short-circuit value – the selectivity limit – up to which the downstream circuit-breaker can open more quickly and alone, i.e. selectively, can be determined for each switchgear assembly.

Table 3/16 shows an example of a selectivity table. The selectivity limit indicated in the table may be well above the operating value of the instantaneous overcurrent release in the upstream circuit-breaker (see Fig. 3/22). Irrespective of this, it is important to check the selectivity in the event of an overload by comparing the characteristic curves and by means of tripping times in accordance with the relevant regulations. Generally speaking, only partial selectivity is possible in the case of dynamic selectivity with short circuits. This may be sufficient (full selectivity) if the prospective maximum short-circuit current at the downstream protective device is lower than the established selectivity limit.

tivity provides a suitable possibility for establishing full selectivity without having to use switchgear with shorttime-delay overcurrent releases. Selectivity by means of shorttime-delay overcurrent releases (time grading) Time grading by short-time-delay releases If current grading is not possible on account of the requirements listed on page 36 and cannot be achieved by selecting the switchgear in accordance with the selectivity tables (dynamic selectivity), selectivity can be provided by time grading short-time delay overcurrent releases. This requires grading of both the tripping delays and the appropriate operating currents.

With partial selectivity, which usually arises with current grading owing to the clearance condition (see Fig. 3/20), consideration of dynamic selec-

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Circuitbreaker

Power supply system

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Seite 42

Delay time t d of S-release

3WL1

220 ms

3WL1 3VL

150 ms

3VL

80 ms

3VL 3RV

Instantaneous

M Fig. 3/22

Required delay time settings for electromagnetic short-time-delay S-releases for selective short-circuit protection

Time grading with virtually identical short-circuit currents The upstream circuit-breaker is equipped with short-time-delay overcurrent releases (S) so that, if a fault occurs, only the downstream circuitbreaker disconnects the affected part of the installation from the system.

3/42

Time grading can be implemented to safeguard selectivity if the prospective short-circuit currents are almost identical. This requires grading of both the tripping delays and the operating currents of the overcurrent releases. In addition to the diagram with the four series-connected circuit-breakers, Fig. 3/22 also contains the associated grading diagram. The necessary grading time, which allows for all scatter bands, depends on the operating principle of the release and the type of circuit-breaker. Electronic S-releases With electronic short-time-delay overcurrent releases (S-releases), a grading time of approximately 70 ms to 100 ms from circuit-breaker to circuit-breaker is sufficient to allow for all scatter bands. Operating current The operating current of the shorttime-delay overcurrent release should be set to at least 1.45 times (twice per 20% scatter, unless other values are specified by the manufacturer) the value of the downstream circuitbreaker. Additional I-releases In order to reduce the short-circuit stress in the event of a ”dead” short circuit at the upstream circuit-breakers, they can be fitted with instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent releases in addition to the short-time delay releases (Fig. 3/23). The value selected for the operating current of the instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent releases must be high enough to ensure that the releases only operate in case of direct ”dead” short circuits and, under normal operating conditions, do not interfere with selective grading.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI) A microprocessor-controlled shorttime grading control, also called “zone-selective interlocking”, has been developed for circuit-breakers to prevent excessively long tripping times when several circuit-breakers are connected in series. This control function allows the tripping delay to be reduced to max. 50 ms for the circuit-breakers located upstream of the short circuit. The method of operation regarding zone-selective interlocking is illustrated in Fig. 3/24. A short circuit at K1 is detected by Q1, Q3, and Q5. If ZSI is active, Q3 is temporarily disabled by Q1 and Q5 by Q3 by means of appropriate communication lines. Since Q1 does not receive any disabling signal, it trips after only 10 ms. A short circuit at K2 is only detected by Q5; since it does not receive any disabling signal, it trips after only 50 ms. Without "ZSI", tripping would only occur after 150 ms. Selectivity between circuitbreaker and fuse When considering selectivity in conjunction with fuses, a permissible scatter band of ± 10% in the direction of current flow must be allowed for in the time-current characteristics.

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Seite 43

System Protection / Safety Coordination [s] Opening time t 104

Sr = 1000 kVA at 400 V, 50 Hz U kr = 6% I n = 1445 A I k ≈ 24.1 kA

103

Q1 t d3 = 150 ms n (20 kA)

Q3

Q2

L

Main distribution board

L

L

101 t d2 = 80 ms

Q2

S

100 I k = 17 kA

Subdistribution board

S t d3 = 150 ms

t d2 = 80 ms -1

10

Q1

n I k = 10 kA

10-2 102

M ~ Fig. 3/23

Q3

102

2

5

103

2

104

5

2 Current I

5

105 [A]

Selectivity between three series-connected circuit-breakers with limitation of short-circuit stress by means of an additional I-release in circuit-breaker Q3

[s] Opening time t 104

t d = 150 ms A t ZSi = 50 ms E

Q5

103

K2

Q1/Q2

Q3/Q4

Q5

102 Q3

A E

t d = 80 ms t ZSi = 50 ms Q4

A E t d = 10 ms t ZSi = t d

101

td = 150 ms

100

Q1

A E

A E

Q2

td = 80 ms tZSi

10-1

t d =10 ms t ZSi = t d

Icn td = 10 ms 10-2

K1 Communication lines

102

103

104 Current I

Fig. 3/24

105 [A]

Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI) of series- or parallel-connected circuit-breakers (block diagram)

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F1 Fuse Q1 Circuit-breaker Inverse-time-delay L overload delay Instantaneous electromagnetic I overcurrent release tA Safety margin Operating current of n release Ii

F1 Q1

L I

Q1

t

L

tA

The time-current characteristics (scatter bands) do not touch

I

F1

I Ii

I

Overload range I Fig. 3/25

Selectivity between circuit-breaker and downstream fuse in overload range

F1 Q1

L S

Q1

L S tA Id ts td

t L

S

Overload release Short-time-delay overcurrent release Safety margin Operating current of s release Prearcing time of fuse Delay time of s release

t A ≥ 100 ms

F1

ts

Ik Id Fig. 3/26

I

Selectivity between circuit-breaker with LS-releases and downstream fuse; short-circuit current range

Circuit-breaker with downstream fuse Selectivity between LI-releases and fuses with very low rated currents In the overload range up to the operating current Ii of the delayed overcurrent release, partial selectivity is achieved if the upper scatter band of the fuse characteristic does not touch

3/44

td

the tripping characteristic of the fully preloaded instantaneous overcurrent release and maintains a safety margin of tA ≥ 1 s (Fig. 3/25). A reduction in the tripping time of up to 25% must be allowed for at normal operating temperatures (unless the manufacturer states otherwise).

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Absolute selectivity for circuit-breakers without short-time-delay overcurrent releases is achieved if the letthrough current of the fuse ID does not reach the operating current of the instantaneous overcurrent release (please refer to current limiting diagram for LV HRC fuses in ”Electrical Installations Handbook”, Section 4.1.1). This is, however, only to be expected for a fuse, the rated current of which is very low compared with the rated continuous current. Selectivity ratios between LS-releases and fuses with relatively high rated currents Due to the dynamic processes that take place in electromagnetic releases, absolute selectivity can also be achieved with fuses, whose ID briefly exceeds the operating current. Once again, selectivity can only be verified by means of appropriate measurements of Ii. Absolute selectivity can be achieved by using circuitbreakers with short-time-delay overcurrent releases (S-releases) if the safety margin for the operating current td between the upper scatter band of the fuse characteristic and the delay time of the S-release td is selected so that tA ≥ 100 ms (Fig. 3/26). Selectivity between fuse and downstream circuit-breaker Selectivity ratios in the overload range In order to achieve selectivity in the overload range, a safety margin of tA ≥1 s is required between the lower scatter band of the fuse and the characteristic curve of the inverse-timedelay overload release (Fig. 3/27).

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Q1

F1

t L

In case of short circuits, it is important to remember that, after the releases in the circuit-breaker have tripped, the fuse continues to be heated during the arcing time. The selectivity limit lies approximately at the point where a safety margin of 70 ms between the lower scatter band of the fuse and the operating time of the instantaneous overcurrent release or the delay time of the short-time-delay overcurrent release is undershot. Short-circuit range A reliable and usually relatively high selectivity limit for the short-circuit range can be determined in the I 2t- diagram. In this diagram, the maximum let-through I 2t value of the circuit-breaker is compared with the minimum prearcing I 2t value of the fuse (Fig. 2/28). Since these values are maximum and minimum values, the scatter bands are not necessary.

L I

F1 Fuse Q1 Circuit-breaker L Inverse-time-delay overload release I Instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent release tA Safety margin Operating current of I-release Ii

F1

tA ≥ 1 s

The time-current characteristics (scatter bands) do not touch

I

Q1

I I

I Overload range

Fig. 3/27

Selectivity between fuse and downstream circuit-breaker; overload range

Q1 Circuit-breaker (max. let-through value) F1 Fuse (min. prearcing value) ISel Selectivity limit

F1 F1

I 2t

Q1

L I

Q1

Ik ISel

I

Selectivity range Fig. 3/28

Selectivity between fuse and downstream circuit-breaker; short circuit

[s] t T1

Equal ratings

T2

Separate Parallel Q1 Q2 Q2+Q3

Base

104 L

L

L

Ik Part

103 Q2 L S

I r = 600 A I sd = 3,000 A

Q3 L S I

I k ≤ 10 kA Ik Part

102 I k ≤ 10 kA

101 S

I r = 200 A I i = 2,400 A

Q1 L I

100

IkΣ M ~

ttd2/3 ≈150 ms (≥ 70 ms)

Ii 10

Fig. 3/29

IkΣ

-1

102 102

tö1 2

4 6 103

2

4 3

104 6 I

2

4 [A]

Selectivity with two infeed transformers of the same rating and operating simultaneously. Example with outgoing feeder in the center of the busbars.

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Seite 46

T3 I k Part 1

I kΣ < 30 kA L Q1 S I

Ik I k, but < I k∑. The highest and lowest fault currents are important here. Due to the I-releases, only the faulted transformer infeed will trip on the high-voltage and low-voltage side. The circuit-breakers in the ”sound” infeeds remain operative. Parallel-connected infeeds via tie breakers Protective functions under fault conditions Tie breakers must perform the following protective functions in fault situations: C instantaneous release with faults in the vicinity of the busbars and C relief of outgoing feeders of the effects of high total short-circuit currents.

Selecting the circuit-breakers The type of device used in the outgoing feeders and the selectivity ratios depend primarily on whether circuit-breakers with current-zero cut-off, i.e. without current limiting, or with current limiting are used as tie breakers. Instantaneous, current-limiting tie breakers relieve the outgoing circuits of the effects of high unlimited total peak short-circuit currents I p and, therefore, permit the use of less complex and less expensive circuitbreakers. Note on setting the overcurrent releases in tie breakers The values set for the overcurrent releases must be as high as possible in order to prevent operational interference caused by the tie breakers opening at relatively low short-circuit currents, e.g. in the outgoing feeders of the sub-distribution boards. With two infeeds With two infeeds and depending on the fault location (left or right busbar section or feeder), only the associated partial short-circuit current (e.g. I k Part 2) flows through the tie breaker Q3 as shown in Fig. 3/31.

With three infeeds and fault With three infeeds, the ratios are different according to which of the outgoing feeders shown in Fig. 3/32a and b is faulted. In the center busbar section If a fault occurs at the outgoing feeder of the center busbar section (Fig. 3/32a), approximately equal partial short-circuit currents flow through the tie breakers Q4 and Q5. In the outer busbar section If a fault occurs at the outgoing feeder of the outer busbar section, (Fig. 3/32b), two partial short-circuit currents flow through the tie breaker Q4. Computer-assisted selectivity check Precise values for the short-circuit currents flowing through the tie breakers are required to permit optimum setting of the overcurrent releases. They provide information concerning selective characteristics with a large number of different fault currents and are determined and evaluated with the aid of a computer program. Selectivity and undervoltage protection If a short circuit occurs, the system voltage collapses to a residual voltage at the short-circuit location. The magnitude of the residual voltage depends on the fault impedance. With a ”dead” short circuit, the fault impedance and, therefore, the voltage at the short-circuit location drops to almost zero. Generally speaking, however, arcs with arc-drop voltages between approximately 30 V and 70 V occur with short circuits.

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Seite 48

a) Short circuit at sub-distribution board

b) Short circuit at main distribution board

Q3

Q3 0.5.U

0.13.Ue

e

Main distribution board Q2

td ≥ 70 ms 80 m 3 x 95 mm2 Cu

0.13.Ue

Q2

K2 Sub-distribution board

Q1

Q1 td = 0

K1

Fig. 3/33

Ue Rated operating current td Delay time

Voltage ratios for short-circuited LV switchgear with a main and sub-distribution board

Ik1

F1

F2

a

Ik2

Ik3 F3

Ik3 = Ik1+Ik2 K1

Ik1+Ik2+Ik4

Ik

Ik4

Ik b

Ik

Fig. 3/34

3/48

Short-circuited cable with its two incoming feeder nodes a and b

Fig. 3/35

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Example of a meshed system with multi-phase infeed

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Seite 49

System Protection / Safety Coordination

This voltage, starting at the fault location, increases proportionately to the intermediate impedance with increasing proximity to the power source. Fig. 3/33 illustrates the voltage ratios in LV switchgear with a ”dead” short circuit. If a short circuit occurs at K1 (Fig. 3/33a), the rated operating voltage Ue drops to 0.13 Ue at the busbar of the subdistribution board and to 0.5 · Ue at the busbar of the main distribution board. The next upstream circuitbreaker Q1 clears the fault. Depending on the size and type of the circuitbreaker, the total breaking time is 30 ms for zero-current interrupters and a maximum of 10 ms for currentlimiting circuit-breakers. If a short-circuit occurs at K2 (Fig. 3/33b), the circuit-breaker Q2 opens. It is equipped with a short-time-delay overcurrent release (S). The delay time is at least 70 ms. During this time, the rated operating voltage at the busbar of the main distribution board is reduced to 0.13 · Ue. If the rated operating voltage drops to 0.7 – 0.35 times this value and the voltage reduction lasts longer than approximately 20 ms, all of the circuitbreakers with undervoltage releases open. All contactors also open if the rated control supply voltage collapses to below 75% of its rated value for longer than 5 to 30 ms.

Tripping delay for contactors and undervoltage releases Undervoltage releases and contactors with tripping delay are required to ensure that the selective overcurrent protection is not interrupted prematurely. This is not necessary if current-limiting circuit-breakers with a maximum total clearing time of 10 ms are used.

3.3.2 Selectivity in Meshed Systems Two selectivity functions must be performed in meshed systems: 1. Only the short-circuited cable may be disconnected from the system. 2. If a short-circuit occurs at the terminals of an infeed transformer, only the faulted terminal may be disconnected from the system. Node fuses The nodes of a meshed LV system are normally equipped with cables with the same cross-section and with LV HRC fuses of utilization category gL of the same type and rated current (Fig. 3/34). If a short circuit (K1) occurs along the meshed system cable, the shortcircuit currents I k3 and I k4 flow to the fault location. Short-circuit current I k3 from node ”a” comprises the partial currents I k1 and I k2 which may differ greatly depending on the impedance ratios. .

Permissible current ratio Selectivity of the fuses at node ”a” is achieved if fuse F3, through which the total current I k3 flows, melts and fuse F1 or F2, through which the partial short-circuit current I k1 or I k2 flows, remain operative. In the case of Siemens LV HRC fuses, the permissible current ratio I k1 /(I k1 + I k2) for high short-circuit currents is 0.8. Power transformers in meshed systems Feeder circuit-breaker with network master relay In multi-phase meshed systems (Fig. 3/35), i.e. infeed via several MV lines and transformers, power feedback from the LV system to the fault location shall be prevented if a fault occurs in a transformer substation or MV line. A network master relay (reverse power relay) and a ”circuitbreaker for mesh-connected systems” are required for this purpose. This is a three-pole circuit-breaker, possibly without overcurrent release, but with a capacitor-delayed shunt release (open-circuit shunt release with memory). If a short circuit occurs on the HV side of the transformer (K1) or between the transformer and network circuit-breaker (K2) or along the cable (K3) (Fig. 3/36), the HV HRC fuse operates on the HV side; on the LV side, power flows back to the fault location via the network circuit-breaker. The open-circuit shunt release receives the tripping pulse from the network master relay. The fault location is thus selectively disconnected from the power system.

3/49

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Network circuit-breaker without S-release If the outgoing transformer feeders are protected by network master relays, no S-release is provided or the value set for this release is so high that the thermal overload capability of the transformer can be fully utilized.

120

K3

Network master relays are used in conjunction with circuit-breakers for mesh-connected systems. In multi-feed LV power systems, they ensure fast, selective disconnection of a damaged MV cable from the connected transformer substations. The relay detects a reversal in the flow of power if, in the event of a short circuit in an MV feeder cable of the meshed system, high currents flow through the LV power system and the transformers of the damaged MV cable to the fault location.

3/50

0.6.Ue

t 100

0.3.Ue

80

Network master relays

To prevent errors, however, the network master relay permits circulating currents up to the same value as the rated current at the rated voltage (setting can be varied between 2 A and 6 A using the spring bias). Fig. 3/37 shows the tripping characteristic for the standard setting of 6 A and for various other voltages.

Ue

ms

a

60 K1 40 K2

b

c

Fig. 3/36

S

20

a HV HRC fuses b Network circuitbreaker with network master relay c Node fuses

Single-line diagram showing the infeed point of a meshed LV power system

Circuit-breakers for mesh-connected networks Circuit-breaker selection When selecting this circuit-breaker and its rated switching capacity, it is important to remember that the highest short-circuit current must be expected in the event of a short circuit between the transformer terminals and the circuit-breaker. In this case, the total short-circuit current of all the infeed points flows through the meshed system and the circuitbreaker to the short-circuit location.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

0

0

20

40

A

60

I

Fig. 3/37

Tripping characteristic of the network master relay 7RM with standard setting (6 A)

The total short-circuit current may be higher than the short-circuit current of the relevant transformer. Technical details regarding network master relays and circuit-breakers for mesh-connected networks can be found in the literature supplied by the manufacturer.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.4 Protection of Capacitors According to IEC 60358 / VDE 0560 Part 4, capacitor units must be suitable for continuous operation with a current whose r.m.s. value does not exceed 1.3 times the current which flows with a sinusoidal voltage and rated frequency. Owing to the above-mentioned dimensioning requirements, no overload protection is provided for capacitor units in the majority of cases Capacitors in systems with harmonic components The capacitors can only be overloaded in systems with devices which generate high harmonics (e.g. generators and converter-fed drives). The capacitors, together with the seriesconnected transformer and short-circuit reactance of the primary system, form an anti-resonant circuit. Resonance phenomena occur if the natural frequency of the resonant circuit matches or is close to the frequency of a harmonic current generated by the power converter.

Reactor-connected capacitors The capacitors must be provided with reactors to prevent resonance (see ”Electrical Installations Handbook”, Section 1.6). An LC resonant circuit, whose resonance frequency is below the lowest harmonic component (250 Hz) in the load current, is used instead of the capacitor. The capacitor unit is thus inductive for all harmonic currents that occur in the load current and can, therefore, no longer form a resonant circuit with the system reactance. Settings for overload relays If thermal time-delay overload relays are used to provide protection against overcurrents, the tripping value can be 1.3 to 1.43 times the rated current of the capacitor since, allowing for the permissible capacitance deviation, the capacitor current can be 1.1 · 1.3 = 1.43 times the rated capacitor current.

Harmonics suppression by means of filter circuits An alternative solution would be to use filter circuits to remove the majority of harmonics from the primary system (see ”Electrical Installations Handbook”, Sections 1.6.3 and 1.6.4). The filter circuits are also series resonant circuits which, unlike the reactorconnected capacitors, are tuned precisely to the frequencies of the harmonic currents to be filtered. As a result, the impedance is almost zero. Short-circuit protection LV HRC fuses with utilization category gL are normally used in capacitor units for short-circuit protection. A rated fuse current of 1.6 to 1.7 times the rated capacitor current is required to prevent the fuses from tripping in the overload range and when the capacitors switch.

With transformer-heated overload relays or releases, a higher secondary current flows due to the changed transformation ratio of the transformers caused by the harmonic components. This may result in premature tripping.

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3.5 Protection of Distribution Transformers The following devices are used for protection tasks in medium-voltage systems: HV HRC fuses High-voltage high-rupturing-capacity (HV HRC) fuses usually used in conjunction with switch-disconnectors to protect radial feeders and transformers against short circuits. Circuit-breakers with protection Protection relays Protection relays connected to current transformers (protection core) can be used to perform all protectionrelated tasks irrespective of the magnitude of the short-circuit currents and rated operating currents of the required circuit-breakers. Digital protection Modern protection equipment is controlled by microprocessors (digital protection) and supports all of the protective functions required for a medium-voltage outgoing feeder. Protection as component of the substation control and protection system Digital protection also allows operating and fault data, which can be called up via serial data interfaces, to be collected and stored. Digital protection can, therefore, be incorporated in substation control and protection systems as an autonomous component.

Current transformer rating for protection purposes Current transformers are subject to the standards DIN VDE 0414, Parts 1 to 3, as well as IEC 185 and IEC 186. Current transformers with 5P or 10P cores must be used for connecting protection equipment. The required rated output and overcurrent factor must be determined on the basis of the information provided in the protection relay descriptions. Overcurrent protection Overcurrent protection via current transformers for protecting cables and transformer feeders can be either two-phase or three-phase. The neutral-point connection of the mediumvoltage network must be considered here. Relay operating currents with emergency generator operation Care should be taken to ensure that the operating currents of the protection relays provided for normal system operation are also attained in the event of faults during emergency operation using generators with relatively low rated outputs. Three-phase time-overcurrent protection In the interests of future system safety, it is advisable to configure the time-overcurrent protection as a threephase system, irrespective of the method of neutral-point connection.

Standards for protection relays Static protection relays must comply with the standards IEC 255 and DIN VDE 0435-303.

3/52

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

3.5.1 Protection with Overreaching Selectivity Ideally, transformer feeders should be protected by: HV HRC fuses High-voltage high-rupturing-capacity (HV HRC) fuses used in conjunction with switch-disconnectors for rated transformer outputs of up to approx. 1,250 kVA for low switching rates, or Circuit-breakers with protection Circuit-breakers with protection (see page 54) from approx. 800 kVA and for high switching rates; also when several circuit-breakers with S-releases are arranged in series on the low-voltage side and selectivity is not possible with upstream HV HRC fuses. The anticipated selectivity ratios must, therefore, be checked before the protection scheme is chosen and dimensioned. Protection by means of HV HRC fuses Dimensioning HV HRC fuses The rated current of the HV HRC fuses specified by the manufacturers for the rated output of each transformer should be used when dimensioning the HV HRC fuses. The lowest rated current is dictated by the rush currents generated when the transformers are energized and is 1.5 to 2 times the rated transformer currents.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Minimum breaking current I a min For the determination of the maximum rated current it must be observed that, with short circuits on a transformer’s secondary side, the minimum breaking current I a min of the fuse must be exceeded, affecting even the installation's busbar system. Generally, the load on I a min is 4 to 5 times that of the transformer’s rated current. Between these limit values, the fuse link can be chosen according to selectivity.

Required back-up protection zones

HV HRC

HV HRC

LV HRC

S

HV HRC

3WL

3WL a

400 V

c

LV HRC

LV HRC LV HRC b

S 7RM network master relay

Fig. 3/38

Protection zones of HV HRC back-up fuses necessary for various protection devices used on the low-voltage side

40

Back-up protection with transmission range HV HRC fuses must ensure sufficient back-up protection in case of a possible failure of the downstream protective device. The required transmission range can be seen in Fig. 3/38, illustrated for three circuit diagrams. The working range of the back-up protection increases with the decreasing protective rated current of the fuse.

20

tp

10 min

400 A

630 A

10 kV

Base Ik < 9.5 kA

TIP_Kap3_E

100 A

6 4

F3

400 kVA Ukr 6%

2

F2

1 40 F1

20 F1 s

F2

6 4

Rated currents of LV HRC fuses must be selected in such a way that, between the established maximum short-circuit current near the low-voltage side’s busbar system (converted to the medium-voltage side) and the minimum breaking current I a min (circle in the melting current characteristic), a minimum safety clearance of 25% is observed from I a min to the transformer’s short-circuit current I k (see Fig. 3/39 to 3/43).

1

630 A

0.4 kV ≤ 400 A

F3

10

Safety clearances between the melting current characteristic of HV HRC fuses and other protective devices

630 A

I k < 9.5 kA >25% Safety margin

2

Ia min

600 400 200 ms

100 60 40 20 10

6 A at 0.4 kV

1000

A at 10 kV

40

2000 3000 80

120

5000 7500 10000 200

400

20000

50000

800

2000 I

t p Prearcing time for fuses Minimum breaking current Ia min of HV HRC fuse Fig. 3/39

Example showing grading of HV HRC with LV HRC fuses in infeed circuits

3/53

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40 20

F1 630 A

10 min

100 A

F2 (160) A

6 4

Base Ik > = 792 A Q3 tc ≈ 50 ms

60 40

I 6 kA

20 10

Q1 t o

6 A at 0.4 kV

1,000

A at 10 kV

40

to td tvs tc

Fig. 3/43

2,000 3,000 5,000 80

120

200

Opening time of circuit-breaker (Q1) Delay time of “S“ release (Q2) Prearcing time of fuses F1 Command time of DMT protection (Q3)

10,000 400

20,000

50.000

800

2,000 I

Example showing the grading of circuit-breaker with DMT protection (Q3), SENTRON WL circuit-breaker, 1000 A with LS-releases (Q2) and downstream outgoing feeders, e.g. 400 A LV HRC fuse (F1) and 630 A distribution circuit-breaker (Q1) in a 630 kVA transformer feeder

Protection by means of circuitbreakers with definite-time overcurrent protection (DMT) Requirement The two feeder circuit-breakers (in Fig. 3/43) form a functional unit and require selectivity with respect to the protection devices on the lowvoltage side. Outgoing feeders with LV HRC fuses If low-voltage fuses are connected downstream, selectivity with circuitbreakers with mechanical releases (3WF) can only be achieved up to a certain maximum fuse current rating; in the example, Q2 with mechanical S-releases (setting range 3 to 6 kA) ≤ 400 A for F1. Larger LV HRC fuses are also selective if SENTRON WL circuit-breakers with an S-release range of 2 to 12 · I r are used. Outgoing feeders with mixed components If outgoing feeders with mixed components are used, the safety margin of at least 100 ms relative to the largest permissible LV HRC fuse-link for F1 is the crucial factor in determining the setting for the S-release of Q2. In the case of mechanical S-releases with the highest current setting of 6 kA, this results in a delay time td of 220 ms for the smallest permissible safety margin of 100 ms. This determines the starting point for all subsequent upward and downward gradings in the diagram. Outgoing feeders with circuit-breaker Since selectivity cannot be achieved using LV HRC fuses with a higher current rating (see Fig. 3/41), circuitbreakers with time or, if possible, current grading should be used.

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Seite 58

Based on the assumption that verification of the short-circuit currents would show that current grading would be possible, a 630 A (Q1) distribution circuit-breaker with LI-releases was selected. Intersection of the characteristics Q2 and Q3 in the middle short-circuit range is permissible because: C the L-release of the low-voltage circuit-breaker Q1 (not shown in Fig. 3/43) protects the transformer against overloading, which only occurs in the range 1–1.3 times the rated current of the transformer; C there is a safety margin of ≥ 150 ms (≈300 ms in the example shown in Fig. 3/43) between the I > tripping value of the DMT protection and the LV HRC fuse characteristic F1 and selectivity is, therefore, achieved. Higher rated transformer outputs and broader setting ranges for the S-release of Q2 make it easier for the characteristic Q3 I > to be shifted to the left of the characteristic Q2 s. This also provides a certain degree of back-up protection with respect to the L-release of circuit-breaker Q2. DMT protection Nowadays, digital devices are used to provide DMT protection in practically all applications. They have broader setting ranges, allow a choice between definite-time and inverse-time overcurrent protection or overload protection, provide a greater and more consistent level of measuring accuracy and are self-monitoring.

3/58

Selecting current transformers for DMT protection The following points should be observed when selecting current transformers for DMT protection (these considerations are applied in the example shown in Fig. 3/43): Current transformers with a rating of 40 to 200 A could be selected for rated currents of 36.4 A on the high-voltage side of the 630 kVA transformer, with the characteristic Q3 I> at 200 A positioned at the abscissa for 10 kV and with the broad setting ranges. Here, it is important to bear in mind the higher investment costs for current transformers with lower rated primary currents. If, for example, 60/1 A current transformers are selected, the current sensors must be set as follows: Setting the current sensors I>, I>> and timing elements Current sensor I >: The setting for a selected operating value of 200 A is as follows: 200 A I p = ______ = 3.3 A 60/1 Timing element for I > excitation: ti> = 0.5 s Current sensor I>>: The current sensor I>> should only respond to faults on the high-voltage side (in the shortest possible time). Operating current I>> approximately I kT · 1.20 (safety margin relative to I kT)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

IrT · 100% __________ 36,4 A · 100% = = 606.6 A I kT = _______ ukr 6% Operating current = I kT · 1.2 = 728 A Operating current (in secondary circuit) = 728 A I p = ______ ≈ 12.1 A 60/1

3.5.2 Equipment for Protecting Distribution Transformers (against Internal Faults) The following signaling devices and protection equipment are used to detect internal transformer faults: C Devices for monitoring and protecting liquid-cooled transformers such as Buchholz protectors, temperature detectors, contact thermometers, etc. C Temperature monitoring systems for GEAFOL® resin-encapsulated transformers comprising – temperature sensors in the low-voltage winding and – signaling and tripping devices in the incoming-feeder switch panel. The thermistor-type thermal protection protects the transformer against overheating resulting from increased ambient temperatures or overloading. Furthermore, it allows the full output of the transformer to be utilized irrespective of the number of load cycles without the risk of damage to the transformer. These signaling and protection devices do not have to be included in the grading diagrams (e.g. Fig. 3/29).

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

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4

Seite B2

Medium Voltage

4.1 Medium-Voltage and Circuit-Breaker Switchgear for Primary Power Distribution 4.2 Secondary Distribution Systems, Switchgear and Substations 4.3 Medium-Voltage Equipment, Product Range 4.4 PQM® – Power Quality Management and Load Flow Control 4.5 Planning of Systems for Primary and Secondary Power Distribution Exemplified by the Automotive Industry

TIP_Kap04_E

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Seite B3

Medium Voltage

chapter 4

TIP_Kap04_E

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Seite 2

4 Medium Voltage

Standards

Insulation

Busbar system

Compartments

Access option

Type-tested indoor switchgear acc. to IEC 62271-200 (IEC 60298)

Interlocking control circuit-breaker/cable compartment, or tool-dependent busbar/cable compartment

Operational availability

LSC 2B (three-compartment design + isolating distances to busbar and cable)

Accidental arc qualification

Switching device 4)

IAC (IEC 60298)

CB, SD,

Compartme ntalization class

PM (metal-clad)

CB, SD, contactor1) CB, SD, contactor 2) CB, SD, contactor 2)

Single

Airinsulated

Double

Single

CB

PM (metal-clad)

Interlocking control circuit-breaker/cable compartment, or tool-dependent busbar/cable compartment

LSC 2A (two-compartment design + isolating distances to busbar and cable)

Interlocking control to the high-voltage compartment

LSC 1 (isolating distances to busbar and cable)

Interlocking control circuit-breaker/cable compartment, or tool-dependent busbar/cable compartment

LSC 2B (three-compartment design + isolating distances to busbar and cable)

PM (metal-clad)

Busbar compartment: tool-based Circuit-breaker compartment: not accessible Cable compartment: tool-based

No restriction

PM (metal-clad)

Busbar compartment: tool-based Circuit-breaker compartment: not accessible Cable compartment: tool-based

No restriction

IAC (IEC 60298)

CB, SD,

CB, SD, contactor 1) –

IAC

CB, SD,

IAC (IEC 60298)

CB

CB

IAC (IEC 60298)

CB, SD, contactor CB

CB

Gasinsulated

Double

Table 4/1

Medium-voltage switchgear

4/2

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

PM (metal-clad)

IAC (IEC 60298)

CB, SD, contactor CB

CB

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Seite 3

Medium Voltage

4.1 Medium-Voltage and Circuit-Breaker Switchgear for Primary Power Distribution

Every operator or user of medium-voltage primary distribution equipment, whether they be power supply or industrial companies or power stations, places special demands on the switchgear. These include, for example, high reliability, personal safety and low space requirements. In addition to appropriate voltage levels, air or gas insulation, a differentiation is made with respect to environmental in-

Isolating distance

Switchgear type

dependence, maintenance-free design, compactness, security of investment, cost-efficiency, serviceability and flexibility – to suit the demand. You definitely make the right decision with circuit-breaker switchgear from Siemens. The complete range of switchgear sets standards for the safe and cost-efficient solution to your special requirements.

Technical data

7.2 kV

12 kV

15 kV

17.5 kV

24 kV

36 kV

40.5 kV

Maximum rated normal current of busbar [A] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24 kV kV kV kV kV

25/3











2,500 2,500 –





2,500 2,500 –





Maximum rated short-time withstand current [kA], 1/3 s

36 kV

40.5 kV

Maximum rated normal current of feeder [A] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24 kV kV kV kV kV

36 kV

40.5 kV

Withdrawable unit/truck

NXAIR

25/3

Withdrawable unit/truck

NXAIR M

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3

25/3





2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –



2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –



Withdrawable unit/truck

NXAIR P

50/3







4,000 4,000 4,000 –







4,000 4,000 4,000 –







Truck

SIMOPRIME

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 –





2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –





2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –





Truck

8BT2











31.5/3 –









2,250 –









2,000 –

Withdrawable unit/truck

NXAIR M







25/3

25/3











2,500 2,500 –









2,500 2,500 –



Truck

8BT1

25/1

25/1











2,250 2,250 –









2,000 2,000 –









Truck

8BT3











16/1









1,250 –







1,250 –

Withdrawable unit/truck

NXAIR M

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3

25/3





2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –



2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –



Withdrawable unit/truck

NXAIR P

50/3







4,000 4,000 4,000 –





4,000 4,000 4,000 –





Disconnector, fixed-mounted

NXPLUS C3)

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3

25/3

–/3

–/3

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –



2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –



Disconnector, fixed-mounted

NXPLUS

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3

2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

8DA

40/3

40/3

40/3

40/3

40/3

40/3

40/3

4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

NXPLUS C3)

25/3

25/3

25/3

25/3

25/3





2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

NXPLUS

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 –

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –

Disconnector, fixed-mounted

8DB

40/3

4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

1) 2)

50/3

50/3

40/3

50/3

50/3

40/3

up to 7.2 kV up to 12 kV





40/3 3) 4)

40/3

40/3

40/3



























1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 –



2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –

The product ranges of single busbars and busbars can be combined with each other. CB = circuit-breaker, SD = switch-disconnector

4/3

4

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Seite 4

4.1.1 Withdrawable CircuitBreaker Switchgear, Air-Insulated NXAIR Family Switchgear from the NXAIR family just makes solutions simpler, because it brings security into all significant decisions for future planning. Security of investment through innovative technology The novel modular design of switchgear panels allows rapid reavailability because the individual compartments (connection, module and low-voltage compartment) can be replaced after a fault inside the switchgear panel. The bushing-type current transformer principle, together with the pressure-resistant partitions, allows the selective disconnection of an internal fault up to 31.5 kA by means of the associated circuit-breaker. A mimic diagram with self-explanatory operating symbols for optimum operator prompting is integrated into the equipment front as a standard feature. The numerical bay controller family integrates protection, control, communication, operating and monitoring functions into one device.

Cost-efficiency of the switchgear Decades of experience in the manufacture of air-insulated medium-voltage switchgear as well as type and routine testing in accordance with IEC 62271-200 ensure reliability. Internal arc tests and self-explanatory operating symbols ensure personal safety and operational reliability. Rapid re-availability is achieved by the modular design and selectivity. Flexibility shows itself in the choice between truck-type or withdrawable

Photo 4/1

4/4

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

NXAIR

switchgear, or in the fact that any customary cable sealing ends can be used. Service friendliness Switchgear maintenance intervals of more than 10 years, minimized training expenses due to the self-explanatory operating symbols, and modern documentation guarantee service friendliness over the entire life of the product.

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Seite 5

Medium Voltage Rated

The air-insulated, metal-clad NXAIR switchgear is the innovation on the distribution level up to 12 kV, 25 kA, 2,500 A. C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad (LSC 2B) C Uniform panel structure for all versions C Cable connection from the front or rear C Available as truck-type or withdrawable switchgear C Bushing-type current transformers permit selective shutdown of feeders C Panels resistant to internal arc faults C Exchange of the module and connection compartment possible C Switchgear modules with integrated interlocking and control board

kV

7.2

12

frequency

Hz

50

50

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

20

28 **

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

60

75

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

25

25

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

25

25

short-circuit making current

max. kA

63

63

peak withstand current

max. kA

63

63

2,500

2,500

normal current of busbar

max. A

normal current of feeders: with circuit-breaker

max. A

2,500

2,500

with switch-disconnector

max. A

800 *

800 *

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used ** Higher value on request

Table 4/2

NXAIR rating

H2

NXAIR features

voltage

H1

TIP_Kap04_E

W

D

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

Width W for all panels (compartment)

800

Height H1 Standard,

2,000

H2 – with a high low-voltage cubicle – with open-circuit ventilation – with busbar fittings Depth D

Photo 4/2

NXAIR switchgear panel

Table 4/3

for all panels

2,350

1,350

NXAIR dimensions

4/5

4

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Seite 6

1

E

B 14

2 3

A

15

4

22

5

16

7

23

1234

8

17

24

D

9

25

18

10

26

19

11 12

20

C

21

28 29

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle

14 Pressure relief duct

A Module compartment

2 Protection equipment

15 Busbars

B Busbar compartment

3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system for feeder and busbar

16 Bushing-type insulator

C Connection compartment

17 Bushing-type current transformer

4 High-voltage door to module compartment

18 Make-proof grounding switch

D Vacuum vacuum circuit-breaker module

5 Door knob for opening high-voltage door

19 Cable connection for 4 cables per phase

E Low-voltage cubicle

7 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for withdrawable part

20 Cable sealing ends

8 “Closing spring charged“ indicator and operating cycle counter

22 Low voltage plug connector

9 Mechanical switch position indication for switching device 10 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for switching device

21 Cable support rail 23 Withdrawable part 24 Combined operating and interlocking unit for circuit-breaker, withdrawable part and grounding switch

11 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for make-proof grounding switch

25 Vacuum interrupters

12 Mimic diagram

29 Option: truck

26 Contact system 28 Grounding busbar

Fig. 4/1

NXAIR circuit-breaker panel 12 kV / 1,250 A, basic panel design (example)

4/6

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 7

Medium Voltage Circuit-breaker panel

Disconnecting panel

Switch-disconnector panel

Spur panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

or

or

or

or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible)

Circuitbreaker panel

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

Metering panel

Riser panel

or

or

or

or

or

and/or

and/or

Fig. 4/2

NXAIR product range

4/7

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 8

Rated

NXAIR M features The air-insulated, cubicle-type or metal-clad switchgear NXAIR M is the consequent further development of the NXAIR family for use on the distribution and process level up to 15 kV, 31.5 kA, 2,500 A or 24 kA, 25 kA, 2,500 A.

kV

7.2

12

15

17.5

24

frequency

Hz

50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

20

28

35

38

50

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

95

125

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

short-circuit making current1)

max. kA

80

80

80

63

63

peak withstand current1)

max. kA

80

80

80

63

63

normal current of busbar

max. A

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

normal current of feeders: with circuit-breaker with switch-disconnector with vacuum contactor

max. A max. A max. A

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 800* 800* 800* 800* 800* 400* – – – –

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used Values for 50 Hz

1)

NXAIR M rating

H2 H3

Table 4/4

H1

C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad or cubicle-type (LSC 2A, LSC 2B) C Circuit-breaker, contactor and switchdisconnector panels can be lined up C Cable connection from the front or rear C Available as truck-type or withdrawable switchgear C Bushing-type current transformers permit selective shutdown of feeders C Panels resistant to internal arc faults C Exchange of the module and connection compartment possible C Switchgear modules with integrated interlocking and control board

voltage

W

D

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

Width W Standard (compartment) with 24 kV / 2,500 A

800 1,000

with vacuum contactor panel Height H1

400

with standard low-voltage cubicle

2,200

H2

– with attached air guides (standard) – with a high low-voltage cubicle – with open-circuit ventilation

2,550

H3

with busbar fittings

2,770

Depth D

Single busbar

cubicle-type2) metal-clad

Vacuum contactor panel Double busbar with back-to-back installation 2)

Photo 4/3

NXAIR M switchgear panel

4/8

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

For 24 kV only

Table 4/5

NXAIR M dimensions

1,454 1,554 1,650

cubicle-type2) metal-clad

2,958 3,158

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 9

Medium Voltage

30

30

B 1

E

14

2 3

A

15

22

4 5

23

7

16

8

24

1234

D

9

25

17

10 26 18

C

11 19

12

27

20

28 21 29

Circuit-breaker panel

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle

transformer

2 Protection equipment

18 Make-proof grounding switch

3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system for feeder and busbar

19 Cable connection for 4 cables per phase

4 High-voltage door to module compartment

21 Cable support rail

5 Door knob for opening high-voltage door

23 Withdrawable part

7 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for withdrawable part 8 “Closing spring charged“ indicator and operating cycle counter 9 Mechanical switch position indication for switching device 10 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for switching device 11 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for make-proof grounding switch 12 Mimic diagram

30

B

E

20 Cable sealing ends

A

15

22 Low voltage plug connector 24 Combined operating and interlocking unit for circuitbreaker, withdrawable part and grounding switch 25 Vacuum switching tubes 26 Contact system 27 Lower partition 28 Grounding busbar

22 23 16

30 Air guide A Module compartment

24

D 25

17

26 18

C

29 Option: truck 19 20

B Busbar compartment C Connection compartment

14 Pressure relief duct

D Vacuum circuit-breaker module

15 Busbars

E Low-voltage cubicle

16 Bushing-type insulator 17 Bushing-type current

Fig. 4/3

Metal-clad version

28 21 29

Cubicle-type version (feature: common module and connection compartment)

NXAIR M, basic panel design (example)

4/9

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Circuit-breaker panel

Seite 10

Disconnecting panel

Switch-disconnector panel

Panels for double-busbar applications Double-busbar switchgear is made up of the product range of the single-busbar panels, which are available as: • vis-à-vis installation • back-to-back installation Vis-à-vis installation • Panels from the product range of the single-busbar systems (circuit-breaker panel, bus sectionalizer and metering panel) • Connection of the two systems with cables or bars below the panels • Bus coupling, consisting of – circuit-breaker panel – disconnecting panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

or

or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kV)

Back-to-back installation • Panels from the product range of the single-busbar systems (circuit-breaker panel, bus sectionalizer and metering panel) • Connection of the two systems with bars within the panels • Bus coupling, consisting of – circuit-breaker panel with current and voltage transformers – disconnecting panel, optionally with current transformers Note Double-busbar switchgear with busbar disconnector attachment on request.

Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible)

Metering panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

or

or

or

and/or

and/or or

and/or

Fig. 4/4

NXAIR M product range

4/10

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 11

Medium Voltage Rated

The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear NXAIR P is based on the design principles of the NXAIR family for use on the distribution and process level up to 15 kV, 50 kA, 4,000 A. C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad (LSC 2B) C Circuit-breaker, contactor and switch-disconnector panels can be lined up C Cable connection from the front or rear C Available as truck-type or withdrawable switchgear C Bushing-type current transformers permit selective shutdown of feeders up to 31.5 kA C Panels resistant to internal arc faults up to 31.5 kA C Exchange of the module and connection compartment possible C Switchgear modules with integrated interlocking and control board

kV

7.2

frequency

Hz

50/60 50/60 50/60

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

20

28

35

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

50

50

50

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

50

50

50

short-circuit making

current1)

12

15

max. kA

125

125

125

current1)

max. kA

125

125

125

normal current of busbar

max. A

4,000 4,000 4,000

normal current of feeders: with circuit-breaker with switch-disconnector with vacuum contactor

max. A max. A max. A

4,000 4,000 4,000 800* 800* 800* 400* 400* –

peak withstand

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used Values for 50 Hz

1)

Table 4/6

NXAIR P rating

H2 H3

NXAIR P features

voltage

H1

TIP_Kap04_E

D

W1 W2

All panel types (except for vacuum contactor panel) Width

≤ 2,000 A (standard)

Dimensions in mm 800

(compartment) > 2,000 A (with panel ventilation)

1,000

Height

H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle

2,225

H2 with attached pressure relief duct

2,550

H3 with forced ventilation (4,000 A)

2,710

Depth

D

Single busbar

1,635

Double busbar with back-to-back installation

3,320

Vacuum contactor panel

Photo 4/4

NXAIR P switchgear panel

Width W1 Standard (compartment)

400

Height

H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle

2,225

H2 with attached pressure relief duct

2,550

Depth

D

1,650

Table 4/7

Single busbar

NXAIR P dimensions

4/11

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 12

1

14

E

2 15

3

A

4 16

5

23

6

B

17

26 25

8

D 9

18

24 22

10

19 31

11

20

C 12

28

21

13

29

Circuit-breaker panel

Panel 3,150 A with open-circuit ventilation

32

32

Panel 4,000 A with forced ventilation 1 Door of low-voltage cubicle 2 Protection equipment 3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system for feeder and busbar

11 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for make-proof grounding switch 12 Mimic diagram

24 Drive unit 25 Vacuum switching tubes 26 Contact system 28 Grounding busbar

4 High-voltage door to module compartment

13 Ventilation duct

5 Mechanical lifting device for opening high-voltage door

14 Pressure relief duct 15 Busbars

31 Interlocking unit for circuit-breaker and grounding switch

6 Locking device for high-voltage door

16 Bushing-type insulator

32 Fan unit with fan

8 “Closing spring charged” indicator, switch position indication for switching device and operating cycle counter

17 Bushing-type current transformer

9 “ON/OFF” pushbuttons for switching devices 10 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for withdrawable part

29 Option: truck

18 Make-proof grounding switch

A Module compartment

19 Cable connection for 6 cables per phase

B Busbar compartment

20 Cable sealing ends

C Connection compartment

21 Cable support rail

D Vacuum circuit-breaker module

22 Low voltage connector

E Low-voltage cubicle

23 Withdrawable part

Fig. 4/5

NXAIR P, basic panel design (example)

4/12

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 13

Medium Voltage Circuit-breaker panel

Disconnecting panel

Switch-disconnector panel

Panels for double-busbar applications Double-busbar switchgear is made up of the product range of the single-busbar panels, which are available as: • vis-à-vis installation • back-to-back installation

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kV, 12 kV) Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible)

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

Vis-à-vis installation • Panels from the product range of the single-busbar systems (circuit-breaker panel, bus sectionalizer and metering panel) • Connection of the two systems with cables or bars below the panels • Bus coupling, consisting of – circuit-breaker panel – disconnecting panel Back-to-back installation • Panels from the product range of the single-busbar systems (circuit-breaker panel, bus sectionalizer and metering panel) • Connection of the two systems with bars within the panels • Bus coupling, consisting of – circuit-breaker panel with current and voltage transformers

Metering panel

or

or and/or

and/or

and/or

Fig. 4/6

NXAIR P product range

4/13

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 14

SIMOPRIME features

Rated

The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear SIMOPRIME is a factoryassembled, type-tested indoor switchgear for use on the distribution and process level up to 17.5 kV, 31.5 kA, 2,500 A.

kV

7.2

12

15

17.5

frequency

Hz

50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

20

28

35

38

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

95

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

31.5

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

31.5

short-circuit making current

max. kA

80

80

80

80/82

peak withstand current

max. kA

80

80

80

80/82

normal current of busbar

max. A

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

normal current of feeders: with circuit-breaker with switch-disconnector with vacuum contactor

max. A max. A max. A

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 630* 630* 630* 630* 400* 400* – –

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used Table 4/8

SIMOPRIME rating

H2

H1

C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad (LSC 2B) C Circuit-breaker, contactor and switch-disconnector panels can be lined up C Cable connection from the front or rear C Truck-type version C Use of block-type or ring-type current transformers C Panels resistant to internal arc faults C All switching operations with closed door C Logic interlocks

voltage

W

D

All panel types Width

W

(compartment) W Height

Depth Photo 4/5

SIMOPRIME switchgear panel

4/14

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Table 4/9

Dimensions in mm with circuit-breaker ≤ 1,250 A / vacuum contactor 600 with 2,500 A circuit-breaker, disconnector truck or switch-disconnector

800

H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle

2,200

H2 with a high low-voltage cubicle

1,780

D

1,860

Standard

SIMOPRIME dimensions

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 15

Medium Voltage

1 2

E 13

3

B

14

4 15

5 6

22

16

7

23

8

A

9

17

24

10 18

D

11

C

19 12

20 21

Circuit-breaker panel, 12 kV, 1,250 A

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle

11 Openings for switch truck operation

A Switchgear compartment

2 Opening for locking/unlocking the low-voltage cubicle door

12 Opening for grounding switch operation

B Busbar compartment

13 Pressure relief duct

C Connection compartment

3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system for feeder and busbar

14 Busbars

D Vacuum circuit-breaker truck

4 High-voltage door to switchgear compartment

15 Bushings

E Low-voltage cubicle

16 Insulators

5 Inspection window for identifying the switch truck

17 Option: ring-type or block-type current transformer

6 Opening for locking or unlocking the high-voltage door

18 Option: make-proof grounding switch

7 Actuating opening for the mechanical charging of the closing spring of the circuit-breaker

20 Option: current transformer

8 Openings for manual circuit-breaker operation (CLOSED/OPEN) 9 Inspection window for reading off the indicators

19 Cable sealing ends 21 Grounding busbar 22 Low-voltage plug connector 23 Vacuum switching tubes 24 Switch truck

10 Door knob

Fig. 4/7

SIMOPRIME, basic panel design (example)

4/15

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Circuit-breaker panel

and/or

Seite 16

Disconnecting panel

or

and/or

or

Switch-disconnector panel

Vacuum contactor panel

or

and/or

and/or

or and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible)

or

Fig. 4/8

SIMOPRIME product range

4/16

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Metering panel

and/or

and/or

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 17

Medium Voltage

8BT1 features The air-insulated, cubicle-type switchgear 8BT1 is a factory-assembled, type-tested indoor switchgear for the lower performance range, for use on the distribution and process level up to 12 kV, 25 kA, 2,250 A. C Metal-enclosed and cubicle-type (LSC 2A) C Circuit-breaker and contactor panels can be lined up C Cable connection from the front C Truck-type version C Use of block-type current transformers C Enclosure tested for resistance to accidental arcing C All switching operations with closed door C Logic interlocks

Rated

8BT1

voltage

kV

12

frequency

Hz

50

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

28

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

75

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

25

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

25

short-circuit making current

max. kA

63

peak withstand current

max. kA

63

normal current of busbar normal current of feeders: with circuit-breaker or disconnector truck with contactor

max. A

2,250

max. A

2,000

max. A

400*

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used Table 4/10

8BT1 rating

H

TIP_Kap04_E

W Photo 4/6

8BT1 switchgear

D

All panel types Width

Dimensions in mm

W ≤ 1,000 A circuit-breaker, disconnector truck, contactor 600 W 1,250 A, 2,500 A circuit-breaker, disconnector truck

800

Height

H

2,050

Depth

T

1,200

Table 4/11

8BT1 dimensions

4/17

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 18

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle 2 Protection equipment 3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system for feeder and busbar

1

5 Door of high-voltage compartment

2

6 Inspection window for disconnector position 7 Knob for high-voltage door 8 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for switching device 9 Mechanical switch position indication for switching device 10 Mechanical switch position indication “Spring charged“ and operating cycle counter 11 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening of the feeder grounding switch 12 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for establishing an isolating distance

3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

13 Mimic diagram 14 Busbars 16 Block-type current transformer 17 Cable connection for 4 cables max. per phase 8BT1 switchgear

18 Make-proof grounding switch 19 Cable sealing ends 20 Cable bracket 21 Low-voltage plug connector 22 Vacuum tube 23 Contact system top/bottom 24 Switch truck 25 Voltage transformer

14

E

A Busbar compartment B Connection compartment

A

C Switchgear compartment E Low-voltage cubicle

21

22 23

C 16 17

B 18 19

25

20

Feeder panel

Fig. 4/9

8BT1, basic panel design (example)

4/18

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

24

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 19

Medium Voltage Circuit-breaker panel

and/or

and/or

Disconnecting panel

Spur panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kW)

and/or or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

Metering panel

and/or

Bus sectionalizer

and/or

Fig. 4/10

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Busbar termination panel

Switch truck panel

Riser panel

or

8BT1 product range

4/19

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 20

8BT2 features

Rated

The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear 8BT2 is a factory-assembled, type-tested indoor switchgear for the lower performance range, for use on the distribution and process level up to 36 kV, 31.5 kA, 2250 A. C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad (LSC 2B) C Cable connection from the front C Truck-type version C Use of block-type current transformers C Enclosure tested for resistance to accidental arcing C All switching operations with closed door C Logic interlock

8BT2

voltage

kV

36

frequency

Hz

50/60

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

70

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

170

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

31.5

short-circuit making current

max. kA

80/82

peak withstand current

max. kA

80/82

normal current of busbar

max. A

2,250

normal current of feeders: with circuit-breaker with contactor with switch-disconnector

max. A max. A max. A

2,000 – –

8BT2 rating

H

Table 4/12

W

Photo 4/7

8BT2 switchgear

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

Width

W

1,550

Height

H

2,400

Depth

D

2,450

Table 4/13

4/20

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

D

8BT2 dimensions

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 21

Medium Voltage

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle 2 Protection equipment 3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system for feeder and busbar

1

4 Mimic diagram

2

5 Door of high-voltage compartment 6 Inspection window for disconnector position 7 Knob for high-voltage door 8 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for switching device 9 Mechanical switch position indication for switching device, “Spring charged“ and operating cycle counter 11 Actuating opening of the feeder grounding switch 12 Actuating opening for establishing an isolating distance

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12

14 Busbars 15 Bushing to busbar or feeder 16 Block-type current transformer 17 Cable connection for 4 cables max. per phase 18 Make-proof grounding switch 19 Cable sealing ends

8BT2 switchgear

20 Cable bracket 21 Low-voltage plug connector 22 Vacuum tube 23 Contact system top/bottom 24 Switch truck 25 Voltage transformer

C

14

E

26 Grounding bus A Busbar compartment B Connection compartment

21

A

C Switchgear compartment E Low-voltage cubicle

15 22 23

B 16 17 24 18

25

19 26 20 Fig. 4/11

8BT2, basic panel design (example)

4/21

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Circuit-breaker panel

Seite 22

Disconnecting panel

Spur panel

and/or

and

and/or

and

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Metering panel

and/or

Bus sectionalizer

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

Fig. 4/12

8BT2 product range

4/22

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

and/or

and/or

Busbar termination panel

Switch truck panel

Riser panel

or

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 23

Medium Voltage

8BT3 features The air-insulated, cubicle-type switchgear 8BT3 is a factory-assembled, type-tested indoor switchgear for the lower performance range, for use on the distribution and process level up to 36 kV, 16 kA, 1,250 A. C Metal-enclosed and cubicle-type (LSC 1) C Circuit-breaker panel, fixedmounted switch-disconnector can be lined up C Cable connection from the front C Truck-type version C Use of block-type current transformers C Enclosure tested for resistance to accidental arcing C All switching operations with closed door C Logic interlock

Rated

8BT2

voltage

kV

36

frequency

Hz

50/60

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

70

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

170

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

16

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

16

short-circuit making current

max. kA

40/42

peak withstand current

max. kA

40/42

normal current of busbar

max. A

1,250

normal current of feeders: with circuit-breaker with contactor with switch-disconnector

max. A max. A max. A

1,250 – 400*

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used Table 4/14

8BT3 rating

H

TIP_Kap04_E

W Photo 4/8

8BT3 switchgear

D

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

Width

W

1,000

Height

H

2,400

Depth

D

1,450

Table 4/15

8BT3 dimensions

4/23

4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 24

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle 2 Protection equipment 3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system for feeder and busbar

1

5 Door of high-voltage compartment

2

6 Inspection window for disconnector position 7 Knob for high-voltage door

3

8 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for switching device 9 Mechanical switch position indication “Spring charged“ and operating cycle counter 10 Mechanical switch position indication “Spring charged“ and operating cycle counter 11 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening of the feeder grounding switch 12 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for establishing an isolating distance

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

13 Mimic diagram 14 Busbars 16 Block-type current transformer 17 Cable connection for 2 cables max. per phase

8BT3switchgear

18 Make-proof grounding switch 19 Cable sealing ends 20 Cable bracket 21 Low-voltage plug connector 22 Vacuum tube 23 Contact system top/bottom

E

14

24 Switch truck 25 Voltage transformer D High-voltage cubicle E Low-voltage cubicle

D

21

22 23

16 17 18 19 20

Fig. 4/13

8BT3, basic panel design (example)

4/24

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

24 25

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 25

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel

Disconnector truck panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Metering panel

Fig. 4/14

Switch-disconnector panel

Busbar termination panel

or

or

and/or

and/or

8BT2, 8BT3 product range

4/25

4

TIP_Kap04_E

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4.1.2 Fixed-Mounted Circuit-Breaker Switchgear, SF6-Insulated NXPLUS Family Switchgear of the NXPLUS family provides the plus in performance and is fit for any terrain. Unique pressure system This is the only switchgear worldwide with hermetically sealed pressure systems. This makes it independent of external influences. Whether extreme climatic conditions or most adverse conditions in conurbations or industrial centers are concerned, our NXPLUS switchgear masters every environmental challenge. At the same time, no work on the gas system is required on site, nor throughout the lifetime of the system. Maintenance-free design Switchgear of the NXPLUS family requires no maintenance for life. This is achieved by the gas-tight enclosure of the high-voltage part, by using SF6 as insulating medium and by maintenance-free operating mechanisms. Cost-efficiency Whether you decide for an NXPLUS or an NXPLUS C – you opt for the most compact dimensions, for the highest voltages and switching capacities and thus certainly for a cost-efficient solution.

4/26

NXPLUS C It is the first medium-voltage circuitbreaker switchgear to make SF6 insulation and vacuum technology costefficient in its class – the compact NXPLUS C for voltages up to 24 kV. Features: C Hermetically sealed pressure system with SF6 filling for the complete service life C Type-tested switchgear – gets by completely without any work on the gas system during installation and extensions C Safe-to-touch enclosure and standard connections for cable plugs of the outside-cone type C Three-pole SF6-insulated module for the three-position disconnector and the circuit-breaker with panel connection C Single-pole-insulated and screened busbars, plug-in system C Operating mechanisms and transformers easily accessible outside the SF6 enclosure C Reduced number of functional elements due to three-position disconnector used for isolating and earthing the outgoing feeder C Dielectrically unstressed ring-type current transformers C Make-proof grounding with vacuum circuit-breaker C Measurements on the busbar possible without the need for additional panels C Aseismic version optionally available

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 4/9

NXPLUS C

Insulation technology C Switchgear container filled with SF6 gas C Characteristics of the SF6 gas: – nontoxic – odorless and uncolored – non-flammable – chemically neutral – heavier than air – electronegative (high-quality insulator) C Pressure of the SF6 gas in the switchgear container: – Rated filling pressure: 150 kPa

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Medium Voltage Circuit-breaker panel (basic design)

1

1 15 2

16 17

– Design pressure: 180 kPa – Design temperature of the SF6 gas: 80 °C – Operating pressure of the bursting disc: ≥ 300 kPa – Bursting pressure: ≥ 400 kPa Panel configuration C Factory-assembled, type-tested C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad C Switchgear container made of stainless steel, hermetically tight welded, without any sealings C Single-pole busbars with solid insulation, screened, plug-in type C No maintenance required C Degree of protection – IP65 for all high-voltage sections of the primary conducting path – IP3XD for the switchgear enclosure C Vacuum circuit-breaker and vacuum contactor C Three-position disconnector for isolating/grounding via the circuit-breaker C Three-position switch-disconnector C Make-proof grounding with the help of the vacuum circuit-breaker C Cable connection with outside cone plug-in system acc. to DIN EN 50181 C For wall-mounting and stand-alone installation C Installation and possible later expansions of existing panels without any gas works C Exchange of the switchgear container without any gas works C Transformer can be removed without any gas works since it is arranged outside the gas compartment C Sheet-steel enclosure with sendzimir coating, front and end walls varnished with the color „light basic“ C Low-voltage cubicle can be disassembled, pluggable ring circuits C Lateral, metal cable ducts for control lines

18 Z

30

19 20 21

3 4

22

5

31

23

6 24

7

32

25 33

26 27

34 28 29

Front view

Cable connection from the front 14 Actuating opening for “READY TO GROUND” function of three-position disconnector

Detail Z 8 9

15 Option: busbar current transformer, plug-in type

10 11

16 Busbar, single-pole, fully insulated, plug-in type, external surface grounded

12

17 Option: busbar current transformer

13

18 Switchgear container, hermetically welded, filled with SF6 gas

14

19 Three-position disconnector 1 Low-voltage cubicle

20 OFF pushbutton for circuit-breaker

2 SIPROTEC 4 multifunction protection (example)

21 Vacuum interrupter of circuit-breaker

3 Switch position indicator of circuit-breaker

23 Capacitive voltage detection system

4 Actuating opening for the charging of the circuit-breaker springs

24 Locking device for “Feeder grounded“ (suitable for locking with padlock)

5 ON pushbutton for circuit-breaker 6 “Spring charged“ indicator

25 Disconnecting device for feeder voltage transformer

7 Counter for circuit-breaker

26 Bushing feeder voltage transformer

8 Switch position indicator for “ISOLATING“ function of three-position disconnector

27 Option: feeder voltage transformer

9 Ready-for-service indicator

29 Cable connection compartment

22 Pressure disc (bursting disc)

28 Option: pressure relief duct

10 Switch position indicator for “READY TO GROUND” function of three-position disconnector

30 Operating mechanism for three-position disconnector

11 Preselection slide and locking device for “ISOLATING/GROUNDING” function of three-position disconnector

32 Feeder current transformer

12 Interrogation lever 13 Actuating opening for “ISOLATING“ function of three-position disconnector Fig. 4/15

31 Circuit-breaker operating mechanism 33 Cable connection with outside cone T-plug 34 Actuation for the disconnecting device of the feeder voltage transformer

NXPLUS C circuit-breaker panel, SF6-insulated

4/27

4

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SF6-insulated circuit-breaker switchgear NXPLUS C Rated voltage Rated frequency

7,2 50/60

12 50/60

15 50/60

17,5 50/60

24 50/60

Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV

20

28*

36

38

50

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

60

75 *

95

95

125

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

Rated short-time withstand current, 3 s

kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

Rated short-circuit making current

kA

80

80

80

63

63

Rated peak withstand current

kA

80

80

80

63

63

Rated short-circuit breaking current

kV Hz

kV

Rated normal current of busbar

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,500

Rated normal current of feeders

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,000

2,000

Rated normal current of switch-disconnector panels with fuses

Depending on rated current of fuse (max. 100 A) * 42 / 95 kV possible acc. to a number of international specifications

Table 4/16 Electrical data

Width

mm

600,1,200

Height

mm

2,250

Depth Single busbar Double busbar

mm mm

1,100, 1,225 2,370

Weight (approx.) incl. packing: single busbar, 1 panel double busbar, 2 panels Table 4/17

Dimensions and weights

For further technical data, please refer to the NXPLUS catalog (HA 53.41).

4/28

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

kg kg

900, 1,500 1,800

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Medium Voltage

Single busbar panels Circuit-breaker panel

Switch-disconnector panel with fuses

Disconnector panel

Metering panel

Double busbar panels Bus sectionalizer

Circuit-breaker panel

Incoming-feeder coupling

BB1

BB1

BB1

BB2

BB2

BB2

Panel variants of single and double busbars can be combined. For further variants, please refer to the NXPLUS C catalog (HA 35.41)

Fig. 4/16

Bus coupling

BB1 = busbar 1 BB2 = busbar 2

NXPLUS C panel versions

4/29

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NXPLUS NXPLUS is the gas-insulated switchgear for up to 40.5 kV with the benefits of vacuum technology – for a high degree of independence in operation. Features: C Hermetically sealed pressure system with SF6 filling for the complete service life C Type-tested switchgear – gets by completely without any work on the gas system during installation and extensions C Easy module replacement thanks to self-supporting, individual modules which are bolted together C Safe-to-touch enclosure and standard connections for cable plugs of the outside-cone or inside-cone type C Three-pole SF6-insulated modules for the busbar with the three-position switch and for the circuitbreaker with the panel connection C Single-pole-insulated and screened couplings for interconnecting the modules

C Motor operating switching devices, interlocked electrically and, as an option, mechanically C Operating mechanisms and transformers easily accessible outside the SF6 enclosure C Reduced number of functional elements due to three-position switch used for isolating and grounding the outgoing feeder

Photo 4/10

4/30

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

NXPLUS

C Dielectrically unstressed ring-type current transformers C Make-proof grounding with vacuum circuit-breaker C Measurements on the busbar possible without the need for additional panels

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Medium Voltage

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle

7

2 Multifunction protection SIPROTEC 4 7SJ61/ 7SJ62 for control and 1 protection

8 1

9

3 Mimic diagram

10

4 EMERGENCY-OFF pushbutton, mechanical

11

17

12

18

13

19

5 Door to mechanical control board

2

2

6 Cover of cable connection compartment 7 Busbar cover and space for pluggable busbar current transformers 8 Busbar module, welded, SF6 -insulated

3

3

4

4

5

5

11 Three-position disconnector, SF6 insulated, with the three positions: 6

6

9 Rupture diaphragm 10 Three-pole busbar system

20

14

21

9

CLOSED – OPEN – READY-TOGROUND

22

15

23 16

12 Module coupling between busbar module and circuit-breaker module

24

13 Circuit-breaker module, welded, SF6 -insulated, with integrated cable connection

Panel with integrated inside cone

14 Vacuum switching tube of circuit-breaker 15 Pressure relief duct

9

16 Integrated cable connection as inside cone

13

17 Low-voltage cubicle, standard: 935 mm high

26

Option: 1,100 mm high 18 Ring-core current transformer

18

25

23

27 24

19 Manual and motor operating mechanism of three-position switch 20 Mechanical control board

Panel with outside cone

21 Manual and motor operating mechanism of circuit-breaker 22 Voltage transformer connection socket as inside cone 23 Cable connection compartment 24 Voltage transformer 25 Isolating device for feeder voltage transformer 26 Voltage transformer connection socket as outside cone 27 Cable connection as outside cone

Fig. 4/17

NXPLUS circuit-breaker panel with single busbar

4/31

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SF6-insulated circuit-breaker switchgear NXPLUS Rated voltage

bis kV

24

40.5

Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

Hz

50/60

50/60

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

50

85

Rated short-circuit breaking current

kV

125

185

Rated short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

31.5

Rated short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

31.5

31.5

Rated short-circuit making current

max. kA

80

80

Rated peak withstand current

max. kA

80

80

Rated normal current of busbar

max. A

2,000

1)

Rated normal current of feeders

max. A

2,000

1)

1)

2,000

1)

2,000

1)

with double busbar 2,500 A possible

Table 4/18

Electrical data

Single Double busbar busbar Width Width of bus sectionalizer panel ≤ 2,000 A (> 2,000 A)

mm mm

600 900 (1,200)

600 600 (900)

Bus coupler

mm



600/1,200

Metering panel

mm



300

Height

mm

2,450

2,600

Depth

mm

1,600

1,840

kg

1,200

1,600

Weight per panel incl. packing (approx.) Table 4/19

Dimensions and weights

4/32

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Medium Voltage

Busbar fittings

Fittings upstream of circuit-breaker module Fittings downstream of circuit-breaker module 3) 1)

Capacitive voltage detection system

Panel connection fittings

1 x plug-in cable, interface type 2 or 3

or

1 x plug-in cable, interface type 2 4)

or

2 x plug-in cable, interface type 2 or 3

or

Voltage transformer, plug-in type 4)

or

3 x plug-in cable, interface type 2 or 3

or

Surge arrester, plug-in type 4)

or

4 x plug-in cable, interface type 2

and

Busbar current transformer

or

Solidinsulated bar

2)

Voltage transformer, plug-in type

Surge arrester, plug-in type

Current transformer

1) Capacitive voltage detection system acc. to the LRM or IVDS system 2) Not possible with busbar voltage transformer 3) Requires cable connection with container for separate inside cone 4) With single busbar only

Fig. 4/18

NXPLUS panel versions with cable connection as inside cone

Single busbar / double busbar circuit-breaker panel With cable connection as inside cone for – rated voltage up to 36 kV/40.5 kV (single busbar only)

– rated short-circuit breaking current up to 31.5 kA – rated normal currents of busbars and feeders up to 2,000 A

4/33

4

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Busbar fittings

Fittings upstream of circuit-breaker module Fittings downstream of circuit-breaker module 1)

Capacitive voltage detection system

Panel connection fittings

1 x plug-in cable

or

1 x plug-in cable, interface type 2 3)

or

2 x plug-in cable

or

Voltage transformer, plug-in type 3)

or

3 x plug-in cable

or

Surge arrester, plug-in type 3)

and

Busbar current transformer

2)

Voltage transformer, disconnectable

Current transformer

Surge arrester 1) Capacitive voltage detection or limiter, to be plugged in system acc. to the LRM or IVDS additionally system 2) Not possible with busbar voltage transformer 3) With single busbar only

Fig. 4/19

NXPLUS panel versions with cable connection as outside cone

Single busbar and double busbar circuitbreaker panel With cable connection as outside cone for – rated voltage up to 24 kV – rated short-circuit breaking current up to 25 kA (for 12 kV: 31.5 kA) – rated normal currents of busbars up to 2,000 A and feeders up to 1,250 A

4/34

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 35

Medium Voltage

Bus sectionalizer for – rated – rated up to – rated up to

voltage up to 36 kV/40.5 kV short-circuit breaking current 31.5 kA normal current of busbars 2,000 A

Busbar fittings Fittings upstream of circuit-breaker module

Capacitive voltage detection system

Fig. 4/20

Current transformer

NXPLUS bus sectionalizer

4/35

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Fixed-mounted circuitbreaker switchgear, type 8DA and 8DB up to 40.5 kV, SF6-insulated Versions Fixed-mounted circuit-breaker switchgear C 8DA10 for single busbar applications C 8DA11/8DA12 (single- and doublepole) for traction power supplies C 8DB10 for double busbar applications are metal-enclosed, metalclad, SF6-insulated switchgear for indoor installation Features Environmental independence Encapsulation with modular standard containers made of noncorrosive aluminum alloys make 8DA and 8DB switchgear C insensitive to aggressive ambient conditions such as – salt water – air humidity – dust – temperature C hermetically tight against ingress of foreign substances such as e.g. – dust – dirt C independent of the installation height Compactness The use of SF6-insulation results in small panel width of only 600 mm up to 40.5 kV. Thus, C existing switchrooms become effectively usable C new buildings become more cost-effective C inner-city areas are used economically

4/36

8DA10 panel for single busbar applications

Photo 4/11

8DA11/8DA12 panel for traction power supplies, single- and double-pole versions (example 8DA11)

8DA/8DB panels

Nearly no maintenance required Switchgear containers as hermetically sealed pressure system, nomaintenance switchgear and encapsulated cable plugs ensure C highest security of supply C safety of the personnel C reduced operating costs C economic efficiency of the investment

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

8DB10 panel for double busbar applications

Innovation The use of digital secondary technology and combined protective and control devices results in C a clear integration into process control C flexible, simple adaptations to new system states and thus, in economical operation

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Seite 37

Medium Voltage

8DA10 panel for single busbar, 3-pole

Panels for traction power supply 8DA11 single-pole 8DA12 double-pole

1

2

3 4 5 6

7

8DB10 panel for double busbar, 3-pole 1 Low-voltage cubicle

1

2 Electronic operating interface, e.g. multifunction protection

2

3 Operating mechanism and interlock for the three-position switch-disconnector as well as mechanical switch position indication of the three-position switch disconnector and circuit-breaker

4

8

4 Pressure gage for gas monitoring of the feeder gas compartments 5 Circuit-breaker operating mechanism

3

6 Operating shaft for vacuum switching tubes

5

7 Voltage detection system

6

8 Operating shaft for three-position switch-disconnector

7

Fig. 4/21

Panel design (examples)

4/37

4

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Single busbar

1 2 3

1 Busbar container

4

2 Busbar

5

3 Three-position switchdisconnector 4 Gas-tight bushing between three-position switch-disconnector and circuit-breaker

6 7

5 Circuit-breaker container

8

6 Vacuum interrupter

9

7 Current transformer 8 Pole support plate 9 Panel connection

Double busbar

1

10

2 3

4 11

12

5

Pos. 1 to 9, see above

6

10 Gas-tight bushing between three-position switch-disconnector or switch-disconnector and busbar

7

11 Gas-tight bushing between three-position switch-disconnector (busbar 1) and switchdisconnector (busbar 2)

8 9

12 Busbar switch-disconnector for busbar system 2

Fig. 4/22

Single-pole design

4/38

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 39

Medium Voltage 8DA10 3-pole Rated values Rated -voltage max. kV 12 24 36 40.5 -frequency 50 Hz1) -short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 28 50 70 85 -lightning surge withstand voltage kV 75 125 170 185 -short-circuit breaking current max. 40 kA -short-time withstand current, 3s max. 40 kA -short-time making current max. 100 kA -peak withstand current max. 100 kA -normal current of busbar max. 4,000 A -normal current of feeders max. 2,500 A Dimensions in mm Compartment (width) Circuit-breaker panel 600 Switch-disconnector panel 600 Transverse coupling – Longitudinal coupling (2 panels) 2 x 600 Longitudinal coupling for connection 2 x 600 in the cable basement (2 panels) Switchgear termination (end wall) for left and right switchgear cabinet side 152 Depth for all panel types 1,625 Height (switchgear front) Standard 2,350 with high low-voltage cubicle 2,700 with make-proof busbar 2,700 grounding switch Height switchgear rear side Standard 1,850 with make-proof busbar 1,960 grounding switch with busbar isolation without 2,320 additional panel loss Busbar module without disconnection option: With voltage transformer up to 24 kV 2,220 36/40.5 kV 2,470 With cable connection for – 1 connector, connection type 2 2,050 – 1 connector, connection type 3 2,030 – 2 or 3 connectors, connection type 2 2,110 – 2 or 3 connectors, connection type 3 2,130 – 4 to 6 connectors, connection type 2 2,250 With connection for all-insulated bar2) 1,930 Busbar modules with disconnection option: With voltage transformer up to 24 kV 2,420 36/40.5 kV 2,670 With cable connection for – 1 connector, connection type 2 2,180 – 1 connector, connection type 3 2,240 – 2 or 3 connectors, connection type 2 2,240 – 2 or 3 connectors, connection type 3 2,260 – 4 to 6 connectors, connection type 2 2,380 With connection for all-insulated bar2) 2,130 1)

60 Hz on request

2)

The busbar supplier must be consulted about the dimensions

Table 4/20

8DB10 3-pole

12 24 36 40.5 50 Hz1) 28 50 70 85 75 125 170 185 max. 40 kA max. 40 kA max. 100 kA max. 100 kA max. 4,000 A max. 2,500 A

600 – 600 2 x 600 2 x 600

152 2,660 2,350 2,700 2,700

8DA11/8DA12 single-/doublepole

Rated values Rated -voltage acc. to kV 15 25 EN 50163 and IEC 60850 -isolation voltage max. kV 17.5 27.5 -frequency Hz 16.7 50/60 -power-frequency to ground kV 50 95 withstand over isolating kV 60 110 voltage distance -peak to ground kV 125 200 withstand over isolating kV 145 220 current distance -short-circuit breaking current max. 31.5 kA -short-circuit making current max. 80 kA -normal current of max. 2,500 A busbar -normal current of feeders max. 2,000 A Dimensions in mm Compartment (width) Incoming-feeder panel 600 Section feeder panel 600 Switchgear termination end wall for left and right 152 switchgear side Depth for 8DA11, single-pole 865 for 8DA12, double-pole 1,245 Height switchgear front Standard 2,350 Height switchgear rear side Standard 1,850

2,100 2,210 2,570

2,390 2,640 2,300 2,280 2,360 2,380 2,500 2,180 2,590 2,840 2,430 2,490 2,490 2,510 2,630 2,380

Electrical data, dimensions

4/39

4

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Circuit-breaker panel

Busbar fittings Fitting at the circuit-breaker housing Fitting over the panel connection 1) Panel connection variants

2) – For plug-in cable connection with inside cone acc. to EN 50181 – Max. of 6 connections per conductor possible, depending on the connector size 3) The use of these modules reduces the possible number of connectable plug-in cables by 1 piece each

2) Plug-in cable

Voltage transformer, fixed or disconnectable

1) Capacitive voltage detection system

or

Make-proof grounding switch

or

Cable or busbar connection, fixed or disconnectable

or

or

or

Fitting at the panel termination

Current transformer

all-insulated bar, solid or gas insulation 3) Inductive voltage transformer

Longitudinal disconnection without additional space requirements

and/or

3) Inductive voltage transformer, connected via cable

and/or

3) Ohmic voltage divider

and/or

3) Surge arrester

Busbar current transformer

Switch-disconnector panel

Busbar fittings

Fittings and connection options same as for circuit-breaker panel

Fitting at the riser housing Fitting over the panel connection 1) Panel connection variants

Longitudinal coupling Busbar fittings Consisting of 2 panels (circuit-breaker arranged optionally in the left or right panel)

1)

Busbar current transformer

Ohmic voltage divider

Fitting at the riser housing

Current transformer

Fig. 4/23

8DA10 single busbar panels, 3-pole (panels 8DA11, single-pole and 8DA12, double-pole on request)

4/40

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 41

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel

Busbar fittings

BB1 BB2 Fitting at the circuit-breaker housing Fitting over the panel connection 1)

Panel connection variants

BB1

BB2

Voltage transformer, disconnectable

or BB2

BB1

BB2

or BB1

BB1, BB2

BB2

or BB1

BB1, BB2

BB2

BB2

or

BB1

Current transformer

Ohmic current divider

All-insulated bar, solid or gas insulation and/or

3) Inductive voltage transformer

and/or

3) Inductive voltage transformer, connected via cable

Cable or bar connection, fixed

and/or

3) Ohmic voltage divider

and/or

3) Surge arrester

Cable or bar connection, disconnectable

Busbar current transformer

or BB1

or

Fitting at the panel termination

Make-proof grounding switch

or BB1

2) Plug-in cable

Voltage transformer, fixed

or

HA35-2444 eps

TIP_Kap04_E

BB2

Longitudinal disconnection without additional space requirements

Abbreviations BB1 = busbar 1 BB2 = busbar 2 1) Capacitive voltage detection system 2) – For plug-in cable connection with inside cone acc. to EN 50181 – Max. of 6 connections per conductor possible, depending on the connector size 3) The use of these modules reduces the possible number of connectable plug-in cables by 1 piece each Fig. 4/24

8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/41

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Transverse coupling

Busbar fittings

BB1 BB2

1)

Voltage transformer, fixed

or BB1

BB2

Voltage tranformer, disconnectable

or BB2

BB1

Make-proof grounding switch

or BB1

BB2

or BB1

BB1, BB2

BB2

or BB1

BB1, BB2

BB2

or BB1

BB2

or

Abbreviations BB1 = busbar 1 BB2 = busbar 2 1)

Capacitive voltage detection system

Fig. 4/25

8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/42

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

BB1 BB2

Cable or bar connection, fixed 1)

Cable or bar connection, disconnectable

Busbar current transformer

Longitudinal disconnection without additonal space requirements

Fitting at the riser housing

Current transformer

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Seite 43

Medium Voltage

Longitudinal coupling for busbar 1 and 2 consisting of 2 assembled panels

Busbar fittings

BB1 BB2

1)

1)

Busbar current BB1 transformer at BB1

oder

Current transformer

Busbar current transformer at BB2 BB2

Longitudinal coupling for connection in the cable basement consisting of 2 separate panels

Busbar fittings

BB1 BB2 Fitting at the circuit-breaker housing 1)

1)

1)

1) Fitting above the panel connection

Busbar BB1 current transformer at BB1 or

Busbar current BB2 transformer at BB2

Ohmic voltage divider or

Panel connection variants: Single plug-in cable, sizes 1 to 3 or bar (solid or gas insulation)

Fitting per panel at the circuit-breaker or riser panel termination

Current transformer

Abbreviations BB1 = busbar 1 BB2 = busbar 2 1) Capacitive voltage detection system Fig. 4/26

8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/43

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Seite 44

Generator level G

Primary distribution level

4.2 Secondary Distribution Systems, Switchgear and Substations General information In its basic version, the secondary distribution system consists of consumer substations with ring-main feeders and directly fed transformer feeders. In order to minimize transmission losses and attain an economical solution for switchgear and transformer substations, the system configuration and switchgear technology should be optimally designed and dimensioned. To limit transmission losses, the packaged transformer substations/ consumer substations must be located directly in the load center. Therefore, switchgear and substations with a high degree of safety and reliability and, at the same time, minimum dimensions are to be preferred. The large number of substations installed in the distribution system requires a high degree of standardization and the application of technically mature products. The switchgear types described below fulfill these quality requirements in every respect. The packaged transformer substations consisting of medium-voltage switchgear, transformer and lowvoltage distribution are available as factory-assembled units or as single components and can be installed in any building and room at the site of installation.

4/44

Secondary distribution level, with switchgear of the 8DJ and 8DH types

Utilities substation

Utilities customer transfer substation

Utilities distribution substation, industrial plant

Low-voltage distribution

Further utilities substations Fig. 4/27

Secondary distribution system

Furthermore, the large number of substations within the distribution system asks for a cost-effective solution, e.g. switchgear made of climate-independent, maintenance-free switching devices, making maintenance work unnecessary throughout the entire service life of the substations in operation. Block-type ringmain units (non-extendable) and modular switchgear (extendable) have been developed for such packaged transformer substations. Extendable switchgear consists of switch-disconnectors, optionally with or without HV HRC fuses, circuit-breaker panels, metering panels and bus sectionalizer panels.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Block-type switchgear are ring-main units available with various schemes. Medium-voltage ring-main units and switchgear in secondary distribution systems must reliably meet the operational requirements regarding: C Various layouts of the different switchgear types for optimum application in the different substation sizes C Personal safety C Operational reliability C Maximum possible environmental independence C Cost-efficiency

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Seite 45

Medium Voltage

Siemens has developed switchgear which complies with all the aforementioned requirements. 8DJ secondary distribution switchgear and 8DH switchgear are metal-enclosed, gas-insulated switchgear for indoor installation. C 8DJ type as ring-main units in block-type construction, extension installation not possible C 8DH type as modular switchgear “line-up and extendable type“ in panel-type construction More than 400,000 8DJ/8DH-type switchgear panels are in operation worldwide. Application areas 8DJ/8HD switchgear is used in secondary distribution systems, e.g. substations, customer transfer substations and distribution substations of power supply companies and municipal utilities or industrial plants. Typical application areas are C Wind power stations C High-rise buildings C Airports C Lignite open-cast mining C Underground stations C Sewage plants C Docks C Traction power supplies C Automobile industry C Oil industry C Chemical industry C Cement industry

The 8DJ secondary distribution switchgear and 8DH switchgear are type-tested, factory-assembled, metal-enclosed switchgear with SF6 gas insulation. They have been proven to reliably comply with all requirements of operation with regard to: Maximum personal safety C Arc-fault-tested stainless-steel vessel and cable connection compartment tested on the resistance to accidental arcs C Logic interlockings C Guided operation C Capacitive voltage indication integrated in switchgear C Isolation from supply can be safely tested on the closed switching front C Locked and grounded covers for the fuse section and the cable terminal compartment

Standards The 8DJ, 8DH10 and SIMOSEC switchgear correspond to the following standards and specifications: IEC standard

VDE standard

IEC 60694

VDE 0670 Part 1,000

IEC 60298

VDE 0670 Part 6

IEC 62271-100

VDE 0671 Part 100

IEC 62271-102

VDE 0671 Part 102

IEC 60265-1

VDE 0670 Part 301

IEC 62271-105

VDE 0671 Part 105

IEC 61243-5

VDE 0682 Part 415, DIN EN 61243-5

IEC 60529

VDE 0470 Part 1

IEC 60071

VDE 0111

Instrument transformers (e.g. for 8DH or SIMOSEC switchgear)

Further information can be obtained at:

IEC standard

www.siemens.com/ptd

Current transformers

VDE standard

IEC 60044-1

VDE 0414 Part 1

Voltage transformers IEC 60044-2

VDE 0414 Part 2

Combined transformers for 8DH switchgear IEC 60044-3 Table 4/21

VDE 0414 Part 5

Standards

4/45

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Specifications

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Insulation

Seite 46

Type of construction, installation

Busbar system

Compartments

Access option

Operational availability

Type of compartment

LSC 2A Cable connection Medium-voltage indoor switchgear, type-tested according to IEC 62271-200, IEC 60298

Gas-insulated

Non-extendable

Single

Accessible HV HRC fuse compartment

Busbar Not accessible Switching devices

LSC 2A/B Cable connection Gas-insulated

Extendable

Single

Busbar

Accessible

HV HRC fuse

Switching devices

Not accessible

Air-insulated

Extendable

LSC 2A/B Single

Busbar

Accessible

Circuit-breaker

Cable connection

Disconnector

Not accessible

LSC2 A/B

1) 2) 3) 4)

LS = circuit-breaker LTS = switch-disconnector LST = circuit-breaker with disconnecting function PM = partition of metal

Accessible

4/46

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

HV HRC fuse

Cable connection

Not accessible

Table 4/21a Secondary distribution systems – selection matrix

Busbar

Switchdisconnector and grounding switch Circuit-breaker

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Medium Voltage

Access control

Compartment class

Interlocking control

PM4) (metal partitions)

Accidental arc classification

Feeder or switching device

Application, use

Switchgear type

IAC (IEC 60298)

RK2) TR2) LS13)

Ring-main unit for packaged transformer substations, standard type 1: – for substations with very narrow widths – transformer cable connection at the top

8DJ10

Ring-main unit for packaged transformer substations, standard type 2: – for compact substations, substations with control aisle – transformer cable connection at the front (standard)

8DJ20

Switchgear for substations, customer transfer substations, distribution and switching substations, circuit-breaker switchgear up to 630 A

8DH10

Switchgear for substations, customer transfer substations, distribution and switching substations, circuit-breaker switchgear up to 1,250 A

SIMOSEC

Tooldependent Interlocking control

Interlocking control

PM4) (metal partitions)

IAC (IEC 60298)

Tooldependent Tooldependent

RK2) TR2) LS11) LS21) LTx1) LST3) SE2) ME1 ME2 ME32)

Interlocking control

Tooldependent

PM4) (metal partitions)

IAC (IEC 60298)

LS111)2) LS321)2)

Interlocking control Interlocking control

Tooldependent Interlocking control

PM4) (metal partitions)

IAC (IEC 60298)

RK1) TR1) LS12) SE1) ME1 ME31) HF

4/47

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Seite 48

Technical data

Rated lightning surge withstand voltage Up

Rated voltage Ur

Maximum rated shorttime withstand current

7.2/12 [kV]

17.5/24 [kV]

[kV]

[kA] 1s

[kA] 3s

Rated operating current for busbar for feeder [A] [A]

60/75

95/125

7.2–17.5

25

20

630

up to 630

60/75

95/125

7.2– 24

20

20

630

up to 630

60/75

95/125

7.2–17.5

25

20

630

up to 630

60/75

95/125

7.2– 24

20

20

630

up to 630

60/75

95/125

7.2–17.5

25

20

60/75

95/125

7.2– 24

20

20

8DJ10

8DJ20

630 1)

8DH10

max. 1,250 630 1)

up to 630 up to 630

max. 1,250

SIMOSEC

1)

60/75

95/125

7.2–17.5

25

11.5

max. 1,250

up to 1,250

60/75

95/125

7.2– 24

20

20

max. 1,250

up to 1,250

Standard

Table 21b Secondary distribution systems – selection matrix / technical data

4/48

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 49

Medium Voltage

Operational reliability / no maintenance required

Maximum environmental independence

C Non-corrosive, hermetically tight welded, stainless steel vessel without gaskets, stable under variable pressures C Insulating gas which complies with the requirements to insulating and extinguishing tasks throughout the entire service life C Single-pole enclosure outside the vessel C Clear ‘ready-for-service’ indicator independent of temperature and site altitude C Complete protection zone of switch-disconnector/fuse assembly even with thermal overload of the HV HRC fuse (thermal protection function) C Easy replacement of HV HRC fuses without tools C Reliable electrical and mechanical switching device that requires no maintenance

C Robust, non-corrosive, no-maintenance operating mechanisms C No-maintenance, climate-independent and safe-to-touch cable connections C Free from leakage currents and partial discharges C No-maintenance, safe-to-touch HV HRC fuse assembly that is not affected by climatic impacts Environmental compatibility C Continuous and integrated environmental management from manufacture to disposal C Tightly sealed vessel, virtually no loss of gas C Easy installation and commissioning Quality and environment Quality and environmental mangement systems in compliance with DIN EN ISO. Cost-efficiency The switchgear is cost-effient not only in purchase but also in service due to its compactness and minimum space requirements as well as its no-maintenance, climate independent-design.

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2 ring-main feeders 1 transformer feeder Scheme 10

Photo 4/12

Seite 50

3 ring-main feeders 1 transformer feeder Scheme 71

Ring-main transformer block versions

8DJ10 secondary distribution switchgear: standard type 1 7.2–24 kV, gas-insulated, non-extendable – block-type construction 8DJ10 secondary distribution switchgear is factory-assembled, type-tested and metal-enclosed switchgear for indoor installation. Application areas 8DJ10 secondary distribution switchgear is used for power distribution in substations – also for severe ambient conditions – e.g. in: C Industry C Damp, sandy or dusty areas C Simple outdoor substations Main fields of application C Compact substations C Compact transformer substations, e.g. for wind power stations C Garage and vault substations C Low-lying and underfloor substations C Pavement substations C Accessible substations C Extremely narrow designs More than 80,000 8DJ10 secondary distribution switchgear is in operation worldwide.

4/50

4 ring-main feeders 2 transformer feeders Scheme 62

Specific features of the standard type 8DJ10, the narrowest type by Siemens C 2 heights available – 1,360 mm – 1,650 mm C Switchgear design with up to 6 feeders C Three-pole primary enclosure, metal-enclosed C Insulating gas SF6 C Gas-tight, welded switchgear vessel made of stainless steel, with welded-in bushings for electrical connections and mechanical components C No maintenance required C Independent of climate C Three-position switch-disconnector with switch-disconnector and make-proof grounding switch function C Cable connection for bushings with outside cone C Connection with cable plugs – in ring-main feeders with bolted contact (M16) – in transformer feeders with plug- in contact C Connection of conventional cable sealing ends (cable feeders) – for thermo-plastic-insulated cables via AKE 20/630 elbow adapter (by Siemens)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

– for ground cables via adapter systems C Easy installation C Detachable lever mechanism (optional: rotary operating mechanism) C With capacitive voltage detection system at ring-main feeders C Optional motor operating mechanism for switch-disconnector (24 V DC up to 230 V AC for remote control) Cost-efficiency Extremely low ”life-cycle costs” and maximum availability due to: C Maintenance-free concept C Climatic independence C Minimum space requirements

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Medium Voltage 8DJ10 switchgear Rated voltage Ur

kV

7.2

12

15

17.5

24

kV

20

28

36

38

50

kV

60

75

95

95

125

Rated frequency fr

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

Rated normal current Ir for ring-main feeders for transformer feeders depending on the HV HRC fuse link

A A

400 or 630 200

400 or 630 200

400 or 630 200

400 or 630 200

400 or 630 200

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 1 s

kA

– 20 25

– 20 25

– 20 25

16 20 25

16 20 –

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 3 s (option)

kA

20

20

20

20

20

Rated peak withstand current Ip

kA

– 50 63

– 50 63

– 50 63

40 50 63

40 50 –

Rated short-circuit making current Ima 1) for transformer feeder for ring-main feeder

kA kA

25 – 50 63

25 – 50 63

25 – 50 63

25 40 50 63

25 40 50 –

Ambient temperature T

°C

– 40 to +70

Rated insulation level: Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage Ud Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up

Pressure values for insulation: Rated filling pressure pre (at 20°C) 1)

hPa (absolute)

1,500

Depending on HV HRC fuse set; please observe the max. let-through current of the HV HRC fuse elements

Table 4/22

Electrical data, temperature, filling pressure

Supply overview

Width mm Depth

1)

mm

Height mm Weight 2) net weight approx. kg

Scheme 10

Scheme 71

Scheme 62

2 ring-main feeders and 1 transformer feeder (identification symbols 2RK + 1T)

3 ring-main feeders and 1 transformer feeder (identification symbols 3RK + 1T)

4 ring-main feeders and 2 transformer feeder (identification symbols 4RK + 2T)

710

1,060

1,410

775

775

775

1,360

1,650

1,360

650

1,360

650

270

300

340

390

500

580

RK = ring-main feeder T = transformer feeder 1) Additional wall distance required: ≥ 15 mm 2) Depending on the equipment, e.g. motor operating mechanism Table 4/23

Dimensions and weights: block versions consisting of ring-main and transformer feeders

For further technical data: please refer to the catalog HA 45.11 8DJ10 switch-disconnector system

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Ring-main transformer block A

Transformer feeder Section A-A

Ring-main feeder Section B-B

17

B 11

24

18

1 12

2

25

3

13

4

20

14

5

30

6

20

15

7

10 19

8 L1

9

L2

26

L3

2 10

21

26

21 31

16 32 22

22 27

B

Standard Cable connection for cable elbow plug with plug-in contact, cable routing to the back

A

Scheme 10

1 Feeder designation label 2 Sockets for voltage detection system

29

Cable connection with screw contact (M 16), optionally for: – cable T-plugs or right-angle cable plugs – AKE 20/630 right-angle adapter (by Siemens) for conventional cable sealing ends

10 Lock for cable compartment cover

23

11 HV HRC fuse assembly, cover removed 18

12 Lock for HV HRC fuse assembly

3 Ready-for-service indicator

14 Rating and type plate

4 Switch position indication for grounding function ”OPEN – GROUNDED”

17 Cable elbow plug with plug-in contact

16 Arrangement of cable connections

Option Cable connection for straight cable plugs with plug-in contact, cable routing to the top

5 Switch position indication for switch-disconnecting function ”CLOSED – OPEN” 6 Locking device (option for threeposition switchdisconnector) 7 Manual operating mechanism for the grounding function 8 Manual operating mechanism for the switch-disconnecting function 9 Short-circuit/groundfault indicator (option)

Personnel safety All feeder covers can only be opened when the respective three-position switch-disconnector is switched to ”GROUNDED”.

Fig. 4/28

Switching panel design – example

4/52

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

18 Transformer cable connection 20 Three-position switch-disconnector 21 Switchgear vessel, filled with SF6 gas 22 Cable connection compartment 23 Straight cable plug with plug-in contact

17

24 Cover of the HV HRC fuse compartment

18

25 Spring-operated/stored-energy mechanism 26 Cover of cable connection compartment Option (only for schemes 10 and 71) cable connection for elbow plug with plug-in contact, cable routing to the right

27 Grounding connection M12 29 Cable support rail 30 Spring-operated mechanism 31 Ring-main cable connection 32 Option: Elbow adapter AKE 20/630 with conventional cable sealing end (M16 bolted contact)

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Medium Voltage

Radial transformer panel 1 transformer feeder 1 radial cable connection Scheme 01 Photo 4/13

Ring-main transformer block 2 ring-main feeders 1 transformer feeder Scheme 10

Ring-main transformer block 3 ring-main feeders 2 transformer feeders Scheme 82

Typical versions

8DJ20 secondary distribution switchgear: standard type 2 7.2–24 kV, gas-insulated, non-extendable – block-type construction 8DJ20 ring-main units are factoryassembled, type-tested and metalenclosed switchgear for indoor installation. Typical uses 8DJ20 secondary distribution switchgear is used for power distribution in substations – also for severe ambient conditions – e.g. in: C Industry C Damp, sandy or dusty areas C Simple outdoor substations Main fields of application C Integrated substations C Integrated transformer substations, e.g. for wind power stations C Garage and vault substations C Low-lying and underfloor substations C Pavement substations C Accessible substations

Specific features of the standard type 8DJ20, the most diverse type by Siemens C 3 heights available – 1,200 mm – 1,400 mm – 1,760 mm C Switchgear design with up to 5 feeders C Three-pole primary enclosure, metal-enclosed C Insulating gas SF6 C Gas-tight, welded switchgear vessel made of stainless steel, with welded-in bushings for electrical connections and mechanical components C Maintenance-free C Independent of climate C Three-position switch-disconnector with switch-disconnector and make-proof grounding switch function C Cable connection for bushings with outside cone C Connection with cable plugs – in ring-main feeders with bolted contact (M16) – in transformer feeders with plug-in contact C Connection of conventional cable sealing ends – for thermo-plastic-insulated cables via AKE 20/630 elbow adapter (by Siemens)

– for ground cables via adapter systems C Easy installation C Detachable lever mechanism (optional: rotary operating mechanism) C With capacitive voltage detection system at ring-main feeders C Optional motor operating mechanism for switch-disconnector (24 V DC up to 230 V AC for remote control) C Various possibilities for transformer cable connection: – Standard: front – Option: bottom, for cable routing to the rear Cost-efficiency Extremely low ”life-cycle costs” and maximum availability due to: C Maintenance-free concept C Independence of climate C Minimum space requirements

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8DJ20 switchgear Rated voltage Ur

kV

7.2

12

15

17. 5

24

Rated insulation level: Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage Ud kV Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up kV

20 60

28 75

36 95

38 95

50 125

Rated frequency fr

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

Rated normal current Ir for ring-main feeders for transformer feeders depending on the HV HRC fuse link

A A

400 or 630 200

400 or 630 200

400 or 630 200

400 or 630 200

400 or 630 200

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 1 s

kA

– 20 25

– 20 25

– 20 25

16 20 25

16 20 –

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 3 s (option)

kA

20

20

20

20

20

Rated peak withstand current Ip

kA

– 50 63

– 50 63

– 50 63

40 50 63

40 50 –

Rated short-circuit making current Ima 1) for transformer feeder for ring-main feeder

kA kA

25 – 50 63

25 – 50 63

25 – 50 63

25 40 50 63

25 40 50 63

Ambient temperature T

°C

– 40 to +70

Pressure values for insulation: Rated filling pressure pre (at 20°C) 1)

hPa (absolute)

1,500

Depending on HV HRC fuse set; please observe the max. let-through current of the HV HRC fuse elements

Table 4/24

Electrical data, temperature, filling pressure

Ring-main/transformer block A

B

Ring-main feeder Section B-B

Transformer feeder Section A-A 6

1 2 3

L1

L2

L3

4

B

A

Scheme 10

1 Switchgear vessel, filled with SF6 gas 2 Three-position switch-disconnector 3 Operating mechanism for three-position switch-disconnector Fig. 4/29

Panel design – Example

4/54

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Standard Cable connection for elbow plug (option: for cable T-plug), cable routing to the bottom 4 Transformer cable connection: Cable elbow plug with plug-in contact (option) 5 Ring-main connection: cable T-plug with bolted contact (option)

5

Cable connection with bolted contact (M16): – for cable T-plug or cable elbow plug – for conventional cable sealing ends via AKE 20/630 elbow adapter (by Siemens) 6 HV HRC fuse assembly For further technical data: please refer to the catalog HA 45.31, 8DJ20 switch-disconnector system

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Medium Voltage Dimensions

Scheme Components shown with dashes are optional

Weight1) Width Depth2) Height net weight approx. kg mm mm**) mm

Scheme

Dimensions

Components shown with dashes are optional

Width Depth2) Height

1 transformer feeder and 1 ring-main connection

Scheme 21

1 ring-main connection and 1 transformer feeder

mm

mm**) mm

Weight1) net weight approx. kg

Radial transformer panels Scheme 01 K Radial cable connection incoming feeder K

Radial cable con nection K(E) (with make-proof grounding switch)

(identification symbol 1T) 510

775

T

1,200 1,400 1,760

140 160 200

K(E)

(identification symbols 1K(E) + 1T) 710

775

T

1,200 1,400 1,760

200 210 250

Single panel Scheme 02 a) Ring-main connection b) Radial cable connection RK

1 ring-main feeder with radial cable connection (identification symbol 1RK) 710

775

K

1,200 1,400 1,760

150 170 210

Block versions, consisting of ring-main and transformer feeders (with HV HRC fuse assembly) 2 ring-main feeders and 1 transformer feeder

Scheme 10*)

(identification symbol 1RK + 1T)

1,060

710

775

280 300 340

RV

T Scheme 72

1,200 1,400 1,760

200 210 250

4 ring-main feeders and 1 transformer feeder (identification symbol 4RK + 1T)

1,410

1,760

775

1,200 1,400 1,760

340 360 400

3 ring-main feeders and 1 transformer feeder

Scheme 81*)

775

(identification symbol 3RK + 1T)

T

RV

1,200 1,400 1,760

3 ring-main feeders and 1 transformer feeder

Scheme 71*)

1 ring-main feeder and 1 transformer feeder

(identification symbol 2RK + 1T)

T

RV

Scheme 20

775

T Scheme 82

1,200 1,400 1,760

420 440 480

4 ring-main feeders and 1 transformer feeder

(identification symbol 3RK + 1T)

(identification symbol 4RK + 1T)

1,410

1,760

775

T

1,200 1,400 1,760

400 420 460

775

T

1,200 1,400 1,760

470 500 540

Block versions, consisting of ring-main feeders (without HV HRC fuse installation) Scheme 11

Scheme 70*

2 ring-main feeders

Scheme 32*)

(identification symbol 3RK)

710

1,060

775

1,200 1,400 1,760

160 170 210

4 ring-main feeders

Scheme 84

775

1,200 1,400 1,760

210 230 270

5 ring-main feeders

(identification symbol 4RK)

(identification symbol 5RK)

1,410

1,760

775

1,200 1,400 1,760

280 300 340

1) Depending on the equipment, e.g. motor operating mechanism 2) With transformer cable routing to the bottom *) Scheme also suitable for outdoor enclosures **) Additional wall distance required: ≥ 15 mm Fig. 4/30

3 ring-main feeders

(identification symbol 2RK)

Identification symbol: RK = K = T = K(E) =

775

1,200 1,400 1,760

350 380 420

ring-main feeder cable feeder transformer feeder cable feeder for radial cable connection with make-proof grounding switch

8DJ20 switchgear, up to 24 kV, SF6-insulated, supply overview, schemes

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8DH10 switchgear up to 24 kV, gas-insulated, extendable Modular design for consumer substations Application 8DH10 switchgear is factory-assembled, type-tested and three-phase metal-enclosed single-busbar switchgear for indoor installation: C Up to 24 kV C Feeder currents up to 630 A C Busbar currents up to 1250 A Typical uses 8DH10 switchgear is used – even under severe environmental conditions – for power distribution in secondary distribution systems, e.g. in: C Substations, customer transfer substations, distribution substations and switching substations of power supply and public utilities C Industrial plants Examples C Wind power stations C High-rise buildings C Airports C Lignite open-cast mines C Underground stations C Sewage treatment plants C Port facilities C and many other applications Modular design C Individual panels and panel blocks can be freely combined and extended – without the need for work involving SF6 gas at site C Low-voltage cubicles can be supplied in two overall heights and are wired to the panel by means of plug-in connections

4/56

Photo 4/14

8DH10 extensible switchgear in modular construction

Reliability C Type- and routine-tested C Standardized and manufactured using numerically controlled machines C Quality management system according to DIN EN ISO 9001 C More than 400,000 8DJ/8DH panels have been in service for many years all over the world The 8DH10 switchgear complies with the requirements for medium-voltage switchgear, e.g.: C High degree of security of operation, reliability and availability C No gas work at site C Easy installation and extension C Operation not influenced by environmental conditions C Minimum space requirements C Fully insulated, single-pole, plug-in busbars for interconnection of individual panels and panel blocks

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C Busbar arrangement for panel blocks within the switchgear vessel filled with SF6 gas C Single-phase, cast-resin-insulated, enclosed, air-insulated HV HRC fuse assembly. Fuse assembly arranged at the top, outside the switchgear vessel C All live parts are protected against humidity, pollution, dust and small animals C Connection of cable T-plugs or cable elbow plugs for thermo-plasticinsulated cables up to 300 mm2 C All switching devices are accommodated safe-to-touch in earthed enclosure, HV HRC fuse assembly and cable sealing ends safe-totouch in grounded enclosure C Access to HV HRC fuses and to cable connection compartment only possible in grounded state C Hermetically sealed switchgear vessel; all bushings for electrical connections and operating mechanism welded gas-tight – without seals

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Medium Voltage 8DH10 switchgear station Rated insulation level Rated voltage Ur kV Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage Ud kV Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up kV

7.2 20 60

12 28 75

15 35 95

17.5 38 95

24 50 125

Rated frequency fr

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

Rated normal current Ir for: – ring-main feeders – transformer feeders depending on the HV HRC fuse link – circuit-breaker feeders – section sectionaliser panels (type LT1, LT2)

A A

400 or 630 200

A A

400 or 630 400 or 630

Rated normal current Ir for – busbar – metering panels

A A

630 (standard), 1,250 (option) up to 630

Rated short-time withstand current Ik for switchgear with tk = 1 s

kA

– 20 25

– 20 25

– 20 25

16 20 25

16 20 –

Rated short-time withstand current Ik for switchgear with tk = 1 s (option)

kA

20

20

20

20

20

Rated peak withstand current Ip

kA

– 50 63

– 50 63

– 50 63

40 50 63

40 50 –

Rated short-circuit making current Ima – ring-main feeders – circuit-breaker feeders – transformer feeders, depending on the cut-off current of the HV HRC fuse

kA

– 50 63 25

– 50 63 25

– 50 63 25

40 50 63 25

40 40 – 25

Rated short-circuit breaking current Isc for circuit-breaker feeders

kA

– 20 25

– 20 25

– 20 25

16 20 25

16 20 –

Ambient temperature T without secondary equipment Panels with secondary equipment and circuit-breaker panels

Class “Minus 25 indoor“ (-25 °C up to +70 °C) Class “Minus 5 indoor“ (-5 °C up to +55 °C)

Pressure values for insulation: Rated filling pressure pre (at 20 °C)

hPa (absolute) 1,500

Minimum operating pressure pme for insulation Table 4/25

hPa (absolute) 1,300

Electrical data, temperature, filling pressure

C Three-position switch-disconnector with switch positions: CLOSED – OPEN – GROUNDED. Operation as multi-purpose switch-disconnector with the functions: – switch-disconnector and – make-proof grounding switch C Each 8DH10 switchgear can consist of individual panels (preferably) or panel blocks – depending on the requirements.

One panel block can comprise up to 4 feeders. C Circuit-breaker panels are supplied with an integrated three-phase current transformer at the cable connection for connection of protection systems, optionally for digital protection systems or CT-operated protection systems.

C The 8DH10 switchgear requires no maintenance (VDE 0670 Part 1000/IEC 60694)

For further technical data: please refer to the catalog HA 41.11 8DH10 switchgear

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Ring-main feeder

Section

Transformer feeder

Section

1

61

61

1 2 31

2

32 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

23

11 12

15

3 38 5 6 7

25

9

24

13 14 15 16

26

18

27 19

23

12

35

13 14

15

16

36

17

37

18 10

27 19

28

20

11

15

17 10

34

33

28

20

29

29

21

21

22

22 Type RK Circuit-breaker feeder

Type TR Section 1 Option: low-voltage cubicle 2 Niche for customer-side low-voltage equipment, with swing-out cover 3 Switch position indication for switch-disconnecting function “CLOSED – OPEN” 4 Switch position indication for grounding function “OPEN – GROUNDED”

43 44

61

5 Ready-for-service indicator 6 Rating and type plate

45 46 47 48 49 50 11 5 6 8 9 15

10

7 Mimic diagram 8 Option: short-circuit/ground-fault indicator 7 51 52 12 13 63 3 4 53 14 23 16 17

46

9 Sockets for voltage detection system 10 Arrangement of busbars 11 Feeder designation label 12 Option: locking device for three-position switch-disconnector

24

14 Manual operating mechanism for the switch-disconnecting function

25

15 Lock for cable compartment cover

26 54 27

18

28

19

29

20

55

21

13 Manual operating mechanism for the grounding function

15

16 Arrangement of cable connections 17 Busbar system 18 Switchgear vessel, filled with SF6 gas 19 Busbar connection 20 Pressure relief device 21 Busbar compartment 22 Ground busbar with ground connection

22 Type LS1 (without voltage transformer) Fig. 4/31

Switchgear panel design (example)

4/58

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Seite 59

Medium Voltage

Billing metering panel, air-insulated

Section

61 1

2

2 40 11 39

39

6

41 7

42

62

22 30 Type ME1

23 Three-position switch-disconnector 25 Bushing for cable plug with screw contact (M16)

Vacuum circuit-breaker: 45 Opening for the operating crank handle – for closing with manual operation – for emergency stop with motor operation

26 Option: cable T-plug

46 Operating mechanism box with operating mechanism

27 Cable compartment cover 28 Cable connection compartment

47 Mechanical ON pushbutton (not applicable with spring-operated mechanism)

29 Cable support rail

48 Mechanical OFF pushbutton

30 Grounding connection for grounding set

49 Operations counter

31 HV HRC fuse assembly, cover removed

50 “Spring charged“ indication

32 Handle for exchanging the HV HRC fuse insert

51 Vacuum interrupter

33 Lock for HV HRC fuse assembly

52 Switch position indication

34 Cover for the HV HRC fuse compartment

53 Option: lock between vacuum circuit-breaker and three-position switch-disconnector

24 Spring-operated mechanism

35 Spring-operated / stored-energy mechanism 36 Bushing for cable plug with bolted contact 37 Cable elbow plug with plug-in contact 38 Switch position indication for switch-disconnecting function “CLOSED – OPEN“ with “HV HRC fuse tripped“ or “f-release tripped“, if applicable 39 Cover for access to the busbar connection and to the instrument transformers, screwed 40 Voltage transformer type 4MR 41 Current transformer type 4MA7 42 Cover to busbar connection compartment, screwed 43 Option: SIPROTEC bay control unit 44 Low-voltage cubicle (standard)

54 Option: three-phase current transformer (protective transformer) 55 Cable-type slip-on current transformer 56 Pluggable 4MT3 voltage transformer on the busbar 57 Bushing for connecting the pluggable voltage transformers 58 Plug connection acc. to EN 50181/DIN EN 50181 as connection type “A“ 59 Option: pluggable 4MT8 voltage transformer at the connection 60 Depth cable compartment cover 61 Cable duct, withdrawable, for control cables and/or bus wires 62 Screwed cover 63 Option: lock between three-position switchdisconnector and circuit-breaker

4/59

4

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Seite 60

Busbars Features C Safe-to-touch due to metallic covers C Plug-in design C Consisting of round-bar copper, insulated by means of siliconerubber C Busbar connection with cross and end adapters, insulated with silicon rubber C Insensitive to pollution and condensation C Switchgear extension or panel replacement is possible without the need to carry out gas works C Busbar arrangement for the panel blocks within the switchgear vessel filled with gas C Option: screened busbar – Field control with the aid of conductive layers on the siliconerubber insulation – Installation of 4MC7032 current transformers is possible – Independent of the installation height C No gas work C To be installed from the front C Replacement of individual panels possible to the front without having to move panels C Groups of up to 5 panels can be pre-assembled at the factory C Fast installation on site

Fig. 4/32

Combination of individual panels with plug-in, silicone-insulated busbar. No SF6 gas work is required for installation or extension.

7 8 9 1

10

2 3 4 5

6

Busbar system

7 Primary enclosure panel 1

2 Cross adapter

8 Primary enclosure panel 2

3 Busbar insulation of silicone rubber 4 Threaded bolt M12/M16 5 Busbar, Cu, ∅ 32 mm 6 Stopper

Fig. 4/33

4/60

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Switchgear container

1 End adapter

Plug-in busbar, insulated, single-pole, unscreened version (plan view)

9 Bushing 10 Capacitive tap at the bushings, grounded (standard)

TIP_Kap04_E

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Seite 61

Medium Voltage

SIMOSEC modular switchgear up to 24 kV, airinsulated, extendable Modular design for consumer substations Application SIMOSEC switchgear is factory-assembled, type-tested and threephase metal-enclosed switchgear for indoor installation: C Up to 2 kV C Feeder currents up to 1,250 A C Busbar currents up to 1,250 A C Up to 25 kA

Reliability C Type- and routine-tested C Standardized and manufactured using numerically controlled machines C Quality management system according to DIN EN ISO 9001 C More than 400,000 switchgear components have been in service for many years all over the world. C Without cross-insulation of the insulating distances from phase to phase The SIMOSEC switchgear complies with the requirements for mediumvoltage switchgear, e.g.:

Typical uses SIMOSEC switchgear is used for power distribution in distribution systems with feeder currents up to 1,250 A, e.g. in: C Substations, customer transfer substations, distribution substations and switching substations of power supply and public utilities C Public buildings such as, for example, high-rise buildings, train stations, hospitals C Industrial plants Typical applications C Wind power stations C High-rise buildings C Airports C Underground stations C Sewage treatment plants C Port facilities C and many other applications Modular design C Individual panels can be freely combined and extended C Option: low-voltage cubicle in two overall heights

Personal safety C All switching operations executable with the panel front closed C Metal-enclosed, metal-clad or cubicle-type switchgear C HV HRC fuses and cable sealing ends only accessible with grounded feeders C Logic interlock C Capacitive voltage detection system to verify the isolation from supply C Grounding of feeders via makeproof grounding switches possible Operational reliability C Components – such as , for example, operating mechanisms, threeposition switches, vacuum circuitbreakers – proven for many years C Metal-clad panels (metallic partition between busbar and switchgear as well as between switchgear and cable connection compartment) C Cubicle-type panels with metallic partition between switchgear and busbar compartment C Metal-enclosed three-position switch with gas-insulated switching functions – sealed by welding in the switchgear container for life

Photo 4/15

SIMOSEC extensible switchgear in modular construction

– and thus no cross-insulation from phase to phase – with welded bushings for cable connection, busbar and driving mechanics Re-availability C Three-position switch-disconnector with gas-insulated, maintenancefree arc quenching principle C Metallic partition between busbar compartment and switching devices as well as the cable connection compartment C Separate pressure relief for each compartment C Cable test without isolation of the busbar C Three-phase current transformer installation location for selective disconnection of circuit-breaker feeders Cost-efficiency Low “life-cycle costs“ and high availability during the complete product service life due to: C Three-position switch with gasinsulated arc quenching principle C 3AH vacuum circuit-breaker C Minimum space requirements C Simple extendability of the switchgear C Standard protective devices, e.g. SIPROTEC 4 multifunction protection

For further information and data, please refer to the catalog HA 41.21, SIMOSEC Switchgear

4/61

4

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Seite 62

Common details on electrical data, filling pressure and temperature Rated voltage Ur kV 7.2 Rated short-duration power-frequency kV 20 withstand voltage Ud Rated lightning surge withstand voltage Up kV 60

Rated insulation level

Rated frequency fr

15 35

17.5 38

24 50

75

95

95

125

50/60 Hz

Rated operating current Ir of the busbar

1)

Standard Option

Rated short-time withstand current Ik

630 A 1,250 A

for switchgear with tk = 1 s for switchgear with tk = 3 s

Rated peak withstand current Ip Rated filling pressure pre

12 28

up to kA 20 25 20 25 16 20 25 16 20 25 16 20 up to kA 20 – 20 – – 20 – – 20 – – 20 up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

2)

Minimum operating pressure pme

2)

Ambient temperature T

for insulation

1,500 hPa (absolute) at 20 °C

for insulation

1,300 hPa (absolute) at 20 °C

for panels without sedoncary equipment for panels with sedoncary equipment

Class „Minus 25 indoor“ (–25 °C up to +55 °C) Class „Minus 5 indoor“ (–5 °C up to +55 °C)

Ring-main panel type RK and cable connection panel type K, K-E Rated operating current Ir

1)

for feeder and transfer, panel tpye RK for feeder, panel type K, K-E for feeder, panel type K1, K1-E

Rated short-circuit making current Ima

630 A (standard), (400 A on request) 630 A (standard), (400 A on request) 630 A (standard), 1,250 A

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Transformer panel type TR Rated operating current Ir

1)

Rated peak withstand current Ip

for feeder

3)

200 A

3)

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Rated short-circuit making current Ima 3)

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Inside dimension “e“ for HV HRC fuse-links Circuit-breaker panel type LS Rated operating current Ir

1)

mm 292 for feeder

for transfer

442

442

442

with

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

for 3AH vacuum circuit-breakers

1) Rated

operating currents are defined for ambient temperatures of 40 °C. The average value over 24 hours is 35 °C max. (acc. to IEC 60694/VDE 0670 Part 1000)

2) Pressure

292

for panel type LS1 and LS1-U 3AH5* 630 A for panel type LS11 and LS11-U 3AH6* 630 A for panel type LS31, LS32 and LS31-U 3AH6* 1,250 A

Rated short-circuit making current Ima Rated short-circuit breaking current Isc

4)

values for gas-insulated containers

up to kA 20 25 20 25 16 20 25 16 20 25 16 20

3) With

panels of type TR and ME31-F depending on the max. let-through current of the HV HRC fuse-link (ID ≤ 25 kA)

4) With

inside dimension e = 192 mm, a 100 mm long extension pipe is additionally required for the 292 mm fuse-link

Table 4/26

Elecrical data of the switchgear panels, pressure values, temperature

4/62

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

* Type designation of the vacuum circuit-breaker

TIP_Kap04_E

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Seite 63

Medium Voltage

7.2

12

15

17.5

24

Busbar grounding panel type SE Rated short-circuit making current Ima

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Busbar voltage metering panels type ME3 and type ME31-F Rated peak withstand current Ip

3)

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Rated short-circuit making current Ima 3)

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Inside dimension “e“ in the panel type ME31-F

for HV HRC fuse-links

292 mm

Billing metering panels type ME1 Rated operating current Ir

1)

for transfer, panel type ME1 and ME1-H for feeder as cable connection panel type ME1-K for busbar connection, panel type ME1-S for riser panel, type HF

630 A, 1,250 A 630 A, 1,250 A

630 A, 1,250 A

for for for for for

630 A 630 A 630 A 630 A 1,250 A

630 A, 1,250 A

Sectionalizer panels type LT Rated operating current Ir

1)

panel panel panel panel panel

types LT10 and HF, with 3AH5 * type LT1, with 3AH5 *: on request types LT11 and HF, with 3AH6 * types LT2 and LT22 630 A types LT31 and HF, with 3AH6 *

Rated short-circuit making current Ima

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Rated short-circuit breaking current Isc

for 3AH vacuum circuit-breakers

up to kA 20 25 20 25 16 20 25 16 20 25 16 20

Electrical service life

for 3AH vacuum circuit-breakers: at rated operating current Ir 1) at rated short-circuit breaking current Isc

10,000 operating cycles 50 breaking operations 35 breaking operations with 3AH6* with 25 kA

1) Rated

operating currents are defined for ambient temperatures of 40 °C. The average value over 24 hours is 35 °C max. (acc. to IEC 60694/VDE 0670 Part 1000)

2) Pressure

Table 4/27

values for gas-insulated containers

3) With

panels of type TR and ME31-F depending on the max. let-through current of the HV HRC fuse-link (ID ≤ 25 kA)

* Type designation of the vacuum circuit-breaker

4) With

inside dimension e = 192 mm, a 100 mm long extension pipe is additionally required for the 292 mm fuse-link

Electrical data of the switchgear panels, pressure values, temperature

4/63

4

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Seite 64

Ring-main and cable panels, transformer, riser and busbar grounding panels Ring-main panels as feeder panels

Transformer panels as feeder panels Type RK, 375 mm wide

Option

Option

Type TR 375 mm wide

Option * Option * 3)

Option * Option

alternatively

Option

Option * 1)

1)

Type LS1, 500 mm wide Option

Option

Type TR1 500 mm wide

Option 6) 8)

Option Option 2)

Option *

Option Option

1)

1) 3)

Riser panels 630 A and 1,250 A

Ring-main panels as transfer panels for mounting to panels of type ME1… or ME1-H Type RK-U, Option 500 mm wide

Option Type HF BB 375 mm wide

Standard: for bus-sectionalization to the right

Option

Option *

Option: for bus-sectionalization to the left

3)

Option P2 P1

2)

Option

Cable panels as feeder panels, 630 A Type K, 375 mm wide Option**

Option** Option alternatively

Option** Option

alternatively

Option**

1)

3)

Option** Option 1)

Fig. 4/34

Product range (basic range, further types available)

4/64

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

alternatively

Option

Cable panels as feeder panels, 630 A, with make-proof grounding switch Type K-E, Option 375 mm wide

Busbar grounding panels Type SE1 375 mm wide

TIP_Kap04_E

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18:55 Uhr

Seite 65

Medium Voltage

Billing metering panels 630 and 1,250 A standard

3AH5 vacuum circuit-breaker

HV HRC fuse

3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker

Grounding switch

Type ME1 375 mm wide

Option

Option

4)

Standard **: for bus sectionalization to the right

P2 P1

5)

2)

Three-position switch-disconnector

Billing metering panels 630 and 1,250 A for busbar connection Option 2)

alternatively *

Option P1 P2

Type ME1-S 500 mm wide Standard **: for bus sectionalization to the right

Option

2)

2)

Make-proof grounding switch

Capacitive voltage detection system

Fixed point for grounding

Insulator-type current transformer 4MA, cast-resin-insulated

Fixed point for busbar grounding

Voltage transformer, e.g. 4MR, single-pole, cast-resin-insulated

Cable (not included in the scope of delivery)

2)

Option

2nd cable (not included in the scope of supply)

Billing metering panels 630 and 1,250 A ** for cable connection Option

Option

Surge arrester Type ME1-K BB 375 mm wide Standard B: for bus sectionalization to the right

P2 P1

2)

P1 and P2 are terminal markings of the current transformer

Billing metering panels 630 and 1,250 A ** for busbar connection Type ME1-KS 375 mm wide

Option

as right- or lefthand end panel

Option

2)

Up to 12 kV on request

** Connection of 3 cables possible B

P2 P1

*

Option: bus sectionalization to the left

BB For mounting to left- or right-hand ring-main panels of type RK-U

4/65

4

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Seite 66

Circuit-breaker panels Circuit-breaker panels 1,250 A as feeder panels Option

4)

Option

3)

Option

Option

P1 2)

P2

Option**

Option 3)

Option

Option 1)

2)

Option 6)

Type LS31 750 mm wide with 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker, withdrawable for the connection of 2 cables max.

Option

5)

alternatively

Option

with 3AH5 vacuum circuit-breaker, fixed-mounted

alternatively

6) 7)

alternatively alternatively

Option

Option

Option

Type LS1 750 mm wide

alternatively

Circuit-breaker panels 630 A as feeder panels

Option 1)

3)

with 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker, withdrawable

Option

Option

Option**

3)

Option

6)

Option

Option

2)

1)

Option

6)

1)

as transfer panels for mounting to panels of type ME1... or ME1-H

as transfer panels for mounting to panels of type ME1... or ME1-H

4)

Option

2)

Option 6) 7)

Option: for bus sectionalization to the left

Option

Option

3)

alternatively

Option B

Option

P1 2)

P2

5)

Option

Option

with 3AH5 vacuum circuit-breaker, fixed-mounted Standard: for bus sectionalization to the right

P1 P2

Type LS1-U 750 mm wide

Type LS11-U 750 mm wide with 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker, withdrawable Bus sectionalization only possible to the right

6)

Fig. 4/35

Product range (basic range, further types available)

4/66

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Option

3)

Option B alternatively

Option

3)

Option

Option

Option

1)

Option

for the connection of 3 cables max. (4 cables*)

i

Option

5)

with 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker, withdrawable

l

2)

Option alternatively

5)

Option alternatively

alternatively

Option

Option Type LS11 750 mm wide

l

Option**

Option

alternatively

Option

Option

alternatively

Type LS32 875 mm wide

Option

P1 2)

P2

Option 6)

5)

Type LS31-U 750 mm wide with 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker, withdrawable Bus sectionalization only possible to the right

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 67

Medium Voltage

Bus sectionalizer panels 630 A with 1 three-position switch-disconnector

Option

Option

Three-position switch-disconnector

Capacitive voltage detection system

Three-position switch-disconnector

Make-proof grounding switch

Insulator-type current transformer 4MA, cast-resin-insulated

Fixed point for grounding

Three-phase current transformer 4MC63 . . .

Cable (not included in the scope of supply)

6)

Voltage transformer, e.g. 4MR, single-pole, cast-resin-insulated

2nd cable (not included in the scope of supply)

7)

Voltage transformer, e.g. 4MR, doublepole, cast-resin-insulated

Surge arrester

Type LT2 750 mm wide corresponds to type RK-U with type RK-U

2)

3)

with 2 three-position switch-disconnectors

Option

Option

Type LT22 750 mm wide corresponds to type RK-U with type RK-U

Option

Option Type LT22-W 750 mm wide

Option Option Option 3)

corresponds to type RK-U with type RK-U

3)

Option P2 2)

alternatively

TIP_Kap04_E

P1

Option 6) 7)

P1 and P2 are terminal markings of the current transformer *

Up to 12 kV on request

** Connection of 3 cables possible B

Option: bus sectionalization to the left

BB For mounting to left- or right-hand ring-main panels of type RK-U

4/67

4

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Seite 68

Transformer panel as feeder HA41-2394d eps

HA41-2393d eps

Ring-main panel as feeder

60

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 23 24 19 58

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 59 20

25 18

60 2 23 24 19 58

2

5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 59

27 57

26 27 18

20

57

21

21

34

61

28

35

34 35

61 22

31

29

31

33

22

32

29

33

61

56

23

30 Type RK

22

22

Section

30 Type RT

Section

HA41-2395e eps

Billing metering panel

1

1 Option: low-voltage cubicle 2 Niche for customer-side low-voltage equipment, cover can be screwed off 3 Option: CAPDIS voltage indication system

60

2

2 23 24

10

33

37

38 38 8

16 57

9 33

33

40

40

4 Option: short-circuit/ground-fault indicator 5 Option: Ready-for-service indicator for switchgear 6 Switch position indication for switch-disconnecting function “CLOSED – OPEN“ 7 Switch position indication for grounding function “OPEN – GROUNDED“ 8 Feeder designation label 9 Mimic diagram 10 Option: sockets for capacitive voltage detection system (depending on arrangement) 11 Option: “ON – OFF“ momentary-contact rotary control switch for motor drive with local-remote changeover switch for the three-position switchdisconnector 12 Option: Locking device for three-position switch-disconnector 13 Pressure relief device for switchgear

65

14 Manual operating mechanism for the grounding function 15 Manual operating mechanism for the switchdisconnecting function

39

39

16 Rating and type plate 17 Gas-insulated container for switchgear

30

18 Lock for cable compartment cover 19 Bushing-type insulator for the busbar

Type ME1

Section

Fig. 4/36

Switchgear panel design (example)

4/68

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

20 Bushing-type insulator for the feeder

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Seite 69

Medium Voltage Circuit-breaker panel (with 3AH5 vacuum circuit-breaker) HA41-2396e eps

21 Insulating collar (e.g. for Up > 95 kV)

1

22 Cable mounting rail with cable clamps (option) for cable fixing 23 Busbar

60

24 Insulating cap * on the busbar

2

2 23 24 51 19 58

51 5 45 46 44 8 47 10 48

11 12 13 14 6 7 15 16 17 64 59

49 9

25 43

20

22

27 Three-position switch-disconnector 28 Cable connection 29 Cable compartment cover 30 Ground terminal (for position, see dimension drawing) 31 Grounding switch for the cable connection

41

32 Inspection window

57

33 Insulators

50

34 Insulating collar 35 Option: HV HRC fuse-link

28

36 Option for panel types LS11... and LT11... only: logic interlocks between circuit-breaker “OPEN” and threeposition switch-disconnector as well as locking device for three-position switch-disconnector

29

37 Option: part of the low-voltage equipment

61

38 Cover, screwed

21

61

26 Spring-operated/stored-energy mechanism for three-position switch-disconnector

64

20

21

25 Spring-operated mechanism for three-position switch-disconnector

22

30

39 4MR current transformer 40 4MA7 insulator-type current transformer, vacuum circuit-breaker 41 3AH5 vacuum circuit-breaker, fixed-mounted 42 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker, withdrawable

Type LS1

43 Operating mechanism box

Section

44 Manual operation – for closing with manual operation

Circuit-breaker panel (with 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker) HA41-2397d eps

– for emergency stop with motor operation

1 60

52

11 36 17 14 15 16 13 64 59 36

5 6 7 8 9 10 54 20 56 50 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

46 Mechanical “ON” pushbutton (not applicable with spring-operated mechanism) 55 2 23 24 52 19 58

3

2

45 Mechanical “OFF” pushbutton

25

49 Switch position indication 50 Option: 4MC63 53 three-phase current transformer 51 Option: SIPROTEC easy 7SJ45 time-overcurrent protection 52 Option: SIPROTEC 4 7SJ62 multifunction protection 53 Cover* for cable connection glands 54 Insulating cap* on the bushing-type insulator

64

55 Option: Cable duct, withdrawable, for control cables and/or bus wires

57

56 Logic interlock for three-position switch-disconnector 57 Grounding busbar

54

58 Metal cladding of the busbar compartment

43

59 Metal cladding of the cable connection compartment

29

60 Cover of the busbar compartment for panel expansion

42

61 Cable sealing end (not included in the scope of supply)

33

62 Option: feeder grounding via make-proof grounding switch

62

33

63

61

61

63 or feeder grounding via the vacuum circuit-breaker (= locking device for feeder grounded when circuitbreaker “CLOSED”) 64 Lock for cable compartment cover in circuit-breaker panels

22 56 Type LS11

48 Operations counter

27

50

53

47 “Spring charged” indication

30 Section

65 Cover of the transformer connection compartment * For example for Up ≥ 95 kV, Ur ≥ 15 kV

4/69

4

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Seite 70

Busbars 1 Busbar

C Shock-hazard protection by means of metallic encapsulation C Metal-clad busbar compartment C 3-pole version, can be screwed from panel to panel C Simple switchgear expansion possible C Consisting of copper: – Fl E-Cu for 630 A – Rd E-Cu for > 630 A up to 1,250 A HV HRC fuse-link C For transformer panels of type TR and TR1 C For busbar voltage metering panel type ME31-F C HV HRC fuse-links acc. to DIN 43625 (main dimensions) with striker pin; version “medium“ acc. to IEC 60282/ VDE 0670 Part 4*) – as short-circuit protection in front of transformers, – with selectivity – when selected correctly – to upstream and downstream devices C Requirements met as high-voltage switch fuse combination C Selection of HV HRC fuses for transformers C Fuse replacement only possible with a grounded feeder C Option: shunt release at the operating mechanism of the three-position switch-disconnector

2 Insulating cap (e.g. for Ur > 17,5 kV) on the busbar 3 Bushing-type insulator for the busbar

Photo 4/16

Busbar compartments over 3 panels (example), side view

“CLOSED“ indication, hand- or motor-operated “HV HRC fuse tripped“ or “f-release tripped“ indication “OPEN“ indication

Photo 4/17

Masking frame of a transformer feeder

4 Insulating collar

5 HV HRC fuse (not included in the scope of supply)

6 Grounding switch (rated short-circuit breaking current Ima = 4 kA) for the cable connection 7 Cover for cable lug connection (e.g. for rated voltage Ur = 24 kV) 8 Cable sealing end (not included in the scope of supply)

*)

For standards, please refer to page 4/43 and catalog HA 41.21

4/70

Photo 4/18

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

HV HRC fuses in the transformer panel type TR, side view

TIP_Kap04_E

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Seite 71

Medium Voltage

C Option: “Tripped signal“ of the three-position switch-disconnector in the transformer feeder (transformer switch) for electrical remote signaling with 1 normally open contact (1NO) “HV HRC fuse tripped” When a HV HRC fuse-link has tripped, the operating mechanism has to be switched to the “OPEN” position to charge the spring. Then, the equipment can be grounded using the three-position switch-disconnector and the fuse can, for example, be replaced. Replacement of HV HRC fuse-links C Isolation and grounding of the transformer feeder C Then, manual replacement of the HV HRC fuse-link

4/71

4

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Seite 72

4.3 Medium Voltage Equipment, Product Range

Device

Devices for medium-voltage switchgear

Rated voltage

Ratedshort-circuit current

Rated short-time current (3 s)

kV

kA

kA

3AH

7.2…36

13.1…72

13.1…72

NXACT

12…24

31.5

31.5

Components for 3AH VCB

3AY2

12…24

16…40

16…40 (1 s)

Outdoor vacuum circuit-breaker

3AF 3AG

12…40.5

25…31.5

25…31.5

Indoor vacuum switch

3CG

7.2…24



16…20

Vacuum circuit-breaker/ disconnector unit

3AH58

12

13.1…25

13.1…25

Indoor vacuum contactors

3TL

7.2…24



8 (1 s)

Indoor vacuum switching tube

VS

7.2…24

12.5…80

12.5…80

Indoor switchdisconnector

3CJ

12…36



20…25 (1 s)

Indoor disconnector and grounding switch

3D

12…40.5



16…63 (1 s)

HV HRC fuses

3GD

7.2…36

31.5…80



Fuse base

3GH

7.2…36

44 urge current strength



Current and voltage transformers for indoor and outdoor installations

4M

12…36





Indoor vacuum circuit-breaker

The comprehensive switchgear device range enables Siemens to supply almost any type of device required for the medium-voltage range of 7.2 to 36 kV. Table 4/28 presents an overview of products and their main properties. All components and equipment comply with international and national standards as follows: Vacuum circuit-breakers C IEC 60056, partially IEC 62271-100 C IEC 60694 C BS 5311 Vacuum switches C IEC 60265-1 Vacuum switch/fuse combinations C IEC 60420 Vacuum contactors C IEC 60470 C UL 347 Switch disconnectors C IEC 60129 C IEC 60265-1 HV HRC fuses C IEC 60282 Current and voltage transformers C IEC 60044-1; 60044-2 C BS 7625, 7626 C ANSI C57.13 Further information can be obtained at fax no.: +49 9131/73 46 54

Table 4/28

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Type

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Equipment range for medium-voltage switchgear

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Medium Voltage

Rated operating current

Switching operations

Fields of application / comment

mechanical

with rated operating

with rated fault

800…12,000

10,000… 12,0000

10,000… 30,000

25…100

1,250…2,500

10,000

10,000

25…50

1,250…2,500







Equipment manufacturers and retrofitters

1,000…2,000

10,000

10,000

25…50

Operation at power supply company for almost any switching task

800

10,000

10,000



All fields of application, such as overhead lines, cables, transformers, motors, capacitors; many operating modes; short-circuit protection required, fuses

800…1,250

10,000

10,000

25

In partially enclosed circuit-breaker switchgear

400…800

1 x 106…3 x 106

0,25 x 106…2 x 106 –

All fields of application, mainly motors with a high rate of operating cycles

630…4,000

10,000… 30,000

10,000… 30,000

25…100

For circuit-breakers, switches and gas-insulated switchgear

630

1,000 ... 2,500

20



Cables and overhead lines, transformers

630…3,000

1,000... 5,000





Protection of personnel during maintenance work at the equipment by creating an isolating gap

6.3…250







Short-circuit protection, short-circuit limiting

400







Placement of HV HRC fuse-links









Measuring and protecting

A All fields of application, such as overhead lines, cables, transformers, motors, generators, capacitors, filter circuits, arc furnaces

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3AH1-6 vacuum circuitbreakers – for universal use Suitable circuit-breakers for every application: 3AH5 No-maintenance allrounder for most standard applications

3AH2 Circuit-breaker for frequent switching operations, e.g. for industrial applications. 3AH3 High-performance circuit-breaker, e.g. for power generation.

Circuit-breakers of type 3AH1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 round off the total product range.

3AH4 Circuit-breaker for extremely frequent switching operations, e.g. in steelworks.

3AH1 Standard circuit-breaker for power utilities and industrial applications to complement the 3AH5 range.

3AH6 Circuit-breaker with switching poles arranged in line one behind the other.

Photo 4/19

Rated voltage

Vacuum circuit-breaker (type) For rated short-circuit breaking current1) (rated short-circuit making current)

kV

kA 13.1 (32.8)

kA 16 (40)

kA 20 (50)

kA 25 (63)

kA 31.5 (80)

kA 40 (100)

7.2

12

3AH5

3AH53)

3AH5

3AH5

3AH6 4)

3AH6

3AH6

24

3AH6 4)

3AH6 3AH5

3AH6

36

3AH6 3AH5

3AH3

3AH3

3AH5 3AH2

3AH1 3AH2

3AH3

3AH3

3AH1 3AH2

3AH3

3AH3

3AH2 3AH5 3AH2

3AH1 3AH2

3AH3

3AH3

800 A

800 A to 1,250 A

1,250 A to 3,150 A

1,250 A to 4,000 A

3AH3 3AH4

3AH5 5) 3AH2 3AH5 3)

3AH5

kA 63 (160)

3AH1 3AH2

3AH6 3AH5

kA 50 (125)

3AH2

15

17.5

3AH5 allround circuit-breaker 24 kV / 16 kA

3AH3 3AH4

800 A 800 A 800 A 800 A 1,250 A to to to to to2) 1,250 A 2,500 A 1,250 A 2,500 A 2,500 A

3AH3 3AH4 2,500 A 1,250 A to 3,150 A

Rated operating current 1)

DC current proportion is 36% (higher values on request)

4)

12.5 kA instead of 13.1 kA for 3AH6

2)

3,150 A at 17.5 kV rated voltage for 3AH2

5)

1,250 A to 2,500 A for 24 kV / 25 kV

3)

Up to 2,000 A

Table 4/29

The complete 3AH range: electrical values and products

4/74

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Medium Voltage

Applications C Power supply installations with long service life C Industrial installations with high short-circuit currents and frequent switching operations C Switchgear installation companies C Special switching tasks, as applicable in capacitors, reactor coils and filter circuits C Steelworks Features C Proven vacuum switching principle C Universal use C Long service life C No maintenance up to 10,000 operating cycles C Compact design Customer benefit C Cost-saving in the long run due to its long service life and the fact that it requires no maintenance C Space saving due to its compact design C Highly reliable, thus ensuring the utmost availability of power supply C Flexible use thanks to short delivery times for standard breakers Circuit-breakers for special applications 3AH8 – high current and generator circuit-breaker Applications C High operating and fault currents C Switching of generators in hydropower, coal, natural gas and steam power plants Features C High switching cycles C No maintenance C Tested in accordance with IEEE C37.013

Photo 4/20

3AH38 high-current and generator circuit-breaker

Photo 4/21

3AH47 single-pole circuit-breaker

3AH3 818

17.5 kV / 63 kA / 175 kA / 3,150 A and 4,000 A

3AH3 819

17.5 kV / 72 kA / 200 kA / 3,150 A and 4,000 A

3AH3 838

17.5 kV / 63 kA / 175 kA / 8,000 A and 12,000 A

3AH3 838

17.5 kV / 72 kA / 200 kA / 8,000 A and 12,000 A

Table 4/30

UN

Technical data for 3AH38 types

C

27.5 kV / 50 and 60 Hz

C

17.5 kV / 16.7 Hz ISC

kA

IN

A

Table 4/31

C

25

C

C

C

C

C

C

31.5

40

50

1,250 2,000 2,500 2,000 2,500 2,500 2,500

Product range of 3AH47 for single-pole applications

Customer benefit C Small dimensions, making its installation more flexible C Easy handling thanks to low weight C Long service life C Low life cycle costs Thanks to their compact design and high performance features, high-current and generator circuit-breakers of type 3AH8 and IEEE C37.013 are perfectly suited both for modernizing existing power plants and for initially equipping new power plants. They can be easily installed in switchgear systems.

3AH7 – single-pole circuit-breaker Applications C Railway applications C Neutral point switch (grounding transformer, ground-fault neutralizer) Features C High operating cycle rates C Low maintenance C Low wear and tear even at frequencies of 16 2/3 Hz C Tested and approved in accordance with EN 50152-1 C Circuit voltage class acc. to EN 50163 or IEC 60850 Customer benefit C Optimized life cycle costs C High reliability

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Components for 12 kV Up to 2,500 A / up to 40 kA / 1s. For cubicle widths of 800 mm: With 3AH1 circuit-breaker – 7.2/12 kV 210 mm pole center distance With 3AH5 circuit-breaker – 12 kV 210 mm pole center distance Components for 24 kV Up to 2,500 A / up to 25 kA / 1s. For cubicle widths of 1,000 mm: With 3AH1 circuit-breaker – 24 kV 275 mm pole center distance With 3AH5 circuit-breaker – 24 kV 275 mm pole center distance Photo 4/22

Switchgear 12 kV, 25 kA, 1,250 A

Table 4/32

Components for 3AH vacuum circuit-breakers Applications C As cartridge or truck for switchgear C Components for the switchgear installation company Features C Components based on 3AH circuit-breaker C Free choice of components ranging from counter-contacts and bushings to truck and complete cartridge C Tested components

Technical data and product range

Rated voltage kV

ISC kA

Ima kA

Pole center distance mm

Ir A

12

13.1

32.8

160

800 to 1,250

16

40

160

800 to 1,250

20

50

160

800 to 1,250

25

63

160

800 to 1,250

Table 4/33

Technical data of the 3AH58 vacuum circuit-breaker/disconnector unit

Customer benefit C Everything from a single source C Quick to use

Photo 4/23b Disconnector counter-contacts

C Compact design makes room for cable connections and instrument transformer in the switchgear cubicle C All operating elements arranged at an ergonomic height C Circuit-breaker and disconnector drive can be accessed from the front

3AH58 vacuum circuit-breaker/ disconnector unit – a powerful combination Applications C In partially enclosed circuit-breaker installations Features C Combined switching and disconnecting function using a 3AH5 vacuum circuit-breaker and 3DC disconnector C Disconnector mechanically interlocked with the circuit-breaker C Compact design in fixed mounted installations C Factory-tested circuit-breaker/ disconnector unit

4/76

Photo 4/23a 3AH5 804-2, 12 kV/25 kA/1,250 A

Customer benefit C Time savings due to less installation work required compared with installing single components C Disconnector counter-contacts included in the scope of delivery

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Disconnector counter-contacts C Included in the scope of delivery C Lightning surge withstand voltage 75 kV / 85 kV* C Short-time AC withstand voltage 28 kV / 32 kV* C Short-circuit time 3s * Across the isolating gap

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Medium Voltage

Photo 4/24

Photo 4/25

NXACT vacuum circuit-breaker module, type 3AJ

NXACT vacuum circuit-breaker module, type 3AK

NXACT vacuum circuit-breaker module NXACT combines the advantages of vacuum switching technology with additionally integrated functions. Applications C For switchgear installation companies Features C Combination of vacuum switching technology with further advanced functions C Disconnector, grounding switch drive, locks and operating panel integrated in the module C Pre-tested and ready-to-install delivery C All operating elements located at the switchgear front panel

NXACT 3AJ

NXACT 3AK

Rated voltage

kV

12 – 24

to 15

Rated short-time AC voltage

kV

28 – 50

to 38

Rated lightning surge voltage

kV

75 – 125

to 110

Rated frequencyz

Hz

50 / 60

to 50 / 60

Rated short-circuit breaking current (max.)

kA

to 31.5

to 50

Rated short-circuit making current (max.)

kA

to 80

to 125

Rated short-time current, 3 seconds (max.)

kA

to 31.5

to 50

1,250 / 2,500

to 4,000

Rated operating current Table 4/34

A

Technical data

Customer benefit Increased productivity due to C Easy planning C Easy installation

C Minimum mounting and commissioning expense C Immediately ready to use after delivery C Clear and transparent operating front panel

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3AF01

3AG01

Rated voltage

kV

to 40.5

12

Rated frequency

Hz

50 / 60

50 / 60

Rated lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

170

75

Rated AC withstand voltage

kV

70

28

Rated short-circuit breaking current

kA

25 / 31.5

25

Rated short-circuit making current

kA

63 / 80

63

1,600 / 2,000

1,600

Rated operating current Table 4/35

A

Technical data

3AF0/3AG0 vacuum circuit-breaker for outdoor installations up to 40.5 kV

Photo 4/27

3TL8 vacuum contactor

Photo 4/28

3TL6 vacuum contactor

Applications C In particular for use in power supply companies C Can be used even in difficult climatic environments C For almost every switching task Features C Proven vacuum switching tubes in porcelain insulators C High electrical and mechanical service life C Suitable for short-time interruptions C Gas- or air-insulated versions available Customer benefit Optimized life cycle costs due to C Low mounting and commissioning expense C Minimum maintenance expense C Installation possible at any location

Photo 4/26

3TL vacuum contactors – designed for continuous operation Vacuum contactors are 3-pole contactors for medium-voltage installations with an electromagnetic drive that features high switching frequencies and unlimited ON periods.

3AF/3AG vacuum circuit-breakers

Applications C Switching of three-phase motors C Switching of capacitors C Switching of ohmic loads (e.g. arc furnaces)

4/78

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Medium Voltage Vacuum contactor type

3TL81

3TL61

3TL65

3TL71

7.2

12

24

Rated voltage

kV

7.2

Rated frequency

Hz

50 / 60

Rated operating current

A

400

450

400

800

Switching capacity acc. to utilization category AC-4 (cos ϕ = 0,35) Rated making current Rated breaking current

A A

4,000 3,200

4,500 3,600

4,000 3,200

4,500 3,600

Mechanical life of the contactor

operating cycles

1 · 10 6

3 · 10 6

1 · 10 6

1 · 10 6

Mechanical life of the vacuum switching tube

operating cycles

0.25 · 106

2 · 106

1 · 10 6

1 · 10 6

Electrical life of the vacuum switching tube (nominal current)

operating cycles

0.25 · 10 6

1 · 10 6

0.5 · 10 6

0.5 · 10 6

Table 4/36

Technical data

Features C Small dimensions C High electrical service life up to 1 million operating cycles C No maintenance required Customer benefit Increased productivity due to C High reliability and availability C Flexible mounting positions, vertical or horizontal Vacuum switching tubes – utmost switching capacity in extremely compact designs Vacuum switching tubes for medium voltage are supplied by Siemens for all applications on the international power market ranging from 1 kV to 40.5 kV. On demand, we are pleased to complement our comprehensive standard product range with tailormade, specific customer solutions. Applications C Vacuum circuit-breakers C Vacuum load interrupters C Vacuum contactors C Transformer tap changers C Circuit-breakers for railway applications C Auto-reclosers C Special applications, such as nuclear fusion

Photo 4/29

Vacuum switching tubes in seal-soldering technology

Tubes for vacuum circuit-breakers Rated voltage Rated operating current Rated short-circuit breaking current

kV A

7.2 to 40.5 630 to 4,000

kA

12.5 to 80

kV

1 to 24

Tubes for vacuum contactors Rated voltage Rated operating current Table 4/37

A

400 to 800

Product range (extract) – Tube ratings for circuit-breakers/contactors

Features C Small designs C High breaking and operating currents C High operating cycle rates

Customer benefit C A suitable solution for every application C Long-term supply security

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Rated voltageg

kV

7.2

12

15

24

Rated lightning surge withstand voltage, list 2

kV

60

75

95

125

Rated short-circuit making current

kA

50

50

50

40

Rated short-time current (3s)

kA

20

20

20

16

Rated operating current

A

800

800

800

800

Rated closed-loop breaking current

A

800

800

800

800

Rated no-load transformer breaking current

A

10

10

10

10

Rated no-load capacitor breaking current

A

800

800

800

800

3CG vacuum switches are multipurpose load interrupters.

Rated cable-charging breaking current

A

63

63

63

63

Applications C Frequent switching of electric loads C In particular for switching transformers, motors or capacitors in industrial applications

Rated breaking current for locked motors

A

2,500

1,600

1,250



Transfer current acc. to IEC 60420, inductive switching capacity (cos ϕ ≤ 0.15)

A

5,000

3,000

2,000

2,000

Induktives Switching capacity (cos ϕ ≤ 0.15)

A

2,500

1,600

1,250

1,250

630

630

630

630

63

63

63

63

63 + 800

63 + 800

63 + 800

63 + 800

10,000

10,000

10,000

10,000

Photo 4/30

3CG vacuum switch for 12 kV, 800 A

3CG vacuum load interrupter suited for very high operating cycle rates

Features C In compliance with IEC 60265-1, IEC 60420 and VDE 0670 Part 301, tested in combination with HV HRC fuses C Rated currents up to 800 A C Up to 10,000 electrical operating cycles C No maintenance required

Switching capacity under ground fault conditions: – Rated ground fault A breaking current – Rated cable-charging A breaking current under ground fault conditions – Rated cable-charging A breaking current under ground fault conditions with with superimposed load current

Customer benefit C Optimization of operating costs due to high operating cycle rates C Very economical C High availability C Highly reliable due to proven vacuum switching technology

Operating cycles with rated operating current Table 4/38

4/80

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

3CG vacuum circuit-breaker ratings

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Medium Voltage

3CJ2 switch disconnector for daily use Indoor switch disconnectors, type 3CJ2, are multi-purpose switch disconnectors that comply with the relevant standards in their basic versions and when combined with (makeproof) grounding switches. Applications C In power distribution, for rare switching of loads C Switching of distribution transformers Features C Multi-purpose switch disconnectors complying with the relevant standards C Can be combined with make-proof grounding switches C Welded basic frame C Isolating blades C Robust arc quenching chambers C Switching angle is always 90° C Can also be supplied as Class B and acc. to IEC 60420 Customer benefit C High operator safety C Easy installation C Easy handling C Reliability and safety 3D grounding switch and disconnector 3D grounding switches and disconnectors are well suited for indoor installations up to 40.5 kV. In addition, our product range includes makeproof grounding switches for 12 kV and 24 kV with a rated short-circuit making current of 50 kA or 40 kA.

Photo 4/31

3CJ1 switch disconnector

Photo 4/32

3DC disconnector

Rated voltage

kV

12

17.5

24

36

Rated short-time current (1s)

kA

25

25

25

20

Rated short-circuit making current

kA

63

63

50

25

A

630

630

630

630

Rated operating current Table 4/39

Ratings for 3CJ2 switch disconnectors

Rated voltage

kV

12

24

36

40.5

Rated short-time current (1s)

kA

20 – 63

20 – 31.5

20 – 31.5

20 – 31.5

Rated surge current

kA

40 – 160

40 – 80

50 – 80

80

Rated operating current Table 4/40

A

630 – 3,000 630 – 2,500 630 – 3,000 1,250 – 2,500

Ratings for disconnectors and grounding switches

Applications C To protect personnel when working at equipment Features C Utmost reliability and operating safety C Simple, robust construction C Can be used in difficult climatic environments

C Mechanical service life up to 5,000 operating cycles Customer benefit C Utmost safety for works at switchgear installations C Easy handling

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3GD high-voltage high-rupturingcapacity fuses High-voltage high-rupturing-capacity (HV HRC) fuses are used for shortcircuit protection. Applications C Short-circuit protection in medium-voltage installations C Protection of transformers, motors and capacitors for example C Can be combined with load interrupter switches Features C Fuse base for fuse-link, can be supplied as 1-pole or 3-pole version C Cuts short-circuit currents to low values

Photo 4/33

4M instrument transformers for safe measurements

3GH fuse base with HV HRC fuse-links

Rated voltageg

kV

7.2

12

24

36

Rated short-circuit breaking current

kA

63 – 80

40 – 63

31.5 – 40

31.5

Rated operating current

kA

6.3 – 250

6,3 – 160

6.3 – 100

6.3 – 40

Rated voltage

kV

3.6 / 7.2

12

24

36

Surge current withstand strength

kA

44

44

44

44

A

400

400

400

400

3GH fuse base

Applications C In all types of electrical installations

4/82

Photo 4/34

3GD HV HRC fuse-link

Customer benefit C Reliable protection of connected consumers C Thanks to its current-limiting function, more inexpensive consumers can be used

Features C Measurement of electrical quantities in electrical installations C Transformation of currents or voltages into quantities that are better suited for protective devices C Disconnection of high or low voltage C For indoor and outdoor installations C Comprehensive product range: can be supplied in compliance with every relevant standard C Manufactured using state-of-the art cast-resin technologies C Partial discharge level is below the test values required by IEC

HV HRC fuse, type 3GD

Rated current Table 4/41

Product range and rating data

Customer benefit C Provides safety due to reliable detection of fault currents C 3E surge arrester Applications C Industry C Power plants Features C Protects the insulators of plants or plant sections against excessive voltage stress C Overvoltage limiter to protect

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C C C C

high-voltage motors, dry-type transformers and cable networks up to 15 kV Special arrester to protect rotating machines and furnaces up to 42 kV Plastic or porcelain enclosure Very high energy absorption capacity Stable and self-contained construction for type 3EE2 Extremely high short-circuit strength (types 3EF3 and 3EE2)

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Medium Voltage

Photo 4/35

Photo 4/36

4MA block-type current transformer

3EE2 surge arrester

Customer benefit C Lower protective level than in traditional arresters C Universal solution for an effective protection of high-voltage motors, because the protective characteristics of arresters are relatively unsusceptible to steep-edge surges

Current transformers

Ur (kV)

Ir (A)

Changeover option No. of cores

4MA7 insulator-type current transformer

12 24 36

10 – 2,500

Primary or secondary changeover

3

4MB1 insulator-type current transformer

12 24

1,500 – 6,000

Secondary changeover

3

4MC2 bushing-type current transformers

12 24 36

150 – 3,000

Secondary changeover

4

4MC3 bushing-type current transformers

12 24 36

1,000 – 10,000

Secondary changeover

4

4ME1 current transformer for outdoor installations

12 24 36 52

5 – 1,200

Primary or secondary changeover

3

Voltage transformers

Ur (kV)

Rating of the measuring winding (VA)/class

Thermal limit rating of ground-fault detection winding (VA / A)

4MR1, 4MR2 indoor, single and two-pole, small model

12 24

20/0.2; 50/0.5; 100/1 20/0.2; 50/0.5; 100/1

230/4*

4MR5, 4MR6 indoor, single and two-pole, large model

12 24 36

30/0.2; 100/0.5; 200/1 45/0.2; 100/0.5; 200/1 350/6* 50/0.2; 100/0.5; 200/1

4MS outdoor, single-pole

12 24 36 52

30/0.2; 30/0.2; 25/0.2; 60/0.2;

4MS4

36

60/0.2; 150/0.5; 400/1

100/0.5; 200/1 100/0.5; 200/1 75/0.5; 150/1 180/0.5; 400/1

230/4* 230/4* 230/4* 500/9

* Higher values on request Table 4/42

Product range of current and voltage transformers

3EF

3EH2

3EE2

For networks

kV

3.6 to 15

4.7 to 42

4.5 to 42

Rated discharge surge current

kA

1

10

10

Short-circuit current

kA

1 to 40

16

50 to 300

Table 4/43

Surge arresters – technical data and product range

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4.4 PQM®– Power Quality Management and Load Flow Control The future of the rapidly changing global power distribution markets lies in the form of power grid operations. Switching high currents, measures to be taken by power quality management and handling short circuits remain the major tasks in this context. New technologies, such as static and dynamic compensation equipment and network couplings based on power electronic components, are the logical choice to meet these challenges. POWERCOMP are products and systems that ensure high power quality of an industrial or public medium-voltage supply grid. By utilizing systems for reactive power compensation that are tailored to meet customer requirements, the price of the power quantities delivered will be reduced. Return of investment can often be achieved within less than two years. In the event of significant load fluctuations, dynamic compensation systems using thyristor valves or IGBT modules ensure a stable supply voltage. Powerful filter circuit systems reduce effective harmonic currents of speed-controlled large drives, and thus, operating permits for the connection of such plants can be obtained. POWERCOMP systems are

4/84

Photo 4/37

2-MW SIPLINK system at the municipal utilities of Ulm in Germany

modularly designed and can be used in the voltage range of 3 kV to 36 kV. SIPLINK, the medium-voltage DC transmission system, allows economical power exchange at the medium voltage level by using power electronics. Power supply systems with differing parameters can thus be coupled, costs can be saved by optimizing power procurement, the load flow during power transmission is controlled and a constant supply of voltage is maintained through the provision of reactive power.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Innovative solutions for power supply Most consumers don’t just draw active power from the grid but also reactive power which is somewhat erratically transmitted to the consumer. For this reason, in their supply contracts, power supply companies define the exact power factor as the ratio between active power to be transmitted and the apparent power. Any deviation is on account of the customer. This makes power quality management a very interesting topic.

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Seite 85

Medium Voltage

Input power supplied by the power supply company, to be paid by the customer

Input power from the tuning capacitor

Active power P

Reactive power Q

Required apparent power S

Fig. 4/37

Definition of electric power types – compensation

Photo 4/38

Outdoor installation

are gaining ground in the context of growing cost pressure and the widespread use of electronic modules and power electronics for automating and control tasks. Thanks to the use of intelligent load flow controls, performance- and costoptimized power procurement is now attainable. Subnetworks with deviating parameters can also be connected, which means that their voltage stability and quality can thus be positively influenced.

Photo 4/39

Compact compensation unit

State-of-the art power electronics provide efficient and cost-effective options for optimizing power supply and power quality. Such applications

Applications in the field of power quality management initially require comprehensive measurements of power and harmonic ratios, which are taken using high-tech measuring instruments. By means of a specially developed program, these data are evaluated in a network analysis that

simulates real conditions, taking numerous consumer and load requirements into account. This analysis helps to develop and implement the proper PQM solution even for highly complex and sensitive networks. POWERCOMP compensation systems for medium voltage Compact, intelligent and expandable – this characterizes POCOS®, a system which is, above all, suitable for use in medium-voltage installations that require a compensation system for a certain technical process or for reasons of ambitious customer specifications. Extensive experience from use of this system the world over is continually being channeled into its further development.

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Seite 86

SIPLINK ship

Wherever fast load changes result in a dynamic impact on the voltage at the point of connection, or wherever a highly sensitive voltage control is required, dynamic compensation systems do the job. Their dynamic reactive-power compensation function can be combined with an activepower filtering function. Fast changing load characteristics of arc furnaces and mill trains affect the system voltage as much as, for example, the dynamic load characteristics in traction systems. Long-standing experience and comprehensive process knowledge about industrial power supply systems guarantee economical solutions that take customer needs into account. For further information please contact: [email protected]

Photo 4/41

Transformer/container model

As required, several units can be operated side by side. Choked or nonchoked options are feasible. Despite the extremely compact design, a high compensation effect is achieved owing to the use of vacuum switchgear, optimized capacitors and iron-core reactors. Besides the basic model for indoor installation, systems for outdoor installation are also available. Compact compensation systems are not necessarily suited to every type of application. In some cases, it may be more reasonable to use conventional systems with capacitors or filter circuits. For the primary industry (including paper, cement, steel, chemical and glass), this type of compensation system has been installed at every voltage level all over the world.

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SIPLINK Closed-loop controlled load flow for power systems with special requirements With SIPLINK (Siemens Multifunctional Power Link), Siemens has developed a technology for mediumvoltage direct current transmission that – depending on the application and configuration of an existing supply system – can be utilized by power supply companies and industrial plant operators alike to make tremendous savings in terms of costs of investment, operation and total plant service life. SIPLINK controls the load flow during power transmission and ensures optimal voltage stability by a controlled output of reactive power. In order to do so, SIPLINK uses technology that is based on self-commutated IGBTs, which allows networks to be linked that still remain electri-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

cally isolated. In this case, the connected networks may even feature different voltage levels, neutral point connections, frequencies and phase angles. The SIPLINK can also be used to supply a separate network without a power generating set of its own, in particular if network parameters that differ from the distribution system are required. Typical examples are test bays (for 60 Hz or surge voltage generation), or shipyards and connection points in harbors for the supply of on-board networks of ships. Individual plant sections with different requirements to power quality and safety of supply can also be operated isolated from the general power supply using SIPLINK. For further information please contact: [email protected]

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4.5 Planning of Systems for Primary and Secondary Power Distribution Exemplified by the Automotive Industry

sive know-how about the equipment and systems under consideration. This know-how will be detailed on the basis of process-related power supply planning for a car manufacturing plant.

When power supply systems are planned, each individual problem can be faced in various ways: by means of technical solutions that feature specific technical advantages. This means that both a thorough knowledge of the relevant industrial technology is required and comprehen-

During the planning of a power supply system, decisions must be made regarding the power system design, ratings and operating mode. These decisions must focus on the specific process requirements of the press shop, body shop, paint shop and the final car assembly. Network and plant engineering solutions for the opti-

mum fulfillment of requirements placed on the power supply of a car manufacturing plant will be demonstrated here. Requirements to the power supply system set by the process The process flow in an automotive manufacturing plant determines the requirements to the electric power system. The following requirements shall be met: C Covering a process-oriented power demand

Process flow Store

Press shop PR

Body shop BS

Paint shop PS

Auxiliary facilities Store

Final assembly FA

Compressor system CS

Store

Transformer Main substation switchgear

Heating and boiler system HB

Social & administrative building AB

Paint shop switchgear

BS

PS / System 1

PR 110/20 kV

0.4 kV CS

0.4 kV

M1

AB

HB

M5

0.4 kV PS / System 2

M6

UPS M10

FA

6 kV

0.4 kV

110/20 kV

G 3~

0.4 kV

0.4 kV 0.4 kV

20 kV

Fig. 4/38

20 kV

20 kV

Model network (110/20/6/0.4 kV) to supply production processes in an automotive manufacturing plant

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MV

TS2

TS1

C Ensuring a high degree of supply safety by mastering the (n-1) principle C Ensuring high power quality in accordance with DIN EN 50160:2000-03 (properties of the supply voltage) and DIN EN 61000-2-4 (VDE 0839 Parts 2-4):2003-05 (EMC level) C Ensuring a high degree of safety for man and machinery under normal operating conditions as well as under fault conditions C High adaptability to changing manufacturing processes C Reduction of operating costs due to low maintenance expense and low power losses C Simple operatability and operatorfriendly systems alike In automotive manufacturing plants, a network configuration as shown in Fig. 4/38 has proved its worth with regard to technically and economically efficient implementation of these requirements. Optimum power system and plant configuration The power supply for the production halls in a car manufacturing plant is distributed by means of medium-voltage load center systems. Every MV load center system is operated in combination with a low-voltage system built from high-current busbars and busbar trunking systems (Fig. 4/39 and 4/40). These high-current busbars and busbar trunking systems replace the typical line network and its main and subdistributions that used to supply the consumers. The PEHLA-tested transformer load center substation (TS station), tested in

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MEB

TS3

TS4

MEB

3

MEB

3

MEB

3

3

L1-L3

PEN LV

High-current busbar system 3

3

N

5

A“≤ 16 mm2

3

L1-L3

L1-L3

N

N

PE

PE

A ≥ 25 mm2

Busbar trunking system

TS1…TS4 Load center substations distributed in the production area MEB Main equipotential bonding Fig. 4/39

Load center network in combination with a TN-C-S system built from busbar trunking systems

accordance with DIN EN 61330 (VDE 0670 Part 611):1997-08, has proven itself as an economical and safe element in distributed power supply.

Most favorable operating mode from the point of view of power engineering – medium voltage (MV)

Protection for the TS stations, which are equipped with cast-resin transformers, is provided by a load-switchfuse combination which is rated and selected according to the criteria given in IEC 62271-105:2002-08 or DIN EN 60420 (VDE Part 303):1994-09. The relevant standard for the selection of the high-voltage high rupturing capacity fuses (HV HRC fuses) is DIN VDE 0670-402 (VDE 0670 Part 402):1998-05.

The operating mode of the MV power system is determined by the type of neutral point connection. The most important types of neutral point connection in MV systems according to DIN VDE 0101 (VDE 0101):2000-01 are as follows: C Isolated neutral C Ground fault compensation or resonant neutral grounding (RESPE) C Low-resistant neutral grounding (NOSPE)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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There is a general tendency towards replacing resonant grounding of the neutral point by low-resistant neutral grounding in MV cable networks in the automotive industry. The following advantages are decisive for this trend: C (n-1)-redundant network design allows selective disconnection of 1-pole faults C Protective disconnection of the fault location is carried out without interrupting the power supply C Clearly defined protective trippings and changes of the switching status enable integrated power automation C Low-resistant grounded neutral operation (resistance) prevents high transient long-term operating overvoltages C Danger of fault expansion and double ground faults is eliminated C Short tripping times limit follow-up damages of ground faults at the fault location The operating experience gathered with NOSPE networks used in plants of Volkswagen AG, Adam Opel AG and DaimlerChrysler AG confirms the advantages of low-resistant neutral grounding. BMW AG is another automotive manufacturer that has decided in favor of low-resistant neutral grounding of the 20-kV power system to be installed in their new plant at Leipzig.

MV

TS1

TS2

MEB

TL

3

TS3

MEB

3

TS4

MEB

TL

3

TL

MEB

3

TL

L1-L3

PE PEN High-current busbar system

LV 3

3

L1-L3

L1-L3

N

N PE

PE

Busbar trunking system

TS1…TS4 Load center substations distributed in the production area MEB Main equipotential bonding TLPE/PEN Isolating link (bridge only in one load center substation) Fig. 4/40

Load center network in combination with a TN-S system built from busbar trunking systems

Most favorable operating mode from the point of view of power engineering – low voltage (LV) The system types suitable for operation as LV systems are defined in IEC 60364-1:2001-08 or DIN VDE 0100-300 (VDE 0100 Part 300):1996-01. As far as the type of connection to ground

of the system power source and the type of connection to ground of the conductive parts in the electric consumer system are concerned, distinctions can be made between IT, TT and TN systems.

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20/0.4kV 1250kVA 6%

TS2

Seite 90

20/0.4kV 1250kVA 6%

TS2

The TN system is the preferred system type for supplying power to automotive manufacturing plants. For distributed transformer infeeds (highcurrent busbar), an LV system conforming to VDE can only be designed as TN-C system with common neutral and protective conductor (PEN conductor). Only at a lower level can a TN-S system be built with a separate neutral conductor (N conductor) and protective ground conductor (PE conductor). Consequently, LV systems for the automotive industry have so far been designed exclusively as TN-C-S systems.

20/0.4kV 1250kVA 6%

TS3

UN = 400 V S“k = 55 MVA

∆u‘ = 1.2 %

~

~

M5 3~

M1

M2 3~

M4 3~

M6 3~

M1

M2 3~

M5 3~

160 kW Press 5

250 kW Special press

160 kW Press 2

160 kW Press 4

115 kW Try-out press

280 kW Special press

160 kW Press 2

160 kW Press 5

Press line 1

In a modern automotive manufacturing plant, too, higher requirements are placed on electromagnetic compatibility in order to prevent any negative impact on the production process by electromagnetic interference of communication and information technology systems. An EMCsuitable LV system with a continuously de-energized PE conductor must be designed as TN-S system. In multiple-supply LV systems, a TN-S system is only feasible if the PEN conductors or the individual supply circuits can be grounded at a central point.

Press line 2

Average cycle time for pressing the body parts T = 4s (n = load operations/min) 101

∆u‘zul [%] 3 2 ∆u‘ = 1.2 % 100 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2

10-1

10-1

100

101 15 Load operations/min

102

103

[min-1]

104

n

Fig. 4/41

LV system rating in a press shop according to the voltage changes ∆u’perm as a function of the frequency n

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At present, the form of design represented in Fig. 4/40 is not backed up by national or international standards. Until a valid standard has been adopted, it is the sole responsibility of the switchgear installer or plant operator. So far, only Adam Opel AG has operated a multiple-supply LV system as TN-S system.

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Process-dependent particularities for the design of subsystems – press shop In the press shop, a large number of motorized press drives are installed for forming metal sheets into body parts. The individual power output of these drives is relatively high compared to the total power demand of the press shop and it puts a surgetype, intermittent burden on the power system. Another system perturbation is caused by the thyristor controllers of the press drives, as they generate harmonics of the vth order. Owing to the short-circuit power of the network, voltage changes due to surge-type loads must be limited in such a way that the operational safety of consumers is not endangered and the optical stress on the human eye by current fluctuations in the lighting system remains within reasonable limits. An example of how to meet this power quality requirement is shown in Fig. 4/41. Another requirement for the LV system in the press shop is for the permissible compatibility levels for harmonic contents to be observed as defined in DIN EN 61000-2-4 (VDE Parts 2-4):2003-05. To maintain these levels, the compensation system of the switchgear substations must normally be inductor-type. The optimum degree of choking p depends on the harmonic contents of the vth order (v = 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 and 25 for 3-phase bridge circuits) that are mostly present. In practice, inductorcapacitor units with a choking degree between p = 6% and p = 7% are mainly used.

Body shop Connection of the welders in the 400-V system of the body shop is carried out in groups by a symmetric distribution to the phase conductors L1-L2, L1-L3, L2-L3 (Fig. 4/42). Due to their intermittent operating mode, the machines for welding the body parts connected in the circuit do not constitute a continuous load. Therefore, the equipment in the welding circuit must be rated according to its thermal equivalent current. The thermal equivalent current must be calculated as a sequence of accidentally overlapping welding pulses. The calculation is performed by means of the thermal equivalent current method by establishing the square average, a probability calculation based on binomially distributed welding currents. For rating the welding network, the thermal equivalent current is, however, merely of minor importance. What is more important are the voltage dips caused by the accidentally overlapping welding pulses. The probability calculation of these voltage dips is again based on the binomial distribution. To apply the Bernoulli formula, the different welding machine types are combined into one uniform equivalent welding machine with an identical peak welding current Iw, the identical power factor cosϕ and the same relative ON period OP. This probability peak load calculation provides the required indicator for evaluating the power supply quality in the body shop.

What is vital for quality-responsive welding of the body parts is the presence of voltage dips that do not exceed a limit ∆u’ = 10% in the statistic mean. Another quality indicator is the scrap rate for voltage-related faulty weldings λ(∆u’perm. > 10%). The permissible limit value for this scrap rate is λperm = 1‰. In the body shop, compensation can normally be made non-choked. For the non-choked compensation method, observance of the permissible compatibility level for harmonic contents has been verified by measurements in several 400-V welding networks in the automotive industry. A favorable solution in terms of power engineering proves to be the use of capacitors with a rated voltage of 480 V ≤ Um ≤ 525 V. Paint shop Paint shop processes are characterized by high load densities and long ON periods of the consumers. What is particularly typical is the negative impact on power quality caused by the rectifiers for the electro-dipcoating or cataphoretic painting process. In order to relieve the LV system from harmonic impact, these rectifiers are preferably supplied directly from the MV system via separate transformers. As important as the observance of the permissible compatibility levels for harmonic contents according to DIN EN 61000-2-4 (VDE 0839 Parts 24): 2003-05 is the strict fulfillment of safety-of-supply requirements set by the painting process itself.

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Q1

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Q2

Q3

nected between phase conductor (L1vL2vL3) and neutral conductor (N). In this type of connection, all current harmonics of the order v that can be divided by 3 add up in the neutral conductor N. The current harmonic whereby v = 3 is particularly distinctive. To prevent thermal overload caused by current harmonics, the phase conductors (L1, L2, L3), neutral conductor (N) and PEN conductor of the TN-C-S system (Fig. 4/39) or TN-S system are designed with identical cross sections as a matter of principle.

Q4

L1 L2 L3 PEN PE L1 L2 L3 PEN PE

L1 L2 L3 N PE

2,500 A high-current busbar

800 A busbar trunking systemsi

Summary

Welding machine group

i L1–L2

i L1–L3

i L2–L3

Number of welders

90

90

90

Peak welding current is

800 A

Relative ON period OP

8%

OP =

Fig. 4/42

ts 100, with welding time ts and cycle time T T Operation of welding machines arranged in groups in the 0.4 kV power system of the body shop (TN-S system)

This includes the uninterruptible handling of the single fault by a protective disconnection of the fault location from supply. Cast-resin transformers at the TS station provide an instantaneous standby or “hot” redundancy to handle such single faults. In addition, a standby supply is provided for sensitive and fail-critical consumers.

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Final assembly The connected power of the consumers in the final car assembly is relatively low as compared to the nominal power of the supplying transformers. For this reason, the maximum power demand of all consumers in the grid is important for system rating. Power demand is largely influenced by the simultaneity factor g, the degree of utilization a, the power factor cos ϕ and the efficiency η. In the final assembly plant section, a large proportion of the nonlinear consumers is single-phase con-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

The load center network in combination with a TN system consisting of busbar trunking systems is the ideal network configuration for the power supply of production halls in an automotive manufacturing plant. Low-resistant neutral point grounding is most advantageous for MV system operation. An EMC-suitable LV system with a continuously de-energized protective conductor (PE) must be designed as TN-S system. Currently, there is no binding standard for the design of a multiple-infeed LV system as TN-S system. There is only a unanimously optimum solution for the design and operation of the supply networks. The rating of the supply networks for the processes handled in the production halls results in engineering differences such as the number and size of the supplying transformers and the method of compensation.

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Transformers

chapter 5

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5 Transformers Transformers are one of the primary components for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Their design mainly results from the range of application, construction, rated power and voltage level. The scope of transformer types extends from generator transformers to distribution transformers. Distribution transformers are within the range from 50 to 2,500 kVA and max. 36 kV. In the last stage, they distribute the electrical energy to the consumers by feeding from the highvoltage into the low-voltage distribution network. These are designed either as liquid-filled or as dry-type transformers. Transformers with a rated power up to 2.5 MVA and a voltage up to 36 kV are referred to as distribution transformers; all transformers of higher ratings are classified as power transformers.

Rated power MVA

Max. operating voltage kV

Oil distribution transformers

0.05 – 2.5

≤ 36

GEAFOL cast-resin transformers

0.10 – 40

≤ 36

Table 5/1

Transformer types

General standards and specifications The transformers comply with the relevant VDE specifications, i.e. DIN VDE 0532 “Transformers and reactors” and the “Technical conditions of supply for three-phase transformers” issued by VDEW and ZVEI. Therefore they also satisfy the requirements of IEC Publication 60076, Parts 1 to 5, together with the standards and specifications (HD and EN) of the European Union (EU). Enquiries should be directed to the manufacturer where other standards and specifications are concerned. Only the US (ANSI/NEMA) and Canadian (CSA) standards differ from IEC by any substantial degree.

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Important additional standards C DIN 42500, HD 428: oil-immersed three-phase distribution transformers 50–2500 kVA C DIN 42523, HD 538: three-phase dry-type transformers 100–2500 kVA C DIN 45635 T30: noise level C IEC 60289: reactance coils and neutral grounding transformers C IEC 60076-10: measurement of noise level C IEC 60076-11: dry-type transformers C RAL: coating/varnish

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Transformers

Electrical Design Power ratings and type of cooling All power ratings in this guide are the product of rated voltage (noload voltage times phase-factor for three-phase transformers) and rated current of the line side winding (at center tap, if several taps are provided), expressed in kVA or MVA, as defined in IEC 60076-1. If only one power rating and no cooling method are shown, natural oil-air cooling (ONAN or OA) is implied for oilimmersed transformers. If two ratings are shown, forced-air cooling (ONAF or FA) in one or two steps is applicable.

In accordance with IEC 60076, the standard temperature rise for oil-immersed power and distribution transformers is: C 65 K (average winding temperature measured by the resistance method) C 60 K maximum oil temperature (measured by thermometer) The standard temperature rise for Siemens cast-resin transformers is C 100 K (insulation class F) at HV and LV winding.

1

I 1

ii

III

Yd1

i

iii

i

iii

II III

I

Dy5

I

iii i

III

iii

ii

II III

5

II

ii

Yd5

ii

II

i 5

11

Dy11

I

Yd11 i

ii III

Fig. 5/1

iii

I 11

i

For cast-resin transformers, natural air cooling (AN) is standard. Forcedair cooling (AF) is also applicable. Temperature rise

I

Dy1

II

ii III

iii

II

Most commonly used vector groups

Whereby the standard ambient temperatures are defined as follows: C 40 °C maximum temperature, C 30 °C average on any one day, C 20 °C average in any one year, C –25 °C lowest temperature outdoors, C –5 °C lowest temperature indoors. Higher ambient temperatures require a corresponding reduction in temperature rise, and thus affect price or rated power as follows: C 1.5% surcharge for each 1 K above standard temperature conditions, or C 1.0% reduction of rated power for each 1 K above standard temperature conditions.

These adjustment factors are applicable up to 15 K above standard temperature conditions. Altitude of installation The transformers are suitable for operation at altitudes up to 1000 metres above sea level. Site altitudes above 1000 m necessitate the use of special designs. For every 100 m above the permissible altitude of installation, the rated power for oil-immersed transformers is to be reduced by approx. 0.4% and for drytype transformers for approx. 0.5%.

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Transformer losses and efficiencies Losses and efficiencies stated in this manual are average values for guidance only. They are applicable if no loss evaluation figure is stated in the inquiry (see following chapter) and they are subject to the tolerances stated in IEC 60076-1, namely +10% of the total losses, or +15% of each component loss, provided that the tolerance for the total losses is not exceeded. If optimized and/or guaranteed losses without tolerances are required, this must be stated in the inquiry. Connections and vector groups Distribution transformers The transformers listed in this manual are all three-phase transformers with one set of windings connected in star (wye) and the other one in delta, whereby the neutral of the star-connected winding is fully rated and brought to the outside. The primary winding (HV) is normally connected in delta, the secondary winding (LV) in wye. The electrical offset of the windings in respect to each other is either 30, 150 or 330 degrees standard (Dy1, Dy5, Dy11). Other vector groups as well as single-phase transformers and autotransformers on request.

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Seite 4

Test voltages

Routine and special tests

Power-frequency withstand voltages and lightning-impulse withstand voltages are in accordance with IEC 60076-3, Paragraph 5, Table II, as follows:

All transformers are subjected to the following routine tests in the factory: C Measurement of winding resistance C Measurement of voltage ratio and check of polarity or vector group C Measurement of impedance voltage C Measurement of load loss C Measurement of no-load loss and no-load current C Induced overvoltage withstand test (windings test) C Separate-source voltage withstand test (AC test voltage) C Partial discharge test (only GEAFOL cast-resin transformers).

Conversion to 60 Hz – possibilities All ratings in the selection tables of this guide are based on 50 Hz operation. For 60 Hz operation, the following options apply: C Rated power and impedance voltage are increased by 10%, all other parameters remain identical. C Rated power increases by 20%, but no-load losses increase by 30% and noise level increases by 3 dB, all other parameters remain identical (this layout is not possible for cast-resin transformers). C All technical data remain identical, price is reduced by 5%. C Temperature rise is reduced by 10 K, load losses are reduced by 15%, all other parameters remain identical. Overloading Overloading of Siemens transformers is guided by the relevant IEC 60354 “Loading guide for oil-immersed transformers” and the (similar) ANSI C57.92 “Guide for loading mineral-oilimmersed power transformers.” Overloading of GEAFOL cast-resin transformers according to IEC 60905 "Loading guide."

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The following special tests are optional and must be specified further in the enquiry: C Lightning-impulse voltage test (LI test), full-wave and choppedwave (to be specified) C Partial discharge test C Heat-run test at natural or forced cooling (to be specified) C Noise level test C Peak short-circuit test. Test certificates are issued for all of the above tests on request.

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Seite 5

Transformers

Transformer cell (indoor installation) The transformer cell must have the necessary electrical clearances when an open-air connection is used. The ventilation system must be large enough to fulfil the recommendations for the maximum temperatures according to IEC.

A. Capital cost Cp · r CC = –––––– 100

amount ––––––– year

Cp = purchase price r=

p · qn –––––– qn – 1

q=

p –––– + 1 = interest factor 100

= depreciation factor

Transformer loss evaluation

p

= interest rate in % p.a.

The sharply increased costs of electrical energy have made it almost mandatory for buyers of electrical machinery to carefully evaluate the inherent losses of this equipment. In case of distribution and power transformers, which operate continuously and most frequently in loaded condition, this is especially important. As an example, the added cost of lossoptimized transformers can in most cases be counterbalanced by savings in power consumption in less than three years.

n

= depreciation period in years

Low-loss transformers use more and better materials for their construction, therefore their purchase price is higher. By stipulating loss evaluation figures in the transformer enquiry, the manufacturer receives the necessary information to offer a loss-optimized transformer rather than the low-cost model. Detailed loss evaluation methods for transformers have been developed and are described accurately in the literature, taking the project-specific evaluation factors of a given customer into account.

B. Cost of no-load loss CP0 = Ce · 8760 h / year · P0

Ce

= energy charges

P0

= no-load loss [kW]

amount ––––––– year amount ––––––– kWh

C. Cost of load loss CPk = Ce · 8760 h / year · α2 · Pk

amount ––––––– year

α

constant operating load = –––––––––––––––––––––––– rated load

Pk

= copper loss [kW]

D. Cost resulting from demand charges CD = Cd (P0 + Pk)

Cd

Table 5/2

amount ––––––– year

= demand charges

amount –––––––– kW · year

Cost examination for transformer selection

Table 5/2 gives a simplified method for a quick evaluation of different quoted transformer losses, making the following assumptions: C The transformers are operated continuously C The transformers operate at partial load, but this partial load is constant

C Additional cost and inflation factors are not considered C Demand charges are based on 100% load.

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Seite 6

The total cost of owning and operating a transformer for one year is thus defined as follows: A. Capital cost (CC) taking into account the purchase price (Cp), the interest rate (p), and the depreciation period (n)

Depreciation period................................. Interest rate ............................................

n p

Energy charge .........................................

Ce = 0.13 €/kWh

C. Cost of load loss (CPk) based on the copper loss (Pk), the equivalent annual load factor (α), and energy cost (Ce)

Depreciation factor r = 13.99

Equivalent annual load factor ..................

€ Cd = 179 ––––––– kW · year α = 0.8

A. Low-cost transformer

B. Loss-optimized transformer

P0 = 2.6 kW Pk = 20 kW Cp = € 12800

P0 = 1.7 kW Pk = 17 kW Cp = € 14300

Demand charge.......................................

B. Cost of no-load loss (CP0) based on the no-load loss (P0), and energy cost (Ce)

= 20 years = 12 % p.a.

no-load loss load loss purchase price

no-load loss load loss purchase price

D. Demand charges (Cd) based on the power demand set by the power supply company, and the total power loss.

12,800 · 13.99 Cd = –––––––––––––– 100 = € 1,790/year

14,300 · 13.99 Cd = –––––––––––––– 100 = € 2,000/year

CP0 = 0.13 · 8760 · 2.6 = € 2,961/year

CP0 = 0.13 · 8760 · 1.7 = € 1,936/year

These individual costs are calculated as shown in Table 5/2.

CPk = 0.13 · 8760 · 0.64 ·20 = € 14,580/year

CPk = 0.13 · 8760 · 0.64 ·17 = € 12,390/year

To demonstrate the usefulness of such calculations, the following arbitrary examples are shown, using factors that can be considered typical in Germany, and neglecting the effects of inflation on the rate assumed.

C0 = 179 · (2.6 + 20) = € 4,045/year

C0 = 179 · (1.7 + 17) = € 3,350/year

Total cost of owning and operating this transformer is thus:

Total cost of owning and operating this transformer is thus:

€ 23,376/year

€ 19,676/year

The energy saving of the optimized distribution transformer of € 3,700 per year pays for the increased purchase price in less than one year.

Table 5/3

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Example: 1,600 kVA distribution transformer

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Seite 7

Transformers

Mechanical Design General mechanical design for oilimmersed transformers C Iron core made of grain-oriented electrical sheet steel insulated on both sides, core-type C Windings consisting of copper section wire, copper band or aluminum band. The insulation has a high disruptive strength and is temperature-resistant, thus guaranteeing a long service life C Designed to withstand short circuit for at least 2 seconds (IEC) C Oil-filled tank designed as tank with strong corrugated walls or as radiator tank C Transformer base with plain or flanged wheels (skid base available) C Cooling/insulation liquid: Mineral oil according to VDE 0370/IEC 60296(3). Silicone oil or synthetic liquids are available (on request) C Standard coating for outdoor installation. Coatings for special applications (e.g. in aggressive environments) are available Tank design and oil preservation system TUMETIC® sealed-tank distribution transformers In ratings up to 2,500 kVA and 170 kV LI this is the standard sealed-tank distribution transformer without conservator and gas cushion. The TUMETIC transformer is always completely filled with oil; oil expansion is taken up by the flexible corrugated steel tank (variable volume tank design), whereby the maximum

operating pressure remains at only a fraction of the usual. These transformers are always shipped completely filled with oil and sealed for their lifetime. Bushings can be exchanged from the outside without draining the oil below the top of the active part. The hermetically sealed system prevents oxygen, nitrogen, or humidity from contact with the insulating oil. This improves the ageing properties of the oil to the extent that no maintenance is required on these transformers for their lifetime. Generally, the TUMETIC transformer is lower than the TUNORMA®transformer. This design has been in successful service since 1973. A special TUMETIC protection device has been developed for this transformer. TUNORMA distribution transformers with conservator This is the standard distribution transformer design in all ratings. The oil level in the tank and the top-mounted bushings is kept constant by a conservator vessel or expansion tank mounted at the highest point of the transformer. Oil level changes due to thermal cycling affect the conservator only. The ambient air is prevented from direct contact with the insulating oil through oil traps and dehydrating breathers.

Photo 5/1

Cross section of a TUMETIC three-phase distribution transformer

Photo 5/2

630 kVA, three-phase, TUNORMA 20 kV ± 2.5 %/0.4 kV distribution transformer

Tanks from 50 kVA to approximately 6,000 kVA are preferably of the corrugated steel design, whereby the sidewalls are formed on automatic machines into integral cooling pockets. Suitable spot welds and braces render the required mechanical stability. Tank bottom and cover are fabricated from rolled and welded steel plate.

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Seite 8

Connection Systems Distribution transformers All Siemens transformers have topmounted HV and LV bushings according to DIN in their standard version. Besides the open bushing arrangement for direct connection of bare or insulated wires, three basic insulated terminal systems are available.

Photo 5/3

Fully enclosed cable connection box

Photo 5/4

Grounded metal elbow plug connection

Fully enclosed terminal box for cables (Photo 5/3) Available for either HV or LV side, or for both. Horizontally split design in degree of protection IP 44 or IP 54 (totally enclosed and fully protected against contact with live parts, plus protection against drip, splash or spray water). Cable installation through split cable glands and removable plates facing diagonally downwards. Suitable for single-core or three-phase cables with solid dielectric insulation, with or without stress cones. Multiple cables per phase are terminated on auxiliary bus structures attached to the bushings. Removal of transformer by simply bending back the cables. Insulated plug connectors (Photo 5/4) For substation installations, suitable HV can be applied using insulated elbow connectors in LI ratings up to 170 kV.

HV

LV

Cable box

Cable box

Cable box

Flange

Flange

Cable box

Flange

Flange connection boxes

Elbow connector

Cable box

Elbow connector

Flange

Table 5/4

Possible combinations of connection systems

Flange connection (Photo 5/5) Air-insulated bus ducts, insulated busbars or throat-connected switchgear cubicles are connected via standardized flanges on steel terminal enclosures. These can accommodate either HV, LV or both bushings. Fiberglass-reinforced epoxy

5/8

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 5/5

Flange connection for switchgear and bus ducts

partitions are available between HV and LV bushings if flange/flange arrangements are chosen. Apart from open-type arrangements of the bushings, all terminal system combinations listed in Table 5/4 are possible.

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

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19:09 Uhr

Seite 9

Transformers

Accessories and Protective Devices Accessories not listed completely. Deviations are possible. Double-float Buchholz relay (Photo 5/6) For sudden pressure rise and gas detection in oil-immersed transformer tanks with conservator. Installed in the connecting pipe between tank and conservator and responding to internal arcing faults and slow decomposition of insulating materials. Additionally, backup function of oil alarm.

Photo 5/6

Double-float Buchholz relay

Photo 5/8

Magnetic oil level indicator

Photo 5/7

Dial-type contact thermometer

The relay is actuated either by pressure waves or gas accumulation or by loss of oil below the relay level. Separate contacts are installed for alarm and tripping. In case of a gas accumulation alarm, gas samples can be drawn directly at the relay with a small chemical testing kit. Discoloring of two liquids indicates either arcing by-products or insulation decomposition products in the oil. No change in color indicates an air bubble.

Dial-type contact thermometer (Photo 5/7)

Magnetic oil level indicator (Photo 5/8)

Indicates actual top-oil temperature. Sensor mounted in well in tank cover. Up to four separately adjustable alarm contacts and one maximum pointer are available. Installed to be readable from the ground. These instruments can also be used to control forced-cooling equipment.

The float position inside of the conservator is transmitted magnetically through the tank wall to the indicator. Devices supplied with limit (position) switches for high- and low-level alarm are available. Readable from the ground.

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5

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

Photo 5/9

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Protective device for hermetically sealed transformers (TUMETIC)

Protective device for hermetically sealed transformers (TUMETIC) (Photo 5/9) For use on hermetically sealed TUMETIC distribution transformers. Gives alarm upon loss of oil and gas accumulation. Mounted directly at the (permanently sealed) filler pipe of these transformers.

Seite 10

Photo 5/10 Dehydrating breather

Pressure relief device (Photo 5/12) Relieves abnormally high internal pressure shock waves. Easily visible operation pointer and alarm contact. Reseals positively after operation and continues to function without operator action. Dehydrating breather (Photos 5/10, 5/11) A dehydrating breather removes most of the moisture from the air which is drawn into the conservator as the transformer cools down. The dehydrating breather contributes to safe and reliable operation of the transformer.

5/10

Photo 5/11 Dehydrating breather

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 5/12 Pressure relief device

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Seite 11

Transformers

Technical Data of TUNORMA and TUMETIC Distribution Transformers Note: The tank with strong corrugated walls represented in Fig. 5/3 is the preferred design. For high voltages up to 24 kV and a rating up to 2,500 kVA (and with high voltages > 24–36 kV and a rating up to 800 kVA), the conservator is fitted at the vertical side just above the low-voltage bushings.

Standard

DIN 42500

Rated power

50–2500 kVA

Rated frequency

50 Hz

HV rating

up to 36 kV

Taps on HV side

± 2.5 % or 2 x ± 2.5 %

LV rating

400 – 720 V (special designs for up to 12 kV can be built)

Connection

HV winding: delta LV winding: star (up to 100 kVA: zigzag)

Losses The standard HD 428.1.S1 (= DIN 42500, Part 1) applies to three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50 Hz, from 50 kVA to 2,500 kVA, Um to 24 kV. For load losses (Pk), three different listings (A, B and C) were specified. There were also three listings (A’, B’ and C’) for no-load losses (P0) and corresponding sound levels. Due to the different requirements, pairs of values were proposed which, in the national standard, permit one or several combinations of losses. DIN 42500 specifies the combinations A-C’, C-C’ and B-A’ as being most suitable. The combinations B-A’ (normal losses) and A-C’ (reduced losses) are approximately in line with previous standards. In addition, there is the C-C’ combination. Transformers of this kind with additionally reduced impedance especially economical (maximum efficiency > 99%). The higher costs of these transformers are counteracted by the energy savings which they make.

Impedance voltage at rated current

6 % at (4 % only up to 630 kVA rated power and HV rating up to 24 kV)

Cooling

ONAN

Protection class

IP 00

Final coating

RAL 7033 (other colors are available)

Table 5/5

TUMETIC and TUNORMA three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers

Um kV

Lightning impulse test voltage AC test voltage kV kV

1.1



3

12

75

28

24

125

50

36

170

70

Table 5/6

Insulation level (IP 00)

for no-load losses, the listings D’ and E’ were specified. In order to find the most efficient transformer, please see the aforementioned section on “Transformer loss evaluation.”

Standard HD 428.3.S1 (= DIN 42500-3) specifies the losses for oil distribution transformers up to Um = 36 kV. For load losses, the listings D and E,

5/11

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Seite 12

12 11 10

3

8 2N 2U 2V 2W

H1

1U 2U

1W

B1

7 9

6

8

2

E

A1

2

Oil drain plug

3

Thermometer pocket

10 Lashing lug

6

Adjustment for off-load tap changer

11 Oil filler neck

7

Rating plate (relocatable)

8

Grounding terminals

12 Provision for mounting protective device

Fig. 5/2

9 Towing eye, 30 mm dia.

TUMETIC distribution transformer (sealed tank)

5

4

1 10 H1

3 8 2N 2U 2V 2W 1U 2U

1W

B1

7 9

6

8

2

A1

E 1

Oil level indicator

6 Adjustment for off-load tap changer

2

Oil drain plug

7 Rating plate (relocatable)

3

Thermometer pocket

8 Grounding terminals

4

Buchholz relay (optional extra)

5

Dehydrating breather (optional extra)

9 Towing eye, 30 mm dia. 10 Lashing lug

Notes: Tank with strong corrugated walls shown in illustration is the preferred design. With HV ratings up to 24 kV and rated power up to 2,500 kVA (and with HV ratings > 24–36 kV and rated power up to 800 kVA), the conservator is fitted on the long side just above the LV bushings.

Fig. 5/3

5/12

TUNORMA distribution transformer (with conservator)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Rated

Max.

Imped-

Combi-

No-load

Load

Sound

power

rated

ance

nation of

losses

losses

pressure power

voltage

voltage

losses

level 1 m level

distance

acc. to

tolerance

(centers)

CENELEC

+ 3 dB

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

Uz %

4JB.. 4HB..

50

12

4

..4744-3LB

B-A'

190

1350

42

55

340

350

860

980

660

660

1210 1085

520

4

..4744-3RB

A-C'

125

1100

34

47

400

430

825 1045

660

660

1210 1085

520

4

..4744-3TB

C-C'

125

875

34

47

420

440

835

985

660

660

1220 1095

520

4

..4767-3LB

B-A'

190

1350

42

55

370

380

760

860

660

660

1315 1235

520

4

..4767-3RB

A-C'

125

1100

34

47

430

460

860

860

660

660

1300 1220

520

4

..4767-3TB

C-C'

125

875

33

47

480

510

880 1100

685

685

1385 1265

520

36

6

..4780-3CB

E-D´

230

1450

x

52

500

x

x

710

710

1530

x

520

12

4

..5044-3LB

B-A'

320

2150

45

59

500

500

1090 1020

660

660

1275 1110

520

4

..5044-3RB

A-C'

210

1750

35

49

570

570

980

980

660

660

1315 1145

520

4

..5044-3TB

C-C'

210

1475

35

49

600

620

1030

930

660

660

1320 1150

520

4

..5067-3LB

B-A'

320

2150

45

59

520

530

1020 1140

685

685

1360 1245

520

4

..5067-3RB

A-C'

210

1750

35

49

600

610

1030 1030

690

690

1400 1280

520

4

..5067-3TB

C-C'

210

1475

35

49

640

680

960 1060

695

695

1425 1305

520

36

6

..5080-3CB

E-D´

380

2350

x

56

660

x

x

780

780

1600

x

520

12

4

..5244-3LA

B-A'

460

3100

47

62

620

610

1140 1140

710

710

1350 1185

520

4

..5244-3RA

A-C'

300

2350

37

52

700

690

1130 1010

660

660

1390 1220

520

4

..5244-3TA

C-C'

300

2000

38

52

760

780

985 1085

660

660

1380 1215

520

4

..5267-3LA

B-A'

460

3100

47

62

660

640

1150 1150

695

695

1440 1320

520

4

..5267-3RA

A-C'

300

2350

37

52

730

730

1030

930

695

695

1540 1420

520

4

..5267-3TA

C-C'

300

2000

37

52

800

820

1120 1120

710

710

1475 1355

520

36

6

..5280-3CA

E-D´

520

3350

x

59

900

x

1120

x

800

800

1700

x

520

12

4

..5344-3LA

B-A'

550

3600

48

63

720

710

1190 1190

680

680

1450 1285

520

4

..5344-3RA

A-C'

360

2760

38

53

840

830

1070 1120

660

660

1470 1300

520

4

..5344-3TA

C-C'

360

2350

38

53

900

920

1130 1130

660

660

1450 1285

520

4

..5367-3LA

B-A'

550

3600

48

63

800

780

1290 1290

820

820

1595 1425

520

4

..5367-3RA

A-C'

360

2760

38

53

890

910

1110 1230

755

755

1630 1460

520

4

..5367-3TA

C-C'

360

2350

38

53

950

980

1080 1180

705

705

1595 1430

520

6

..5380-3CA

E-D´

600

3800

x

61

1000

x

1250

800

800

1700

520

24

(200)

24

36

dB

to-roller

kV

160

LWA

dB

RollerHeight

Um

24

LPA

W

Width

kVA

100

Pk 75*

W

Length

Sn

24

P0

Dimensions

weight

TUNORMA

Total

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

HV side

Sound

TUNORMA

Type

Seite 13

kg

A1

B1

H1

E

mm

mm

mm

mm

1000

1050

x

x

Dimensions and weights are approximate values. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized. x: On request * Related to 75 °C

Table 5/7

Selection table for oil-immersed distribution transformers from 50 to 2,500 kVA

5/13

5

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Rated

Max.

Imped-

Combi-

No-load

Load

Sound

power

rated

ance

nation of

losses

losses

pressure power

voltage

voltage

losses

level 1 m level

distance

acc. to

tolerance

(centers)

CENELEC

+ 3 dB

TUNORMA

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

Uz %

4JB.. 4HB..

250

12

4

..5444-3LA

B-A'

650

4200

50

65

830

820

1300 1300

810

810

1450 1285

520

4

..5444-3RA

A-C'

425

3250

40

55

940

920

1260 1260

670

820

1480 1415

520

4

..5444-3TA

C-C'

425

2750

40

55

1050 1070

1220 1220

690

700

1530 1310

520

4

..5467-3LA

B-A'

650

4200

49

65

900

1340 1340

800

760

1620 1450

520

4

..5467-3RA

A-C'

425

3250

39

55

1010 1010

1140 1190

760

680

1675 1510

520

4

..5467-3TA

C-C'

425

2750

40

55

1120 1140

1220 1340

715

710

1640 1475

520

36

6

..5480-3CA

E-E´

650

4250

x

62

1100

x

1350

x

800

x

1680

x

520

12

4

..5544-3LA

B-A'

780

5000

50

66

980

960

1440 1330

820

820

1655 1385

670

4

..5544-3RA

A-C'

510

3850

40

56

1120 1100

1400 1250

820

820

1690 1415

670

4

..5544-3TA

C-C'

510

3250

40

56

1240 1260

1380 1260

820

820

1665 1390

670

4

..5567-3LA

B-A'

780

5000

50

66

1050 1030

1450 1350

840

840

1655 1510

670

4

..5567-3RA

A-C'

510

3850

40

56

1170 1150

1410 1270

820

820

1755 1610

670

4

..5567-3TA

C-C'

510

3250

40

56

1250 1280

1395 1290

820

820

1675 1540

670

36

6

..5580-3CA

E-E´

760

5400

x

64

1220

1420

x

960

x

1700

x

670

12

4

..5644-3LA

B-A'

930

6000

52

68

1180 1160

1470 1390

930

930

1700 1425

670

4

..5644-3RA

A-C'

610

4600

42

58

1320 1310

1400 1360

820

820

1700 1430

670

4

..5644-3TA

C-C'

610

3850

42

58

1470 1470

1410 1390

820

820

1695 1420

670

4

..5667-3LA

B-A'

930

6000

52

68

1240 1220

1570 1570

940

940

1655 1510

670

4

..5667-3RA

A-C'

610

4600

42

58

1370 1350

1475 1400

820

820

1760 1615

670

4

..5667-3TA

C-C'

610

3850

42

58

1490 1520

1440 1400

820

820

1765 1540

670

36

6

..5580-3CA

E-E´

930

6200

x

65

1480

1470

x

990

x

1830

x

670

12

4

..5744-3LA

B-A'

1100

7100

53

69

1410 1380

1500 1430

840

840

1710 1440

670

4

..5744-3RA

A-C'

720

5450

42

59

1650 1620

1560 1550

890

890

1745 1470

670

4

..5744-3TA

C-C'

720

4550

43

59

1700 1710

1500 1470

820

820

1745 1470

670

4

..5767-3LA

B-A'

1100

7100

53

69

1460 1440

1470 1530

835

850

1755 1610

670

4

..5767-3RA

A-C'

720

5450

42

59

1650 1620

1495 1420

835

820

1815 1665

670

4

..5767-3TA

C-C'

720

4550

43

59

1860 1910

1535 1500

820

820

1860 1645

670

6

..5780-3CA

E-E´

1050

7800

x

66

1680

1510

1030

x

1900

670

24

(500)

24

36

dB

to-roller

kV

400

LWA

dB

RollerHeight

Um

24

LPA

W

Width

kVA

(315)

Pk 75*

W

Length

Sn

24

P0

Dimensions

weight

TUMETIC

Total

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

HV side

Sound

TUNORMA

Type

Seite 14

Dimensions and weights are approximate values. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized. x: On request * Related to 75 °C

Table 5/8

5/14

Selection table for oil-immersed distribution transformers from 50 to 2,500 kVA

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

kg

920

x

x

x

A1

B1

H1

E

mm

mm

mm

mm

x

x

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Seite 15

Transformers Rated

Max.

Imped-

Combi-

No-load

Load

Sound

power

rated

ance

nation of

losses

losses

pressure power

voltage

voltage

losses

level 1 m level

distance

acc. to

tolerance

(centers)

CENELEC

+ 3 dB

Total

P0

Pk 75*

LPA

LWA

W

W

dB

dB

Dimensions

RollerHeight

to-roller

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

TUNORMA

Width

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

Length

TUMETIC

weight

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

HV side

Sound

TUNORMA

Type

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

%

4JB.. 4HB..

630

12

4

..5844-3LA

B-A'

1300

8400

53

70

1660 1660

1680 1480

880

880

1755 1585

670

4

..5844-3RA

A-C'

860

6500

43

60

1850 1810

1495 1420

835

820

1785 1510

670

4

..5844-3TA

C-C'

860

5400

43

60

2000 1990

1535 1380

820

820

1860 1520

670

6

..5844-3PA

B-A'

1200

8700

53

70

1750 1760

1720 1560

890

890

1920 1685

670

6

..5844-3SA

A-C'

800

6750

43

60

1950 1920

1665 1600

870

870

1740 1400

670

6

..5844-3UA

C-C'

800

5600

43

60

2160 2130

1670 1560

830

830

1840 1500

670

4

..5867-3LA

B-A'

1300

8400

53

70

1690 1650

1665 1640

860

860

1810 1595

670

4

..5867-3RA

A-C'

860

6500

43

60

1940 1920

1685 1680

870

870

1910 1695

670

4

..5867-3TA

C-C'

860

5400

43

60

2100 2130

1600 1490

820

820

1940 1725

670

6

..5867-3PA

B-A'

1200

8700

53

70

1730 1720

1780 1580

880

880

1760 1610

670

6

..5867-3SA

A-C'

800

6750

43

60

1970 1960

1645 1640

830

830

1810 1595

670

6

..5867-3UA

C-C'

800

5600

43

60

2240 2210

1740 1670

880

880

1840 1625

670

36

6

..5880-3CA

E-E´

1300

8800

x

67

1950

1740

1080

x

1940

x

670

12

6

..5944-3PA

B-A'

1450

10700

55

72

1990 1960

1780 1540

1905 1660

670

6

..5944-3SA

A-C'

950

8500

45

62

2210 2290

1720 1830

900

960

1935 1630

670

6

..5944-3UA

C-C'

950

7400

44

62

2520 2490

1760 1710

920

920

1975 1730

670

6

..5967-3PA

B-A'

1450

10700

55

72

2000 1950

1720 1710

1000 1000

1885 1670

670

6

..5967-3SA

A-C'

950

8500

45

62

2390 2340

1760 1710

960

960

1945 1730

670

6

..5967-3UA

C-C'

950

7400

44

62

2590 2550

1770 1700

930

930

1985 1780

670

36

6

..5980-3CA

E-E´

1520

11000

x

68

2400

1800

1100

x

2030

x

670

12

6

..6044-3PA

B-A'

1700

13000

55

73

2450 2640

1790 1630

1000 1000

2095 2070

820

6

..6044-3SA

A-C'

1100

10500

45

63

2660 2610

1830 1830

1040 1040

2025 1770

820

6

..6044-3UA

C-C'

1100

9500

45

63

2800 2750

1830 1830

1040 1040

2105 1840

820

6

..6067-3PA

B-A'

1700

13000

55

73

2530 2720

1830 1670

1090 1010

2095 2120

820

6

..6067-3SA

A-C'

1100

10500

45

63

2750 2690

1790 1740

1050 1050

2055 1840

820

6

..6067-3UA

C-C'

1100

9500

45

63

2830 2810

1725 1770

2065 1850

820

6

..6080-3CA

E-E´

1700

13000

x

68

2850

2120

2220

820

24

800

24

1000

24

36

kg

x

x

x

A1

B1

H1

E

mm

mm

mm

mm

x

x

x

1000 1000

990

990

1160

x

x

Dimensions and weights are approximate values. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized. x: On request * Related to 75 °C

Table 5/9

Selection table for oil-immersed distribution transformers from 50 to 2,500 kVA

5/15

5

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Rated

Max.

Imped-

Combi-

No-load

Load

Sound

power

rated

ance

nation of

losses

losses

pressure power

voltage

voltage

losses

level 1 m level

distance

acc. to

tolerance

(centers)

CENELEC

+ 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

%

4JB.. 4HB..

(1 250)

12

6

..6144-3PA

B-A'

6

..6144-3SA

6

dB

2100

16000

56

74

2900 3080

1930 1850

A-C'

1300

13200

46

64

3100 3040

1810 1780

..6144-3UA

C-C'

1300

11400

46

64

3340 3040

6

..6167-3PA

B-A'

2100

16000

56

74

6

..6167-3SA

A-C'

1300

13200

46

6

..6167-3UA

C-C'

1300

11400

36

6

..6180-3CA

E-E´

2150

12

6

..6244-3PA

B-A'

6

..6244-3SA

6

kg

Rollerto-roller

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

Height

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

TUMETIC

LWA

dB

A1

B1

H1

E

mm

mm

mm

mm

1260 1100

2110 2070

820

990

2145 1880

820

1755 1720

1015 1000

2235 1970

820

2950 3200

2020 1780

1260 1100

2110 2220

820

64

3190 3120

1840 1810

1060 1060

2115 1900

820

46

64

3390 3330

1810 1780

1015

990

2245 2030

820

16400

x

70

3360

2150

1250

x

2350

x

820

2600

20000

57

76

3450 3590

1970 1870

1220 1140

2315 2095

820

A-C'

1700

17000

47

66

3640 3590

2030 1760

1080 1090

2315 2010

820

..6244-3UA

C-C'

1700

14000

47

66

3930 3880

2020 1900

1110 1100

2395 2070

820

6

..6267-3PA

B-A'

2600

20000

57

76

3470 3690

2070 1830

1280 1120

2335 2320

820

6

..6267-3SA

A-C'

1700

17000

47

66

3670 3850

2030 2000

1230 1070

2265 2120

820

6

..6267-3UA

C-C'

1700

14000

47

66

4010 3950

2000 1850

1030 1030

2305 2010

820

36

6

..6280-3CA

E-E´

2600

19200

x

71

3930

2170

1340

2480

x

820

12

6

..6344-3PA

B-A'

2900

25300

58

78

4390 4450

2100 1890

1330 1330

2555 2540

1070

6

..6344-3SA

A-C'

2050

21200

49

68

4270 4430

2080 1840

1330 1330

2455 2250

1070

6

..6344-3UA

C-C'

2050

17500

49

68

4730 4710

2020 1730

1330 1330

2495 2170

1070

6

..6367-3PA

B-A'

2900

25300

58

78

4480 4500

2020 1860

1330 1330

2655 2660

1070

6

..6367-3SA

A-C'

2050

21200

49

68

4290 4490

2190 2030

1330 1330

2425 2280

1070

6

..6367-3UA

C-C'

2050

17500

49

68

4910 4840

2110 1980

1330 1330

2475 2180

1070

36

6

..6380-3CA

E-E´

3200

22000

x

75

5100

2260

1380

2560

x

1070

12

6

..6444-3PA

B-A'

3500

29000

61

81

5200 5090

2115 2030

1345 1330

2685 2550

1070

6

..6444-3SA

A-C'

2500

26500

51

71

5150 5110

2195 1950

1345 1330

2535 2450

1070

6

..6444-3UA

C-C'

2500

22000

51

71

5790 5660

2190 2190

1330 1330

2565 2240

1070

6

..6467-3PA

B-A'

3500

29000

61

81

5420 5220

2115 2030

1335 1330

2785 2675

1070

6

..6467-3SA

A-C'

2500

26500

51

71

5260 5220

2195 2030

1335 1335

2585 2580

1070

6

..6467-3UA

C-C'

2500

22000

51

71

5640 5470

2160 2080

1330 1330

2605 2305

1070

6

..6480-3CA

E-E´

3800

29400

x

76

5900

2320

1390

2790

1070

36

Dimensions and weights are approximate values. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized. x: On request * Related to 75 °C

5/16

TUNORMA

LPA

W

24

Table 5/10

Width

Pk 75*

24

2 500

Length

W

24

(2 000)

Dimensions

weight

P0

24

1 600

Total

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

HV side

Sound

TUNORMA

Type

Seite 16

Selection table for oil-immersed distribution transformers from 50 to 2,500 kVA

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

990

x

x

x

x

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:11 Uhr

Seite 17

Transformers LV terminals

Three-leg core

Normal arrangement: Top or, Bottom at LV side. Special version: available on request at extra charge

Made of grain-oriented, low-loss electrolaminations insulated on both sides

Resilient spacers HV terminals

To insulate core and windings from mechanical vibrations, resulting in low noise emissions

Variable arrangements, for optimal station design. HV tapping links on low-voltage side for adjustment to system conditions, reconnectable in de-energized state

HV winding Consisting of vacuum-potted single foil-type aluminum coils. See enlarged detail in Fig. 5/5

Cross-flow fans

LV winding

Permitting up to 50% increase in the rated power

Made of aluminum band. Turns firmly glued together by means of insulating sheet wrapper material

Temperature monitoring By PTC thermistor detectors in the LV winding Paint finish on steel parts

Insulation: Mixture of epoxy resin and quartz powder

Multiple coating, RAL 5009. On request: Two-component varnish or hot-dip galvanizing (for particularly aggressive environments)

Makes the transformer maintenance-free, moisture-proof, tropicalized, flame-resistant and selfextinguishing

Environmental category E2 Clamping frame and truck

Climatic category C2 (If the transformer is installed outdoors, degree of protection IP 23 must be assured)

Rollers can be swung around for lengthways or sideways travel

Fire class F1

Fig. 5/4

GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transformer

GEAFOL Cast-Resin Dry-Type Transformers Standards and regulations GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transformers comply with IEC 60076-11, CENELEC HD 464, HD 538 and DIN 42523.

Advantages and applications GEAFOL distribution and power transformers in ratings from 100 to approx. 40,000 kVA and LI values of over 200 kV are full substitutes for oil-immersed transformers with comparable electrical and mechanical data.

insulating materials are used throughout, so that all restrictions applying to oil-filled electrical equipment, such as oil-collecting pits, fire walls, fire-extinguishing equipment, etc., are omitted.

GEAFOL transformers are designed for indoor installation close to their point of use, which is often at the load center. Flame-retardant inorganic

5/17

5

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19:13 Uhr

Seite 18

GEAFOL transformers are also installed where oil-filled transformers must not be used: inside buildings, in tunnels, on ships, on offshore cranes and platforms, in wind power stations, in groundwater protection areas, in food processing plants etc. Often they are combined with their primary and secondary switchgear and distribution boards into compact substations that are installed directly at their point of use. As converter transformers for variable-speed drives they can be installed together with the converters at the drive location. This reduces civil works, cable costs, transmission losses, and installation costs. GEAFOL transformers are fully LIrated. They have similar noise levels to comparable oil-filled transformers. Taking the above indirect cost reductions into account, they are also frequently cost-competitive.

8

Runddrahtwicklung

8 U

7

1

7 6 5

By virtue of their design, GEAFOL transformers are almost completely maintenance-free for their lifetime.

4

6 4

3

3

2

2

1

2

8

3

7

4

6 5

Folienwicklung

GEAFOL transformers have been in successful service since 1965. A lot of licences have been granted to major manufacturers throughout the world since.

U

2 4 6 8

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1 3 5 7

Fig. 5/5

5/18

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

High-voltage encapsulated winding design of GEAFOL cast-resin transformer and voltage stress of a conventional round-wire winding (above) and the foil winding (below)

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:13 Uhr

Seite 19

Transformers

HV winding The high-voltage windings are wound from aluminum foil, interleaved with high-grade polypropylene insulating foil. The assembled and connected individual coils are placed in a heated mold, and are potted in a vacuum furnace with a mixture of pure silica (quartz sand) and specially blended epoxy resins. The only connections to the outside are copper bushings, which are internally bonded to the aluminum winding connections. The external star or delta connections are made of insulated copper connectors to ensure an optimal installation design. The resulting high-voltage windings are fire-resistant, moistureproof, corrosion-proof, and show excellent ageing properties under all indoor operating conditions. For outdoor use, specially designed sheet-metal enclosures are available. The foil windings combine a simple winding technique with a high degree of electrical safety. The insulation is subjected to less electrical stress than in other types of windings. In a conventional round-wire winding, the interturn voltage can add up to twice the interlayer voltage, while in a foil winding it never exceeds the voltage per turn because a layer consists of only one winding turn. Result: a high AC voltage and impulse-voltage withstand capacity.

Why aluminum? The thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and cast-resin are so similar that thermal stresses resulting from load changes are kept to a minimum (see Fig. 5/5). LV winding The standard low-voltage winding with its considerably reduced dielectric stress is wound from single aluminum sheets with interleaved castresin impregnated fiberglass fabric. The assembled coils are then ovencured to form uniformly bonded solid cylinders that are impervious to moisture. Through the single-sheet winding design, excellent dynamic stability under short-circuit conditions is achieved. Connections are submerged-arc-welded to the aluminum sheets and are extended as aluminum busbars to the secondary terminals. Fire safety GEAFOL transformers use only flame-retardant and self-extinguishing materials in their construction. No additional substances, such as aluminum oxide trihydrate, which could negatively influence the mechanical stability of the cast-resin molding material, are used. Internal arcing from electrical faults and externally applied flames do not cause the transformers to burst or burn. After the source of ignition is removed, the transformer is self-extinguishing.

This design has been approved by fire safety officers in many countries for installation in buildings where people are generally present and in other areas. The environmental safety of the combustion residues has been proven in many tests. Categorization of cast-resin transformers Dry-type transformers have to be categorized under the sections listed below: C Environmental category C Climatic category C Fire category These categories have to be shown on the rating plate of each dry-type transformer. Product conformity to the properties laid down in the standards for ratings within the approximate category relating to environment, humidity, climate and fire behavior has to be proven by means of tests. These tests are described for the environmental category (code number E0, E1 and E2) and for the climatic category (code number C1, C2) in DIN VDE 0532, Part 6 (corresponding to HD 464). According to this standard, they are to be carried out on complete transformers. The tests of fire behavior (fire class code numbers F0 and F1) are limited to tests on a duplication of a complete transformer. It consists of a core leg, a low-voltage winding and a high-voltage winding. The specifications for fire class F2 are determined by agreement between the manufacturer and the customer.

5/19

5

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19:13 Uhr

Seite 20

ing temperatures are not exceeded for extended periods of time. Temperature monitoring Each GEAFOL transformer is fitted with three temperature sensors which are installed in the LV winding. Solid-state tripping devices can be supplied separately on order. The PTC thermistors used for sensing are selected for the hot-spot winding temperature. Additional sets of sensors can be installed for them and for fan control purposes. Additional dialtype thermometers and Pt100 are available too. Special versions can be provided for 3.6 kV operating voltages of the LV winding and higher. Auxiliary wiring is run in a protective conduit and terminated in a central LV terminal box (optional). Each wire and terminal is identified and a wiring diagram is permanently attached to the inside cover of this terminal box. Photo 5/13 Flammability test of cast-resin transformer

Siemens has carried out a lot of tests.

Insulation class and temperature rise

The results for our GEAFOL transformers are something to be proud of: C Environmental category E2 C Climatic category C2 C Fire class F1

The high-voltage winding and the low-voltage winding utilise class F insulating materials with a mean temperature rise of 100 K (standard design).

This good behavior is solely due to the GEAFOL cast-resin mix which has been used successfully for decades.

5/20

Overload capability GEAFOL transformers can be overloaded permanently up to 50% (with a corresponding increase in impedance voltage and impedance losses) if additional cross-flow fans are installed. (Dimensions increase by approximately 200 mm in length and width.) Short-time overloads are uncritical as long as the maximum wind-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Installation and enclosures Indoor installation in electrical operating rooms or in various protective enclosures is the preferred method of installation. The transformers need to be protected against direct sunlight, sandstorms and against water. Sufficient ventilation must be provided by the installation location or the enclosure. Otherwise forced-air cooling must be provided by other equipment.

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

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19:19 Uhr

Seite 21

Transformers

Photo 5/14 GEAFOL transformer with plugtype cable connections

Instead of the standard open terminals, insulated plug-type elbow connectors can be supplied for the highvoltage side with LI ratings up to 170 kV. Primary cables are usually fed to the transformer from trenches below, but can also be connected from above. Secondary connections can be made by multiple insulated cables or by busbars, from either below or above. Secondary terminals are aluminum flat pad connections with bores. A variety of indoor and outdoor enclosures in different safety classes are available for the transformers alone, or for indoor compact substations in conjunction with high- and low-voltage switchgear cabinets.

Photo 5/15 Radial cooling fans on GEAFOL transformer for AF cooling

Photo 5/16 GEAFOL transformer in protective housing to IP 20/40

Recycling of GEAFOL transformers In GEAFOL cast-resin transformer types, the high-voltage and low-voltage coils form firm tubes owing to electrical and mechanical advantages and production-specific requirements. In order to recycle these valuable materials, these parts can normally be removed and post-processed with little effort, once the upper clamping structure has been dismantled and the top core yoke has been pulled out. It is common practice to recycle the main mass portions consisting of iron core, frame and truck.

5/21

5

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Seite 22

GEAFOL Cast-Resin Selection Tables, Technical Data, Dimensions and Weights

Standard

DIN 42 523

Rated power

100–20,000 kVA*

Rated frequency

50 Hz

HV rating

up to 36 kV

LV rating up to 780 V (special designs for up to 20 kV are possible) Tappings on HV side

± 2.5 % or 2 x ± 2.5 %

Connection

HV winding: delta LV winding: star

Impedance voltage at rated current

4– 8 %

Insulation class

HV/ LV = F / F

Temperature rise

HV/ LV = 100/100 K

Color of metal parts

RAL 5009

Table 5/11

GEAFOL three-phase transformers

Um kV

Lightning impulse test voltage AC test voltage kV kV

1.1



3

12

75

28

24

95**

50

36

145**

70

Table 5/12

Insulation level

2U

2V

2N

2W

H1

A1 * Power ratings > 2.5 MVA upon request ** Other levels upon request

5/22

Fig. 5/6

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

GEAFOL cast-resin transformer

E B1

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:19 Uhr

Seite 23

Transformers Rated

Max.

Imped-

power

rated

ance

voltage

voltage

Type

No-load

Load

Load

Sound

Sound

Total

losses

losses

losses

pressure

power

weight

level 1 m

level

HV side

Dimensions Length

Width

RollerHeight

to-roller distance (centers)

tolerance + 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

%

4GB..

100

12

4

.5044-3CA

440

1600

1900

45

59

630

1210

705

835

without wheels

4

.5044-3GA

320

1600

1900

37

51

760

1230

710

890

without wheels

6

.5044-3DA

360

2000

2300

45

59

590

1190

705

860

without wheels

6

.5044-3HA

300

2000

2300

37

51

660

1230

710

855

without wheels

4

.5064-3CA

600

1500

1750

45

59

750

1310

755

935

without wheels

4

.5064-3GA

400

1500

1750

37

51

830

1300

755

940

without wheels

6

.5064-3DA

420

1800

2050

45

59

660

1250

750

915

without wheels

6

.5064-3HA

330

1800

2050

37

51

770

1300

755

930

without wheels

4

.5244-3CA

610

2300

2600

47

62

770

1220

710

1040

520

4

.5244-3GA

440

2300

2600

39

54

920

1290

720

1050

520

6

.5244-3DA

500

2300

2700

47

62

750

1270

720

990

520

6

.5244-3HA

400

2300

2700

39

54

850

1300

725

985

520

4

.5264-3CA

800

2200

2500

47

62

910

1330

725

1090

520

4

.5264-3GA

580

2200

2500

39

54

940

1310

720

1095

520

6

.5264-3DA

600

2500

2900

47

62

820

1310

725

1075

520

6

.5264-3HA

480

2500

2900

39

54

900

1350

765

1060

520

4

.5444-3CA

820

3000

3500

50

65

1040

1330

730

1110

520

4

.5444-3GA

600

3000

3400

42

57

1170

1330

730

1135

520

6

.5444-3DA

700

2900

3300

50

65

990

1350

740

1065

520

6

.5444-3HA

570

2900

3300

42

57

1120

1390

745

1090

520

4

.5464-3CA

1050

2900

3300

50

65

1190

1390

735

1120

520

4

.5464-3GA

800

2900

3300

41

57

1230

1400

735

1150

520

6

.5464-3DA

880

3100

3600

50

65

990

1360

735

1140

520

6

.5464-3HA

650

3100

3600

41

57

1180

1430

745

1160

520

6

.5475-3DA

1300

3800

4370

50

65

1700

1900

900

1350

520

24

160

12

24

250

12

24

36

P0

Pk 75*

Pk 120** LPA

W

W

W

dB

LWA

GGES

A1

B1

H1

E

dB

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

Dimensions and weights are approximate values, valid for 400 V at the secondary side. The vector group is either Dyn 5 or Dyn 11. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized. * Related to 75 °C ** Related to 120 °C Table 5/13

GEAFOL cast-resin transformer for 100 to 2,500 kVA

5/23

5

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

Rated

Max.

Imped-

power

rated

ance

voltage

voltage

19:19 Uhr

Type

Seite 24

No-load

Load

Load

Sound

Sound

Total

losses

losses

losses

pressure

power

weight

level 1 m

level

HV side

Dimensions Length

Width

RollerHeight

to-roller distance (centers)

tolerance + 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

%

4GB..

(315)

12

4

.5544-3CA

980

3300

3800

52

67

1160

1370

820

1125

670

4

.5544-3GA

720

3300

3800

43

59

1320

1380

820

1195

670

6

.5544-3DA

850

3400

3900

51

67

1150

1380

830

1140

670

6

.5544-3HA

680

3400

3900

43

59

1290

1410

830

1165

670

4

.5564-3CA

1250

3400

3900

51

67

1250

1410

820

1195

670

4

.5564-3GA

930

3400

3900

43

59

1400

1440

825

1205

670

6

.5564-3DA

1000

3600

4100

51

67

1190

1410

825

1185

670

6

.5564-3HA

780

3600

4100

43

59

1300

1460

830

1195

670

36

6

.5575-3DA

1450

4500

5170

51

67

1900

1950

920

1400

670

12

4

.5644-3CA

1150

4300

4900

52

68

1310

1380

820

1265

670

4

.5644-3GA

880

4300

4900

44

60

1430

1380

820

1290

670

6

.5644-3DA

1000

4300

4900

52

68

1250

1410

825

1195

670

6

.5644-3HA

820

4300

4900

44

60

1350

1430

830

1195

670

4

.5664-3CA

1450

3900

4500

52

68

1410

1440

825

1280

670

4

.5664-3GA

1100

3900

4500

44

60

1570

1460

830

1280

670

6

.5664-3DA

1200

4100

4700

52

68

1350

1480

835

1275

670

6

.5664-3HA

940

4100

4700

44

60

1460

1480

835

1280

670

36

6

.5675-3DA

1700

5100

5860

52

68

2100

2000

920

1440

670

12

4

.5744-3CA

1350

4900

5600

53

69

1520

1410

830

1320

670

4

.5744-3GA

1000

4900

5600

45

61

1740

1450

835

1345

670

6

.5744-3DA

1200

5600

6400

53

69

1470

1460

845

1275

670

6

.5744-3HA

980

5600

6400

45

61

1620

1490

845

1290

670

4

.5764-3CA

1700

4800

5500

53

69

1620

1500

835

1330

670

4

.5764-3GA

1270

4800

5500

44

61

1830

1540

840

1350

670

6

.5764-3DA

1400

5000

5700

53

69

1580

1540

850

1305

670

6

.5764-3HA

1100

5000

5700

45

61

1720

1560

850

1320

670

6

.5775-3DA

1900

6000

6900

53

69

2600

2050

940

1500

670

24

400

24

(500)

24

36

P0

Pk 75*

Pk 120** LPA

W

W

W

dB

LWA

GGES

A1

B1

H1

E

dB

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

Dimensions and weights are approximate values, valid for 400 V at the secondary side. The vector group is either Dyn 5 or Dyn 11. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized. * Related to 75 °C ** Related to 120 °C Table 5/14

5/24

GEAFOL cast-resin transformer for 100 to 2,500 kVA

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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11.08.2005

19:19 Uhr

Seite 25

Transformers Rated

Max.

Imped-

power

rated

ance

voltage

voltage

Type

No-load

Load

Load

Sound

Sound

Total

losses

losses

losses

pressure

power

weight

level 1 m

level

HV side

Dimensions Length

Width

RollerHeight

to-roller distance (centers)

tolerance + 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

%

4GB..

630

12

4

.5844-3CA

1500

6400

7300

54

70

1830

1510

840

1345

670

4

.5844-3GA

1150

6400

7300

45

62

2070

1470

835

1505

670

6

.5844-3DA

1370

6400

7400

54

70

1770

1550

860

1295

670

6

.5844-3HA

1150

6400

7400

45

62

1990

1590

865

1310

670

4

.5864-3CA

1950

6000

6900

53

70

1860

1550

845

1380

670

4

.5864-3GA

1500

6000

6900

45

62

2100

1600

850

1400

670

6

.5864-3DA

1650

6400

7300

53

70

1810

1580

855

1345

670

6

.5864-3HA

1250

6400

7300

45

62

2050

1620

860

1370

670

36

6

.5875-3DA

2200

7000

8000

53

70

2900

2070

940

1650

670

12

4

.5944-3CA

1850

7800

9000

55

72

2080

1570

850

1560

670

4

.5944-3GA

1450

7800

9000

47

64

2430

1590

855

1640

670

6

.5944-3DA

1700

7600

8700

55

72

2060

1560

865

1490

670

6

.5944-3HA

1350

7600

8700

47

64

2330

1600

870

1530

670

4

.5964-3CA

2100

7500

8600

55

72

2150

1610

845

1580

670

4

.5964-3GA

1600

7500

8600

47

64

2550

1650

855

1620

670

6

.5964-3DA

1900

7900

9100

55

71

2110

1610

860

1590

670

6

.5964-3HA

1450

7900

9100

47

64

2390

1630

865

1595

670

36

6

.5975-3DA

2600

8200

9400

55

72

3300

2140

950

1850

670

12

4

.6044-3CA

2200

2200

10200

55

73

2480

1590

990

1775

820

4

.6044-3GA

1650

1650

10200

47

65

2850

1620

990

1795

820

6

.6044-3DA

2000

2000

9700

56

73

2420

1620

990

1560

820

6

.6044-3HA

1500

1500

9700

47

65

2750

1660

990

1560

820

4

.6064-3CA

2400

2400

10000

55

73

2570

1660

990

1730

820

4

.6064-3GA

1850

1850

10000

47

65

3060

1680

990

1815

820

6

.6064-3DA

2300

2300

10500

55

73

2510

1680

990

1620

820

6

.6064-3HA

1750

1750

11000

47

65

2910

1730

990

1645

820

6

.6075-3DA

3000

3000

10900

55

73

3900

2200

1050

1900

820

24

(800)

24

1000

24

36

P0

Pk 75*

Pk 120** LPA

W

W

W

dB

LWA

GGES

A1

B1

H1

E

dB

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

Dimensions and weights are approximate values, valid for 400 V at the secondary side. The vector group is either Dyn 5 or Dyn 11. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized. * Related to 75 °C ** Related to 120 °C Table 5/15

GEAFOL cast-resin transformer for 100 to 2,500 kVA

5/25

5

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Rated

Max.

Imped-

power

rated

ance

voltage

voltage

19:19 Uhr

Type

Seite 26

No-load

Load

Load

Sound

Sound

Total

losses

losses

losses

pressure

power

weight

level 1 m

level

HV side

Dimensions Length

Width

RollerHeight

to-roller distance (centers)

tolerance + 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

%

4GB..

P0

Pk 75*

Pk 120** LPA

W

W

W

dB

(1250)

12

6

.6144-3DA

2400

6

.6144-3HA

9600

11000

57

75

2900

1780

990

1605

820

1850

10500

12000

49

67

3370

1790

990

1705

820

6

.6164-3DA

2700

10000

11500

57

75

3020

1820

990

1635

820

6

.6164-3HA

2100

10500

12000

49

67

3490

1850

990

1675

820

36

6

.6175-3DA

3500

11000

12600

57

75

4500

2300

1060

2000

520

12

6

.6244-3DA

2800

11000

12500

58

76

3550

1840

995

2025

1070

6

.6244-3HA

2100

11400

13000

50

68

4170

1880

1005

2065

1070

6

.6264-3DA

3100

11800

13500

58

76

3640

1880

995

2035

1070

6

.6264-3HA

2400

12300

14000

49

68

4080

1900

1005

2035

1070

36

6

.6275-3DA

4300

12700

14600

58

76

5600

2500

1100

2400

1070

12

6

.6344-3DA

3600

14000

16000

59

78

4380

1950

1280

2150

1070

6

.6344-3HA

2650

14500

16500

51

70

5140

1990

1280

2205

1070

6

.6364-3DA

4000

14500

16500

59

78

4410

2020

1280

2160

1070

6

.6364-3HA

3000

14900

17000

51

70

4920

2040

1280

2180

1070

36

6

.6375-3DA

5100

15400

17700

59

78

6300

2500

1280

2400

1070

12

6

.6444-3DA

4300

17600

20000

62

81

5130

2110

1280

2150

1070

6

.6444-3HA

3000

18400

21000

51

71

6230

2170

1280

2205

1070

6

.6464-3DA

5000

17600

20000

61

81

5280

2170

1280

2160

1070

6

.6464-3HA

3600

18000

20500

51

71

6220

2220

1280

2180

1070

6

.6475-3DA

6400

18700

21500

61

81

7900

2700

1280

2400

1070

24

1600

24

(2000)

24

2500

24

36

LWA

GGES

A1

B1

H1

E

dB

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

Dimensions and weights are approximate values, valid for 400 V at the secondary side. The vector group is either Dyn 5 or Dyn 11. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized. * Related to 75 °C ** Related to 120 °C Table 5/16 GEAFOL cast-resin transformer for 100 to 2,500 kVA

5/26

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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19:19 Uhr

Seite 27

Transformers

5/27

5

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Seite B2

Low Voltage

6.1 Low-Voltage Switchgear and Distribution Systems

6.5 Switches, Outlets and Electronic Products

6.2 Protective Switching Devices and Fuse Systems

6.6 SIMOCODE pro – Motor Management Systems for Constant-Speed Motors in the Low-Voltage Range

6.3 Modular Devices 6.4 Maximum-Demand Monitors

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Seite B3

Low Voltage

chapter 6

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Seite 2

6 Low Voltage One important element of the Totally Integrated Power philosophy for power distribution by Siemens (see Chapter 3) is its comprehensive protection scheme. Especially in commercial or institutional buildings, in industry and in infrastructural projects, i.e. in production sites and administrative buildings, the highest safety requirements for systems and persons have to be met. Examples for this are airports or railway stations. Only an integrated protection scheme with systems and products from one manufacturer, with a guaranteed uniform quality standard, based on national and international standards, provides this high safety level. A protection system whose components are coordinated in an optimal way has been part of the Siemens product philosophy for a long time. These products that stand for reliable Siemens high-performance technology have been included in the Totally Integrated Power system. The result is an integrated protection scheme from the main distribution board to the consumer. The high reliability and availability of the system ensures a faultless operation on an economical basis. The components have been certified in accordance with all international standards and can therefore be used all over the world. As a leading manufacturer of technology, Siemens is setting new standards with respect to safety.

6/2

Components of the integrated Siemens protection scheme C Low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems from 6,300 A (e.g. SIVACON®, ALPHA) down to 63 A (e.g. SIMBOX®) C SIVACON busbar trunking systems for safe power distribution from 25 A up to 6,300 A C Protective switching devices and fuse systems for overload, shortcircuit and fire protection by way of circuit- breakers (e.g. SENTRON® 3VL), fuse systems (LV HRC, DIAZED® and NEOZED®) and miniature circuit-breakers C Residual-current-operated circuitbreakers for personnel and fire protection C Lightning current and surge arrester of the Classes B, C and D C Monitoring systems for undervoltage and overvoltage protection C Fuse switch-disconnectors for safe isolation and disconnection C Switching operations handled safely with conventional techniques or automated processes via main and EMERGENCY stop switches, operator units, modular, switching, control and signaling devices C Optimization of the power distribution by way of remote signaling, communication and control via bus systems

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 3

Low Voltage

6.1 Low-Voltage Switchgear and Distribution System

An overview of the available program of the Siemens low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems is shown in Fig. 6/1.

General

In Table 6/2, the essential selection criteria are summarised in the following four areas:

Low-voltage switchgear and distribution boards form the link between the equipment for the generation (generators), transmission (cables, overhead lines) and transformation (transformers) of electrical energy on the one hand, and the loads, e.g. motors, solenoid valves, actuators and devices for heating, lighting and air conditioning, and information technology on the other hand.

Medium voltage Low voltage e.g

Currents C Rated currents of the busbars C Rated currents of the power supply C Rated currents of the feeders C Rated peak withstand current Ipk of the busbars

Distribution system

Degree of protection and installation C Degree of protection C Protection against electric shock (safety class) C Material of the enclosure C Type of mounting (wall-mounting, stand-alone) C Number of front operating panels Type of device installation C Fixed installation C Plug-in C Withdrawable unit C Snap-on mounting on standard mounting rail Application C Eight different types of application

Enclosures

Busbar trunking systems

230/ 400 V 6300 A

3200 A

M

630 A

400 A 160 A

63 A

Fig. 6/1

M

M

M

M

Product range of low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems (European technology)

6/3

6

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Seite 4

Types of construction

DIN VDE

NF CEI

Small distribution board

SIMBOX 63

SIMBOX LC, SIMBOX Universal

Wall-mounted distribution board

ALPHA 160 / 400, ALPHA

ALPHA Universal

Floor-mounted distribution cabinet < 630 A

ALPHA 630

ALPHA Universal

High-power distribution board > 630 A

SIVACON

SIKUS Universal

SIVACON

Power Center

SIVACON

SIKUS Universal HC

SIVACON

Busbar trunking system

SIVACON

SIVACON

SIVACON

Table 6/1

ALPHA 400

Low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems in compliance with EN 60439 / IEC 60439

The low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems described comply with the following standards: EN 60 439-1/IEC 60 439-1/ VDE 0660 Part 500 Low-voltage switchgear assemblies; type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies. EN 60 439-2/IEC 60 439-2/ VDE 0660 Part 502 Low-voltage switchgear assemblies; special requirements for busbar trunking systems. EN 60 439-3/IEC 60 439-3/ VDE 0660 Part 504 Low-voltage switchgear assemblies; special requirements for low-voltage switchgear assemblies which can be operated by non-specialists EN 60 439-3/IEC 60 439-3/ VDE 0660 Part 504 Low-voltage switchgear assemblies (point-to-point distribution boards); special requirements for low-voltageswitchgear assemblies which can be operated by non-specialists. EN 60 439-4/IEC 60 439-4/ VDE 0660 Part 501 Low-voltage switchgear assemblies (point-to-point distribution boards); special requirements for construction site distribution boards. The various construction types of switchgear and distribution boards do not show any

6/4

BS

strict discrimination features. Therefore, the manufacturer and the operator use different terms for the same product. In most cases, the operator’s type of application will be decisive for the designation. Main or subdistribution board In order to prevent these problems with regard to the definition of terms, only the two terms “main distribution board” and ”subdistribution board” are used to give an example of a low-voltage system in an industrial plant (Table 6/2). Here, the main distribution board is supplied directly via one transformer per busbar section. The downstream motor control centers, control systems, distribution boards for lighting, heating, air conditioning, workshops, etc., which are again supplied by the main distribution board, are part of the subdistribution boards. Point-to-point distribution board ”Point-to-point distribution board” is the designation for all switchgear and distribution boards which supply the electrical energy radially via cables and leads from the ”point-to-point” distribution board to the remotely arranged consumers. The necessary switching, protective and measuring devices are combined centrally in the switchgear or distribution board for that.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Busbars (point-to-point distribution) With ”busbar trunking systems”, power is transmitted to the immediate vicinity of the consumers. The consumers are connected to the busbar trunking system via tap-off units with or without fuse protection and short spur lines or cables. Busbar trunking systems supply and distribute electrical power in industrial facilities and buildings. Tap-off units can be installed at suitable positions in the trunking, which makes these systems most suitable for consumers which need to be reinstalled at different locations frequently. They are also used as rising mains in high-rise buildings to supply the floor distribution boards. Busbar trunking systems can communicate. In these applications, the tapoff units include the appropriate communications equipment in addition to the required protective devices. In this combination, power distribution and automation are implemented in an object-oriented, decentralized manner. Types of construction All distribution boards in accordance with IEC 60 439; EN 60 439 in a locally preferred type in accordance with DIN/VDE, NF/CEI and BS.

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Seite 5

Low Voltage Type of

Switchgear

distribution board

Distribution systems

Point-to-point distribution board

Point-to-point

Line

2,0005)/ 630

Max. rated current of busbars

7,400 A

6,300 A

3,200 A

2000 A

A, 1,000 A

630 A

6,300 A

Max. rated current of supply

6,300 A

6,300 A

3,200 A

2,000 A

2,0005)/ 630 A, 2,000 A

630 A

6,300 A

Max. rated current of outgoing feeders

5,000 A

5,000 A

3,200 A

630 A

2,000/630 A

630 A

6,300 A

Rated peak current Ipk of busbars up to

375 kA

250 kA

187 kA

80 kA

68 kA

80 kA

286 kA

Degree of protection

Max. IP54

IP54

IP30, IP41 IP54

bis IP656)

IP651)

IP34– IP68

Device mounting type

Fixed moun- Fixed moun- Fixed mounted2), plug-in, ted2), plug-in, ted2), plug-in withdrawable withdrawable

Outgoing feeders with or without fuses

Fixed moun- Fixed moun- Fixed mounted2), snap-on ted2), snap-on ted2), snap-on mounting mounting mounting

Tap-off units with plug-in technology

Option

Mounting type (indoors)

Wall or stand-alone

Wall, standalone or double front

Wall or stand-alone

Floor- or wall- Wall mounted, or flush- or stand-alone surfacemounted

Wall

Suspended from ceiling, wall-mounted, sub-floor mounted

Operating front panels (quantity)

1

1 or 2

1

1

1

1

1 or 2

Protection against electric shock3)

SK 1

SK 1

SK 1

SK 1

SK 2 SK 1

SK 2

Enclosure material

Metal

Metal

Metal

Metal

Molded plastic Metal

Molded plastic Molded plastic Aluminum Metal

Type of application4)

1, 2, 4, 6, 7

1, 2, 4, 6, 7

2, 4, 7, 8

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

2, 3, 4, 5,

3, 8

System type

SIVACON 8PT, SIVACON 8PV SIVACON 8PT, 8HU SIKUS SIKUS Universal HC Universal

1)

Special version for shipbuilding IP66

2)

Option: withdrawable circuit-breaker

3)

Safety class: SK 1 = Protective ground connection; SK 2 = Protective insulation; SK 3= Safety extra-low voltage

Table 6/2

4)

1 3 5 7

5)

SIKUS Klassik

6)

SIMBOX Universal WP

SK1

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

8GK, 8GB, 8HP 8GD, 8GS…, ALPHA, ALPHA Stratum

Main switchgear station Light and energy distribution system Distribution cabinet Reactive power compensation

SIVACON 8PS Systeme CD-K, BD01, BD2, LD, LX, PEC

2 4 6 8

Main distribution board Subdistribution board Motor distribution board Control

Selection criteria for low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems

6/5

6

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Seite 6

6.1.1 SIVACON 8PS – Busbar Trunking Systems What are busbar trunking systems? Busbar trunking systems are the linking element between transformer and power consumer. They are used for power transmission and distribution. The new SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking system is a well proven system and the market leader in its field. It covers a current range of 25 A to 6,300 A, meaning it is suitable for any given application. The system is divided into 6 subsystems: CD-K (25 A – 40 A) BD01 (40 A – 160 A) BD2 (160 A – 1,250 A) LD (1,100 A – 5,000 A, ventilated) LX (800 A – 6,300 A, sandwich-type) and PEC (800 A – 6,000 A, cast) Power transmission Between the transformer and the low-voltage switchgear, busbar trunking systems transmit electrical power by means of system components. They are installed between the transformers and the main distribution boards, and also connect the subdistribution boards, including the feeder lines for power distribution to the consumer locations – busbar trunking systems with flexible tap-off units are used here. Busbar trunking systems are increasingly replacing connecting cables in the field of power transmission. With high currents in particular, cables must be connected in parallel. Owing to the high short-circuit power and resulting short distances of cable sup-

6/6

Photo 6/1

SIVACON 8PS – the right solution for every application

ports, this type of cable laying is both costly and time-consuming, not to mention problematic on account of the imbalanced power distribution. Moreover, the installation of cable trays is expensive, too. In contrast to this, busbar trunking systems are power transmission systems which constitute a type-tested system even when used as combined systems. They have been properly designed for this task as specified in their technical data. They can be used economically and ensure safe and reliable power transmission. Busbar trunking systems have proved their worth in power transmission over decades. Today, they are the first choice in this field of application, with almost no other system being a real alternative.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Power distribution In terms of pictorial projection, busbar trunking systems are an elongated busbar system (line distribution) of a point-to-point distribution board. Here, individual consumer taps are no longer connected rigidly to the system of busbars, as is the case with point-to-point distribution, but can be flexibly adjusted to changing tasks via appropriate tap-off units. This adjustment can be carried out as required within a system-related grid. This way, a variable line distribution system is created for line supply and/or area-wide power supply. The traditional, radial power installation with fixed wired cables and lines is no longer up to the state of the art. It is far too rigid for automated production sites. Cable laying in ducts, on trays, in walls or ceilings is an impediment to flexibility requirements.

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Seite 7

Low Voltage

Readjustment made easy Readjustments are indispensable in modern production sites, in particular in automated production. Rearrangements of machinery and restructuring of existing plant facilities call for a flexible adjustment of the power supply installation systems. Busbar trunking systems are particularly geared to these requirements. An area-wide power supply can be planned ahead. When modifications have been scheduled, the consumer tap-off units are taken to the new location of the machinery and simply readjusted at the existing system of busbars. Even completely new supply lines can be built up by reutilizing existing system components. This makes busbar trunking system an interesting investment into the future.

Photo 6/2

Lighting control with BD01 and CD-K systems

Photo 6/3

Control of supply with the BD01 system

Retrofitting and re-equipping without interrupting the production process is not only important for a continuous supply of electricity, but is also crucial for production sites that work in multi-shifts around the clock. Here, an interruption is only feasible, if at all, in very narrow time slots. Any modification must be achievable quickly and cost-saving. Consumer tap-off units must therefore be designed that allow for power tapping, relocation and extension under voltage, i.e. with a busbar track that has not been isolated from supply. This way, expensive interruptions of operation are avoided.

Communication-capable busbar trunking systems The growing requirements to the economic efficiency, flexibility and transparency of automated systems for building power supply and industrial applications make the trend towards decentralized power distribution and automation an irreversible process. In this electrifying context, intelligent power distribution concepts open up new savings potential and reduce the number of interfaces to the automation world.

SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking systems supply and protect consumers in a distributed manner, which means right on the spot. A recent development is the concept of combined, decentralized power distribution and distributed automation – in an integrated range of products: system networking results in a high degree of transparency on the one hand, and in central processing of recorded consumption and operating data on the other hand.

6/7

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Seite 8

Photo 6/4

CD-K system

Photo 6/5

BD2 system

Photo 6/6

LX system

Photo 6/7

BD01 system

Photo 6/8

LD system

Photo 6/9

PEC system

The concept of communication-capable busbar trunking systems is based on tap-off units which are complemented by communication-capable device units. The bus systems PROBUS-DP, AS-Interface and instabus EIB constitute the communications basis. These flexible modules enable the combination of different solution packages for specific customer requirements. Short planning and configuration times, fast installation of the power distribution and automation system, easy commissioning and a high degree of flexibility in terms of modified area utilization are measurable advantages of communication-capable busbar trunking systems.

6/8

CD-K C Rated current: 30 A, 40 A, 2 x 25 A, 2 x 40 A C Conductor material: copper C Rated operating voltage: 400 V C Degrees of protection: IP54, IP55 C Spacing between consumer taps: 0.5 m each, 1 m from one side or both sides C Rated current of the consumer taps up to 16 A, with or without fuse C Codeable tapping points BD01 C Rated current: 40 A, 63 A, 100 A, 125 A, 160 A C Aluminum as conductor material for up to 125 A, and copper for 160 A C Rated operating voltage: 400 A

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C Degrees of protection: IP54, IP55 C Spacing of consumer taps: either 0.5 m or 1 m from one side C Rated current of the consumer tapoff units up to 63 A BD2 C Rated current: 160 A, 250 A, 315 A 400 A, 500 A, 630 A, 800 A 1,000 A, 1,250 A C Conductor material: aluminum, copper C Degrees of protection: IP52/54, IP55 for power transmission C Spacing of consumer tap-off units: 0.5 m each from both sides C Rated current of the consumer tap-off units up to 630 A

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Low Voltage

Ratings

Conductors

Trunking unit, degree of protection

Tap-off unit, live adjustment

CD-K (25 A – 40 A)

2, 3, 4, 6, 2 x 4, copper, PE enclosure

IP54, IP55

up to 16 A

BD01 (40 A – 160 A)

4, aluminum, copper, PE enclosure

IP54, IP55

up to 63 A

BD2 (160 A – 1250 A)

5, aluminum, copper

IP52, IP54 with additional unit, IP55

up to 630 A

LD (1100 A – 5000 A)

4, 5, aluminum, copper

IP34, IP54

up to 1,250 A

LX (800 A – 6300 A)

3, 4, 5, aluminum, copper, Clean Earth, optionally 200% conductor

IP54, IP55

up to 630 A (up to 1,250 A no live adjustment)

PEC (800 A – 6000 A)

4, 5, copper

IP66, IP68 (140 h)

Table 6/3

Technical data

LD C Rated current for degree of protection IP34 and Al conductors: 1,100 A, 1,250 A, 1,600 A, 2,000 A, 2,500 A, 3,000 A, 3,700 A, 4,000 A C Rated current for degree of protection IP54 and Al conductors: 900 A, 1,000 A, 1,200 A, 1,500 A, 1,800 A, 2,000 A, 2,400 A, 2,700 A C Rated current for degree of protection IP34 and Cu conductors: 2,000 A, 2,600 A, 3,400 A, 4,400 A, 5,000A C Rated current for degree of protection IP54 and Cu conductors: 1,600 A, 2,000 A, 2,600 A, 3,200 A, 3,600A C Rated operating voltage: 1,000 V C Degrees of protection: IP34, IP54 C Tap-off units with circuit-breakers up to 1,250 A C Tap-off units with switch disconnectors with fuse up to 630 A

LX C Rated current: 800 A, 1,000 A, 1,250 A, 1,400 A, 1,600 A, 2,000 A, 2,500 A, 3,200 A, 4,000 A, 4,500 A, 5,000 A, 6,300 A C Conductor material: aluminum, copper C Rated operating voltage: 690 V C Degrees of protection: IP54, IP55 for power transmission up to 3,200 A C Tap-off units with circuit-breakers up to 1,250 A C Tap-off units with fuse switchdisconnectors up to 630 A PEC C Rated current: 800 A, 1,000 A, 1,200 A, 1,400 A, 1,750 A, 2,000 A, 2,500 A, 3,000 A, as parallel systems 3,500 A, 4,000 A, 5,000 A, 6,000 A C Conductor material: copper C Rated operating voltage: 1,000 V C Degrees of protection: IP66, IP68 type-tested for a duration of 140 days C Tapping points feasible for the installation of customer-specific tap-off units

Every element of the SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking system is tested prior to delivery. This test includes dielectric tests which are performed to ensure proper insulation. The entire SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking system is manufactured and tested in compliance with ISO 9001. Standards All SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking systems constitute type-tested switchgear assemblies (TTA) in compliance with IEC 60439-1 and -2. Approvals (system-specific) GL – Germanischer Lloyd LR – Lloyd's Register Of Shipping ABS – American Bureau Of Shipping BV – Bureau Veritas DNV – Dansk Norske Veritas RINA – Registro Italiano Navale SABS – South Africa GOST-R – Russia

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tap-off unit

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Seite 10

Photo 6/11

BD2 angular element

Photo 6/12

Communication-capable BD2 tap-off unit

1: Straight trunking unit 2: Tap-off unit 3: Transformer infeed 4: Connection to SIVACON 8PT/8PV 5: Directional change element 6: Clamp connection, fastener

Photo 6/13

Block diagram of busbar trunking systems

6/10

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 11

Low Voltage

≤ 4 MVA ≤ 690 V Cable or busbar system ≤ 6,300 A

Power supply LT

3 AC 50 Hz

Main distribution board Circuit-breakers as feeders tho the subdistribution boards

≤ 5,000 A

Connecting cables ET

ST

≤ 630 A

≤ 100 A

FT

≤ 630 A ≤ 630 A

≤ 100 A

M

Photo 6/14

M

Motor control center 1 in withdrable design for production/manufacturing plants

SIVACON 8PV low-voltage switchgear

6.1.2 SIVACON Low-Voltage Switchgear – Economical, Flexible and Safe

M M

M

M

M

Motor control center 2 in withdrable design for production/manufacturing plants

CBS Circuit-breaker design PS Plug-in design

Fig. 6/2

M

WS FS

Subdistribution boards for auxiliary system (lighting, heating air conditioning, workshops, etc.) ≤ 100 A Control unit

Withdrawable design Fixed-mounted design

Example for the structure of a low-voltage system in an industrial company

Introduction Low-voltage switchgear forms the link between the equipment for the generation (generators), transmission (cables, overhead lines) and transformation (transformers) of electrical energy on the one hand, and the consumers, e.g. motors, solenoid valves, actuators and devices for heating, lighting and air conditioning on the other hand. Since the majority of the applications is supplied with low voltage, the lowvoltage switchgear is especially important both for public supply systems and for industrial plants. The prerequisite for a reliable supply system is high availability, flexibility for process-related adaptations and high control and operating reliability of the switchgear. The power distribution in a system is usually implemented via a main switchgear station (power center or main distribution board) and a number of sub- or motor control centers (see Fig. 6/5).

SIVACON 8PV for the process industry The SIVACON® 8PV low-voltage switchgear is an economical, demand- meeting and type-tested switchgear assembly (see Photo 6/14) which is used in power distribution, in the chemical, mineral oil and capital goods industry as well as in public and private buildings. It is characterized by a high degree of personnel and system safety and can be used on all power levels up to 6,300 A: C as main switchgear (power center or main distribution board) C as motor control center C as subdistribution board

All modules used are type-tested (TTA*), i.e. they comply with the requirements of C IEC 60439-1 C DIN EN 60439-1 C VDE 0660 Part 500 and additionally C DIN EN 50274 (VDE 0660 Part 514), IEC 61641, VDE 0660 Part 500 Supplement 2 (arcing fault), DIN EN ISO 9001/14001 certification.

Thanks to the many options to combine SIVACON 8PV boards due to their modular design, all requirements can be met with fixed-mounted and plug-in as well as with withdrawable designs.

* Type-tested switchgear assembly

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Seite 12

Rated insulation voltage Ul

1,000 V

Rated operational voltage Ue

up to

Rated currents for busbars (3- and 4-pole): Main horizontal busbars Rated current Rated peak withstand current Ipk Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 6,300 A up to 250 kA up to 100 kA

Vertical busbars for circuit-breaker design Rated current Rated peak withstand current Ipk Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 6,300 A up to 250 kA up to 100 kA

for fixed-mounted and plug-in design Rated current Rated peak withstand current Ipk Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 2,000 A up to 110 kA up to 50 kA

for withdrawable design Rated current Rated peak withstand current Ipk Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 1,000 A up to 143 kA up to 65 kA

Switchgear rated currents Circuit-breakers Outgoing feeders Motor feeders

up to 6,300 A up to 1,600 A up to 630 A

Degree of protection in acc. with IEC 60 529, EN 60 529:

IP 20 up to IP 54

Tabl 6/4

690 V

Technical data

400 600

400

600

400 400 400

[mm]

Busbar compartment Device compartment

Cable/busbar connection compartment Cross-wiring compartment

Fig. 6/3

Panel structure

6/12

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Features of a SIVACON 8PV switchgear station C Type-tested standard modules C Space-saving base areas starting from 400 x 400 mm C Solid wall design for safe panel-to-panel separation C Highest packing density with up to 40 feeders per panel C Standard operator interface for all withdrawable units C Test and disconnected position with door closed C Visible isolating gaps and points of contact C Variable busbar positions at the top or at the rear C Cable/busbar connection from above or below Description Panel structure The cabinet is structured in a modular grid based on one modular spacing (1 M) corresponding to 175 mm. The effective device installation space has a height of 1,750 mm = 10 M. Basically, a panel is subdivided into four functional compartments (see Fig. 6/3): C Busbar compartment C Device compartment C Cable/busbar connection compartment C Cross-wiring compartment Main busbar system The main busbar system with busbar cross sections for rated currents up to 6,300 A can be used variably (see Fig. 6/7) and consists of the three phase conductors L1 to L3 and the PE, N or PEN conductors.

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Seite 13

Cable entry: Use:

Position of the main busbar system:

G

Busbar current: Mounting: Cable entry: Use:

400

Busbar current: Mounting: Cable entry: Use:

at the rear (top and/or bottom) In up to 4,000 A, Icw up to 100 kA on the wall or standalone from below and/or above main/sub-distribution board or integrated motor control center

Position of the main busbar system: Busbar current: G

2200

Position of the main busbar system:

Mounting: Cable entry: Use:

center (top and/or bottom) In up to 4,000 A, Icw up to 100 kA stand-alone, double front from below and/or above main/sub-distribution board or integrated motor control centre in double-front version

center top In up to 6,300 A, Icw up to 100 kA stand-alone, double front from below and/or above power center

up up up up up

to to to to to

Table 6/5

G

G

1200

Operating side

Busbar

Construction variants of SIVACON 8PV low-voltage switchgear stations by virtue of the variable position of the main busbar system

Rated breaker current In In In In In

G

1000

600

G Device installation space Fig. 6/4

G

2200

Mounting:

at the top In up to 2,000 A, Icw up to 50 kA on the wall or stand-alone from below motor control centre sub-distribution board

2200

Position of the main busbar system: Busbar current:

2200

Low Voltage

1,000 A 1,600 A 2,500 A 3,200 A 6,300 A

Panel width 400 500 600 800 1,000

mm mm mm mm mm

Ciruit-breaker panel width

Circuit-breaker design The circuit-breaker panels have separate functional areas for the device compartment, cross-wiring compartment and cable/busbar connection compartment (Photo 6/15). The cross-wiring compartment is located above the device compartment, the cable/busbar connection compartment below. Supply from above results in a mirror-image arrangement. The panel width is determined by the rated current of the SENTRON WL circuit-breaker (Table 6/5).

Photo 6/15

Circuit-breaker panel with withdrawable type SENTRON 3WL, 1,600 A rated current

Photo 6/16

Panel with motor assemblies

Withdrawable design

from supply (Photo 6/16).

If requirements change frequently, as often demanded by industrial processes, such as changes in the motor power or switching new consumers into supply, a withdrawable circuit-breaker technology offers the optimum for plant availability.

Withrawable units equipped with the communication-capable SIMOCODE motor protection and control units enable a cost-effective interfacing to the worlds of automation.

Consumer or motor feeders can be replaced or whole compartments can even be rearranged without that the switchgear must be disconnected

These withdrawable units are available in sizes 1/4 (11 kW), 1/2 (18.5 kW), 1 (37 kW), 2 (75 kW) 3 (160 kW), 4 (250 kW).

6/13

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Panel with pluggable in-line switch disconnectors and plug-in modules

Seite 14

Photo 6/18

Fixed-mounted panel with modular functional units

Owing to the plug contacts at the feeder side (Photo 6/21 Plug-in module), this technology enables fast replacement without the switchgear having to be isolated from supply. In-line technology, plugged In-line switch-disconnectors with fuses for outgoing cables up to 630 A. The banks are 50 mm (125 A), 100 mm (250 A) or 200 mm (400 A / 630 A) high. Photo 6/20

Withdrawable unit equipped with SIMOCODE

Plug-in technology Consumer feeders up to 45 kW and outgoing circuit-breaker units up to 100 A. The plug-in modules are 50 mm (11 kW) and 100 mm (45 kW) high. Fixed-mounted design

Photo 6/21

Plug-in module

Plug-in technology Thanks to their compact design, pluggable banks and plug-in modules make it possible to construct a panel at low costs and save space (see Photo 6/17).

6/14

In certain applications, e.g. in building installation systems, there is no need to replace components when the switchgear has not been disconnected from supply, or short standstill times do not result in exceptional costs.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/19

Reactive power control unit, 250 kvar, choked

In such cases, the fixed-mounted design (Photo 6/18) offers excellent economy, high reliability and sufficient flexibility. Modular functional units can be combined in the panel as required and if necessary, they can easily be replaced once the equipment has been disconnected from supply. Reactive power compensation Depending on the type of load, choked or non-choked control units (i.e. with or without reactors) are provided for reactive power compensation. Depending on the power installed and the ambient temperature, it may be necessary to mount a fan assembly (reinforcement of convection). The capacitor units are designed with fuse switch-disconnectors (Photo 6/19).

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Seite 15

Low Voltage

SIVACON 8PT for the infrastructure market Introduction The SIVACON 8PT low-voltage switchgear is the standard solution for building and industrial installations. SIVACON 8PT is tailored to the needs of the world market, i.e. it takes into account the demand for standard solutions from one manufacturer and for local production and the resulting advantages in terms of financing and procurement close to the plant. As a power distribution board, SIVACON 8PT is available throughout the world and can be used at all power levels up to 7,400 A, as a fixedmounted unit as well as a plug-in and withdrawable unit design. Your advantage: ”SIVACON Technology Partner” These are qualified and permanently audited switchgear manufacturers close to your company who were chosen by Siemens. This way, you will always benefit from Siemens know-how on conditions that can only be offered by a local sales partner. This is a fast, flexible and cost-effective solution for you.

The exclusive use of high-quality Siemens switchgear ensures a long service life and reliable operation. C Safety and proven quality for every system by type testing C Siemens switchgear for reliable operation C Worldwide presence through “SIVACON Technology Partner“ C High flexibility for economical solutions

Photo 6/22

SIVACON 8PT low-voltage switchgear, busbar at the rear, up to 3,200 A

Busbar system

Rear (top, bottom)

Rated insulation voltage Ul

Top

1,000 V

1,000 V

690 V

up to 690 V

Rated operating voltage Ue

up to

Rated currents for busbars Main horizontal busbars Rated current Rated peak withstand current Ipk Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 3,200 A up to 187 kA up to 85 kA

up to 7,400 A up to 375 kA up to 150 kA

For circuit-breaker technology Vertical busbars Rated current Rated peak withstand current Ipk Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 3,200 A up to 187 kA up to 85 kA

up to 6,300 A up to 250 kA up to 100 kA

For fixed-mounted design Rated current Rated peak withstand current Ipk Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to up to up to

1,150 A 110 kA 50 kA

up to 1,400 A up to 163 kA up to 65 kA

For in-line plug-in design Rated current Rated peak withstand current Ipk Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 2,100 A up to 110 kA up to 50 kA

up to 2,100 A up to 163 kA up to 50 kA

Rated currents switchgear Circuit-breakers Outgoing feeders

up to 3,200 A up to 630 A

up to 6,300 A up to 630 A

Degree of protection in acc. with IEC 60529, EN 60529:

IP30 to IP54

IP30 to IP54

Dimensions (mm) Height Depth

2,000, 2,200 600

2,200 600 to 1,200

Table 6/6

Technical data

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Seite 16

All of the modules used are type-tested (TTA), i.e. they comply with the requirements of C IEC 60439-1 C DIN EN 60439-1, VDE 0660, Part 500 C IEC 61641, VDE 0660 Part 500, Supplement 2 (arcing fault) C Quality management DIN EN ISO 9001 C Environmental management DIN EN ISO 14001 Features of a SIVACON 8PT switchgear, busbar at the top, up to 7,400 A

Photo 6/23

SIVACON 8PT low-voltage switchgear, busbar at the top, up to 7,400 A

0/ 80 000 1,

/ 00 0 1,0 ,20 1

0 80

0 80

2,200

2,600

0 60

/ 00 0 1,0 ,20 1

C Type-tested standard modules C (TTA) C Standardized busbar position at the top of the panel C 3- and 4-pole busbar system up to 7,400 A C Rated withstand current Ipk up to 375 kA C Deep switchgear compartment for universal installation C Modular structure of device compartments C Single-front and back-to-back installation C Cable/busbar entry from above or below C Cable connection from the front or rear Description

[mm]

Busbar compartment Device compartment Cable/busbar connection compartment

Fig. 6/5

Cross-wiring compartment (for control cables and contact conductors) Cable routing compartment for cables from above

Panel structure Generally, a panel is divided into five functional units (Fig. 6/5): C Busbar compartment C Device compartment C Cable/busbar connection compartment C Cross-wiring compartment C Cable routing compartment

Panel structure

Main busbar system The main busbar system with busbar cross sections for rated currents up to 7,400 A can be used in various ways (Fig. 6/6) and consists of the three phase conductors L1 to L3 and the PE, N or PEN conductors.

6/16

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 17

Low Voltage

Busbar system up to 3,200 A The frames are 600 mm deep and suitable for wall or rear mounting.

800/ 1000 600 L1 L2 L3 N/PEN

With cable connection from above, the depth of the frame is 800 mm or 1,000 mm.

Bedienfront

PE

200

Max. short-circuit strength: Ipk 200 kA Icw 80 kA

2200 1700

Max. rated current (35 °C): Ventilated 3,200 A Unventilated 2,400 A

Busbar system up to 4,000 A The frames are 800 mm deep and suitable for wall or rear mounting.

1000/ 1200 800 L1

L2

L3 N/PEN

Max. rated current (35 °C): Ventilated 4,000 A Unventilated 2,950 A

Busbar system up to 7,400 A The frames are 800 mm deep and suitable for wall or rear mounting.

2200 1700

1000/ 1200 800 L1

L2

L3 N/PEN

L1

L2

L3 N/PEN

2600 1700

Bedienfront

PE

200

Location of the main busbar system

Circuit-breaker technology

Various panel versions are available depending on function, switchgear rated current and necessary shortcircuit strength. Fixed-mounted design

With cable connection from above, the depth of the frame is 1,000 mm or 1,200 mm.

Fig. 6/6

Circuit-breaker panel with withdrawable type circuit-breakers

Circuit-breaker technology (Photo 6/24) comprises panel types which are exclusively used for the supply of the switchgear and for outgoing feeders and couplings.

PE

Max. rated current (35 °C): Ventilated 7,400 A Unventilated 5,400 A Max. short-circuit strength: Ipk 375 kA Icw 150 kA

Bedienfront

200

With cable connection from above, the depth of the frame is 1,000 mm or 1,200 mm.

300

Max. short-circuit strength: Ipk 250 kA Icw 100 kA

Photo 6/24

Depending on the requirements, the panels for outgoing feeders in fixedmounted design are equipped with circuit-breakers, fuse switch-disconnectors or switchable fuse switchdisconnectors. Modular feeders The modular outgoing feeders enable efficient installation (Photo 6/25). Modifications and adjustments necessary for operation can be easily performed.

6/17

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Photo 6/25

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Seite 18

Fixed-mounted panel with outgoing feeders, modular design

Photo 6/26

Fixed-mounted panel with outgoing feeder cables, compartment design

Photo 6/27

Fixed-mounted panel with switchable in-line fuse switch-disconnectors

Photo 6/28

3NJ6 fuse switch disconnectors, in-line plug-in design

Photo 6/29

Reactive power control unit, 500 kvar, non-choked

Outgoing cable feeders in compartment design This technology, which provides single compartments for each circuitbreaker, ensures a higher degree of operator and system safety (Photo 6/26). Switchable in-line fuse switchdisconnectors The in-line fuse switch-disconnectors make for optimum packing density thanks to their compact design and their modular structure (Photo 6/27). In-line plug-in design Panels that provide for outgoing feeders (Photo 6/28) to be plugged in and arranged in line represent a lowpriced alternative to the withdrawable design. By virtue of the supply-side plug-in contact and their compact design, these panels facilitate easy and quick retrofitting or replacement without switchgear shutdown.

6/18

Reactive power compensation The panels for central reactive power compensation (Photo 6/29) ease the load on transformers

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

and cables, reduce transmission losses and save electricity costs. Depending on the load structure, they are equipped with choked or non-choked capacitor modules.

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Low Voltage

Bild 6/30

SIKUS Universal HC

6.1.3 SIKUS Universal and SIKUS Universal HC Systems for the Switchgear Manufacturer Product and system description Product description The single and modular distribution boards of the SIKUS® system comply with the relevant regulations. They can for instance be used as main and subdistribution boards in administrative and functional buildings, in industrial plants and commercial buildings as well as in public buildings such as schools or hospitals. All cabinet versions are modularly designed. Their enclosure consists of a robust frame with holes, including roof, base and rear plate, and side parts, and depending on their width, a single or double door. The cabinet is made of electroplated, powder-

Bild 6/31

coated sheet steel and meets the requirements of safety class 1 (protective earth conductor). The enclosure can be equipped as required with matching assemblies, components and doors. With assembled doors, the enclosures have the degree of protection IP 55 as a standard. When individual cabi- nets are lined up, a sealing between the frames is required to attain IP 55. Doors which feature four-point locking and door lock can be mounted on all sides of the individual cabinets as well as of the cabinet assemblies. Doors can optionally be hinged left or right. The door opening angle is 180°, improving escape ways in narrow operator rooms.

SIKUS Universal

The busbars can be arranged vertically or horizontally in the cabinets. A fully developed and harmonized product range of assembly kits for fixed mounting and withdrawable units is available. The cabinets can be equipped with Siemens circuit-breakers and modular devices on mounting rails. Available designs and assemblies All cabinet versions are available in safety class 1, with protective earth conductor, and in degree of protection IP 55 with protective cover and sealed door, or in IP 30 with protective cover without door. Cabinets in component kits The cabinet has not been assembled and is put together by the switchgear cabinet installer.

The enclosures can be matched with busbar systems for rated currents up to 6,300 A.

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Seite 20

Design and test requirements

Cabinet panel versions

Type testing

SIKUS Universal and SIKUS Universal HC distribution boards have been approved as type-tested low-voltage switchgear assemblies (TTA) in accordance with IEC 60439-1, DIN EN 60439 Part 1 (VDE 0660 Part 500). The constructor of a switchgear station is normally the switchgear installer. He has to observe the specific instructions for the Siemens switchgear to be built in when he performs an installation.

C Unequipped panels C Panel with mounting plate for any devices C Panel with assembly kit for circuit-breakers C Panel with standard mounting rails for modular devices C Panel with assembly kit for switch disconnector C Panel with assembly kit for LV HRC fuse switch-disconnector C Panel with assembly kit for LV HRC in-line fuse switch-disconnectors C Panel with assembly kit for compensation modules C Panel with assembly kit for 19” system expansion

The type-tested modular SIKUS distribution boards meet the requirements with regard to C Temperature-rise limit C Dielectric strength C Short-circuit strength C Effectiveness of the protective earth conductor C Clearance in air and creepage distances C Mechanical functions C Degree of protection

Environmental aspects The plastic materials used are free of halogen and PVC and can be recycled. The paints used don’t contain any solvents, cadmium or lead. Modular system and component design Stable cabinet frames with 25-mm hole grid in accordance with DIN 43660 including C System-specific frame coverings C Cable entry from top or bottom C Vertical or horizontal busbar arrangement C Base frame accessible from four sides C Cabinet-high doors with espagnolette lock, four-point locking and double-bit key with 3-mm pin C Door-opening angle 180°, doors to be hinged left or right C Doors to be mounted at all cabinet sides C Fixing with thread-forming screws. All parts mounted with this fixing method are thus included in the protective measure.

6/20

Features at a glance C Modular component principle for the creation of a great variety of cabinet combinations for standalone and line-up installation C High quality and safety standards C Flexible expansion with manifold assembly kits and accessories C Easy to install due to modular kit system C Safe contacting due to grounding scheme and thread-forming screws C The matching design for every requirement C Appealing design

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

When installing an electrical system, the switchgear installer as the manufacturer has to observe the standards IEC 60439-1, DIN EN 60 439 Part 1 (VDE 0660 Part 500) and the instructions of the system supplier. Routine testing for C wiring, electrical functions, C insulation, C protective measures has then to be performed by the manufacturer (switchgear installer). He is obliged to sign the corresponding test record. Interior compartmentalization Partitions C prevent any contact between the energized parts of adjacent functional switching panels, C limit the possibility of accidental arc flashover and C protect the equipment from the transition of solid objects from one panel to another.

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Seite 21

Low Voltage

Technical data

STRATUM 3200 SIKUS Universal SIKUS 3200

SIKUS Universal HC

Overvoltage category

V

1,000/III, 600/IV

1,000/III, 600/IV

Rated impulse withstand voltage Uimp

kV

8

8

Clearances in air and creepage distances

DIN VDE 0110

DIN VDE 0110

Rated insulation voltage Ul

V

1,000

1,000

Rated operational voltageUe

V

690

690

Rated current, main busbars

A

3,200

6,300

Short-circuit strength Main busbars Ipk Icw (1 s)

kA kA

up to 220 up to 100

220 100

Multi-terminal busbars Ipk Icw (1 s)

kA kA

up to 176 up to 80

Protective measure

degree of protection 1 (protective ground conductor)

safety class 1

Number of conductors in the busbar run

3, AC 4, AC 2 and 3, DC

3, AC 4, AC 2 and 3, DC

Degree of protection acc. to DIN EN 60 529

IP 30 with protective cover without door; IP 55 with protective cover and sealed door

IP 30

Level of pollution

3

3

Ambient temperature

°C

35 (24-h average)

40

Relative humidity

%

50 at 40 °C

50 at 40 °C

Altitude of installation

m

max. 2000 (above sea level)

2,000

Enclosure

frame and doors made of 2-mm sheet steel

Plastic parts

without halogens and PVC

Surface of metal parts

electroplated and powder-coated

Color

RAL 7035, light gray (other RAL color on request)

Locking system

2-/4-point locking with built-in espagnolette lock and double-bit key 3-mm pin

Table 6/7

Technical data

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6.1.4 Floor-Mounted ALPHA 630 Universal, ALPHA 630 DIN Distribution Boards Description The ALPHA floor-mounted distribution board can be used as main and subdistribution board in administrative, functional, commercial and industrial buildings. The distribution boards and components are modularly designed and constructed. The system components and assemblies can also be supplied in kit form for individual distribution board construction. With just a few standard components, a great variety of configurations is possible. The standard mounting rail tier spacing amounts to 125 + 150 mm. Degree of protection IP 55 can be attained. The rated current maximum amounts to 630 A 40 mm or 60 mm busbar systems with dimensions up to 30 x 10 mm can be installed. The construction is based on international specifications and installation preferences. All components are typetested (TTA). The transparent system design enables easy planning, configuration, calculation, ordering and installation. The distribution board components are designed in such a way that all switchgear and modular devices can be installed using only a screwdriver. We recommend using a batterydriven screwdriver. A pre-assembled kit consists of an equipment rack, supports and the corresponding front cover.

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Photo 6/32

ALPHA Universal, design standard: NF, CEI

The materials used are environmentally compatible, free of halogens and recyclable. System A distribution board system comprises an enclosure, assemblies for mounting the switchgear and modular devices, system components and accessories. Enclosure Material: Sheet steel, electroplated, powder-coated and in safety class 2 with total insulation. Color: RAL 7035 light gray (further RAL colors on request). Assembly kits Made of sendzimir-galvanized sheet steel for a wide range of configurations, e.g. for switchgear, modular devices or terminal blocks. The largest switchgear that can be installed are the LV HRC fuse switch-disconnectors, of size NH3, 630 A. For fuseless incoming/outgoing circuits, assemblies of the 3VL molded-case circuit-

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Photo 6/33

ALPHA 630 DIN, design standard: BS

breaker series, 63 A up to 630 A, are available. Application As main and subdistribution boards in functional, commercial and industrial buildings. Can be used as control cabinet with cabinet-high mounting plate (see accessories). Features C System design conforms to relevant DIN, EN and VDE specifications C Type-tested cabinets in accordance with DIN EN 60 439-1/3 C Degree of protection IP 55 can be attained with door C Safety class 1 (protective ground conductor) or safety class 2 (total insulation) are available C High-quality surface finish: Cabinets and enclosures made of electroplated and powder-coated sheet steel; system components made of sendzimir-galvanized sheet steel; small parts and screws chromated

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Technical data

ALPHA 630 DIN

ALPHA 630 Universal

Overvoltage category

III

III

kV 6

6

Rated impulse withstand voltage Uimp Clearances in air and creepage distances

DIN VDE 0110

DIN VDE 0110

Rated insulation voltage Ui

V 690

69

Rated operational voltage Ue

V 690

690

Rated voltage Rated current

V AC 690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in devices A 630

690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in devices 630

Rated peak short-circuit current Ipk

kA up to 61.3 (3-pole)1), current flow time 30 ms

53

Rated short-time current Icw/1s

kA 20

25

Protective measure

safety class 1 with protective ground conductor, safety class 1 with protective ground or safety class 2 with total insulation connection

Degree of protection acc. to DIN EN 60529

IP43 / 55

IP30 / 43 / 55

Tier spacing of mounting rail mm 125, 150

150, 200

Modular width

18 mm is 1 MW

18 mm is 1 MW

Level of pollution

3

3

Ambient temperature

35 (24-h average)

35 (24-h average)

Relative humidity

% 50 at 40°C

50 at 40°C

Altitude of installation

m max. 2,000 above sea level

max. 2,000 above sea level

Type-tested switchgear assembly (TTA)

acc. to DIN EN 60439-1 (VDE 0660 Part 500) and DIN EN 60439-3 (VDE 0660 Part 504)

EN 60439-1

Enclosure

sheet steel

sheet steel

Plastic parts

environmentally compatible, recyclable

environmentally compatible, recyclable

Surface of metal parts

electroplated and powder-coated

electroplated and powder-coated

Color

RAL 7035 light gray

RAL 7035 light gray

Locking system

3-point locking with built-in espagnolette and double-bit key with 3-mm pin

3-point locking with built-in espagnolette lock lock and double-bit key with 3-mm pin

Packing

in impact-proof, environmentally compatible packing

in impact-proof, environmentally compatible packing

1)

Busbar holder spacing: 400 mm; busbar 30 mm x 10 mm

Table 6/8

Technical data

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C Replaceable locking systems (accessories) C Built-in double-bit key with 3-mm pin C Doors can be hinged on the right or left C Door opening angle 180° C Modular design allows transparent planning C 125 and 150 mm tier spacing of the mounting rail in accordance with DIN 43870 C Ample wiring space behind the mounting rail C Distortion-resistant equipment racks and front covers C Environmentally compatible, without PVC and halogens, fully recyclable plastics C Sturdy sheet-steel stays in the scope of supply C Comprehensive range of pressembled kits C Front cover with sealable 90° quick-release locks C Doors with foamed sealing as standard

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6.1.5 Wall-Mounted ALPHA 400/600, ALPHA Universal and ALPHA 400 Stratum Distribution Boards Description The wall-mounted distribution board system for a rated current of up to 400 A can be used as a main or subdistribution board in industrial, administrative, functional, commercial and residential buildings. The distribution boards and components are modularly designed. The system components and assemblies can also be supplied in kit form for individual board construction. With just a few standard components, a variety of configurations is possible. Several assembly kits from the SIKUS floor-mounted product range are identical in design. Being a complete product system, the wall-mounted distribution board range includes cabinets with 6 to 9 rows. The mounting rail tier spacing is 125, 150 or 200 mm. Enclosures are available both for surface mounting and for flush mounting. The product range comprises cabinets designed as safety class 1 with PE connection or safety class 2 with total insulation. Cabinets with doors feature degree of protection IP43. The construction is based on international standards. All components are type-tested (TTA).

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Photo 6/34

ALPHA Universal design standard: NF, CEI

The transparent system design of the Siemens distribution board range enables easy planning, configuration, calculation, order processing and installation. All components to be integrated into the cabinet are designed in such a way that their installation merely requires a screwdriver. The materials used are environmentally compatible and recyclable. System A distribution board system comprises an enclosure, assembly kits for mounting the switchgear and modular equipment, system components and accessories. 40-mm/60-mm busbar systems can be mounted.

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C C C C C C C C

Photo 6/35

ALPHA 400 design standard: DIN VDE

Enclosure Material: Electroplated sheet steel, powder-coated and, in safety class 2, with total insulation Color: light gray, RAL 7035 (ALPHA Universal), traffic white, RAL 9016 (ALPHA 160/400) Installation using auxiliary frames and kits Sendzimir-galvanized sheet steel for a wide range of configurations, e.g. for switchgear, modular devices or terminal blocks. The largest switchgear that can be mounted are LV HRC fuse switch-disconnectors of size NH2, 400 A. Additionally, 3VL circuitbreakers up to 400 A can be mounted.

Photo 6/35

ALPHA 400 stratum design standard: BS

Application The SIKUS wall-mounted distribution board can be used as main and subdistribution board in industrial, administrative, functional, commercial and residential buildings. With its cabinethigh mounting plate, the wallmounted distribution boards can also be used as control cabinets. Features C System design conforms to relevant DIN, EN and VDE specifications. C Type-tested cabinets according to DIN EN 60 439-1 (VDE 0660 Part 500) and DIN EN 60439-3 (DIN VDE 0660 Part 504) C Robust sheet-steel enclosure C Available in safety class 1 (protective ground conductor connection) or safety class 2 (total insulation) C High-quality surface finish: distribution boards and enclosure made of electroplated sheet steel with powder coating; system components made of sendzimir galvanized sheet

C C C C C

C

C

steel; small parts and screws chromated Replaceable locking systems (accessories) Doors can be hinged on the right or left Door opening angle 180° Modular design allows transparent planning Ample wiring space behind the mounting rail 2 cable entries top and bottom per panel width Distortion-resistant equipment racks and front covers Environmentally compatible, without PVC and halogens, fully recyclable plastics Sturdy sheet-steel stays Comprehensive program of preassembled kits Front cover with sealable 90° quick-release locks Assemblies can be installed and removed over entire height Kits mounted on stays can be removed for configuration and wiring purposes Installation facilitated by components with keyhole fixing and quick-release locks Doors with foamed sealing as standard

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Technical data

ALPHA 400/160 DIN

ALPHA 125 Universal

ALPHA 400 STRATUM

Overvoltage category

III

III

III

6

6

6

DIN VDE 0110

DIN VDE 0110

DIN VDE 0110

Rated impulse withstand voltage Uimp

kV

Clearances in air and creepage distances Rated insulation voltage Ui

V

690

690

690

Rated operational voltage Ue

V

690

690

690

690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in devices

690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in devices

690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in devices

up to 400

up to 400

up to 400

Rated voltage

V AC

Rated current

A

Rated peak short-circuit current Ipk

kA

up to 61.3 (3-pole)1), current, flow time 30 ms

17

17

Rated short-time current Icw /1s

kA

20



10 / 0,1s

Protective measure

safety class 1 with protective ground connection or safety class 2 with total insulation

safety class 1 with protective ground connection

safety class 1 with protective ground connection

Number of conductors on the busbar track

4/5

4/5

4/5

Degree of protection acc. to DIN EN 60529

IP43

IP30 / 43

IP40

125/150

200



18 mm is 1 MW

18 mm is 1 MW

18 mm is 1 MW

3

3

35 (24-h average)

35 (24-h average)

35 (24-h average)

Tier spacing of mounting rail

mm

Modular width Level of pollution

3

Ambient temperature Relative humidity

%

50 at 40°C

50 at 40°C

50 at 40°C

Altitude of installation

m

max. 2,000 above sea level

max. 2,000 above sea level

max. 2,000 above sea level

Type-tested switchgear assembly (TTA)

acc. to DIN EN 60439-1 (VDE 0660 Part 500) and DIN EN 60439-3 (VDE 0660 Part 504)

EN 60439-1 EN 60439-3

EN 60439-1

Enclosure

sheet steel

sheet steel

sheet steel

Surface of metal parts

electroplated and powder-coated

electroplated and powder-coated

electroplated and powder-coated

Color

RAL 9016 traffic white

RAL 7035 light gray

RAL 7035 light gray

Locking system

2-point locking with built-in espagnolette lock and doublebit key with 3-mm pin

2-point locking with built-in espagnolette lock and doublebit key with 3-mm pin

2-point locking with built-in espagnolette lock and doublebit key with 3-mm pin

Packing

in impact-proof, environmentally in impact-proof, environmentally in impact-proof, environcompatible packing compatible packing mentally compatible packing

1)

Busbar holder spacing: 400 mm; busbar 30 mm x 10 mm

Table 6/9

Technical data

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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6.1.6 ALPHA-ZS Meter and Distribution Cabinets for Germany Overview For universal use in residential and non-residential buildings, Siemens offers the new ALPHA 400-ZS meter cabinets. Based on the wall-mounted ALPHA 400-DIN, an identical modular system has been created that conforms to all of the current technical supply conditions and provides a great variety of options in terms of enclosure design, scope of delivery, degree of protection and equipment to be integrated. A special emphasis has been placed on meeting regionally differing requirements of power distribution system operators and local installation practice. The system includes empty cabinets as flat packs for surface mounting (delivered in components for self-assembly), preassembled empty cabinets for flush and surface mounting, cabinet-high rapid mounting kits (RMK) for extremely fast equipping and wiring, and a comprehensive range of accessories. The transparent system design enables easy planning, calculation, ordering, delivery, transportation, equipping and installation of components and complete cabinets. ALPHA SELECT is available as a planning tool for electricians, planning engineers and electrical wholesalers. It helps to speed up planning and quickly determines prices for distribution boards and meter cabinets. The search criteria town, postal code and responsible power distribution system operator can be used to find a product range of complete meter

Photo 6/37

Meter cabinet with three panels

cabinets and installation examples that meets the given requirements. In addition, individual combinations of empty cabinets and rapid mounting kits can be planned. Benefit C Identical with ALPHA 400-DIN distribution board C Planning conforms to current technical supply conditions and requirements of power distribution system operators C Short installation times C Low storage expense Field of application ALPHA 400-ZS meter cabinets can be used wherever electric energy is to be supplied, measured and distributed. Meter cabinets and their components are modularly designed, so that few standard components are sufficient to create an optimum of diverse, project-

specific mounting and equipping options. Besides the customary meter cabinets, which are offered in degree of protection IP43, the system also includes meter cabinets for damp rooms featuring IP55. Design Modular meter cabinets of the ALPHA 400-ZS series consist of the following system components: empty cabinets in four heights and five widths, RMKs in three different widths, accessories. Thanks to the universal system design and numerous combination possibilities with the distribution board system ALPHA 400-DIN, the options for planning and erecting larger metering and distribution cabinet systems are manifold. To complete these systems, ALPHA cable inlet boxes and cable connection boxes are provided. For internal measurements, metering kits can be mounted in any Siemens installation system featuring a depth of 210 mm.

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Fig. 6/7

ALPHA meter cabinet, assembly drawing

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Low Voltage

6.1.7 SIMBOX Small Distribution Boards Application Small distribution boards are suitable for all types of applications in electrical buildings installations as subdistribution boards or floor distribution boards. Thanks to their low mounting depth, they can be used close to the load center both in residential and institutional buildings, such as schools, or in commercial buildings and shops.

Selection criteria Installation Small distribution boards are offered for flush and surface mounting. According to different requirements to their fire safety, they can be categorized as suitable for flush-mounting as wall distribution boards (filament testing up to 650°C) and for hollowwall installation (filament testing up to 850°C).

Size Depending on your space requirements for built-in devices and wiring, you may choose from 1- to 4-row versions of small distribution boards. Mounting rail spacing can vary between 125 mm and 150 mm. Mounting depth The distribution boards can be equipped with modular devices such as MCBs and RCCBs, up to a 70 mm

Standards SIMBOX small distribution boards comply with DIN VDE 0603, DIN 43871 and IEC 60439-3 standards. This ensures the compliance with standard measures and, above all, safe operation due to the observance of fire safety regulations (e.g. filament testing at temperatures from 650° to 950°C) or the protection against non-permissible voltages on the enclosures (safety class III).

Photo 3/38

SIMBOX 63 for flush-mounting / hollow-wall installation

Photo 6/39

Photo 6/40

SIMBOX WP

SIMBOX 63 hood-type small distribution board

Photo 6/41

SIMBOX Universal LC

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or 55 mm device mounting depth for snap-on fixing on the 35 mm x 7.5 mm standard mounting rails in accordance with DIN EN 50022. Degree of protection You may choose between small distribution boards for a variety of applications, ranging from degree of protection IP30 (residential buildings) to IP 55 (splash-water protected – industrial, commercial and functional buildings) System advantages Easy installation ”Comb”: The soft and flexible teeth at the sliding flange help to make wiring a quick and convenient action. The cables are simply inserted and you can do without the cumbersome and imprecise knocking out of the cable entry glands. Terminal block The terminal block with an inclination of 20° is easily visible and allows uncomplicated cable entry. Above that, strain relief clamps ensure perfect control and secure seating of the N and PE conductors.

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Photo 6/42

Comb

150 mm mounting rail spacing SIMBOX LC and SIMBOX WP provide for additional wiring space owing to a mounting rail spacing of 150 mm. Appealing design Designed by Guigiaro: SIMBOX LC owes its attractive look to the Italian designer Giugiaro, who is one of the best known industrial and consumer goods designers.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/43

Door frame in low relief

Low in relief Flush-mounted SIMBOX 63 types almost disappear in the wall and can be concealed by a picture if desired.

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6.1.8 SMS Rapid Wiring System Application As the components of the SMS Universal rapid wiring system are already pre-assembled at the factory, the system provides rapid and efficient wiring in ceiling plenums, hollow walls, cellular floors as well as in ductings for electrical installations. It facilitates the installation at the construction site and saves time and costs. Since all of the cables are equipped with plug-in connectors at the connection and distribution points, the installation of a line network is completely flexible; the installation can be designed, modified or retrofitted simply by plugging in the components.

In contrast to conventional electrical installations, it is no longer necessary to cut the cables to length, to strip them and to make the terminal connections at the construction site. You only have to make the initial connections of the system infeed. Plugging in saves considerable installation time. Compared to conventional installations, this system is less expensive. Furthermore, there is no waste and the cables can always be used again for later modifications. Depending on the requirements and the application intended, the SMS Universal rapid wiring system is available for many types of application: C For the installation of luminaires, e.g. in false ceilings, operated via conventional switches/pushbuttons C For the installation of shielded contact outlets in sill-type trunkings

C For installations in false and cellular floors, skirting-boards, furniture ... C Temporary design installations, trade fairs, camping ... Supply connection System power is supplied via a feeder, for example NYM 5 x 2.5 mm2, 230/400 V or 3 x 2.5 mm2, 230 V. The 5-pole first connection with strain relief (socket version) is designed for screw connection. Solid or stranded conductors of 1.5 to 2.5 mm2 can be connected. The 3-pole first connection with strain relief can be made with screwless terminals. Solid conductors of 1.5 to 2.5 mm2 or finely stranded ones of 1.5 mm2 with end sleeves can be connected. Plug-in connectors The housings of the screw-type plugin connectors can be opened by re-

APM 610 switching devices

SMS Universal Kombi (instabus EIB)

SMS Universal

Fig. 6/8

Overview of SMS rapid wiring system

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leasing two locating levers (opposite each other) with a screwdriver. Opening up the hinged housing parts will make the shock-hazard protected screw terminals accessible for conductor connection.

Extension cables They consist of 3-, 4- or 5-pole prefabricated cables similar to H05VV-F, with factory-crimped plug and socket. They are available in standard lengths (2, 4, 6 and 8 m).

On the upper half of the housing, you will find the identification of the conductors, for example: for the 5-pole plug-in connector 1, 2, 3, N, and the grounding sign U. The construction of the plug-in connector guarantees non-interchangeability so that it is impossible to connect other plug-in systems.

Connecting cables 3 x 1.5 mm2/2.5 mm2 They consist of a 3-pole pre-fabricated H05VV-F cable, with factorycrimped plug or socket and free ultrasonically compacted core ends for further fabrication.

Distribution blocks It is possible to through-connect and branch off to the electricity consumers via plug-in distribution blocks with one incoming and several outgoing terminals. 2 x 5-pole and 6 x 3-pole distribution blocks are suitable for 5-pole through-wiring and have 3-pole outgoing terminals. The 5-pole through-wiring is marked as phase conductor with the terminal designation 1, 2, 3. The N conductor is a leading conductor with regard to the phase conductors, the PE conductor in turn is a leading conductor with regard to the N conductor. The outgoing terminals are designed as socket parts (coupling). With the exception of the T-distribution, every 3- and 5-pole distribution block has an integrated provision for fixing. T-distributors are suitable for 3-pole through-wiring of luminaires, for example, and have two outgoing 3-pole conductors.

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Device connection without screws (snap-in) Can be snapped into the device cutouts of the consumer devices, e.g. luminaires for sheet strengths of 0.5 to 1.5 mm. Available as 3-pole socket (output) or plug (input). Connection for finely stranded conductor 0.5 to 1.5 mm2. Two connections per pole are possible. All of the device terminals are lockable. Distribution box The distribution box consists of a housing with an integrated circuit either for 1 series circuit or 1 pushbutton circuit with 2 connected outputs for luminaires and 1 output for a power outlet.

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Locking The socket and plug parts of extension and connection cables have a locking device to form a fixed connection in accordance with DIN VDE 0628. Cover The covers can be used to seal outgoing terminals (socket parts) which are not used in order to raise the degree of protection of the plug-in system from IP 20 to IP 40, if necessary. Features C Suitable for wiring in all types of structural hollow spaces C Easy and straightforward planning C Fast, simple and time-saving installation (simply plug in) C Flexible with regard to modification and retrofitting C All of the plug connectors can be plugged and unplugged while the system is energised in acc. with DIN VDE 0625, EN 60 320, IEC 320 C Cost-saving wiring and therefore less expensive than the conventional installation C To be used in ambient temperatures of up to 45°C C Connectors are non-interchangeable through coding C Reusable C Cutting to length and termination can be performed at the device C The system is also available for an instabus EIB installation with integrated bus line.

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SMS Universal installation with central ON/OFF 20 11

3

20 11

20

11

6

20

10

11 10

11

15

7 20 11

14 20

11 11 8

Through-wiring, direct connection

20 15 20

8

Luminaires with snap-in connector for T-distribution

11

Through-wiring, with snap-in plugs/sockets integrated in the luminaire

NYM 3 x 2,5-mm2-Einspeiseleitung geschaltet 3 6 7 8 10

Plug-in connector, socket-type, 3-pole, without screws Distribution block, 6 x 3-pole Distribution block, 4 x 3-pole T-distributor, 4 x 3-pole Extension cable 3 x 2.5 mm2, plug and socket

Fig. 6/9

11 14 15 20

Extension cable 3 x 1.5 mm2, plug and socket Connection cable 3 x 1.5 mm2, socket Connection cable, 3 x 1.5 mm2, plug Snap-in connector, 3-pole, without screws

Installation of luminaires with SMS Universal in false ceilings, circuitry with central ON/OFF, 230 V AC plug-in connector, 16 A

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6.1.9 8HP Insulated Distribution System – High Performance due to Modular Design Brief description The 8HP insulated distribution system is a type-tested modular system for the fast and efficient construction of totally insulated power distributions. Minimum space requirements due to high density of assemblies and a flexible adaptation to constructive requirements at the site of installation allow customer requirements to be met perfectly. Areas of application The type-tested (TTA) insulated 8HP distribution system is used as a lowvoltage main and sub-distribution board in industrial, functional and residential buildings. The modularly designed system is suitable as a housing for small distribution boards and controls (e.g. garage door controls with LOGO!® mini control). The high degree of protection IP 65 (special version in IP 66) allows the distribution board to be used in damp or dusty environment (e.g. on ships, in building-site power distributions, steelworks and quarries). Resistance against corrosive atmosphere makes it perfectly suitable for use in the chemical industry, in paper factories, or sewage plants. The fireproofing test also permits use in coal mines and lignite open strip mines.

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Photo 6/44 8HP insulated distribution system

Product range Any combination of five enclosure sizes, with transparent or non-transparent cover. C Uneqiupped enclosure with mounting plate for any kind of device installation C Molded-plastic enclosure with assembly kits for: – modular devices with snap-on fixing (e.g. 5SY miniature circuitbreaker) – DIAZED and NEOZED fuse links (e.g. 5SB, 5SE) – NH00 to NH3 fuse bases (e.g. 3NA)

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– fuse switch-disconnectors, 100 A to 630 A (e.g. 3NP) – switch-disconnectors with fuses, 63 A to 250 A (e.g. 3KL) – switch-disconnectors, 63 A to 800 A (e.g. 3KA, 3KE) – load transfer switches, 250 A to 630 A (e.g. 3KE) – parallel switches, 400 A to 1000 A (e.g. 3KE) – circuit-breakers, 63 A to 630 A (e.g. 3VF) C Special design for use on ships

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307

307

307

460,5

307

153,5

307

614

Low Voltage

614

614 [mm]

Fig. 6/10

Delivery range: 5 housing sizes in any combination, with transparent or non-transparent cover

C Type-tested switchgear assembly (TTA)

Creation of TTA-tested power distributions

C High degree of protection IP 65 (IP 66)

Use in dusty or humid environment (also on ships)

C Resistant against corrosion and contaminants

Suitable for use in corrosive atmosphere (e.g. chemical industry)

C Total insulation

High degree of personnel protection and system availability

C UL approval

Use as system component for export to USA

C IAB and BfZ test

Also suitable for use in areas with earthquake hazard and in civil emergency rooms

Table 6/10

Features

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6.2 Circuit-Breaker Devices and Fuse Systems Due to increasingly complex processes, safety for human beings and machines is becoming more and more important. Siemens circuitbreaker devices and fuse systems provide optimum prerequisites for complete system protection and thus for safe and reliable operation in modern power supply systems. The demands on electrical power supply in industry, residential and functional buildings are increasing. The demand for more comfort is combined with the desire for improved security and reduced downtimes. Only perfectly adjusted components and products from a single source, i.e. with the guarantee of a uniform quality standard based on national and international regulations and standards can ensure this high safety level. The high reliability and availability of the individual components, and thus the whole system, ensures an economic and fault-free operation for many years.

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Seite 36

This is only possible if all individual products and systems are well coordinated and are able to exchange important information. This is carried out via a device-internal bus interface or by mountable accessories and binary inputs. Individual system components Circuit-breakers are responsible for the protection against overload and short circuits in systems, motors, generators and transformers when faults occur. They can also be used as incoming and outgoing feeder circuits in distribution boards as well as main and EMERGENCY STOP switches in connection with lockable rotary operating mechanisms. The SENTRON 3VL circuit-breakers can be used in every country all over the world and work reliably in accordance with every electrical standard. Thanks to their modular design and modular accessories, they can be easily adjusted to changing requirements at any time. Via PROFIBUS-DP, they can also be connected to a power management system.

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Personnel protection and fire protection with residual-currentoperated circuit-breakers Personnel protection Damages to the insulation might result in fault states which require additional measures according to DIN VDE 0100 against excessive shock currents. Siemens residual-currentoperated circuit-breakers provide optimum protection against hazardous shock currents in case of indirect contact, and the best possible protection in case of direct contact (with rated fault current ≤ 30 mA). Fire protection Short circuits and ground faults are especially fire-hazardous if relatively high resistances occur in the fault circuit at the arc. A fault clearance by line-side overcurrent protective devices such as fuses or circuit-breakers is not always guaranteed at relatively low currents. In combination with oxygen or air, a thermal load of only 60 W might lead to an ignition. Here too, the residual-current-operated circuit-breaker with a rated fault current of ≤ 300 mA ensures extensive protection.

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Low Voltage

Cable and line protection with circuit-breakers and fuses Due to their excellent product features and the fact that the product range is optimally designed for the wide range of applications in the fields of industry, or commercial, institutional and residential buildings, Siemens circuit-breakers and fuses provide the best conditions for protecting cables and lines against overload and short circuit. The new 5SY circuit-breaker product range with its components based on the complete breaker range for all important functions really offers you many advantages, e.g., increased operator safety, installation safety and extremely reduced installation times.

System protection The well coordinated combination of circuit-breakers, fuses, miniature circuit-breakers and residual-current-operated circuit-breakers ensures comprehensive system protection as regards short-circuit, overload and fire protection. Moreover, the coordinated use of lightning current and surge arresters can protect the electrical system against overvoltages resulting from electrostatic discharges, switching overvoltages and overvoltages caused by strikes of lightning. Matching all individual components ensures optimum system protection in all areas of application. This prevents damage to increasingly expensive and sensitive devices and systems.

The circuit-breaker product range is rounded off by mountable residualcurrent-operated circuit-breaker blocks which integrate the residualcurrent protective function into the device as a whole.

Disconnecting and isolating The available disconnectors guarantee a safe isolation of downstream system components and devices. They are used, for example, as EMERGENCY STOP and repair switches in distribution boards. Thus, personnel protection has highest priority. In the open position they comply with the conditions determined for disconnection.

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6.2.1 Circuit-Breakers Brief description Circuit-breakers serve as incoming and outgoing circuit-breakers for power distribution in low-voltage switchgear. They are responsible for overload and short-circuit protection in systems, motors, generators and transformers.

SENTRON 3WL Air Circuit-Breakers Areas of application C As an incoming, distribution, coupling and outgoing circuit-breaker in electric installations C As a switching and protecting device for motors, capacitors, generators, transformers, busbars and cables C As an Emergency OFF circuitbreaker in connection with Emergency OFF equipment Product range C 3 sizes from 630 A to 6,300 A C Fixed-mounted and withdrawable design, 3- and 4-pole C Short-circuit breaking capacity from 50 kA to 100 kA (at 440 V AC) C Rated operational voltages up to 1,000 V C No derating (i.e. full rated current) up to 55 °C (up to 5,000 A) C Wide range of accessories such as locking devices, mechanical mutually interlocking devices, Switch ES operator control and monitoring software C External digital and analog output modules, digital input module

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Photo 6/45

SENTRON 3WL

Features C Modular design for an easy retrofitting of functions and components C Communication-capable via PROFIBUS-DP (transmission of circuit-breaker states, current values, tripped signals, power management functions) C Remote diagnosis via Ethernet / Internet possible with BDA (Breaker Data Adapter) C Space saving: up to 1,600 A in switchgear only 400 mm wide C State-of-the-art microprocessorcontrolled overcurrent release for every application Further versions C SENTRON 3WL circuit-breaker with UL489 approval C Versions with ANSI, CSA or CCC approval C SENTRON 3WL switch-disconnector for DC applications

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Photo 6/46

SENTRON 3VL (250A)

SENTRON VL Compact Circuit-Breakers Areas of application C As incoming and outgoing circuitbreakers in distribution systems C As switching and protective devices for motors, generators, transformers and capacitors C As main and EMERGENCY STOP switches in connection with lockable rotary operating mechanisms Product range C Rated currents from 16 to 1,600 A; rated operational voltage up to 690 V AC C Three versions with short-circuit breaking capacity 40, 70, 100 kA at 415 V AC C No derating up to 50°C, i.e. full rated current at same size up to 50°C C Complete range of modular accessories, same accessories for several sizes

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Features Modular design Due to the compact dimensions and the modular accessories, it is extraordinarily easy to adjust the device to changing requirements. Easy connection and installation No matter whether you are using front or rear terminals, integrated wrap-around terminals, a plug-in system, withdrawable design or busbar connection – the high versatility of SENTRON 3VL guarantees easy installation. Quality Quality management according to ISO 9001 and state-of-the-art production methods ensure consistently high quality. Universal accessories No matter whether you are using motorized operating mechanisms, plugin sockets or guide frames, a comprehensive range of accessories even meets special requirements. Two internal accessory product lines are available for different voltage levels and can be easily snapped into place. Easy configuration Dimensioning programs such as SIMARIS design provide you with support for calculations and dimensioning processes. Communication via PROFIBUS-DP Independent of the selected overcurrent release, thermal/magnetic or electronic, every SENTRON 3VL can communicate via PROFIBUS or other internationally used bus protocols. Power Management offers the user an economic method to visualize system states.

Standards SENTRON 3VL circuit-breakers work reliably no matter where they are used, in accordance with every electrical standard. Economical operation in all cases Graded switching capacities make it possible to economically adjust the circuit-breakers to short-circuit currents up to 100 kA at the mounting position.

SIRIUS 3RV Circuit-Breakers Areas of application 3RV1 circuit-breakers are compact, current-limiting circuit-breakers optimized for load feeders. The circuitbreakers are used for switching and protecting AC motors up to 45 kW at 400 V AC or for other loads with rated currents up to 100 A. Product range The circuit-breakers are available in 4 sizes: C Size S00 – 45 mm wide, max. rated current 12 A, at 400 V AC suitable for AC motors up to 5.5 kW C Size S0 – 45 mm wide, max. rated current 25 A, at 400 V AC suitable for AC motors up to 11 kW C Size S2 – 55 mm wide, max. rated current 50 A, at 400 V AC suitable for AC motors up to 22 kW C Size S3 – 70 mm wide, max. rated current 100 A, at 400 V AC suitable for AC motors up to 45 kW

Photo 6/47

SIRIUS 3RV10 circuit-breakers

Operating conditions The 3RV1 circuit-breakers are climateproof. They are designed for indoor operation in which there are no severe operating conditions (e.g. dust, corrosive vapors, destructive gases). For installation in dusty and damp rooms, suitable encapsulations have to be provided. The 3RV circuit-breakers can be power supplied from the bottom or top. The permissible ambient temperatures, maximum switching capacity, tripping currents and other boundary conditions for the application are to be found in the technical data and tripping characteristics. The 3RV1 circuit-breakers are suitable for use in IT systems (IT networks). The different short-circuit breaking capacity in the IT system has to be observed for that.

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Since the operational currents, starting currents and current peaks can even be different in motors with the same power rating due to the inrush current that is present, the motor power values given in the selection tables are only guide values. Decisive for the correct selection of circuit-breakers is always the precise starting and rating data for the motor to be protected. The same applies to the circuit-breakers for transformer protection. Areas of application The tripping characteristics of the 3RV10 /3RV11 circuit-breakers are mainly designed for the protection of AC motors. The circuit-breakers are therefore also called motor circuitbreakers. The rated current In of the motor to be protected is to be set on the setting scale. The factory setting of the short-circuit release is a value thirteen times the rated current of the circuit-breaker. This ensures a trouble-free start-up and safe protection of the motor. The phase-failure sensitivity of the circuit-breaker ensures that the circuit-breaker is tripped in time in case of the failure of a phase and the resulting overcurrents in the other phases. Circuit-breakers with thermal overload releases are usually designed in tripping class 10 (CLASS 10). The circuit-breakers of sizes S2 and S3 are also available in tripping class 20 (CLASS 20), thus making the start-up of motors under aggravated start-up conditions possible.

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Motor protection with overload relay function (automatic reset) The circuit-breakers for motor protection with overload relay function are designed for the protection of AC motors. They have the same short-circuit release and overload release as the circuit-breakers for motor protection without overload relay function. The circuit-breaker always remains active in the case of an overload. The overload release just activates two auxiliary contacts (1NC + 1NO). Overload tripping can be signaled to a higherlevel controller via the auxiliary contacts. It is also possible to directly deactivate a downstream contactor. The overload signal is reset automatically. The circuit-breaker itself only trips in case of a downstream short circuit. System protection The 3RV10 / 3RV11 circuit-breakers for motor protection are also suitable for system protection. In order to prevent premature trippings due to the phase-failure sensitivity, the three current paths are always to be loaded uniformly. With single-phase loads, the current paths are to be connected in series. Transformer protection The 3RV14 circuit-breakers are also suitable for transformer protection. Due to the high excitation values for the instantaneous short-circuit release of >20 x In, even high peak inrush currents of the transformers do not lead to trippings upon closure.

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6.2.2 Fuse Systems General Low-voltage fuses are space-saving, high-quality switch- and controlgear which reliably break overload and short-circuit currents. They provide secure protection for electric systems, cables and lines as well as for electric devices. They comply with the requirements concerning high operating safety, low power loss, optimum selectivity conditions among themselves as well as in combination with miniature circuitbreakers, and accurate current limiting with a high resistance to aging.

Flush-mounting fuse base

Protective cover

Adapter sleeve

Fuse link

Screw cap

Photo 6/47 Design of a NEOZED fuse (screw-in fuse system)

The following low-voltage fuse systems are classified according to their application: C NEOZED® fuses D0 system ranging from the standard version to MINIZED circuit-breakers C DIAZED fuses D system with DIAZED and SILIZED® fuse links C LV HRC fuse system C Cylindrical fuses A fuse always consists of several components (at least one fuse base and one fuse link).

LV HRC fuse base

Photo 6/48

Protective cover

Cover

LV HRC fuse link

Design of a LV HRC fuse (plug-in fuse system)

Fuse systems Within the low-voltage range of up to 1000 V, fuse systems are distinguished as follows: C Fuses that can be handled by nonspecialists (mainly screw-in type) NEOZED D01/E14, D02/E18, D03/M30 x 1 DIAZED NDZ/E16, DII/E27, DIII/E33, DIV/R11/4“, where it is impossible to interchange fuses having different rated currents due to their design, and where shock-hazard protection is ensured for the user.

C Fuses that can only be handled by specialists (mainly plug-in type) LV HRC fuse systems size 00 (size 000), size 0, size 1, size 2, size 3, size 4, size 4a, where neither a rated current non-interchangeability as a result of the design, nor adequate shock-hazard protection is required. Siemens offers an appropriate range of covers and phase barriers to also provide these LV HRC fuses with shock-hazard protection.

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Selection The following parameters are important when choosing a fuse for circuit protection: C Rated voltage Volt (V) AC voltage1) DC voltage2) C Rated current Ampere (A) C Utilization category (as time-current characteristic) C Design (type and sizes) Features C NEOZED, DIAZED, SILIZED, LV HRC, SITOR® fuses and cylindrical fuses have a consistently high quality C Low power loss output for high economy and minimal heating C Safe rated breaking capacity from the lowest inadmissible overload current up to the highest shortcircuit current C Fuses have full selectivity in accordance with the standard at a rated current ratio of 1:1.6 C High current limiting to protect all system components C Reliable long-term, continuous operation C High resistance towards aging to avoid unnecessary system malfunctions C Constant characteristics even under different temperature conditions C Safe replacement of fuse links and switching with the MINIZED® switch-disconnector C Extensive product range for all applications

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C Wide range of matched accessories, especially to enhance shock-hazard protection C Approved in many countries throughout the world Selectivity Usually, several fuses are connected in series in an installation. Selectivity ensures that only the faulted circuit is broken and not the entire process in operation. Siemens fuses of the utilization category gL/gG are interselective in the ratio 1:1.25 at a rated voltage of up to 230 V AC, i.e. from one rated current level to the other. This is due to the fact that the tolerance ranges of ±5% of the time/current characteristics are considerably lower. Here, the requirement of a ratio of 1:1.6 given in the standard is distinctly exceeded. Owing to smaller rated currents, conductor cross-sections can be reduced in size. Utilization categories According to their functions, fuses are divided into utilization categories: the first letter indicates the functional class, the second the object to be protected: 1st letter: Functional class a =ˆ Accompanied fuses: Fuse links which must, at least, continuously conduct currents up to their specified rated current and which must be able to break currents above a specific multiple of the rated current up to the rated breaking current.

Photo 6/49

Fast arcing and an accurate extinction are the prerequisites for a safe breaking capacity

g =ˆ General-purpose fuses: Fuse links which must, at least, continuously conduct currents up to the specified rated current and break currents from the lowest fusing current up to the breaking current. Overload and short-circuit protection. 2nd letter: Object G =ˆ Cable and conductor protection (general applications) M =ˆ Switchgear/motor protection (for protection of motor circuits) R =ˆ Semiconductor/thyristor protection (for protection of rectifiers) L =ˆ Cable and conductor protection (acc. to DIN VDE) B =ˆ Protection of mines Tr =ˆ Transformer protection

1)

European notation for alternating voltage e.g. 500 V AC, German notation e.g. ~ 500V 2) European notation for direct voltage e.g. 440 V DC, German notation e.g. 440V

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Furthermore, DIAZED fuses are marked with the designations ”slow” and ”quick”. These designations are defined in IEC/CEE and DIN VDE. Under short-circuit conditions, the fuse with the ”quick” characteristic interrupts more quickly than one in the utilization class gL/gG. The characteristic ”slow” of the DIAZED fuses for the protection of DC traction systems is particularly suitable for breaking direct currents with a high inductance. Both characteristics can also be used for cable and conductor protection. General-purpose fuses (gL/gG, gR, quick, slow) safely interrupt inadmissible overload and short-circuit currents. Accompanied fuses (aM, aR) are used exclusively for short-circuit protection. The following utilization categories are available in the Siemens product range: gL (DIN VDE)/gG (IEC) =ˆ General-purpose cable and conductor protection aM (DIN VDE/IEC) =ˆ Accompanied switchgear protection aR (DIN VDE/IEC) =ˆ Accompanied semiconductor protection gR (DIN VDE/IEC) =ˆ General-purpose semiconductor protection quick (DIN VDE/IEC/CEE) =ˆ Generalpurpose cable and conductor protection slow (DIN VDE) =ˆ General-purpose cable and conductor protection

Breaking capacity The fuses distinguish themselves with their high rated current breaking capacity and minimum space requirements. The basic requirements and circuit data for tests – voltages, performance factor, switching angle, etc. – are defined in the national (DIN VDE 0636) and international (IEC 60 269) standards. For a consistently safe interruption of any current, ranging from the lowest inadmissible overload current to the highest short-circuit current, many quality features have to be considered during construction and manufacture. For example, besides designing the dimensions, punched profile and position in the fuse body of the fuse element, the resistance to pressure and temperature change of the fuse body as well as the chemical purity, grain size and density of the quartz sand are of great importance.

The rated breaking capacity for AC is 50 kA for NEOZED and most of the DIAZED fuses. For LV HRC fuses it is even 120 kA AC. Current limiting Besides a safe rated breaking capacity, the current limiting effect of a fuse link has a significant impact on the cost-effectiveness of an installation. When a fuse blows because of a short circuit, the short-circuit current continues to be fed into the network until the fuse breaks the circuit. The short-circuit current is only limited by the network impedance. When all of the narrow parts of a fuse element melt at the same time, partial electrical arcs in series result, ensuring that the current is quickly interrupted with significant current limiting. The current limiting, too, is significantly influenced by the manufacturing quality. For Siemens fuses it is excellent. For example, an LV HRC fuse link of size 2 with In = 224 A reduces a short-circuit current with a potential rms value of approx. 50 to a cut-off current with a peak value of approx. 18 kA.

“gB” Mining HV HRC fuse switch-fuse combination “gR/aR” semiconductor protection

LV HRC fuse switch-disconnector

“gTr” transformer protection

Overcurrent relay > I M

“aM” switchgear protection

“gL/gG” cable and conductor protection

Fig. 6/11

Fuse application with regard to the utilization category

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Photo 6/50 MINIZED switch-disconnector and NEOZED fuses in a SIMBOX 63 small distribution board

This strong current limitation protects the system from excessive load at all time. Fuse assignment for cable and conductor protection When assigning fuses to cable and conductor protection against overload, the following requirements have to be met in accordance with DIN VDE 0100, Part 430: (1) IB ≤ In ≤ Iz (Nominal current rule) (2) I2 ≤ 1.45 x In (Tripping rule) IB: Circuit operating current In: Rated current of the selected protective device

Photo 6/51 LV HRC fuse links with center indicator in a 3NP fuse switchdisconnector

Photo 6/52 NEOZED and DIAZED bus-mounted fuses of the 60 mm SR busbar system integrated in an ALPHA distribution board

I z:

Permissible current load capacity under given operating conditions I2: Tripping current of protective device under specified conditions (”high test current”). In the meantime, factor 1.45 is an internationally accepted compromise between utilization and level of protection for a conductor when considering the interrupting performance of the possible protective device (e.g. fuses). Siemens fuse links of the utilization category gL/gG meet the following requirement in accordance with the supplementary sections of DIN VDE 0636:

”Interruption with I2 = 1.45 x In for the conventional test duration under specific test conditions according to the supplementary sections of DIN VDE 0636”. Rated power loss The cost-effectiveness of a fuse depends considerably on the rated power loss. This should be kept as low as possible and only manifest a low self-heating characteristic. However, when evaluating the intrinsic losses of a fuse, the physical interdependence between the rated breaking capacity and rated power losses should be taken into consideration. In order to achieve a low resistance value, the fuse element should be as thick as possible. To ensure a high rated breaking capacity, however, a thin fuse element is required. Considering the high breaking safety, Siemens fuses have the lowest possible rated loss.

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These values lie far below the limits specified in the relevant regulations. This means minimal heating, safe breaking capacity and high cost-effectiveness.

Photo 6/54 LV HRC fuse links in fuse bases and fuse switch-disconnectors, assembled in an ALPHA distribution board

Load capacity at higher ambient temperatures According to DIN VDE 0636, the course of the time/current characteristics of NEOZED/DIAZED and LV HRC fuses refers to an ambient temperature of 20°C ± 5°C. When used at higher ambient temperatures of 50°C, the fuse should be loaded with 90% of the rated current. The short-circuit breaking capacity is not affected by higher ambient temperatures. Application examples Fuses are primarily used to protect cables and conductors against overload and short-circuit currents regardless of the current’s strength, and they are also suited to protect equipment and devices.

Photo 6/55 LV HRC fuse links with center indicator in a 3KL fuse switch-disconnector

Load capacity

Photo 6/53 DIAZED fuses and LV HRC fuses in a building-site distribution board

120 % 100 90 80 60 40 20 0

0

20

40 50 60

80

100 °C 120

Ambient temperature

Fig. 6/12

Load capacity at higher ambient temperatures

C A high degree of selectivity requirements in radial and meshed networks to avoid unnecessary system failures

Amongst the many tasks and different use conditions for fuses, the following are included:

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C Back-up protection of miniature circuit-breakers C Protection of motor circuits, in which short-term overloads and short circuits may occur during operation C Short-circuit protection of switchand controlgear such as contactors and automatic circuit-breakers C In TN and TT networks where disconnection is operated by overcurrent protective devices, fuses additionally prevent unduly high contact voltages from being maintained in the event of a fault. Fuses are used in a wide range of applications, extending from residential installations to installations in commercial buildings and from industrial installations to installations in power supply companies. The MINIZED switch-disconnector allows NEOZED fuse links to be replaced in no-voltage conditions, and the safe switching of overload and short-circuit currents of up to 50 kA. Here, the MINIZED fuse switch-disconnector is particularly suitable for use in meter cabinets as the main switch, and for selective duties in control and industrial applications where high switching capacity, safe operation, selectivity and minimum space are required.

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Environmental protection Environmental protection is a continuing task for modern industrial society and demands action! Environmentally compatible recycling of LV HRC/HV HRC fuses National and global environmental problems – for example, changes in the climate and the atmosphere of the earth, the destruction of the ozone layer, the deterioration of the ground and water resources, problems in dealing with waste and raw materials – have all proven the necessity of common action. The recycling law, which was enacted in Germany at the end of 1996, requires companies to recycle materials and thus to save resources. Industry is requested to be aware of its responsibility – also towards future generations – and to take the initiative. We, as a manufacturer of low-voltage and high-voltage HRC fuses, are aware of this responsibility and are determined to focus more than ever on protecting the environment and taking care of our natural resources. Initiated by Siemens AG, various German manufacturers of LV/HV HRC fuses have formed a committee ”NH/HH-Recycling e.V.”, which has been recognised as beneficial to common interests. The purpose of this committee is to duly recycle fuse links, taking into account the prevailing legal regulations, and in doing so actively contribute to the protection of the environment and natural resources.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

How are fuses recycled in Germany? Only LV HRC and HV HRC fuse links will be accepted for recycling, without packaging. Euro pallet boxes are available from your wholesaler. If you accumulate large quantities of old fuses, you can also have a Euro pallet box on your premises. For further information, contact your regional Siemens sales office. The disconnected fuse links are completely melted down by an officially certified recycler. The silver and copper gained are put back into the materials cycle. Residues such as inorganic waste are used, for example, in road and dam building. Profits made herewith will be assigned to environmental research for public interest by the ”NH/HH-Recycling e.V.” committee. The fuses are labeled with the following symbols

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MINIZED switch-disconnectors, draw-out assembly Standards DIN VDE 0638, EN 60947-3 Dimensions DIN 43880 Utilization categories gL/gG Rated voltage 400 /415 V AC, 48 /110 V DC Rated current range 2 to 63 A Rated breaking capacity 50 kA AC, 8 kA DC Mounting position any, preferably vertical Resistance to climate1) up to 45 °C, at 95% rel. humidity Non-interchangeability achieved with adapter sleeves 1)

e.g. with regard to corrosion

NEOZED fuse Standards: Dimensions: Rated voltage: Rated current range: Mounting position: Non-interchangeability:

DIAZED fuse, SILIZED fuse link Standards: Dimensions: Utilization categories: Rated voltage: Rated current range: Rated breaking capacity: Non-interchangeability:

Table 6/11

DIN VDE 0636, DIN VDE 0680, EC 60269, EN 60269 DIN VDE 49522, DIN VDE 49523, DIN VDE 49524, DIN VDE 49525 400 V AC, 250 V DC 2 to 100 A any, preferably vertical achieved with adapter sleeves

DIN VDE 0635, DIN VDE 0636, DIN VDE 0680, IEC 60269, IEC 60241, CEE 16, EN 60269 DIN VDE 49510, DIN VDE 49511, DIN VDE 49514, DIN VDE 49515, DIN VDE 49516 gL/gG, aR, slow, quick 500/690/750 V AC, 500/600/750 V DC 2 to 63 A 50 kA AC (E16), 40 kA AC (E16), 8 kA DC (E16), 1.6 kA DC (E16) achieved with screw adapters or ring adapter

Overview 1: fuse systems

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LV HRC fuse Standards: Dimensions: Utilization categories: Rated voltage: Rated current range: Rated breaking capacity: Resistance to climate1): Non-interchangeability: 1)

e.g. with regard to corrosion

SITOR fuse link Standards: Dimensions: Utilization categories: Rated voltage: Rated current range: Rated breaking capacity:

Cylindrical fuse Standards: Dimensions: Utilization categories: Rated voltage: Rated current range: Resistance to climate1):

1)

DIN VDE 0636, DIN VDE 0680 IEC 60269, EN 60269 DIN VDE 43620, DIN VDE 43623 gL / gG, aM 500/690 V AC, 250/440 V DC 2 to 1,250 A 120 kA AC, 50 kA DC –30°C to 50 °C, at 95% rel. humidity not required

e.g. with regard to corrosion

Table 6/12

Overview 2: fuse systems

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DIN VDE 0636, IEC 60 269, EN 60269 DIN 43620, DIN 43623 aR, gR 600/690/1,000 V AC 16 to 630 A > 50 kA AC

IEC 60269, NF C 60200, NF C 63210, NF C 63211, NBN C 63269-, 2-EN-2-1, CEI 32-4 IEC 60 269-2-1 gG, aM 400/500 V AC 0.5 to 100 A up to 45 °C, at 95% rel. humidity

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6.2.3 Fuse SwitchDisconnectors 3K Switch-disconnectors – High-Level Safety and Performance Brief description 3KA and 3KE switch-disconnectors are able to make, conduct and break the specified rated current (incl. a predetermined degree of overload). If a short circuit occurs, the switchdisconnector must be able to conduct a specified short-circuit current during the time indicated. Switch-disconnectors 3KL and 3KM with fuses are able to make, conduct and break the specified rated current (incl. a predetermined degree of overload). If a short circuit occurs, the switchdisconnector must be able to conduct a specified short-circuit current during the time indicated. Additionally, the fuses fitted to the circuitbreaker also provide overload and short-circuit protection for downstream system components, cables and loads.

Areas of application Switch-disconnectors 3KA and 3KE are used as main, EMERGENCY STOP, repair, system selector and system disconnection switches in distribution board construction for residential and functional buildings as well as in industrial switchgear. Switch-disconnectors 3KL and 3KM with fuses also provide overload and short-circuit protection as main and EMERGENCY STOP switches for switchgear, distribution boards, power supply and motor feeders. In combination with semiconductor fuses (SITOR), they can be used as effective protection in frequency converters, UPS systems and soft starters. In the 3KM version, the switch-disconnector can be easily mounted, without tools, on a busbar system. The 3KA and 3KL switch disconnectors are available as special versions for use in aggressive atmospheres (hydrogen sulfide in the chemical industry, paper mills, sewage plants, lignite open strip mining). Features High rated short-circuit current (up to 100/80/50 kA) Easy configuration, as calculation of short-circuit current is not required. Unlimited selectivity Selectivity to a line-side fuse can be easily attained using the factor K = 1.6. High switching capacity AC 23 A at 690 V AC A standard series meets highest demands as to power distribution and motor switching capacity.

Photo 6/56

3KL switch-disconnector with fuses

Use in aggressive atmosphere This special version of the switchdisconnector can be used under extreme ambient conditions (e.g. hydrogen sulfide). IP 65 enclosure Safety switch philosophy up to 1,000 A realized with 8HP molded-plastic enclosure. High level of safety for user and system Lockable to prevent reclosure, deenergized fuses in OFF position by means of double contact seaparation of the switching contacts. Quality Quality management according to ISO 9001 and state-of-the-art production methods guarantee consistently high quality.

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3KA and 3KE miniature circuit-breakers without fuses Switch type:

3KA50

3KA51

3KA52

3KA53

3KA55

3KA57

3KA58

Rated continuous current:

63 A

80 A

125 A

160 A

250 A

400 A

630 A

Rated operational voltage:

690 V AC, 440 V DC

Switch type:

3KE42

3KE43

3KE44

3KE45

Rated continuous current:

250 A

400 A

630 A

1000 A

Rated operational voltage:

690 V AC, 440 V DC

Customers can combine two 3KE miniature circuit-breakers to a transfer control device

3KL and 3KM miniature circuit-breakers with fuses Switch type:

3KL/M50

3KL/M52

3KL/M53

3KL/M55

3KL/M57

3KL61

Rated continuous current:

63 A

125 A

160 A

250 A

400 A

630 A

Rated operational voltage:

690 V AC, 440 V DC

C Available with LV HRC and BS88 fuse-switches for the IEC and British Standard Market C 3KL miniature circuit-breakers available as protective switches with high-quality 8HP (IP 65) molded plastic enclosure, 63 A to 400 A

Table 6/13

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Range of delivery 3K switch-disconnectors

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3NP4 Fuse Switch-Disconnectors – Compact and Safe Isolation and Protection Brief description 3NP4 fuse switch-disconnectors are able to make, conduct and break the specified rated current (including a certain degree of overload). If a short circuit occurs, the fuse switch-disconnector must be able to conduct a specified short-circuit current during a predefined time. The switch-disconnector is opened (OFF) and closed (ON) by operating the handle unit. In the ”open position”, it meets the requirements for an isolating function. Overload and short-circuit protection of downstream system components and devices is provided by the size NH000 to NH3 (630 A), (630 A) LV HRC fuses integrated in the handle unit. Areas of application 3NP4 fuse switch-disconnectors are used in power distribution and infeed for occasional manual switching/isolating of load feeders and cable distribution cabinets. The fuses effectively protect downstream electric devices and system components from short circuits and overloads. The fuse switch-disconnectors are suitable for distribution board construction for residential and functional buildings, as well as in industrial switchgear. They protect and switch downstream system components and devices on an all-pole basis. Together with semiconductor fuses

(SITOR) they can be used to protect, for example, frequency converters and soft starters. Due to the open isolating gap they are perfectly suited for isolating systems and, thus, for personnel protection. Range of delivery 3NP4 fuse switch-disconnectors are available C up to a rated continuous current of 630 A in size 000 to 3 for mounting/installation C for mounting onto standard mounting rails (up to 250 A) and snapping onto busbar systems (up to 630 A) C with or without fuse monitoring C Accessories: Terminals and terminal covers, feeder terminals and busbars, auxiliary switches, masking frames and mounting sets for various cabinet/distribution board systems such as STAB-SIKUS, SIKUS-3200, SIPRO, 8HP. Features High safety for users and system Overreaching protection and laterally fingerproof, quick opening due to an artificial point of force, no arc in case of short-circuit breaking via fuse, sealable, degree of protection IP 30/IP 20.

Photo 6/57 3NP4 fuse switch-disconnector

Various fields of application Semiconductor protection by the tested use of SITOR fuses, capacitor protection via tested capacitor switching capacity. Free selection of distribution boards due to a wide range of accessories and covers. Quick and easy installation ensured by snap-on mechanism or quick mounting plates for installation on standard mounting rails and versions for mounting onto busbar systems (40 mm and 60 mm). Fuse monitoring by built-on 3RV circuit-breakers. Electronic fuse monitoring by 5TT3 170 fuse monitor. Quality Quality management in accordance with ISO 9001, and state-of-the-art production methods guarantee consistently high quality.

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3NP5 Fuse Switch-Disconnectors – Isolation and Protection, Sturdy, Compact and Safe With High Switching Capacity

(SITOR) they can be used to protect, for example, frequency converters and soft starters. Due to the open isolating gap they are perfectly suited for isolating systems and, thus, for personnel protection.

Brief description

3NP5 fuse switch-disconnectors are especially suitable for industrial plants and distribution systems with high demands on switching capacity and material resistance, such as ship installations, chemistry and paper industry.

3NP5 fuse switch-disconnectors have a high switching capacity and are able to make, conduct and break the indicated rated current (including a certain degree of overload). If a short circuit occurs, the fuse switch-disconnector must be able to conduct a specified short-circuit current during a predefined time. The switch-disconnector is opened (OFF) and closed (ON) by operating the handle unit. In the ”open position”, it meets the requirements for an isolating function. Overload and short-circuit protection of downstream system components and devices is provided by the size NH00 to NH3 (630 A), LV HRC fuses integrated in the handle unit. Areas of application 3NP5 fuse switch-disconnectors are used in power distribution and infeed for occasional manual switching/isolation of load feeders and cable distribution cabinets. The integrated fuses efficiently protect downstream loads and system components against short circuit and overload. The fuse switch-disconnectors are used in distribution board construction for residential and functional buildings, as well as in industrial switchgear. They protect and switch downstream system components and devices on an all-pole basis. Together with semiconductor fuses

6/52

Range of delivery 3NP5 fuse switch-disconnectors are available C up to a rated continuous current of 630 A for size LV HRC 00 to LV HRC 3 C for mounting/installation and for affixing to busbar systems C with or without fuse monitoring C Accessories: Terminals and terminal covers, busbar adapters, auxiliary switches, masking frames and mounting sets for numerous cabinet/distribution board systems such as STAB-SIKUS, SIKUS-3200, SIPRO, 8HP and switchboard installation. Features High degree of safety for user and system High rated breaking capacity, 23 A AC switching capacity of up to 690 V AC, overreaching protection and laterally fingerproof, fully compartmented, high-speed closing prevents arc standstill, no arcing in case of shortcircuit breaking by fuse, sealable, degree of protection IP 30/IP 20.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/58 3NP5 fuse switch-disconnector

Various fields of application Semiconductor protection by the tested use of SITOR fuses; capacitor protection via tested capacitor switching capacity; free selection of distribution boards due to a wide range of accessories and covers. Quick and easy installation due to easy mounting/installation and adapter for busbar systems (40 mm and 60 mm). Use in aggressive atmosphere The special version can be also used under extreme ambient conditions (e.g. hydrogen sulfide). Fuse monitoring due to integrated 3RV circuit-breakers. Solid-state fuse monitoring by selfsupplied, integrated fuse monitor. Quality Quality management in accordance with ISO 9001 and state-of-the-art production methods guarantee consistently high quality.

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Low Voltage

3NJ4/3NJ5 Fuse Switch-Disconnectors, In-Line Type – Isolation and Protection, Compact and Safe in Narrow Design Brief description 3NJ4/ 3NJ5 in-line fuse switch-disconnectors are able to make, conduct and break the rated current (including a certain degree of overload). If a short circuit occurs, the fuse switchdisconnector must be able to conduct a specified short-circuit current during a predefined time. The switch-disconnector is opened (OFF) and closed (ON) by operating the handle unit. In the ”open position”, they meet the requirements for an isolating function. Overload and short-circuit protection of downstream system components and devices is provided by the size NH00 to NH4a (1,250 A), LV HRC fuses integrated in the handle unit. Areas of application 3NJ4/3NJ5 fuse switch-disconnectors are used in power distribution and infeed for occasional manual switching/isolation of load feeders and cable distribution cabinets. The integrated fuses efficiently protect downstream loads and system components against short circuit and overload.

The in-line fuse switch-disconnectors are used in distribution board construction for residential and functional buildings. As a result of the narrow design, they are mainly used in lowvoltage distribution boards, network and transformer substations, and in cable distribution cabinets used in power supply companies and in industry. They protect and switch downstream system components and consumers in one- and all-pole operation. Due to the open isolating gap they are perfectly suited for isolating systems and, thus, for personnel protection. 3NJ4/3NJ5 in-line fuse switch-disconnectors are fed via the 185 mm busbar system, disconnectors of size NH00 via a 100 mm busbar system. Range of delivery 3NJ4/3NJ5 in-line fuse switch-disconnectors are available C up to a rated continuous current of 1,250 A in sizes NH00 to NH4a C switchable in one- and three-pole mode C for affixing to 185 mm busbar system, for size NH00 on 100 mm C Accessories: Terminals and terminal covers, auxiliary switches, masking frame, adapter for adjusting size NH00 to NH1-3. Features High degree of safety for user and system No arcing in case of short-circuit breaking by fuse, parking position of the handle unit, visible isolating gap,

Photo 6/59 3NJ4 fuse switch-disconnector, in-line type

lockable in OFF position, inspection holes for voltage testing in ON position, TTA testing in connection with SIKUS-3200 and SIVACON cabinet system. Easy current pick-off Measuring fuses for current measurement as well as piggyback for construction site supply pick-off can be inserted via a window in the grip lug. Quick and easy installation By direct mounting on busbar systems, mechanical fixing and electrical contact in one work operation, cable connection from top or bottom. Quality Quality management in accordance with ISO 9001 and state-of-the-art production methods guarantee consistently high quality.

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6.2.4 Miniature CircuitBreakers Areas of application Miniature circuit-breakers are mainly used to protect cables and lines against overload and short circuit. Thus, they also protect electrical equipment against overheating according to DIN VDE 0100 Part 430.

Photo 6/60 5SP4 miniature circuit-breaker single-pole

Photo 6/61 5SY miniature circuit-breaker single-pole

Under certain conditions, in accordance with DIN VDE 0100, Part 410, miniature circuit-breakers also ensure protection against hazardous shock currents in case of an excessive touch voltage caused by insulation failures. Further, due to the fixed rated current settings of the miniature circuitbreakers, it is also possible to protect motors in a limited form. For the respective application, different tripping characteristics are available. EN 60 898, DIN VDE 0641 Part 11 and IEC 60 898 are the underlying standards for construction and approval. For application in industry and system engineering, circuit-breakers are supplemented by the following add-on accessories: C C C C C C

Auxiliary circuit switches Fault signal contacts Open-circuit shunt releases Undervoltage releases Remote control RCCB blocks

Photo 6/62 5SY miniature circuit-breaker with versatile additional components

Functional design, mode of operation Circuit-breakers have a time-delayed overload current/time-dependent thermal release (thermal bimetal) for low overcurrents, and an instantaneous electromagnetic release for higher overload and short-circuit currents. The special contact materials ensure a long service life and offer a high level of protection against contact welding.

6/54

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Due to the ultra-fast separation of the contacts in case of faults and the quick quenching of the arc in the arc chamber, miniature circuit-breakers significantly and safely limit the current when breaking. Generally, the admissible I2t limit values of energy limitation class 3, specified in DIN VDE 0641 Part 11, are underranged by 50%. This guarantees excellent selectivity with the upstream overcurrent protective devices.

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Low Voltage

Rated cross section

mm2

Iz (conductor) Continuous current in A acc. to DIN VDE 0298 T4 and DIN VDE 0100 T430 Supplement 1 Two-conductor Three-conductor A A

Rated current miniature circuit-breaker (MCB)

Two-conductor A

Three-conductor A

1.5

16

16

19.5

17.5

2.5

25

20

26

24

4

32

32

35

32

6

40

40

46

41

10

63

50

63

57

16 25 35

80 100 125

63 80 100

85 112 138

76 96 119

Table 6/14

Conductor cross-sections: Allocation of miniature circuit-breakers to copper wires with PVC insulation for installation type C1) and R=30°C. 1) Example: Rising main busbar, multi-core wires on/in the wall.

Cable and line protection The actual task of miniature circuitbreakers is to protect cables and lines against thermal overload of the insulation caused by overcurrents and short-circuits. Thus, the tripping characteristics of the miniature circuit-breakers are adjusted to the load withstand curves of the cables and lines.

Iz

Ib In

I2

I1

I2

Ib Operating current: load-determined current during uninterrupted operation

1,45 x I z

I

Iz Permissible continuous current for a conductor whereby the continuous limit temperature of the insulation is not exceeded

Time t

1.45 x Iz Maximum permissible, temporary overload current which does not result in a safety-relevant reduction of the insulation properties when the continuous limit temperature is temporarily exceeded In Rated current: current which the MCB is suitable for and which other rated values refer to

I3

In the opposite chart, the relative values of the lines and of the miniature circuit-breakers are assigned to each other. The tripping characteristics are in accordance with the standards EN 60 898, IEC 60 898 and DIN VDE 0641 Part 11.

I1 Conventional non-tripping current: current which does not lead to a switch-off under defined conditions I2 Conventional tripping current: current which leads to a switch-off within one hour (In ≤ 63 A) under defined conditions

I3

I3 Tolerance limit I4 Holding current of the instantaneous release (short-circuit release) I5 Tripping current of the instantaneous release (short-circuit release) I4

I5

Current I

Fig. 6/13

Schematic drawing of the relative values of lines and protective device

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1,13 1,45

120

1,131,45

120

I2_06663b

Minutes

Minutes

20

Tripping time

Tripping time

10 6 4 2 1 40 20

20

10 6 4

10 6 4

2 1 0.6 0.4

0.1

0.06 0.04

0.06 0.04

0.02

0.02 1.5 2

3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 Multiple of rated current

0.01 1

30

20

Minutes

20 10 6 4

Tripping time

Minutes Tripping time

60 40

2 1 40

10 6 4 2

20

20

10 6 4

10 6 4

2 1 0.6 0.4

2 1 0.6 0.4

0.2

0.2

0.1 0.06 0.04

0.1 0.06 0.04

0.02

0.02 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 Multiple of rated current

30

I2_06354c

1 40

Seconds

Seconds

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

30

1,13 1,45

60 40

Fig. 6/14

3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 Multiple of rated current

120

I2_06353c

0.01 1 1.5 2

1.5 2

Tripping characteristic B Cable protection mainly in residential building installations, no proof regarding personnel protection required

1,13 1,45

120

Tripping characteristic C C Cable protection, advantageous for controlling higher making currents, e.g. with lamps, motors

6/56

1 0.6 0.4 0.2

Tripping characteristic A C For limited semiconductor protection C Protection of measuring circuits with transformers C Protection of circuits with long cable lengths which require tripping within 0.4 sec. acc. to DIN VDE 0100 Part 410

C High rated breaking capacity up to 15,000 A according to EN 60 898 and 25 kA according to EN 60947-2 C Excellent current limiting and selectivity C Tripping characteristics A, B, C and D C Terminals are safe from finger touch and touch by the back of the hand C Uniform additional components, quick mounting using snap-on and snap-in mechanism on site C Separate switch position indication C Variable labeling system C Handle locking device effectively prevents unauthorized operation of the handle C Disconnector characteristics acc. to DIN VDE 0660 Part 107 C Main switch characteristics acc. to EN 60204

2

0.1

0.01 1

Features of miniature circuitbreakers

10 6 4

1 40

0.2

In practice, the new tripping characteristics with a thermal tripping of I2 = 1.45 x In have the advantage of a more simple and obvious assignment of miniature circuit-breakers for cable and line protection in case of overload. The only condition is now: I n ≤ I z.

20

2

Seconds

Seconds

Thus, the three characteristics B, C and D can be certified. Characteristic B replaces the previous characteristic L. Characteristic G in accordance with CEE 19, 1st edition is still defined, however, it is replaced by characteristic C.

I2_06352c

60 40

60 40

0.01 1

1.5 2

3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 Multiple of rated current

30

Tripping characteristic D C Application area is adapted to strongly pulsating equipment, e.g. transformers, solenoid valves, capacities

Tripping characteristics according to EN 60 898, DIN VDE 0641 Part 11

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Low Voltage

Photo 6/63 Flexible and without tools

Features of 5SY Easier, faster, more wiring space C Identical terminals at the top and bottom C Connection of the feeder cable in front of the busbar C Larger and more easily accessible wiring space for the feeder cable C Comfortable insertion of the feeder cables into the busbar C Clear, visible and verifiable connection of the feeder cables C Universal infeed with busbar mounting at the top or bottom

Photo 6/64 Shock-hazard protection with obvious advantages

Photo 6/65 Easier, faster, more wiring space

Flexible and without tools C Integrated, movable terminal covers in the area of the feeder cable entries C With tightened screws, the terminals are completely enclosed C Effective shock-hazard protection even if fully grabbed C VBG 4/BGV A2 requirements are greatly exceeded Shock-hazard protection with clear advantages C Manual rapid mounting and dismounting system – no need for tools C Rapid mounting and dismounting of the MCB onto and from the standard mounting rails in accordance with DIN EN 60715 C Devices can be replaced easily and comfortably at any time

Photo 6/66 Removal from the assembly

Removal from the assembly As a result of the combination of the various features, the 5SY miniature circuit-breakers can easily and rapidly be removed from the assembly when circuits have to be changed: It is no longer necessary to remove the busbar. It just takes a moment to replace a 5SY miniature circuit-breaker.

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Seite 58

Product overview Tripping characteristic

Device mounting depth [mm]

Rated currents In

Standards

5SJ6

B

70

6 ... 32 A

EN 60898

5SY6

B

6 ... 80 A

C D

Rated breaking capacity Energy limitation class

Type of application Functional buildings Residential buildings Industry

Version

Standard product range

C

C

C

C

C

C

0.3 ... 80 A

C

C

C

0.3 ... 63 A

C

C

C

6 000 3

High-performance product range 5SY4

A

5SY7

5SY8

70

1 ... 80 A

EN 60898

10 000 3

C

C

C

C

B

6 ... 80 A

C

0.3 ... 80 A

C

C

D

0.3 ... 63 A

C

C

B

6 ... 63 A

C

C

C

0.3 ... 63 A

C

C

D

0.3 ... 63 A

C

C

C

0.3 ... 63 A

C

C

D

0.3 ... 63 A

C

C

15 000 3

EN 60947-2

25 kA

AC/DC product range 5SY5

B

70

C

6 ... 63 A

EN 60898

0.3 ... 63 A

C

10 000 3

C

High current product range 5SP4

B

70

80 ... 125 A

EN 60898

10 000

C

C

C

80 ... 125 A

C

C

D

80 ... 100 A

C

C

Power supply company product range 5SP3

E

92

Table 6/15

Overview of miniature circuit-breaker product ranges

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

16 ... 100 A

DIN VDE 0645 25 000

C

C

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Seite 59

Low Voltage Technical data Number of poles

1 1+N 2 3 3+N 4

Rated voltage

5SY4

5SY5

5SY6

5SY7

5SY8

5SP4

C C C C C C

C

C C C C C C

C C C C C C

C C C C C C

C

V AC V DC

230 / 400 –

V AC / DC V/Pol DC V AC

C

220 / 440



24 60 1) 440

220

60

10 – –

15

6 –

acc. to EN 60947-2

kA AC kA DC kA AC

Coordination of insulation Rated insulation voltage

V AC

250/440

Operational voltage

min. max. max.

Rated breaking capacity acc. to EN 60898

Degree of pollution with overvoltage category III

C C C

1)

15

10 25

2



3

Shock-hazard protection acc. to DIN EN 50274

C

C

C

C

C

C

Main switch characteristics acc. to EN 60204

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Sealable in the final handle position Device depth acc. to DIN 43880

mm

Degree of protection

70 IP00 acc. to DIN 40050, IP20 acc. to DIN 40050 for 5SY, IP40 when mounted in distribution board

Free of CFC and silicone

yes

Mounting

can be snapped onto 35 mm standard mounting rail (DIN EN 60715); additionally for C 5SY: rapid mounting system operable without tools C 5SP4: also screw mounting

Terminals

5SY combined terminals on both sides for simultaneous connection of busbars (pin-type version) and conductors 5SP4 tunnel terminals on both sides

Terminal tightening torque recommended

Nm

2.5 ... 3

3 ... 3.5

Conductor cross sections solid and stranded C upper terminal C lower terminal

mm2 mm2

0.75 ... 35 0.75 ... 35

0.75 ... 50 0.75 ... 50

finely stranded with end sleeve C upper terminal C lower terminal

mm2 mm2

0.75 ... 25 0.75 ... 25

0.75 ... 35 0.75 ... 35

Different cable cross sections can be clamped simultaneously; details available on request Supply connection

any, adhere to the specified polarity for DC applications

Mounting position

any

Service life

average of 20,000 operations at rated load

Ambient temperature

°C

–25 ... +45, temporarily +55, max. 95% humidity, storage temperature: –40 ... +75

m/s2

60 at 10 Hz ... 150 Hz acc. to IEC 60068-2-6

Resistance to climate Resistance to vibration 1) 2)

2)

6 cycles acc. to IEC 60068-2-30

Battery charging voltage 72 V 10,000 operations for 5SY5, 40 A, 50 A and 63 A at rated load

Table 6/16

Technical data for miniature circuit-breakers

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Technical data Number of poles

5SJ6

230 / 400

V AC / DC V DC / Pol V AC

24 60 250

Rated breaking capacity acc. to EN 60898 acc. to DIN VDE 0645

kA AC kA AC

6

Coordination of insulation Rated insulation voltage

V AC

250

min. max. max.

C C

V AC

Operational voltage

5SP3

C

1 1+N

Rated voltage

5SY6 …-.KV

Degree of pollution with overvoltage category III

230

220 / 440

440

25 690

2 / III

3 / IV

Shock-hazard protection acc. to DIN EN 50274

C

C



Main switch characteristics acc. to EN 60204





C

Sealable in the final handle position

C

C

C

Device depth acc. to DIN 43880

mm

Degree of protection

70

92

IP20 acc. to DIN 40050 for 5SP3, IP40 when mounted in distribution board

Free of CFC and silicone

yes

Mounting

can be snapped onto 35 mm (DIN EN 60715) standard mounting rail; additionally for 5SP3: also screw mounting

Terminals

5SP3 saddle terminals on both sides, 5SJ6, 5SY6 ...-.KV tunnel terminals on both sides

Conductor cross sections Solid and stranded C upper terminal C lower terminal

mm2 mm2

0.75 ... 25 0.75 ... 25

0.75 ... 16 0.75 ... 16

max. 70 max. 70

Finely stranded with end sleeve C upper terminal C lower terminal

mm2 mm2

0.75 ... 25 0.75 ... 25

0.75 ... 16 0.75 ... 16

max. 50 max. 50

Supply connection

any

Mounting position

any

Service life

average of 20,000 operations at rated load

Ambient temperature

°C

–25 ... +45, temporarily +55, max. 95% humidity, storage temperature: –40 ... +75

m/ s2

60 at 10 Hz ... 150 Hz acc. to IEC 60068-2-6

Resistance to climate Resistance to vibration

6 cycles acc. to IEC 60068-2-30

Tabelle 6/17 Technical data for miniature circuit-breakers

6/60

2)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Low Voltage

6.2.5 Residual-CurrentOperated Circuit-Breakers Protection against hazardous shock currents according to DIN VDE 0100 Part 410 Application C Protection against indirect contact (indirect personnel protection). Protection is provided by disconnecting hazardous high contact voltages caused by a short circuit to exposed conductive parts of equipment. C When using RCCBs with I∆n ≤ 30 mA. extensive protection from direct contact (direct personnel protection) is given – as supplementary protection via disconnection when live parts are touched. Protective action While RCCBs for rated fault current I∆n ≥ 30 mA provide protection against indirect contact, the installation of RCCBs with I∆n ≤ 30 mA provides a high level of supplementary protection against unintentional direct contact with live parts.

Photo 6/67 RCCB 4-pole

Figure 6/15 shows the physiological responses of the human body when current flows through it, classified into current ranges. Current/time values in range 4 are dangerous, as they can initiate heart fibrillation which can result in death. The RCCB tripping range with a rated fault current of 10 mA and 30 mA is indicated. The average release time lies between 10 ms and 30 ms. The admissible tripping time in accordance with DIN VDE 0664 or EN 61 008 or IEC 1008 of max. 0.3 s (300 ms) is not required. Residual-current-operated circuit-breakers with a rated fault current of 10 mA or 30 mA provide reliable protection even if current flows through a person as a result of unintentional direct contact with live parts. This level of protection cannot be achieved by any other comparable means of protection against indirect contact.

Thus, a current can only flow through a human body if two faults are present or if the person accidentally touches live parts. If a person directly touches live parts, two resistances determine the level of the current flowing through the human body, i.e. the internal resistance of the person RM and the local ground leakage resistance RSt (see Fig. 6/17). For the purpose of accident prevention, the worst case must be assumed which means that the local ground leakage resistance is almost zero. The resistance of the human body is dependent on the current path. Measurements resulted, for example, in a resistance of 1000 Ω for a hand-tohand or hand-to-foot current path. A fault voltage of 230 V AC results in a current of 230 mA for a hand-tohand current path.

Wherever RCCBs are used, an appropriate earth terminal must also be provided and connected to all of the equipment and parts of the system.

Photo 6/68 RCCB-protected outlet for a higher protective level

Photo 6/69 RCCB 2-pole

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Seite 62

Range a Usually, the effect is not perceived.

10 mA 30 mA

10000 ms t 2000

Range s Usually, there are no noxious effects.

1000 500 1

2

3

4

200 100 50

Fire protection according to DIN VDE 0100-482 Application When using residual-current-operated circuit-breakers with I∆n ≤ 300 mA, protection against electrically ignited fires caused by insulation faults.

20 0.1 0.2 0.5 1

2

5 10 20

Range d Usually, no danger of 50 100 200 500 1000 mA 10000 heart fibrillation. IM

IM

: Shock current

Range f Heart fibrillation danger.

t : Duration

Fig. 6/15

Protective action For ”locations exposed to the hazards of fire”, DIN VDE 0100-482 specifies measures to prevent fires that might result from insulation failures.

Rated current range according to IEC 60479

FI

Taking into account all external influences, the electrical equipment must be selected and mounted in such a way that their heating during normal operation and the predictable increase of temperature in case of a fault cannot cause a fire.

L1 N PE RA

FI

L1 N PE RA

PE conductor interrupted and insulation failure in the equipment

Damaged insulation

L1 N PE RA

FI

Conductors interchanged

This may be achieved by a suitable type of equipment or by additional protective measures during the installation. In TN and TT systems, there are therefore RCCBs with a rated fault current of 300 mA maximum additionally requested for “locations exposed to the hazards of fire”. Where resistive faults can cause a fire (e.g. in the case of overhead radiation heatings with surface heating elements), the rated fault current must not exceed 30 mA.

Fig. 6/16

R St

R St

R St

Examples for unintentional direct contact

L1 L2 L3 N

The additional protection against fire provided by RCCBs should be used not only at locations with increased fire hazard but in general.

FI

RM

IM

R St

Photo 6/70 RCCB AC/DC current sensitive

6/62

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Fig. 6/17

Schematic drawing: Additional protection when directly touching live parts

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Low Voltage L1 L2 L3 N

L1 L2 L3

1

3

5

N

1

3

5

N

2

4

6

N

2

4

6

N

3 x 230 V AC + N

3 x 230 V AC

3 x 400 V AC + N

3 x 400 V AC

Fig. 6/18

TN system

3-pole connection 4-pole RCCBs (Fig. 6/18) can also be used in 3-pole supply networks. In this case, the device must be connected at the terminals 1, 3, 5 and 2, 4, 6 (Fig. 6/18). The functionality of the test facility is only ensured if a jumper is inserted between the terminals 3 and N.

However, if an insulation fault causes a fault current to flow, this balance is disturbed and a residual magnetic field remains in the transformer core. This produces a voltage in the secondary winding, which, via the release and the contact latching mechanism, disconnects the circuit with the insulation fault. This tripping principle works independently of the supply voltage or an auxiliary supply. This is the prerequisite for the high level of protection which RCCBs provide according to IEC/EN 61008 (VDE 0664). Only this ensures that the full protective function of the RCCB is maintained, even in case of a network fault, e.g. if a phase conductor fails or the neutral conductor is interrupted.

Application RCCBs can be used in all three distribution network types (DIN VDE 0100-410) (Fig. 6 /19). In the IT system, a tripping upon the first fault is not required since this can not yet cause a dangerous touch voltage. An insulation monitoring device has to be provided so that the first fault is signaled by an audible or visual signal and the fault cleared as quickly as possible. The tripping is only requested in the case of a second fault. Depending on the grounding, the tripping conditions of the TN orTT system must be observed. The RCCB can also be used as a suitable circuit-breaker here; each current-using equipment must then be equipped with its own RCCB.

TN-C

TN-S

TT system

L1 L2 L3 N RCCB

In a fault-free system, the magnetizing effects of current carrying conductors in the summation current transformer cancel each other out in accordance with Kirchhoff’s law. There is no residual magnetic field which could induce a voltage in the secondary winding.

PE

N

L1 L2 L3 N

PE

PE

IT system (limited application)

PE

Fig. 6/19

L1 L2 L3 RCCB

The summation current involves all of the conductors, i.e. also the neutral conductor, which are necessary for current conduction.

RCCB

RCCB

PEN

We recommend that the functionality of the RCCB is tested after installation and at regular intervals (about twice a year). Furthermore, other standards or regulations (e.g. accident prevention regulations) which specify test intervals must also be met. The minimum operating voltage for the test function is typically 100 V AC (5SM series).

L1 L2 L3 N PE

RCCB

An RCCB essentially comprises 3 major functional groups: 1. Summation current transformer for fault current detection 2. Release to convert the electrical measured value into a mechanical release 3. Contact-latching mechanism with the contacts

Test button Each RCCB has a test button which can be used to check its operability. When the test button is pressed, an artificial fault current is produced and the RCCB must trip.

RCCB

Design and mode of operation of residual-current-operated circuitbreakers

Connection of RCCBs

PE

RCCB; possible application in all three network types

Current types When using electronic components in household appliances and in industrial plants for equipment with an ground terminal (protection class I), non-sinusoidal fault currents may flow through an RCCB in case of an insulation fault.

6/63

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Seite 64

Current type

Current waveform

Tripping current 1)

Proper functioning of RCCBs type AC

A

B

AC fault currents

C

C

C

0.5 … 1.0 I∆n

pulsating DC fault currents (pos. and neg. half-waves)



C

C

0.35 … 1.4 I∆n



C C

C C

0.25 … 1.4 I∆n 0.11 … 1.4 I∆n

Half-wave current with superimposed smooth 6 mA DC current



C

C

max. 1.4 I∆n+ 6 mA

Smooth DC current





C

0.5 … 2.0 I∆n

Phased half-wave currents Phase control angle

1) Tripping

Table 6/18

90°el 135°el

currents acc. to IEC /EN 61008-1 (VDE 0664, Part 10); for smooth DC currents acc. to VDE 0664, Part 100.

Tripping currents for RCCBs

The standards for RCCBs include additional requirements and test specifications for fault currents which become zero or almost zero within one period of the supply frequency. RCCBs which trip on both sinusoidal AC fault currents as well as on pulsating DC fault currents have the symbol .

Three-phase bridge connection 6-pulse L1 L2 L3

Pulse current sensitive RCCBs cannot detect such DC fault currents and cannot trip. Furthermore, this has a negative impact on their tripping function. This is why electrical equipment which generates such fault currents when faults occur may not be operated together with pulse current sensitive RCCBs on electrical supply networks.

6/64

N

Load current IB

L1 L2 L3 IB

IB

t

Fault current I

RCCBs which additionally trip on smooth DC currents (type B) have the symbol . DC fault currents In industrial electrical equipment, circuits are being increasingly used where smooth DC fault currents or fault currents with a low residual ripple may flow in the event of a fault condition. This is shown in Fig. 6/20 with the example of a piece of electrical equipment with a three-phase rectifier circuit. Electrical equipment includes devices such as frequency converters, medical devices (e.g. x-ray generators, CT systems) and UPS systems.

Three-phase star connection

I∆

I∆ t

Fig. 6/20

Block diagram with fault location

A protective measure would be protective separation, which, however, can only be implemented using heavy and expensive transformers. A technically optimum and cost-effective solution is obtained by using the new AC/DC sensitive RCCBs. This RCCB type (type B) is specified in DIN EN 50178 (DIN VDE 0160) ”Electronic equipment for use in power installations” . AC/DC sensitive protective device Design The basis for the AC/DC sensitive protective device is a pulse-currentsensitive protective switching unit with a release which operates independently of the line supply, supplemented by an additional unit which senses smooth DC fault currents. Figure 6/21 shows the basic design.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

The W1 summation current transformer monitors, as before, the electrical system or plant for AC and pulsating fault currents. The summation current transformer W2 senses the smooth DC fault currents, and transmits a disconnection command to release A via electronic unit E when a fault occurs. Operating principle In order to ensure a highly reliable supply, the power for the electronic unit is tapped from all of the three phase conductors and the neutral conductor. Furthermore, it is dimensioned to ensure that the electronics still operate when the voltage is reduced to 70% (e.g. between phase conductors and neutral conductor).

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Low Voltage L1 L2 L3 N PE 1

3

5

N

M A

W1

n

This consequently ensures tripping whenever a smooth DC fault current is present; this also applies in case of faults in the supply network, e.g. when the neutral conductor is interrupted. Even in the extremely improbable case of a failure of the two phase conductors and the neutral conductor, and if the remaining intact phase conductor represents a fire hazard due to a ground fault, protection is still provided by the pulse-current-sensitive breaker part, which reliably trips due to its supply-independent release. RCCBs of type B are suitable for use in an AC system with 50/60 Hz ahead of input circuits with rectifiers. They are not designed for use in DC systems and in systems with operating frequencies deviating from 50/60 Hz. They can be used for the detection and tripping of fault currents which might arise in the power supply units (e.g. frequency converters, computer tomographs) of threephase loads with electronic components (rectifiers). In this electronic equipment, apart from the described fault current forms (AC fault currents, pulsating and smooth DC fault currents), there might also arise AC fault currents of very different frequencies as, for example, on the outgoing side of a frequency converter. For RCCBs of type B, the device regulation VDE 0664 Part 100 defines requirements for frequencies up to 2 kHz. At the moment, statements as to the danger of heart fibrillation (up to 1 kHz) for frequencies exceeding 100 Hz can only be made in a very limited way. Safe statements as to further effects and the influence on the human organism (thermal, electrolytic) are not possible.

W2

n

T

E

Release

M Mechanical system of the protective device E

Electronics to trip in the event of smooth DC fault currents

T

Test facility

n

Secondary winding

W1 Summation CT to sense sinusoidal fault currents W2 Summation CT to sense smooth DC fault currents

2

Fig. 6/21

A

4

6

N

Block diagram of an AC/DC current sensitive RCCB

Based on these facts, protection for the case that a person directly touches live parts is only possible for frequencies up to 100 Hz. For higher frequencies, the method of protection to be implemented is protection against indirect contact with live parts. Configuration When designing and installing electrical systems, it must be ensured that electrical devices which can generate smooth DC fault currents when a fault occurs have their own circuit with an AC/DC sensitive RCCB (see Fig. 6 /22). It is not permissible to branch circuits with these types of electrical devices to pulse-current-sensitive RCCBs. Consumers which can generate smooth DC fault currents under fault conditions would then adversely affect pulse-current-sensitive RCCB tripping. The tripping conditions are defined according to DIN VDE 0664 Part 100 (for RCCBs of type B) and correspond to those of type A for AC and pulsating fault currents. The tripping values for smooth DC fault currents were defined in this device regulation taking into account the current compati-

bility characteristics according to IEC 60479 for the range 0.5- to 2.0times the rated fault current. AC/DC sensitive RCCBs have the symbols . Note: Using the available auxiliary current switches, the RCCBs can be integrated into the building management system via an instabus EIB or AS-Interface® bus or PROFIBUS®. Selective tripping Residual-current-operated circuitbreakers normally have an instantaneous release. As a consequence, an RCCB series connection which is to selectively disconnect in case of faults will not work. To achieve selectivity when RCCBs are connected in series, the serially connected devices must be graded both with regard to the release time as well as to the rated fault current. Selective RCCBs have a tripping delay. Furthermore, selective RCCBs must have an increased surge withstand strength of at least 3 kA according to IEC /EN 61008-1 (VDE 0664, Part 10). Siemens devices have a surge withstand strength of ≥ 5 kA. Selective RCCBs have the symbol S .

6/65

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Wh

I n = 300 mA

FI

FI

Fig. 6/22

I n = 30 mA

I n = 30 mA

I n = 30 mA

FI

S

I n = 30 mA

FI

FI

I n = 300 mA

FI

S

Configuration of circuits

Sub-distribution FI board

Main distribution board

SIGRES RCCBs are marked with the symbol i .

FI

S

FI selective version Upstream RCCB for selective tripping

1)

instantaneous/short-time delayed K

Downstream RCCB S

or instantaneous short-time K delayed

I∆n

Tripping time (at 5 I∆n)

I∆n

Tripping time Tripping time (at 5 I∆n) (at 5 I∆n)

300 mA 500 mA 1000 mA

60…110 ms

10, 30 or 100 mA 10, 30 or 100 mA 10, 30, 100, 300 or 500 mA

< 20 ms 1)

20…< 40 ms

for RCCBs of type AC: < 40 ms

Table 6/19

Allocation of RCCBs

Table 6 /19 shows a possible grading of RCCBs for selective tripping when the RCCBs are connected in series without or with short-time delay. Short-time delayed tripping Electrical devices which cause high leakage currents at switch-on (e.g. as a result of transient fault currents which flow between the phase conductor and PE via noise suppression capacitors) can cause instantaneous RCCBs to trip when they should not if the leakage current exceeds the rated fault current I∆n of the RCCB.

6/66

For applications such as these, where it is either not possible or only partially possible to eliminate such fault sources, short-time delayed RCCBs can be used. These devices have a minimum tripping time of 10 ms, i.e. they will not trip in case of a 10 ms fault current impulse. Here, the tripping conditions according to IEC/EN 61008-1 (VDE 0664, Part 10) are maintained. The devices have an increased surge withstand strength of 3kA. Short-time delayed RCCBs are marked with the symbol K .

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SIGRES RCCBs for aggravated ambient conditions i Our SIGRES RCCBs have been developed for the use of RCCBs in environments with an increased impact of corrosive gas such as, for example, C indoor swimming pools: chloric gas atmosphere; C agriculture: ammonia; C building site distribution boards, chem. industry: nitrogen oxides [NOx], sulfur dioxide [SO2]

With the patented active condensation protection, a clear increase of the service life is achieved. The following points have to be taken into account when using the SIGRES RCCBs: C The must always be supplied from the bottom at the terminals 2/N or 2/4/6/N. C Prior to insulation tests of the installation system with voltages exceeding 500 V, the SIGRES RCCB must be deactivated or the cables on the supply side (bottom) have to be disconnected.

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Low Voltage Rated current of RCCB

A

RCCBs with N-connection on the left side Since the RCCBs are usually located on the left side of the miniature circuit-breakers but have the N-conductor connection on the right side, the continuous busbar connection is disturbed. RCCBs in connection with MCBs therefore require a special busbar. To enable the customer to always use standard busbars, four-pole RCCBs are also offered with an Nconnection on the left side. The installation habit with the RCCB on the left side of the MCB using standard busbar connections can thus be retained. Breaking capacity, short-circuit capacity According to the regulations for installation, which are specified in DIN VDE 0100 Part 410 (protection against hazardous shock currents), RCCBs may be used in all three network types (TN, TT and IT systems). If the neutral conductor is used as protective conductor in TN systems, shortcircuit-type fault currents may flow in the event of a fault. Thus, RCCBs together with a back-up fuse must have

Maximum permissible short-circuit back-up fuse LV HRC, DIAZED, NEOZED, utilization category gL/gG for RCCB

A

125 V … 400 V AC A

A

500 800 800 800 800 800 800 1250

63 100 100 100 100 100 100 125

– – – 63 63 63 – –

630

63



500 V AC

Type A 16 ... 40 63 80 25 40 63 80 125

2 MW 2.5 MW 2.5 MW 4 MW 4 MW 4 MW 4 MW 4 MW Type B

25 ... 63 Table 6/20

8 MW

Rated breaking capacity/short-circuit strength

Stirn

I

Kenngrößen eines Stromstoßes nach DIN VDE 0432 Teil 2 TS Stirnzeit in s T r Rückenhalbwertzeit in s 0 1 Nennbeginn Im Scheitelwert

Scheitel

% 100 90

Rücken Im

Versions for 50 to 400 Hz Due to their mode of operation, the standard versions of the RCCBs are designed for the maximum efficiency in the 50/60 Hz system. The device specifications and tripping conditions also refer to this frequency. With an increasing frequency the sensitivity decreases. To be able to realize an effective residual-current protection for applications in systems up to 400 Hz (e.g. industry), suitable devices have to be used. Such RCCBs fulfill the tripping conditions up to the stated frequency and offer appropriate protection.

Rated breaking capacity Im acc. to IEC/EN 61008 (VDE 0664) at a 35 mm grid clearance

50

10 0 01

TS Tr

Fig. 6/23

t

Surge current wave 8/20 µs (8 µs front time; 20 µs time to half-value on tail)

an appropriate short-circuit strength. Tests have been defined for this purpose. The short-circuit strength of the combination must be specified on the devices. Siemens RCCBs have, together with an appropriate back-up fuse, a shortcircuit strength of 10,000 A. In accordance with the VDE standards, this corresponds to the highest possible level of short-circuit strength. Details about the rated breaking capacity in accordance with IEC /EN 61008 and the maximum permissible short- circuit back-up fuse for RCCBs are shown in Table 6/20.

Surge strength During thunderstorms, atmosphericrelated overvoltage conditions may enter a system or electric installation via the overhead power lines in the form of travelling waves and thus the RCCBs are tripped. To prevent unintended disconnections, pulse-currentsensitive RCCBs must pass special tests to prove surge withstand strength. A surge current of the standardized surge current wave 8/20 µs is used for testing. Siemens pulsecurrent-sensitive RCCBs have a surge withstand strength of ≥ 1000 A.

6/67

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RCCBs

RCCB, type A1 1), 16 ... 125 A instantaneous tripping, surge strength > 1 kA

Number Rated of poles current In A

Rated fault current I∆n mA

MW Auxiliary switch, mountable

N-connection on the right left

2

10, 30 30, 100, 300

2

30, 100, 300

2.5

30, 300 500 30, 300 100, 500 30, 300 100, 500 30, 300 30, 100, 300, 500 30

4

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

– – – – – • – • – • – • – – – – – – – • –

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

– – – – – – – –

4

16 25 40 63 80 25 40 63

K short-time delayed, surge strength > 3 kA

4

S selective,

2 4

surge strength > 5 kA

80 125 25 40 63 63 40 63

125 SIGRES RCCB, type A1), for aggravated ambient conditions instantaneous tripping, 2 25 surge strength > 1 kA 40 63 80 4 25 40 63 80 4 63 S selective, surge strength > 5 kA RCCB, type A1), 500 V instantaneous tripping, 4 25 surge strength > 1 kA 40 63 RCCB, type A1), 50 ... 400 Hz instantaneous tripping, 4 25 surge strength > 1 kA 40 >N 1 kA 4 25 40 63 S selective, surge strength > 5 kA 63

1)

30, 100 100, 300 100, 300 100, 1000 300 300, 500

4

2.5 4

30

2

30

2.5

30 30, 300

4

30 300

4

30, 300

4

• • •

• • •

– – –

30

4

• •

• •

– –

30, 300

8

fixed fixed fixed fixed

300

mounted mounted mounted mounted

• • • •

= Type A for AC and pulsating fault currents

2)

= Type B for AC fault currents, pulsating and smooth DC fault currents

Table 6/21

Overview of RCCB product range

6/68

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

*1 MW = modular width 18 mm >N< = device mounting depth 55 mm 70 mm mounting depth = 70 mm device mounting depth

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Low Voltage RCCBs

Number Rated of poles current In A

RCCB modules for 5SY4, 5SY6, 5SY7, 5SY8 MCBs instantaneous tripping, 2 surge strength > 1 kA 2 3 4 K short-time delayed, surge strength > 3 kA S selective, surge strength > 5 kA

4 2 3 4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

... 16 ... 40 ... 63 ... 40 ... 63 ... 40 ... 63 ... 40 ... 63 ... 40 ... 63 ... 63 ... 63

RCCB modules for 5SP4 MCBs2) instantaneous tripping, 2 80 ... 100 surge strength > 1 kA 4 80 ... 100 S selective, 2 80 ... 100 surge strength > 5 kA 4 80 ... 100 RCCB protected outlets for installation on mounting box, 2 16 equipped with RCCB and 2 SCHUKO outlets Molded-plastic enclosure, equipped 2 16 with RCCB and SCHUKO outlet RCCB protected outlet for an increased protection level 16 SCHUKO outlet DELTA profil titanium white 2 RCCB/MCB 6 ... 40 A; type A1) instantaneous tripping, surge strength > 250 kA Rated breaking capacity 6 kA 2 6 Characteristics B and C 10 6 000 3 13 16 20 25 32 40 Rated breaking capacity 10 kA 2 6 Characteristics B and C 10 10 000 3 13 16 20 25 32 40

1)

Rated fault current I∆n mA

MW Additional components, mountable

10 30, 300 30, 300, 500 30, 300 30, 300, 500 30, 300 30, 300, 500 30

2 2

300

2

300, 500, 1000 300, 500, 1000

3 3

at at at at at at at at at at at at at

30, 300 30, 300 300 300, 1000

3.5 5 3.5 5

at at at at

3 3 3

Type (Typ A)1)

MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB MCB

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

MCB MCB MCB MCB

• • • •

10, 30



10



10, 30



10, 30, 300

2

30, 300

10, 30, 300

30, 300

2

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

= Type A for AC and pulsating fault currents

Table 6/22

Overview of RCCB product range

*1 MW = modular width 18 mm >N< = device mounting depth 55 mm 70 mm mounting depth = 70 mm device mounting depth

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Technical data

Standards

IEC / EN 61008, VDE 0664 Part 10; IEC / EN 61543, VDE 0664 Part 30 IEC / EN 61009, VDE 0664 Part 20

Versions

2-pole and 4-pole

Rated voltages Un

AC V

125–230 230–400 500

Rated currents In

A

16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 125

Rated fault currents I∆n

mA

10, 30, 100, 300, 500, 1000

Enclosure

50–60 Hz 50–60 Hz 50–60 Hz

gray molded plastic (RAL 7035)

Terminals

at at at at

In In In In

= = = =

16 A, 25 A, 40 A 63 A, 80 A 25 A, 40 A, 63 A, 80 A 125 A

Cable cross section mm2 1.0 ... 16 1.5 ... 25 1.5 ... 25 2.5 ... 50

Terminal tightening torque, recommended Nm 2.5 ... 3,0 2.5 ... 3,0 2.5 ... 3,0 3.0 ... 3,5

5SM3, tunnel terminals with wire protection on both sides, lower combined terminal for simultaneous connection of busbars and conductors

at 2 MW at 2.5 MW at 4 MW

5SZ, tunnel terminals with wire protection on both sides

In = 25 A, 40 A, 63 A Screw terminals with auxiliary switch

1.5 ... 25 0.75 ... 2,5

2.5 ... 3,0 0.6 ... 0,8

5SM2, tunnel terminals with wire protection

up to In = 63 A In = 80 / 100 A

1.0 ... 25 6.0 ... 35

2.5 ... 3,0 3.0 ... 3,5

1.0 ... 25

2.5 ... 3,0

5SU1, tunnel terminals with wire protection on both sides Supply connection

optionally top or bottom (SIGRES: supplied from the bottom)

Mounting position

any

Degree of protection

IP20 acc. to DIN VDE 0470 Part 1 IP40 when mounted in distribution board IP54 when mounted in molded-plastic enclosure

Minimum operating voltage for test facility function

AC V

with RCCB

16 A ... 80 A: 100, 125 A: 195

RCCB module

0,3...63 A 2- and 3-pole: 195, 4-pole: 100 80...100 A: 100 RCCB/MCB in two modular widths: 195 Device service life

> 10,000 operating cycles (electrical and mechanical)

Storage temperature

°C

– 40 to + 75

Ambient temperature

°C

– 5 to +45, for versions marked

-25

: – 25 to + 45

Resistance to climate acc. to IEC 60068-2-30

28 cycles (55 °C; 95% rel. humidity)

Free of CFC and silicone

yes

Table 6/23 Technical data for RCCBs

6/70

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

*1 MW = modular width 18 mm >N< = device mounting depth 55 mm 70 mm mounting depth = 70 mm device mounting depth

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Low Voltage

6.2.6 Lightning Current and Surge Arresters Lightning current and overvoltage protection – why? Today, high-performance information systems are the backbone of modern industrial society. Any malfunction or system breakdown could have farreaching consequences. This may even result in the bankruptcy of an industrial enterprise or service provider. The causes of faults can be manifold, with electromagnetic interferences playing an important part here. Considering our highly technologized, electromagnetic environment, however, it is no longer wise to wait for the mutual interference of electric and electronic equipment and systems and then take action to remedy the fault at considerable expense. It is necessary to plan and implement preventive measures in advance that reduce the risk of interferences, faults and destruction. Nevertheless, damage statistics of electronics insurance companies show worrying figures: more than a quarter of all damage cases are caused by overvoltages due to electromagnetic interference (see Fig. 6/24).

Causes of overvoltages According to their causes, overvoltages are filed in two categories: C LEMP (lightning electromagnetic impulse) – overvoltages that are caused by atmospheric impact (e.g. direct lightning strike, electromagnetic lightning fields)

Lightning current arrester – Class I (B)

• SEMP (switching electromagnetic impulse) – overvoltages that are caused by switching operations (e.g. breaking short circuits, operational switching of loads). Overvoltages due to a thunderstorm are caused by direct/close strikes or remote strikes of lightning (Fig. 6/26). Direct or close strikes of lightning are lightning strikes into the lightning protection system of a building or the electrically conductive systems leading into the building (e.g. low-voltage supply, telecommunications and control lines). The resulting surge currents and surge voltages are particularly dangerous for the system to be protected, with regard to the current/voltage amplitude and energy content involved. In the event of a direct or close lightning strike, overvoltages (Fig. 6/26) are caused by the voltage drop at the surge grounding resistor and the resulting raise of the ground potential of the building in relation to the far surroundings. This means the highest stressing for electric systems in buildings.

Combi-arrester – Class I (B) and II (C)

Surge arrester – Class II (C)

Surge arrester – Class III (D)

Accessories

Photo 6/71

Product overview

6/71

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The characteristic parameters of the surge current present (peak value, current rise speed, load content, specific energy) can be described by the surge current waveform 10/350 µs (Fig. 6/25). They have been defined in international and national standards as the test current for components and equipment protecting against direct lightning strikes. In addition to the voltage drop at the surge grounding resistor, overvoltages are generated in the electric building installation and the systems and equipment connected to it by the inductive effect of the electromagnetic lightning field (Fig. 6/26, case 1b).

Negligence 36.1 % Other

1.2 %

6/72

5.7 %

Elementary

27.4 %

Water, fire

Overvoltage, lightning discharge, switching operations

Fig. 6/24

Damage causes to electronic equipment in the year 2000, analysis of 8,400 damage cases

80 i [kA]

The energy of these induced overvoltages and of the resulting pulse currents is far lower than the one of the direct lightning surge current, it is therefore described by the surge current waveform 8/20 µs (Fig. 6/25). Components and equipment that need not conduct currents resulting from direct lightning strikes are therefore tested with such 8/20 µs surge currents. Lightning strikes are called remote if they occur at a farer distance to the object to be protected, or strike medium-voltage overhead lines, or occur as cloud-to-cloud lightning discharges in the immediate vicinity of such overhead lines (Fig. 6/26, cases 2a, 2b and 2c). Similar to induced overvoltages, the effects of remote strikes of lightning to the electric building installation are handled by components and equipment which have been dimensioned according to the surge current waveform 8/20 µs.

12.9 % Theft, vandalism

16.7 %

60

40

1

20 2 0 0 80

200

fmax [kA]

600

800

t [µs]

Waveform [µs]

Q [As]

W/R [J/Ω]

Test surge current for 1 lightning current arrester 75

10/350

37.5

1.5 x 106

Test surge current for 2 surge arrester

8/20

0.27

2.75 x 103

Fig. 6/25

75

Test surge currents

Overvoltages caused by switching operations are, for example, generated by: • The disconnection of inductive loads (e.g. transformers, reactors, motors)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

400 350

• Arc initiation and interruption (e.g. arc welding equipment) • Fuse tripping

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Low Voltage

The effects of switching operations in the electrical installation are also simulated by surge currents of the waveform 8/20 µs under test conditions.

Lightning protection zone

Definition

0A

Zone in which objects are exposed to direct lightning strikes and must therefore be capable of carrying the entire lightning current. The undamped electromagnetic field is present here.

0B

Zone in which objects are not exposed to direct lightning strikes, in which, however the undamped electromagnetic field is present.

1

Zone in which objects are not exposed to direct lightning strikes and currents are reduced as compared to zone 0A. In this zone, the electromagnetic field may be damped dependent on the shielding measures taken.

2, 3

If a large-scale reduction of the conducted currents and/or the electromagnetic field is required, subsequent zones must be established. Requirements to these zones must comply with the required ambient zones of the system to be protected.

Protection scheme To ensure continuous availability of complex electric and IT systems even in the event of a direct impact of lightning, further measures for the protection of electric and electronic systems against overvoltage, based on a lightning protection system for the building, are required. It is important to take all causes of overvoltages into account. To do so, the concept of lightning protection zones, as described in IEC 61312-1 (DIN VDE 0185 Part 103), is applied (Fig. 6/27). The building is divided into endangered zones. According to the degree of endangerment of these zones, the equipment and components necessary for lightning and overvoltage protection can then be determined properly. Part of an EMC-suitable lightning protection zone concept is the outer protection against lightning (including lightning rods, roof conductors or air termination network, arrester, grounding), the equal potential bonding, the room shield and the overvoltage protection for the electrical and IT network. Definitions apply as classified in the Table “Definition of lightning protection zones.”

Table 6/24

Definition of lightning protection zones

Definition of lightning protection zones In accordance with the requirements and burdens placed on surge protective devices, they are categorized as lightning current arresters, surge arresters and combined arresters. The highest requirements are placed on the arresting capability of lightning current arresters and combined arresters, which perform the transition from lightning protection zone 0A to 1 or 0A to 2. These arresters must be capable of conducting partial lightning currents of waveform 10/350 µs several times without being destroyed in order to prevent the ingress of destructive partial lightning currents into the electrical building installation. At the transition point of lightning protection zone 0B to 1,

or downstream of the lightning current arrester at zone transition point 1 to 2 and higher, surge arresters are used to protect against overvoltages. Their task is both to reduce the residual current/voltage quantities of the upstream protective levels even further and to suppress the overvoltages induced or generated in the installation itself. The above described lightning and overvoltage protective measure at the borders of the lightning protection zones equally applies to the electrical and the IT network. By summation of the measures defined in the EMC-compatible concept of lightning protection zones, continuous availability of modern infrastructure systems can be achieved.

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1

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Direkt/close lightning strike Strike into outer lightning protection system, process frame (in industrial plants), cables etc.

2b 2a

1a Voltage drop at the surge grounding resistor RS 1b Induced voltage in loop 1

20 kV

L1 L2 L3 PEN

2c Remote lightning strike 2a Lightning strike into mediumvoltage overhead lines 1b

IT network

Fig. 6/26

1b RS

2b Traveling surge waves in overhead lines due to cloud-to-cloud lightnings

Power network

2c Fields of the lightning channel

Causes for overvoltages during lightning discharges

LPZ 0A LEMP LPZ 0B

M

LPZ 1 LEMP

Room shield Ventilation

LPZ 2

Terminal

LPZ 3 LEMP LPZ 2 LPZ 0B

LPZ 0B

IT network SEMP

Power network

Fig. 6/27

The concept of lightning protection zones

6/74

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Equipotential bonding as lightning protection, lightning current arrester Local equipotential bonding, surge arrester

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Low Voltage

Requirement classes of arresters (SPD = surge protective devices: lightning current/overvoltage protective devices)

Rated surge voltage and overvoltage categories 6 kV IV

Lightning current and overvoltage protection is only effective if the stipulated insulation strength of installation sections is also taken into account here. To do this, the withstand surge voltage of the different overvoltage categories is matched with the protective level Up of the different SPDs. The international standard IEC 60664-1 (EN 60664-1) distinguishes four withstand surge voltage categories for lowvoltage equipment. The categories listed in Table 6/25 apply to low-voltage installations with nominal voltages of 230/400 V in particular. The circuit diagram shown in Fig. 6/28, Table 6/25 respectively, demonstrates that the lightning current arresters and surge arresters are divided into requirement classes dependent on their location within the power system. Siemens SPDs comply with the following product standards: C Germany (VDE 0675-6, 1996) C International (IEC 61643-1, 1998) C Italy (CEI EN 61643-11) C Austria (ÖVE/ÖNORM E 8001) Co-ordinated use of lightning current and overvoltage arresters In practice, arresters of the different requirement classes are virtually connected in parallel. Owing to the different response characteristics, discharge capacity and protective tasks,

4 kV III

HA

2.5 kV II

1.5 kV I

Z

230/400 V

Protection level

Fig. 6/28

B 250

/

25

50

/

2)

Follow current extinction capacity 50 kA. / = No discharge protection necessary.

Table 6/30

Technical data

6/81

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Seite 82

TN-S system L1

F1

L2 L3

L

N

N F3

F2

I∆

Wh

Consumer

*

PE

PE • 4 arresters, Class C

• 4 arresters, Class B

Power outlet with integrated overvoltage protection, Class D

* For feeding with a TN-C system, the arrester between N and PE is omitted

TT system “3+1 wiring“1)

L1

F1

L2 L3

L F2

F3 Wh

Consumer

I∆

N

N

PE • 3 arresters, Class B •1 N/PE arrester, Class B

PE • 3 arresters, Class C

Power outlet with integrated overvoltage protection, Class D

• 1 N/PE arrester, Class C

For rating the protective devices F2 and F3, please refer to Tables 6/28 to 6/30. If the lightning current and surge arrester are installed upstream of the RCCB, an S differential must be provided. 1)

In the single-phase TT system, the circuit diagram is called “1+1 wiring”

Fig. 6/33

Circuit diagrams – overview

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Low Voltage Combi-arrester – range of protection Caution: The protection range of the combi-arrester covers 5 m! If the consumer is located more than 5 m (cable length) away from the combi-arrester, an additional overvoltage protection device must be provided for the consumer. MD SD Con Consumer Con

MD = Main distribution system SD = Subdistribution system

Combi-arrester Surge arrester

Combi-arrester – application in a combined main and subdistribution system SD Con Con Surge arrester

Power outlet with integrated overvoltage protection

SD Con Power outlet with integrated overvoltage protection

Surge arrester MD

SD Con Consumer Con MD = Main distribution system SD = Subdistribution system

Combi-arrester Surge arrester multi-pole Conventional installation using an interaction-limiting reactor SD Con Con Surge arrester

Power outlet with integrated overvoltage protection

SD Con

Surge arrester

Power outlet with integrated overvoltage protection

MD + SD Con Con Lightning current arrester

Fig. 6/34

Surge arrester Interaction-limiting reactor

Power outlet with integrated overvoltage protection

MD = Main distribution system SD = Subdistribution system

Circuit diagrams – combi-arresters (application notes)

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TN-C system Version featuring 1-pole arresters L3 L2 L1

3-pole version L1 L2 L3

a

s

PE

PEN

a 3 arresters, type 5SD7 311-1 s Busbar, type 5SD7 361-1 (cut at 6-pole)

a 3 arresters, type 5SD7 313-1

TN-S system Version featuring 1-pole arresters N L3 L2 L1

a

a

a

3-pole version N L1 L2 L3

a

a

s

PE

s

PE

a 4 arresters, type 5SD7 311-1 s Busbar, type 5SD7 361-1

d

a Arrester, type 5SD7 313-4 s Arrester, type 5SD7 311-1 d Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0

TT system Version featuring 1-pole arresters N L3 L2 L1

3-pole version N L1 L2 L3 f

a a

a

a

s

PE

d

f

g

PE a s d f g

s

d

3 arresters, type 5SD7 311-1 through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0 N/PE arrester, type 5SD7 318-1 Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0 (cut at 2-pole) Busbar, type 5SD7 361-1

Fig. 6/35

Circuit diagrams – lightning current arresters, Class I (B)

6/84

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a s d f

Arrester, type 5SD7 313-1 Through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0 N/PE arrester, type 5SD7 318-1 Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0

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Low Voltage

TT system “3+1 wiring” (with interaction-limiting reactors) N

L2

L1’ =’

L1 =

L2˛

L3

L3’ PE’

3 1 4 3 1 1 1 2 2

arresters, type 5SD7 311-1 arrester, type 5SD7 318-1 interaction-limiting reactors arresters, type 5SD7 300-2 arrester, type 5SD7 308-0 through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0 busbar, type 5ST2 147 combs, type 5SD7 361-1 combs, type 5SD7 361-0

Caution!

N

N’

N’

The design of the combi-arrester ensures an energetic co-ordination with the class II arresters without that an interaction-limiting reactor would be required. See solution shown in Fig. 6/39. Note: To simplify these circuit diagrams, the fuses or magnetothermal switches have not been represented: for their use and ratings please refer to co-ordination tables 6/29 and 6/30.

PE

Fig. 6/36

Circuit diagrams – lightning current arresters, Class I (B)

TN-S system Version featuring 1-pole surge arrester N •

Version featuring multi-pole surge arrester PE Fault alarm

L1

a a

a a

a L1 L2 L3 N

PE

s

a 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 303-2 s Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0 Austria: a 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 303-4 s Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0

Fig. 6/37

TN system: Surge arrester for a TN system (type 5SD7 325-2 or 5SD7 326-2) a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 326-2 Austria: a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 326-4

Circuit diagrams – lightning current arresters, Class II (C)

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TT system Version featuring 1-pole surge arrester

Version featuring multi-pole surge arrester PE Fault alarm

L3 L2 L1 N PE

a a s

d d

d L1 L2 L3 N

f a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 308-0 a 1 through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0 d 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 302-2 f 1 busbar, type 5SD7 361-1 (cut at 5-pole) Austria: a 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 308-0 s 1 through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0 & 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 303-4 f 1 busbar, type 5SD7 361-0 (cut at 5-pole)

TN system: Surge arrester for a TN system (type 5SD7 325-2 or 5SD7 326-2) a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 328-2 Austria: a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 328-4 5SD7 300-2, 5SD7 301-2, 5SD7 302-2, 5SD7 303-2, 5SD7 323-2, 5SD7 324-2, 5SD7 325-2, 5SD7 326-2, 5SD7 327-2, 5SD7 328-2 F1 Miniature circuit-breaker

F1 >125 A gL/gG

F3 =125 A gL/gG F3 On the arrester line

F1 >125 A gL/gG

F3

Note: To simplify these circuit diagrams, the fuses or magnetothermal switches have not been represented: for their use and ratings please refer to co-ordination tables 6/29 and 6/30.

Fig. 6/38

Circuit diagrams – surge arresters, Class II (C)

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SEC

F4

F5

L1’ L2’ L3’ N’ PE

F6

F1F2F3 L1 L1’ L2 L2’ L3 L3’ N H1 H2 H3

N’

5SD7 344-0

N PE 5SD7 348-3 1 2 3 4

PE

F4 - F6 ≤125 A gL/gG (s = 50 mm2 Cu)

PAS

L1 L2 L3 N Service entrance cable

SEC

F1 - F3 >125 A gL/gG

F4

F5 s

L1’ L2’ L3’ N’ PE

F6 s

s

s

F1F2F3 L1 L1’ L2 L2’ L3 L3’ N H1 H2 H3

N’

F1 - F3 >315 A gL/gG

5SD7 343-1 5SD7 348-3 1 2 3 4

PE

F4 - F6 ≤ 315 A gL/gG (s = 50 mm2 Cu) PE

L1 L2 L3 N Service entrance cable

Fig. 6/39

PAS

Circuit diagrams – combi-arresters, Class I (B) and II (C)

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6.2.7 3LD2 Main Control and EMERGENCY STOP Switches Brief description Three- or four-pole switch-disconnectors with manual operation (network disconnecting devices) for switching main and auxiliary circuits of threephase motors and other devices of up to 45 kW (e.g. machine tools and processing machines). The lockable rotary operating mechanism guarantees optimum use as maintenance or repair switch from 16 to 125 A. Areas of application Main switches (network disconnecting devices) or EMERGENCY STOP switches C of individual machine tools or processing machines, direct switching C for switching off machine or device groups, encapsulated in a moldedplastic enclosure for wall mounting C of switchgear and control cabinets for maintenance or repair purposes Product range Main control and EMERGENCY STOP switches from 16 A to 125 A, lockable in OFF position with three padlocks. C For front mounting with rotary operating mechanism (center- or fourhole fixing) C For front mounting with masking frame and knob, lockable with two padlocks

6/88

Photo 6/72 6-pole main and EMERGENCY STOP switch

Photo 6/73 Main and EMERGENCY STOP switch in a molded-plastic enclosure

C In molded-plastic enclosure with rotary operating mechanism C For base mounting with rotary operating mechanism, 300 mm shaft, detachable door coupling and door locking in ON position (center- or four-hole fixing) C For mounting in distribution boards, mountable on 35 mm standard mounting rail, lockable with two padlocks, cap dimensions 45 mm C As 6-pole changeover and parallel switches Advantages at a glance C Plugged on – accessories installed (convertible from three-pole to fourpole switches; 2 auxiliary contact blocks can be mounted; N and PE conductor can be mounted) C Rapid mounting with center-hole fixing ø 22.5 mm C Snap-on terminal covers and safeto-touch terminals C Captive terminal screws accessible from mounting perspective

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/74 Main and EMERGENCY STOP switch with door-coupling rotary operating mechanism

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The following list provides an overview of the currently available product groups mainly used in functional, i.e. in commercial, administrative and institutional buildings and in industry.

Application

Standards

Switching of lighting, motors and other electrical equipment

IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3 (VDE 0660 Part 107) IEC 60669-1, DIN EN 60669-1 (VDE 0632 Part 1)

Use in buildings of type functional

Switch

and is therefore also the reason for an increase in device development.

5TE8 control switch C Changeover switch 5TE8, 20 A C Group switch with center position 5TE8, 20 A C Control switch 5TE8, 20 A

Table 6/31

industrial

The term modular devices, as a collective name, refers to all installation equipment which is used for switching, monitoring, indicating, controlling and signaling. Together with the instabus EIB devices, modular devices provide maximum functionality for low-voltage switchgear as well as

power distribution boards and distribution boards. In Germany, the design and with it the dimensions of the modular devices are constructed to conform with DIN 43880, also defined in the CENELEC Report R 023- 001. This standardization has led to an enormous simplification regarding the planning, construction and installation of switchgear and distribution boards

residential

6.3 Modular Devices

C C C C C C

C C C

For use in logic operations in control cabinets

5TE4 8 pushbutton With/without latching function

As pushbutton in control systems, e.g. to switch on sealed-in circuits, or as pushbutton with latching function for manual operation, as control switch or for load switching

IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3 (VDE 0660 Part 107) IEC 60669-1, DIN EN 60669-1 (VDE 0632 Part 1)

C

C

5TE8 ON/OFF switch 20 A to 125 A

For use in logic operations in control cabinets

16–25 A and 40 –100 A: IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3 (VDE 0660 Part 107) IEC 60669-1, DIN EN 60669-1 (VDE 0632 Part 1) 32 A and 125 A: IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3 (VDE 0660 Part 107)

C C C

5TE1 switch-disconnector 100 A to 200 A

Switching of plant sections

IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3, KEMA-certified acc. to UL 508

C

C

Product overview

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Switching devices Switching of lighting, ohmic and inductive load, switching of small loads and contact multiplications in controllers, protection of motor-driven mechanical drive parts and pumps, rotational speed setting of 1-phase AC motors.

Use in buildings of type

Remote-control switch C Without central switching Switching of lighting with C With central switching pushbuttons C With central and group switching Venetian blinds and remote series switch Electronic remote series switch Remote-control switch, flush-mounted System remote-control switch C Without central switching C With central switching C With central and group switching Relay C For controllers

C For capacitive loads

Insta contactors

Table 6/32

Product overview

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DIN EN 61095 (VDE 0637) DIN EN 60669 (VDE 0632)

industrial

Standards

residential

Application

functional

Switch

C C C C C C C C C C C C C

Switching of small loads, or DIN EN 60255 (VDE 0435) use in control circuits, especially to switch lights, such as fluorescent lamps or high-pressure metal-vapor lamps and metal-halide lamps, with capacitive properties

C

Switching of motors, heaters or lighting, such as fluorescent or glow lamps, ohmic and inductive loads

C C C

EN 60947-4-1, EN 60947-5-1, EN 61095

C

C C

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Protection of machinery with gear, belt or chain drives, conveyor belts, fans, pumps, compressors, packing machines and door-opening drives

DIN EN 60947-4-2, (VDE 0660 Part 117)

EMERGENCY OFF switch for in industry, trade and private households

In compliance with the EC Directive for Machinery 98/37/EC, DIN EN 954-1

Use in buildings of type

Soft-starter C 5TT3 441, 230 V AC

C 5TT3 440, 400 V AC

EMERGENCY OFF module >N<

5TT5 200, 10 A

Electric switching

Table 6/33

industrial

Standards

residential

Application

functional

Switch

C C

C

C

Some general requirements to operation, in particular to the switching of lighting systems are to be taken into account for planning. The technical information presented here is intended to provide background information and to prevent planning errors and early system failures that would result in time-consuming trouble shooting.

Product overview

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Timers Power saving in stairwell lighting, prewarned off-switching of stairwell lighting in multiple dwellings, power saving in rarely used rooms or rooms that are frequented with a varying intensity, timer-controlled stairwell

lighting for ECG dynamic® electronic controlgear, run-on operation for fans in toilets, for time sequence control in control systems. 30-minute accurate switching in day or week cycles, 1-minute accurate switching in day, week and year Application

Standards

Power saving for staircase lighting;

DIN EN 60669, IEC 60699

C C

Flashes to warn before the stairwell lights are switched off in multiple dwellings; To trigger electronic control gear in fluorescent lamps, warns by dimming the stairwell light before it is switched off on multi-apartment floors and landings; Power saving in rarely used rooms, or rooms that are frequented with a varying intensity, flashes to warn before the lights are switched off

DIN EN 60669, IEC 60699, DIN 18015

C C

DIN EN 60669, IEC 60699, DIN 18015

C C

DIN EN 60669, IEC 60699, DIN 18015

C C

Use in buildings of type functional

Timers

mode, automatic startup without the necessity to enter the time, time monitoring for accuracy. Creates, modifies and documents switching programs.

industrial

11.08.2005

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TIP_Kap06_Engl

Timers for buildings

C Stairwell lighting timer, 7LF6 110, 7LF6 111 C Stairwell lighting timer with pre-warning function, 7LF6 113 C Stairwell lighting timer ECG, 5TT1 303

C Lighting timer with pre-warning function, 7LF6 114 C Power-save timer with pre-warning function, 7LF6 115 C Fan timer, 7LF6 112 Industrial timers C Multi-function timer, 5TT3 185 C Delay timer, 5TT3 181 C Wiper timer, 5TT3 182 C Flashing timer, 5TT3 183 C Off-delay timer, 5TT3 184

Table 6/34

Product overview

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C C

Power saving in toilets

DIN EN 60699, IEC 60699

For time sequence control in control systems

DIN EN 60255, IEC 60255

C C

C C C C C

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1-second accuracy of switching in day, week or year mode

DIN EN 60730, IEC 60730

Use in buildings of type

Mechanical and digital clock timers

C C C

Product overview

Monitoring of the emergency lighting’s power supply in public buildings, monitoring of the power supply to ensure the compliance with operational parameters for devices or system parts, monitoring of the neutral conductor for breakage, monitoring of all types of fuses, monitoring of the power supply for short-time interruptions of 20 ms, monitoring of 24 V DC

power supply, disconnecting of unused lines, monitoring of power supply, monitoring of a network’s direction of rotation, monitoring of operating hours and switching-on of devices or systems, overcurrent release for the protection of motors, monitoring of emergency and signal lighting and motors, monitoring of luminaries and transformers for halogen lighting, switching of network loads in resi-

Application

Standards

Use in buildings of type functional

Monitoring devices

dential buildings, thermal protection of motor windings in heating or cooling equipment, remote display of room temperatures, controlling and limiting of temperatures, controlling of liquid levels in containers, switching of lighting according to daytime brightness.

Table 6/36

Light indicator 5TE5 8

Optical signaling in plants and DIN VDE 0710-1 control circuits to indicate switching states or faults

C

Bell, buzzer With power supply unit 4AC3 004, 4AC3 104

Bell or buzzer with 230 V AC connection in one device, that can also be pushbutton-operated with 12 V AC safety extra voltage

C

DIN EN 61558-2-8

industrial

Monitoring devices

residential

Table6/35

industrial

Standards

residential

Application

functional

Timers

C

Product overview

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Application

Standards

Use in buildings of type functional

Monitoring devices

Fault signaling units 5TTE5 8 C Centralized fault indicator Evaluation and display of faults or 5TT3 460 alarms to monitor industrial plants C Expansion fault indicator footpaths, for cost saving purposes 5TT3 461

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435-303

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TIP_Kap06_Engl

C

C

C

C

Dusk switches 7LQ2 1, 5TT3 3

On-demand switching of lighting systems for shop windows or sidewalks to save costs.

EN 60730

C C

Temperature controller 7LQ2 0

Temperature control and limiting

EN 60730

C C C

Fuse monitor 5TT3 170

Monitoring of all types of fuses

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

C

Power-off switch 5TT3 171

Disconnection of unused supply lines

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

Phase-sequence/direction Monitoring of the phase sequence of rotation monitors of a network or power supply 5TT3 421 / 5TT3 423

Table 6/37

Product overview

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IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

C C

C

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Power supply monitoring of the emergency lighting in public buildings

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435-303, DIN VDE 0108

Use in buildings of type

Voltage relays C Undervoltage relay, 5TT3 400 to 5TT3 403 C Undervoltage relay, 5TT3 404 to 5TT3 406 C Short-time voltage relay, 5TT3 407 C Under-/overvoltage relay 5TT3 408

C Under-/overvoltage relay 5TT3 410 C Overvoltage relay, 5TT3 19

Table 6/38

Power supply monitoring for short-time failures of 20 ms Power supply monitoring to maintain operative parameters for equipment or plant sections Monitoring of neutral conductor for breakage Power supply monitoring to maintain operative parameters for equipment or plant sections

industrial

Standards

residential

Application

functional

Monitoring devices

C C C C

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

DIN VDE 0633

C

C C

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

C

C

Current relay 5TT6 1

To monitor emergency and signal lighting and motors

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435-303

Priority switch 5TT6 10

Switching of network loads in residential buildings

IEC 60669 (VDE 0632), BTO § 6 Section 4

Isolation monitor for industrial applications 5TT3 4

To monitor the dielectric resistance in ungrounded networks

IEC 60255, IEC 61557

C

Cosϕ monitor 5TT3 472

To monitor low loads of motors up to approx. 5 A alternating current by cosϕ measurements

IEC 60255, IEC 61557

C

Level relay 5TT3 430/5TT3 435

Control of liquid levels in containers

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

C

Thermistor motor protection relay 5TT3 43

Thermal protection of motor windings

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

C

C

C

Product overview

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Power supply units Voltage/current supply up to 63 VA as safety extra-low voltage, DC current/voltage supply up to 24 VA as safety extra-low voltage, for power supply during maintenance. Application

Standards

Bell transformers 4AC3 0, 4AC3 1

Alternating current/voltage supply up to 40 VA, as safety extra-low voltage, for gongs, buzzers, bells, dooropeners, intercoms, remote-control switches and AC power supply for safety-extra-low-voltage systems intended for short-term operation

DIN EN 61558-2-8

C C

Transformers for continuous load 4AC3 4, 4AC3 5, 4AC3 6

Alternating current/voltage supply up to 63 VA, as safety extra-low voltage, for control circuits, relays, Insta contactors and AC power supply for safety-extra-low-voltage systems intended for permanent operation

DIN EN 61558-2-2

C

Power supply units for DC voltage 4AC2 4

Direct current/voltage supply up to 40 VA, as safety extra-low voltage, for gongs, buzzers, bells, dooropeners, relays, Insta contactors and DC power supply for safetyextra-low-voltage systems intended for permanent operation

DIN EN 61558-2-6

C C C

Outlets 5TE6 7

Power supply for maintenance purposes in distribution boards

DIN VDE 0620, CEE 7 Standard Sheet V

C C C

Table 6/39

Product overview

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industrial

residential

Use in buildings of type functional

Power supply units

C

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instabus binary inputs N260 binary input For four independent switching or pushbutton signals, input voltage 230 V AC, contacting via data bus.

Standards EN 50090

N261 binary input For four independent switching or pushbutton signals, input voltage 24 V AC/DC, contacting via data bus.

Table 6/40

Product overview

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instabus clock timers REG371 2-channel clock timer Can be used in day, week or year mode. 36 switching times can be permanently saved. Holiday timing to interrupt the automatic program for 1…99 days with pre-selection of 1…99 days. Calendar-timed automatic summertime/wintertime changeover. Switching, priority, dimming or value frames can be sent on every channel. Bus contacting via bus terminal. REG372 4-channel clock timer Can be used in day, week or year mode. 324 switching times can be permanently saved. Besides the standard week program, up to 9 more week programs can be entered in each channel and called up with reference to a certain period (e.g. 12-24 to 01-06). Every week program can be complemented by date switching commands and single-date switching commands. A random switching program can be enabled. Temporary or permanent manual operation is possible. Calendar-timed automatic summertime/wintertime changeover. Bus contacting via bus terminal. Date and time can be transmitted.

REG372/02 4-channel clock timer In addition to the functions featured by the REG372 clock timer, REG372/02, when used in connection with a DCF77 antenna, type AP390, can perform an automatic time synchronization and summertime/wintertime changeover triggered by a DCF77 signal.

REG373 16-channel clock timer Can be used in day, week or year mode. 500 switching times can be permanently saved. Besides the standard week program, up to 9 more week programs can be entered in each channel and called up with reference to a certain period (e.g. 12-24 to 01-06). Every week program can be complemented by date switching commands and single-date switching commands. A random switching program can be enabled. Temporary or permanent manual operation is possible. Calendar-timed automatic summertime/wintertime changeover. In connection with a DCF77 antenna, type AP390, an automatic time synchronization and summertime/wintertime changeover triggered by a DCF77 signal can be performed. Bus contacting via bus terminal. Date and time can be transmitted. AP390 DCF77 antenna To receive DCF77 signals for REG372/02 and REG373 clock timers.

Table 6/41

Product overview

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Standards EN 50090 EN 60730-2-7

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instabus actuators N512 load switch By means of eight floating contacts (bi-stable relays, contact rating for 230 V AC, 16 A at cosϕ = 1), the load switch controls eight independent groups of electric consumers. No supply voltage necessary. Manual operation and switch position indicator. Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may be used as connector.

Standards EN 50090

N522/02 Venetian blinds switch The N22/02 Venetian blinds switch can independently drive four 230 V AC sun shield or window drives and their integrated end position switches. This easy-to install Venetian blinds switch has 4 terminals per output to connect all of the 4 conductors (Up, Down, N, PE) of a drive line. Functions for manual and automatic operation can be configured separately. Slat angles or blinds position can be controlled at any angle/position between 0 and 100%. In connection with a higher-level time, brightness or sun-follow-on controller, the Venetian blinds switch can be used for shading with an optimum daylight incidence. Contacting is made via bus terminal.

N523/02 Venetian blinds switch The N523/02 Venetian blinds switch can independently control four sun shields (Venetian blinds, roller shutters, sunshade blinds). The sun shield drives must have end position switches. A pushbutton with LED enables changeover between manual and automatic mode. In manual mode, the sun shield can be repositioned by the actuator, using two pushbuttons per channel if a 230 V AC supply and bus voltage are available. Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may be used as connector.

Tabele 6/42

Product overview

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N527 universal dimmer Dimming of glow lamps and LV halogen lamps (with electronic or conventional transformers) from 20 W to 500 W. Automatically operates according to general phase control principle. Short-circuiting protection by means of electronic fuse. Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may be used as connector.

N526E switching/dimming actuator The switching/dimming actuator switches or dims eight independent groups (channels) of fluorescent lamps with dimmable electronic control gear. Each channel is assigned to a 1…10 V control output and a contact output with a switching power of 230 V AC, 16 A at cosϕ = 1. The switching contact output has a mechanical switching position indicator which can also be used for direct manual operation of the contact outputs. Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may be used as connector. N670 universal I/O module The module is equipped with two universal inputs/outputs, either of them to be used as binary or anolog input or output, so that four completely different functionalities are available for each universal input/output: binary input or output, analog input or output. For temperature measurements, two inputs are provided for Pt 1000 sensors in two-wire connection. In addition, two power relays are provided with corresponding switching and forced-guidance objects. The device requires an external 24 V AC/DC supply. Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may be used as connector.

Table 6/43

Product overview

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Standards EN 50090

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instabus function modules N341 event module It can process up to 200 event programs with a maximum of 200 event tasks for up to 255 communication objects. The event module handles up to 125 calendar entries / day programs together with a maximum of 400 time-scheduling tasks. For the timing function, the event module requires a date/time source. Contacting is made via the data bus.

Standards EN 50090

N343 operating hours and switching operations counter It records operating hours and switching operations for a maximum of 36 sensor/actuator channels with 1-bit switching objects. Limit values can be defined for all counter values, so that an alarm can be output to the instabus EIB if a limit is exceeded or undershot. The maximum runtime of the operating hours counter is 136 years, a maximum of 4.3 billion switching operations can be recorded.

N350 event, time-scheduling and logic module In a compact module unit 10 event programs, 100 timing programs (week clock timer) and 10 logic gates (AND; OR; NAND; NOR) with up to six inputs are offered. The module can process up to 10 event programs with a maximum of 10 event tasks each. The week clock timer provides 100 timing tasks for 20 timer channels. For the timing function, the event module requires a date/time source. Contacting is made via the data bus.

Table 6/44

Product overview

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6.4 Maximum-Demand Monitors Product and functional description Description The maximum-demand monitor is a modular device with a width of 4 MW and is able to suppress peak loads and thus noticeably lower the users’ costs for power and energy supply. Based on a defined maximum average power supply value, loads/consumers are switched off or switched back on. Here, as a rule, the operational switching carried out by the operator is handled with priority and therefore the maximum-demand monitor can only switch loads that are operationally switched on. Each load can be disabled and released by the assigned bus sensor, i.e. this load is not subject to switching by the maximum-demand monitor in disabled state. Power is supplied via the bus line and via a 230 V supply. Connection to the bus can be made via an EIB bus terminal or optionally via a data rail.

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Seite 102

Technical data Up to 120 channels are available for control. Channels 1 to 8 directly display the current state via LEDs at the device. For all of the 120 channels available, the following parameters can be set during start-up via the EIB Tool Software (ETS): C Switching-off priority (1 to 10) C Minimum switching-on time C Minimum switching-off time C Maximum switching-off time C Number of permissible switching cycles per 24 h. The power range limit to be observed by the maximum-demand monitor can be parametrized between 30 and 1,000 kW. Additionally, a warning limit between 25 and 1,000 kW can be set. Exceeding of this warning limit is indicated via an LED. This is possible for 2 rates (high rate and low rate). The demand integration period required for the determination of the average power value can be set to 15, 30 and 60 minutes. In coordination with this, the cycle time for the load projection intervals can be parameterised with 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 seconds. LEDs indicate the device’s position within the demand integration period in terms of time.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/75

Maximum-demand monitor

The maximum-demand monitor is parametrized via the ETS and can be run without any additional software. To visualize performance statistics, a software is available that can be used to draw up demand integration periods, day/month and year statistics, which can then be exported to Excel for further evaluation. This offers the possibility to create a consumption statistic. This enables the customer to negotiate better and more economical supply contracts with the respective power supply companies.

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Low Voltage

Changeover high/low rate

Synchronous pulse by the power supply company Visualization software

S0 interface PC

Maximum demand monitor

instabus EIB

Meter

Actuator technology Sensor technology Electrical heater Lighting Fan ON/OFF, disabling or releasing via pushbutton, binary inputs, sensors os sontrol modules

Fig. 6/40

Electrical heater Lighting Fan Loads available for load management

Application example

The software is available as part of the EIB visualization and as standalone version. The maximum-demand monitor can also be operated exclusively as registration unit during a recording period. This offers the possibility to save load curves and consumption values without the parameterization of the individual channels. The maximum-demand monitor has the following inputs to which floating contacts or an S0 interface can optionally be connected according to DIN 43 864 and 62 053-31:

C Consumption pulses: The valency of the pulses to be read in can be determined depending on the respective meter to be connected. Thus, all conventional meters with S0 interface can be used. C Power supply company synchronous pulse C Changeover high/low rate: The high/low rate changeover can also be carried out via bus.

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6.5 Switches, Outlets and Electronic Products

60 mm

Application

71 mm

The application of electrical installation equipment in residential, public, commercial and industrial buildings offers ever more diverse solutions for operating, switching, controlling and signaling operations as well as for information and monitoring in electrical building installation.

71 mm Box

Insert

Frame

Rocker

Influences on device construction The construction of operation elements as well as the actual device construction with the required additional functions is subject to the differing national techniques and customs. The following criteria have an influence on device construction: C Voltage level C Plug configuration C Mounting box dimensions C Modular size for side-by-side arrangements C Conductor connection C Supplementary functions C Design

Fig 6/41

CEE/VDE techniques for devices in southern Europe, type A

Standards The technical requirements are laid down in standards EN 60669-1 / IEC 60669-1 / DIN VDE 0632-1 for switches and in IEC 60884-1 / DIN VDE 0620-1 for power outlets, and EN 669-2-1 / IEC 60669-2-1 / VDE 0632-2-1 for electronic products. In accordance with these standards, uniform performance features have been specified which, however, also allow for country-specific values for the rated current as well as types of construction and versions. Various installation techniques Due to the various country-specific plug configurations, different national techniques developed worldwide. CEE/VDE technology In Europe, the most commonly used technique is the circular box system (Fig. 6/41), made up of a 60 mm diameter mounting box and a modular size of 71 mm for side-by-side arrangements.

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Box

Fig. 6/42

Device

Country-specific monoblock technology for type B devices with a switching function

Modular technology In the south of Europe, a “modular technology” (Fig. 6/43) is applied. With this technology, individual device inserts are arranged side-by-side within a supporting frame with a masking frame or a cover. The modular technology comprises manufacturer-specific device inserts and country-specific mounting boxes with varying dimensions.

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Monoblock technology “Monoblock technology” is mainly applied in South-East Europe. With this technology, complete devices which can also comprise several switching or plugging functions, can be inserted into mounting boxes. The device dimensions are not standardized and only designed to comply with the dimensions of the respective country-specific mounting boxes (Fig. 6/40).

83.5 mm

Box

Device insert Type B

Type A Higher and ever changing demands result in a permanent modification of the touch elements’ surface design. The international standardized type A takes this into consideration and thus ensures that the covers which account for the devices’ stylish design can be replaced without detaching the connected conductors. CEE/VDE technology Uniform device inserts The Siemens DELTA product range (Photo 6/77) meets these requirements as it uses uniform device inserts (Photo 6/79). The device inserts are very easy to mount as they have very small base dimensions, providing more space for the conductors in the 60 mm diameter mounting box. A screwless terminal connection technique as well as a circuit diagram on the back of the base illustrating the

Type A

Supporting frame

Cover

Type A

Masking frame

Fig. 6/43

Modular technology for devices used in Southern Europe, South America and Asia, design types A and B

connections in correct order further ease conductor connection. The device inserts are equipped with an overall shock-hazard protection, i.e. live parts have finger-proof covers. Furthermore, they come with returning claws and are fixed to the mounting box with captive +/– screws. For insertion into deeper wall-recessed mounting boxes, extension claws are

available which must simply be plugged onto the conventional device claws. When mounted, the device inserts can be tested for voltage from the front.

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DELTA line

DELTA line

DELTA vita

DELTA vita

titan white

aluminum metallic

gold

carbon metallic

DELTA miro

DELTA miro

DELTA style

DELTA style

titan white

aluminum

titan white

titan white/ silver

DELTA profil

DELTA profil

DELTA natur

DELTA ambiente

tobacco

bronze

cherry tree

arctic white/ steel

Surface-mounted range IP20

Surface-mounted range IP44 Surface-mounted range IP55 Surface-mounted range IP68

Photo 6/76

DELTA product range in CEE/VDE technology, design type A

Photo 6/77

DELTA product range in CEE/VDE technology, device insert and SCHUKO outlet (without stylish part)

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a) Plug-on technique Frame and rocker with bearing block

Switching reliability: practical solution for badly fitting inserts 1 mm

Fig. 6/44

Practical leveling ring: 3 mm

b) Frame: Horizontal and vertical mounting for flush-type boxes and trunking installations Thermoplast molded plastic: resistant to impact and breakage

3 mm

Leveling and switching reliability for DELTA device inserts in CEE/VDE design as well as rapid frame mounting with plug-on technology

Leveling ring The design of the touch elements and the switching device inserts allows leveling which is needed in practice. Thus, even with badly fitting device inserts, switching reliability can be attained (Fig. 6/44). Rocker, bearing block Rocker and bearing block have been constructed to form one single part, preventing the rocker from being accidentally removed separately.

Frame The frame is mounted together with the rocker by plugging them onto the device insert horizontally and vertically (Fig. 6/44). Orientation light The DELTA device inserts have been designed in such a way that an orientation or pilot lamp can be retrofitted without having to remove the inserts. An inspection window integrated in the rocker leads to an optimum brightness, this fulfills the German Ordinance on Workplaces criteria for commercial and public buildings.

Environmentally compatible materials The contact material of the DELTA device inserts is free of cadmium and nickel and the electroplatings are free of chrome-6 deadening agents. All plastics are free of halogens and pigments containing heavy metals.

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DELTA Venetian blinds control, conventional type

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Photo 6/78

DELTA Universal switch for twoway switch

Photo 6/79

DELTA rotary dimmer switch

Photo 6/80

DELTA reflex smoke detector

Photo 6/81

DELTA connection box, category 45

Device insert versions The various device insert versions of the Siemens DELTA product range can be distinguished as follows: Operator units: C Pushbuttons for various applications C Double pushbuttons for various applications C Venetian blinds pushbuttons Switching devices: C ON/OFF switches, 1-, 2- and 3-pole C Two-way switches C Double two-way switches C Intermediate switches C Two-circuit switches C Control switches for various applications C Venetian blinds switches C Venetian blinds key-operated switches C Timers C Delay timers Control devices: C Rotary dimmers for various applications C Sensor dimmers for various applications

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C Pushbutton-type dimmers for various applications C Regulating switches for various applications C Volume control buttons C Speed-regulating rheostats C Room temperature controllers for various applications C Motion detectors Signaling devices: C Light signals C Information displays C Smoke detectors

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Communication devices and sockets for data/voice networks: C Aerial sockets for various applications C Telephone sockets for various applications C Loudspeaker sockets C Telecommunications connection units C Universal connection box and specific device inserts for data and voice networks (Photo 6/81)

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Plug-in equipment for power supply: C ‚®-outlets for various applications C ‚-outlets with operation indicator C ‚-outlets with overvoltage protection C Child-proof ‚-outlets (shutter) C ‚-outlets with integrated fault current protection, childproof (shutter) C Outlets with center ground contact, 2-pole, according to CEE 7 C Outlets with center ground contact, 2-pole, according to CEE 7 and child-proof C Outlets, 2-pole, according to US standard C73

Photo 6/82

‚-outlet

Photo 6/83

‚-outlets with center ground contact, child-proof

Photo 6/84

DELTA bus coupling unit

Photo 6/85

DELTA Venetian blinds control, radio controlled

The various DELTA product ranges The DELTA product ranges meet the quality of design required from an architectural point of view and come in different materials, shapes, dimensions, surfaces and colors. The operating rockers of the DELTA product ranges can also be plugged onto the instabus KNX/EIB DELTA bus coupling units (Photo 6/87). Depending on the type of insert and application, various functions can be controlled via the instabus KNX/EIB in its Twisted-Pair, Powerline or radiocontrol version.

Universal application The module technology implemented in the DELTA flush-mounting device insert system allows for a universal application of these devices. The functionality of the DELTA SCHUKO outlets can, for example, be extended with modular accessories for various applications (Photos 6/83, 6/85). The standard mounting depth of 32 mm is still observed.

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6.6 SIMOCODE pro – Motor Management System for ConstantSpeed Motors in the Low-Voltage Range Description SIMOCODE pro is a flexible, modular motor management system for constant-speed motors in the low-voltage range. It optimizes the interfacing between the instrumentation and control system and the motor feeder, while increasing plant availability and rendering substantial savings during the construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance of a plant at the same time. When integrated in the low-voltage switchgear, SIMCODE pro is an intelligent interface between the higher-level automation system and the motor feeder, combining: C Full, multi-functional, electronic motor protection, independent of the automation system C Flexible software instead of hardware for motor control C Detailed operating, service and diagnostic data C Power management capability C Open communication via PROFIBUS-DP, the standard among the field bus systems

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Photo 6/86

The SIMOCODE pro motor management system

Fields of application SIMOCODE pro is often used in automated processes where a plant standstill would be extremely costly and where it is important to prevent plant standstills by an analysis of detailed operating, service and diagnostic data. SIMOCODE pro is modular and space saving in its design, which makes it especially suitable for application in Motor Control Centers (MCC), as used in the process industry and power engineering.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Another field of application is the protection and control of motors C in hazardous, potentially explosive locations (chemical, oil and gas industry) C featuring heavy duty start-up (paper, cement, metal industry) C in high-availability plants (chemical, oil refinery, materials processing industry, power plants)

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Low Voltage

SIMOCODE pro V

SIMOCODE pro C Basic component 1

Basic component 2

Current measuring module

Current measuring module or current/voltage measuring module1*)

Operating module (optional)

Operating module (optional) Various expansion modules (optional)

Tabele 6/45 SIMOCODE hardware components

Design SIMOCODE pro is a modularly designed motor management system which can be divided into two functionally graded component series. Both series (systems) consist of different hardware components (modules): C SIMOCODE pro C C SIMOCODE pro V

Photo 6/89

SIMOCODE pro C

Photo 6/90

SIMOCODE pro V (fully extended)

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Every system consists of one basic component per feeder and a separate current detection module. Both modules are linked through a connecting cable via the system interface, they can either be mechanically coupled as a unit (in series) or mounted separately (side by side). The motor current to be monitored determines the selection of the current detection module. Optionally, an operating module can be connected to the basic component via a second system interface. The operating module can either be installed in the control cabinet door or in a front plate. Both the current measuring module and the operating module are power supplied by the basic component. In addition to the inputs/outputs integrated in the basic component, basic component 2 (SIMOCODE pro V) can be complemented by further expansion modules providing more inputs/outputs and functions. To detect and monitor voltage, power output and the power factor and any other related monitoring function, basic component 2 must be equipped with a combined current/voltage detection module 1*) instead of a mere current detection module.

Bild 6/91

Current detection module

Bild 6/92

Photo 6/93

Expansion modules for SIMOCODE pro V

All modules are linked by connecting cables, which are available in different lengths. The maximum distance between the modules (e.g. between the basic component and the current detection module) may be up to 2 m.

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Operating module

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Low Voltage Functions Full electronic motor protection for motor current ratings of 0.3 to 820 A

Software based motor control (instead of comprehensive hardware interlocks)

Protective functions:

Control functions:

C Current-dependent electronic overload protection (Class 5 – 40) C Phase failure/imbalance protection C Stall protection C Thermistor motor protection C Ground fault monitoring C Monitoring of settable limit values for motor current C Monitoring of operating hours, standstill times and number of starts

C Direct-on-line and reverse starter C Star-delta starter also with reversal of rotational direction C Two speeds; motors with separate windings (pole reversing) also with reversal of rotational direction C Two speeds; motors with separated Dahlander windings also with reversal of rotational direction C Solenoid valve actuation C Valve control C Control of a circuit-breaker C Control of a soft starter also with reversal of rotational direction

Extended monitoring functions*): C Temperature monitoring via up to 3 analog sensor circuits C Voltage monitoring C Power monitoring C Cos-ϕ-monitoring (no-load monitoring and loaddischarge monitoring of motor) C Input, output and monitoring of analog signals (e.g. level/flow monitoring) etc. Recording of measuring curves

In addition, these control functions can be customized with parameterizable logic modules (truth tables, counter, timer, edge evaluation…), and by using standard functions (supply line failure, emergency start, external faults…), they can be flexibly adapted to any customerspecific motor feeder version.

*)

Operating, service and diagnostic data

Communication via PROFIBUS-DP

Operating data

SIMOCODE pro supports:

C Motor switching state, deducted from the current flow in the main circuit C All phase currents C All line voltages *) C Active power, apparent power, and power factor *) C Phase imbalance C Phase sequence *) C Time till triggering C Remaining cooling time C Temperature (e.g. motor temperature) *) etc.

C Baud rates up to 12 Mbit/s C Automatic baud rate detection C Time stamping in device/clock synchronization *) via PROFIBUS-DP C Cyclical services (DPV0) and acyclical services (DPV1) etc.

Service data

Power management

C Motor operating hours C Motor standstill times C Number of motor starts C Number of overload tripping events C Internal comments saved in the device etc.

SIMOCODE pro also monitors current, voltage, power output and power factor independent of the automation system, makes all necessary data available and enables an optimal integration of the motor feeder into the higher-level power management systems via PROFIBUS-DP.

Diagnostic data C Numerous detailed early warning alarms and fault messages C Device-internal fault logging with time stamp etc. *)

available as of mid 2005

Table 6/46

function overview

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Autonomous operation An important feature of SIMOCODE pro is the autonomous execution of all protective and control tasks even when the communication to the control system has been interrupted. This means, even in the event of a bus system failure or automation system failure, the full functional performance capability of the motor feeder is maintained, or a defined response to such a failure can be configured, for example, a targeted disconnection of the feeder, or the execution of certain parameterized control mechanisms (such as the reversal of the rotational direction). Integration Besides the device function and the hardware design, a high degree of user friendliness of the parameterization software is also important for communication-capable switching devices together with a good system integration, i.e. an optimum and fast integratability to the most diverse system configurations and process automation systems. For this reason, SIMOCODE pro offers matching software tools for integrated, fast parameterization, configuration and diagnosis:

*)

Seite 114

C SIMOCODE ES for “totally integrated” commissioning and service C Object manager OM SIMOCODE pro for “total integration” in SIMATIC S7 C PCS 7 library SIMOCODE pro for “total integration” in PCS 7

C Communication via PROFIBUS-DP: – Control of the motor feeder – Transmission of binary and analog signals – Transmission of operating, service and diagnostic data

Features

C Current detection/monitoring in the range of 0.3 – 820 A

C Modular design: – Expansion modules for retrofitting of inputs/outputs and functions as desired – Maximum module spacing up to 2 m C Compact, space saving design types: – Basic components, 45 mm wide – Expansion modules, 22.5 mm wide – DIN mounting rail installation or directly on mounting plate C Removable current measuring modules (current transformers): – Motor rated currents of 0.3 A – 820 A – Busbar connection, or straightthrough current transformer – 45 mm – 145 mm width – Installation on DIN mounting rail, directly on mounting plate, or at contactor

Available as of mid 2005.

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Recording of measuring curves

*)

C Voltage detection/monitoring up to 690 V *) C Safe isolation C Power management *) C Supply voltages: C 24 V DC or C 110 – 240 V AC/DC (wide voltage range) C Easy installation and commissioning: – Removable terminals – Memory module for parameterization without PC/PD – Address plug to assign a PROFIBUS address without PC/PD C Typical certifications and approvals

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Communications in Power Distribution

chapter 7

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7 Communications in Power Distribution From electrical power distribution to power management within the corporation Power management as part of Totally Integrated Power implements the connection of various energies (electricity, gas, water, heating, cooling, etc.) to various software packages. Applications such as status visualization, consumption recording with the corresponding load curve presentations and assignment to cost centers, load management, prognoses, as well as reporting and control functions, recording and managing of maintenance information can be implemented. A consistent operating and monitoring concept forms

the basis for comprehensive power management (see Chapter 9). Power management in electrical power distribution A visualisation for event-oriented operating and monitoring is used at the level of low and medium voltage electrical power distribution. All information about faults and events aids in troubleshooting. Complete and detailed maintenance information is important for the execution of maintenance works. The electrical power supply is monitored only with regard to observance of limits and the switching of equipment (onand off-switching). The electrical

Visualization

Load curve

Operating and monitoring

Energy flow History

energy demand is forecasted. All information and actions focus on smooth-free operation, fast fault clearance, and the expedient execution of maintenance work. Bus systems are used for the data transmission and communication in the electrical energy distribution. This communication is not only used to record switch position, messages and measurements, but also to perform switching operations. The communication with modern circuitbreakers allows a direct online parameterisation of the setting values. Furthermore, all recorded measured values can be read out.

Archive

Events

Operating and monitoring level

Motor 1 Service Motor 2 Service

U I cos ϕ p W

Tank cv

Bearing replacement Completion of operating hours Technical Tank test Inspectorate

Bus systems Substation control and protection systems (Chapter 8)

Processing level

Bus systems

Acquisition and control level

Contactors Meters Analogue SIMEAS Switches Pulses signals multifunction measuring device Fig. 7/1

7/2

Energy meter

SENTRON circuitbreaker

System structure for the communication in the energy distribution

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SIMOCODE

SIPROTEC medium-voltage protection

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Communications in Power Distribution

Power Management

Power Management

Power Management

in energy distribution

within the site

within the corporation

Visualization

Event-oriented operating and monitoring

Event-oriented operating and monitoring

Demand-oriented reports

Faults

Correction

Correction

Analysis

Maintenance

Execution

Execution

Planning/evaluation

Energy import

Monitoring

Monitoring

Dispatch/monitoring

Energy procurement

Demand forecasts

Demand forecasts

Load forecasts (base, average, peak load)

Functions

Site 1

Electrical energy Extending energy distribution by bus-capable data acquisition and control

Gas Compressed air Water

Taking account of all energy types of the on-site energy provider

Site 2

Bundling all corporation-wide energy services

Steam etc.

Fig. 7/2

Site n

From energy distribution to power management within the corporation

In the new installation business, system integrators, such as switchgear cabinet and assembly manufacturers, must provide the hardware and software requirements, whereas in the retrofit market (for retrofitting existing installations), this demand is placed on electrical fitting and maintenance departments. Power management within the site In addition to electricity, the requirements of power management within the site take account of all of the other energies that an in-house supplier provides for smooth operation within the site. The software satisfies all requirements of site management, such as internal energy providers, electrical departments or maintenance departments.

Power management within the corporation In the highest level of functionality, the power management view is extended to satisfy the corporation requirements. Executive department, corporate department, head office can also be used as synonym for corporation. The power management in the corporation covers all sites. In the individual sites, the recorded data is documented in reports according to the requirements; any faults that occur are analyzed and plannable maintenance work scheduled. The results and stipulations are transferred to the individual sites; such data can be used for optimum fault clearance or preventive maintenance. Within the dispatch (see Chapter 9), the quantities of corporation-wide energy supply contracts are allocated

to the individual sites and updated cyclically. The corporation goal is the optimum utilization of existing energy supply contracts. The energy procurement combines the forecasts of the individual sites to produce total quantities. The base, average and peak load are each satisfied with the appropriate purchases at the energy exchanges. These purchases then form the stipulations for dispatch. Although the individual functionality levels must build on each other, there is the option to focus all of the three levels of power management merely on a single type of energy. The following discussion refers to electrical energy.

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Transducers The communication transfers the transducer’s measured values. After being scaled, the measured value can be used for the actual-value display. Limit-value monitoring for editable values provide additional information about the plant state as superposed functions.

Conventional – Switching – Indication – Signaling Bus systems

In future

Fig. 7/3

– Operating – Monitoring – Fault messages – Parameterizing – Analyzing – Documenting

Modern power distribution with connection to bus systems

Modern power distribution with connection to bus systems In a conventional power distribution system, analog measuring instruments for voltage, current, capacity, frequencies etc. are often equipped with the appropriate transducers. However, only limited use is made of this information. In future, the automatic acquisition via devices that can be connected to the bus will permit a central display and evaluation. The same bus will also be used to switch the power distribution. Newly designed power distribution systems are equipped with bus systems by default. Operating and monitoring in an electrical power distribution system When power distribution is considered from the viewpoint of

7/4

Load curves Measurements are transparently visualized by means of graphic display of the measured values or load curves. The load curve shows the measured value over time. The capacity measurement display provides for a rapid and transparent analysis of demand/consumption fluctuations.

operating and monitoring, three basic types/classes result: C Switches, circuit-breakers C Disconnectors C Transducers Switches Using the communications, the switch state – ON/OFF, tripped, – is queried and displayed in the operator control and monitoring system. This allows the status of the energy distribution to be uniformly visualized. The operating and monitoring communications level permits off-switching using the voltage or undervoltage coil. If the switch has a motor drive, in addition to off-switching, on-switching and reset can be performed on initiation from the operating and monitoring level. Disconnectors The actual disconnector setting (ON or OFF) and, using the fuse monitoring, the triggering of a fuse can be displayed.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Operating cycles list Most information in the event log refers to position changes of the switches and disconnectors. The operating cycles list shows these status changes over time. This immediately demonstrates the cause and time interdependencies of switching operations. The operating cycles list precisely indicates the cause that triggered a switch operation, the control room or a local event.

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Communications in Power Distribution

Power distribution

Operating cycles list

- ON/OFF - tripped

remote ON OFF

Operating switching

OFF

- OFF - ON/OFF/ Reset

ON

T7.3

- Actual-value display - Limit value display

local ON OFF tripped

t

Load curves

Monitoring measured value

G

Q1.0

Monitoring status

P [kW] 110 A t

Monitoring status Q12.4

Event log Date ident. 2000.01.14 2000.01.14 2000.01.20 2000.01.20 2000.01.15

Fig. 7/4

Time ident. 22:59:03 23:16:24 01:12:45 01:17:13 20:59:33

Site ident. Hall B Hall B Hall B Hall B Hall F

- ON/OFF - Fuse tripped

Plant ident. Infeed Infeed Outgoing circuit Outgoing circuit Outgoing circuit

Device ident. Q1.0 Q1.0 T7.3 T7.3 Q12.1

Operating cycles list local ON OFF tripped

Function ident. local OFF local ON UG2 UG1 local OFF

t

Event text Infeed switch switched off locally Infeed switch switched on locally Current > 20 A Current > 50 A Switch disconnector switched off locally

Operating and monitoring in an electrical power distribution system

Event log The event log documents all status changes of the distribution and limitvalue violations. Each event consists of date/time, site identification, plant identification, device identification, function identification, and a detailed event text. Each event can be subject to various forms of acknowledgement. An archiving is performed in parallel to the message display. The event log permits the long-term tracking of the distribution status. This provides a transparent display of all switching operations and limit-value violations.

Manual switching records are replaced by this electronic variant. The entries are logged automatically, every switching operation of a circuitbreaker, either initiated from the control room or by manual operation on site or by tripping is recorded. Information flow Control-room monitoring shows online the status of the electrical power distribution; remote switching can be performed from here. The event log is archived in a database and can be analysed using additional programs/ third-party systems. The weak-point analysis must be mentioned here as being of particular interest. Selected messages can be transferred directly

using SMS services and, in future, to mobile telephones using WAP. This initiates a faster fault clearance and the personnel receives a detailed cause description. The maintenance personnel can then also be contacted directly when it does not have any access to the control room terminal. The actual status of measurements is displayed directly as a measured value in the control room.

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Notification

Archiving

Third-party systems

– SMS / mobile telephone – WAP

– SQL database

– Cost centres – Maintenance – Weakpoint analysis – Forecast

Operating

Monitoring

Event log

Graphical display

– Switching

– Status – Measured value

– Test plus date / time

– Operating cycles list – Load curve

Power distribution

U<

Fig. 7/5

Information flow

Limit-value violations are stored with date/time in the event log. The graphical display shows the measured value information as a load curve. The limit-value monitoring and load curve display makes the measured value transparent. Thus, information can be obtained about the time-related utilization. The information recorded in this manner is very important for plant extensions and energy optimization.

7/6

The limit-value violations and load curves are stored in archives and can be used for cost center assignments of the energy flows, utilization profiles, assessment of reserves, etc. The acquisition of all data of the electrical power distribution represents the first step towards power management. The display and archiving of the power distribution information is derived from this acquisition.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 7

Communications in Power Distribution

Benefits Transition from local operation to central operating and monitoring Central control room C Quick overview of the current status of the plant C Immediate response to limit-value violations C Documentation/archiving of the distribution status C Weakpoint analysis using the event log

Q Preventive supervision of the energy distributions and thus avoidance of plant standstills Q Generation of SMS messages (mobile telephone). This permits a faster response to faults/events. Personnel can undertake additional work (personnel costs 30,000 – 60,000 € per man-year) Load curves C Documentation of the utilisation, e.g. of the infeeds (according to the design, the interpretation is the total of the outgoing circuits)

Q Plant extensions can be made specifically within the existing possibilities; saving of additional infeeds (cost >> 5,000 € per infeed panel)

Q Energy consumption becomes transparent. Purchasing contracts can be signed to meet actual demand. Power Management Liberalized energy market C Utilizing offer advantages

Q Reduction of the energy costs by up to 20% possible

Summary Transition from local operation to central operating and monitoring C Central control room

Display of the actual distribution state

C Graphical display

Graphical display of measurements and operating cycles

C Events

Documentation and archiving, forwarding as SMS services (mobile telephone)

Preparations for power management have been made C Maximum-demand monitoring Making optimum use of energy purchasing contract C Load curves

Documenting energy consumption

C Assignment to cost centers

Assigning energy consumption to the consumer

C Forecasts

Determining future energy requirement

C Power quality

Monitoring and documenting energy quality criteria

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7

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8

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Seite B

Protection and Substation Control

8.1 Power System Protection 8.2 Relay Design and Operation 8.3 Relay Selection Guide 8.4 Typical Protection Schemes

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Seite C

Protection and Substation Control

chapter 8

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Seite 2

8 Protection and Substation Control General overview Three trends have emerged in the sphere of power automation: distributed intelligent electronic devices (IED’s), open communication and PC-assisted HMI’s. Numerical relays and computerized substation control are now state-of-the-art.

Corporate Network TCP/IP Power system control center Station unit “Full server“

IEC 60870-5-101

Station bus

The multitude of conventional, individual devices prevalent in the past as well as comprehensive parallel wiring are being replaced by a small number of multifunctional devices with serial connections.

HMI

IEC 60870-5-104

Ethernet TCP/IP

Serial Hub IEC 61850

One design for all applications In this respect, Siemens offers a uniform, universal technology for the entire functional scope of power automation equipment, both in the construction and connection of the devices and in their operation and communication. This results in uniformity of design, coordinated interfaces and the same operating concept being established throughout, whether in power system and generator protection, in measurement and recording systems, in substation control and protection or in telecontrol.

Fig. 8/1

The digital SICAM substation control system implements all of the control, measurement and automation functions of a substation. Protective relays are connected serially.

Photo 8/1

Protection and control in medium-voltage substations

All devices are highly compact and immune to interference, and are therefore also suitable for direct installation in switchgear cells. Furthermore, all devices and systems are self-monitoring, which means that previously costly maintenance can be reduced considerably.

8/2

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 3

Protection and Substation Control

Rationalization of operation

by means of SCADA-like control and high-performance PC terminals that can all be operated in the same way

Savings in terms of space and costs

by means of integration of many functions into one unit and compact equipment design

Simplified planning and operational reliability

by means of uniform design, coordinated interfaces and universally identical operating software

Efficient parameterization and operation

thanks to PC terminals with uniform operator interfaces

High levels of reliability and availability

by means of type-tested system technology, complete self-monitoring and the use of proven technology – 20 years of practical experience with digital protection, more than 350,00 devices in operation (in 2004) – 15 years of practical experience with substation automation (SINAUT LSA and SICAM), over 3,000 substations in operation (in 2004)

Fig. 8/2

For the user, the “entire technology from one partner” has many advantages

Entire technology from one partner The Siemens Power Transmission and Distribution Group supplies devices and systems for: C Power plant protection C Substation control / power system control C Remote control (RTU’s) C Current measurement and recording C Measurement and monitoring of power quality This covers all of the measurement, control, automation and protection functions for substations. Furthermore, our activities cover: C Consulting C Planning C Design C Commissioning and Service

This uniform technology ”from a single source“ saves the customer time and money in the planning, installation and operation of his substations. SIPROTEC protective relays Siemens offers a complete spectrum of multifunctional, numerical relays for all applications in the field of power system and machine protection. Uniform design and a metal-enclosed construction with conventional connection terminals which is free from electromagnetic interference in accordance with public utility requirements assure simple system design and usage just as with conventional relays.

Numerical measurement techniques ensure precise operation and require less maintenance thanks to their continuous self-monitoring capability. The integration of additional protective and other functions, such as real-time operational measurements, event and fault recording, all in one unit economizes on space, configuration and wiring costs. Setting and programming of the devices can be performed through the integral, plain-text, menu-guided operator display or by using the comfortable DIGSI 4® PC software. For communication at the telecontrol or substation control level, devices of the SIPROTEC 4 group can be equipped with exchangeable communications modules. Besides an optimal integration into the SICAM PAS substation control system in compliance with IEC 61850, the following protocols are supported: PROFIBUS FMS, IEC 60870-5-103, PROFIBUS DP, DNP V3.00 and Modbus. Thus, the on-line measurements and fault data recorded in the protective relays can be used for local and remote control or can be transmitted via telephone modem connections to the workplace of the circuit engineer. Siemens supplies individual devices as well as complete protection systems in factory-assembled cabinets. For complex applications, type and design test facilities are available together with extensive network models using the most modern simulation and evaluation techniques.

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Seite 4

Protection and substation automation

SICAM power automation

SIPROTEC substation protection

SIMEAS power quality

SICAM PAS power automation systems

7SJ4 and 7SJ6 Feeder protection overcurrent/overload relays

SIMEAS R disturbance recorder

SICAM RTU SICAM miniRTU SICAM microRTU Remote terminal units

7SA5 and 7SA6 feeder protection overcurrent/overload relays

SIMEAS Q power quality recorders

7SD5 and 7SD610 power system protection, differential protection and communication

SIMEAS T measuring transducers

7UT6 transformer protection

SIMEAS P power meter

7UM6 generator/motor protection

7SS60 and 7VH60 busbar protection

Fig. 8/3

Product range for protection and substation control systems by Siemens

Substation control The digital substation control systems of the SICAM family provide all control, measurement and automation functions (e.g. transformer tap changing) required by a switching station. They operate with distributed intelligence. Communication between devices in branch circuits and the central unit is made via fiber-optic connections which are immune to interference. Devices are extremely compact and can be built directly into mediumand high-voltage switchgear.

8/4

SICAM PAS engineering tools are based on Microsoft operating systems, and thanks to their Windows look & feel they are easy to use. The PC-based SICAM PAS UI – Configuration software is used for system configuration and parameterization. SICAM PAS UI – Operation and SICAM Value Viewer support the user during configuration and commissioning and provide diagnostic functions for the system in operation. The operator interface is menuguided, with SCADA-comparable functions, that is, with a level of convenience which was previously only available in a power system control center. Optional telecontrol functions can be added to allow coupling of the system to one or more power system control centers.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

In contrast to conventional substation control systems, digital technology saves enormously on space and wiring. SICAM systems are subjected to full factory tests and are delivered ready for operation. Furthermore, SICAM PAS has a system-wide time resolution of 1 ms. Due to the special requirements of medium- and high-voltage systems, bay units and I/O modules withstand voltages up to 2 kV.

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Protection and Substation Control

Remote Terminal Units

Switchgear interlocking

Siemens RTU’s fulfill all the classic functions of remote measurement and control. Furthermore, they provide comprehensive data pre-processing of operational and fault information, and automating functions that are based on powerful microprocessors.

The distributed substation control system SICAM PAS provides the option to implement bay-specific and ‘inter-bay’ interlocking by means of on-screen graphic planning. The substation topology as well as infeed conditions are taken into consideration. It prevents false switching, thus enhancing the safety of operating personnel and equipment considerably.

In the classic case, connections to the switchgear are made through coupling relays and transducers. This method allows an economically favorable solution when modernizing or renewing control systems in older installations. Alternatively, especially for new installations, direct connection is also possible. Digital protection devices can be connected by serial links through fiber-optic conductors or bus systems.

Power quality (measuring and recording) The SIMEAS® product range offers equipment for the monitoring of power supply quality (harmonic content, distortion factor, peak loads, power factor, etc.), fault recorders (oscillostores), and measuring transducers. Stored data can be transmitted manually or automatically to PC evaluation systems where they can be analyzed by intelligent programs. Expert systems are also applied here. This leads to rapid fault analysis and valuable indicators for the improvement of network reliability.

measuring transducers with analog and digital outputs. Advantages for the user The concept of the “entire technology from one partner” offers the user many advantages: C High-level security for his systems and operational rationalization possibilities C Powerful system solutions with the most modern technology C Compliance with international standards C Integration in the overall system SIPROTEC®– SICAM®– SIMATIC® C Space and cost savings C Integration of many functions into one unit and compact equipment packaging C Simple planning and safe operation C Homogeneous design, matched interfaces and EMI security throughout C Rationalized programming and handling

For local bulk data storage and transmission, the central processor DAKON can be installed at substation level. Data transmission circuits for analog telephone or digital ISDN networks are incorporated as standard. Connection to local or wide-area networks (LAN, WAN) is equally possible. We can also offer the SIMEAS T series of compact and powerful

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C Windows-based PC tools and standardized displays C Fast, flexible mounting and reduced wiring C Simple, fast commissioning C Efficient spare part stocking, high flexibility C High-level operational safety and availability C Continuous self-monitoring and proven technology: C 20 years of digital relay experience (more than 350,000 units in operation) C 15 years of digital substation control (more than 3,000 systems in operation) C Rapid problem solving C Comprehensive support and fast response from local sales and workshop facilities worldwide Application notes All devices and systems for protection, metering and control mentioned herein are designed to be used in the arduous environment of electrical substations, power plants and the various industrial application areas. When the devices were developed, special emphasis was placed on the design of electromechanical interference (EMI). The devices are in accordance with IEC 60255 standards. Detailed information is contained in the device manuals.

Seite 6

Reliable operation of the devices is not affected by the usual interference from the switchgear, even when the device is mounted directly in a lowvoltage compartment of a mediumvoltage switchgear panel. It must, however, be ensured that the coils of auxiliary relays located on the same panel, or in the same cubicle, are fitted with suitable spike-quenching elements (e.g. free-wheeling diodes). When used in conjunction with switchgear for up to 1 kV or above, all external connection cables should be fitted with a screen grounded at both ends and capable of carrying currents. That means that the cross section of the screen should be at least 4 mm2 for a single cable and 2.5 mm2 for multiple cables in one cable duct. All equipment proposed in this guide is built up either in enclosures (type 7XP20) or switchgear cabinets with degree of protection IP51 according to IEC 60529: C Protected against access to dangerous parts with a wire C Sealed against dust C Protected against dripping water

Photo 8/2

Installation of the numerical protection in the door of the low-voltage compartment of a mediumvoltage switchgear panel

Climatic withstand features C Permissible temperature during service –5 °C to +55 °C storage –25 °C to +55 °C transport –25 °C to +70 °C C Permissible humidity Mean value per year ≤ 75% relative humidity; on 56 days per year 95% relative humidity; condensation not permissible We recommend that units be installed in such a way that they are not subjected to direct sunlight, nor to large temperature variations which may give rise to condensation.

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 7

Protection and Substation Control

Mechanical stress

Insulation tests

Vibration and shock during operation C Standards: IEC 60255-21 and IEC 60068-2 C Vibration – sinusoidal IEC 60255-21-1, class 1 10 Hz to 60 Hz: ± 0.035 mm amplitude; IEC 60068-2-6 60 Hz to 150 Hz: 0.5 g acceleration sweep rate 10 octaves/min 20 cycles in 3 orthogonal axes

C Standards: IEC 60255-5 – High-voltage test (routine test) 2 kV (rms), 50 Hz – Impulse voltage withstand test (type test) all circuits, class III 5 kV (peak); 1.2/50 µs; 0.5 J; 3 positive and 3 negative shots at intervals of 5 s

Vibration and shock during transport C Standards: IEC 60255-21 and IEC 60068-2 C Vibration – sinusoidal IEC 60255-21-1, class 2 5 Hz to 8 Hz: ± 7.5 mm amplitude; IEC 60068-2-6 8 Hz to 150 Hz: 2 g acceleration sweep rate 1 octave/min 20 cycles in 3 orthogonal axes C Shock IEC 60255-21-2, class 1 IEC 60068-2-27

Electromagnetic compatibility EU conformity declaration (CE mark) All Siemens protection and control products recommended in this manual comply with the EMC Directive 99/336/EEC of the Council of the European Community and further relevant IEC 255 standards on electromagnetic compatibility. All products carry the CE mark. EMC tests; immunity (type tests) C Standards: IEC 60255-22 (product standard) EN 50082-2 (generic standard) C High frequency IEC 60255-22-1 class III – 2.5 kV (peak); 1 MHz; τ = 15 µs; 400 shots/s; duration 2 s C Electrostatic discharge IEC 60255-22-2 class III and EN 61000-4-2 class III – 4 kV contact discharge; 8 kV air discharge; both polarities; 150 pF; Ri = 330 ohm C High-frequency electromagnetic field, non-modulated; IEC 60255-22-3 (report) class III – 10 V/m; 27 MHz to 500 MHz

C High-frequency electromagnetic field, amplitude-modulated; ENV 50140, class III – 10 V/m; 80 MHz to 1,000 MHz, 80%; 1 kHz; AM C High-frequency electromagnetic field, pulse-modulated; ENV 50140/ENV 50204, class III – 10 V/m; 900 MHz; repetition frequency 200 Hz; duty cycle 50% C Fast transients IEC 60255-22-4 and EN 61000-4-4, class III – 2 kV; 5/50 ns; 5 kHz; burst length 15 ms; repetition rate 300 ms; both polarities; Ri = 50 ohm; duration 1 min C Conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequency fields HF, amplitude-modulated ENV 50141, class III – 10 V; 150 kHz to 80 MHz; 80%; 1 kHz; AM C Power-frequency magnetic field EN 61000-4-8, class IV – 30 A/m continuous; 300 A/m for 3 s; 50 Hz EMC tests; emission (type tests) C Standard: EN 50081-2 (generic standard) C Interference field strength CISPR 11, EN 55011, class A 30 MHz to 100 MHz C Conducted interference voltage, aux. voltage CISPR 22, EN 55022, class B – 150 kHz to 30 MHz

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Instrument transformers Instrument transformers must comply with the applicable IEC recommendations IEC 60044, formerly IEC 60185 (current transformers) and 186 (potential transformers), ANSI/IEEE C57.13 or other comparable standards. Potential transformers Potential transformers (p.t.) in single or double-pole design for all primary voltages have single or dual secondary windings of 100, 110 or 120 V/KL 3, with output ratings between 10 and 300 VA, and accuracies of 0.2, 0.5 or 1 % to suit the particular application. Current transformers Current transformers (c.t.) are usually of the single-ratio type with wound or bar-type primaries of adequate thermal rating. Single, dual or triple secondary windings of 1 or 5 A are standard. 1 A rating, however, should be preferred, particularly in HV and EHV stations, to reduce the burden of the connecting leads. Output power (rated burden in VA), accuracy and saturation characteristics (accuracylimiting factor) of the cores and secondary windings must meet the particular application.

8/8

Seite 8

The current transformer classification code of IEC is used in the following: Measuring cores They are normally specified with 0.5 % or 1.0 % accuracy (class 0.5 M or 1.0 M), and an accuracy limiting factor of 5 or 10. The required output power (rated burden) must be higher than the actually connected burden. Typical values are 5, 10, 15 VA. Higher values are normally not necessary when only electronic meters and recorders are connected. A typical specification could be: 0.5 M 10, 15 VA. Cores revenue metering In this case, class 0.2 M is normally required. Protection cores The size of the protection core depends mainly on the maximum shortcircuit current and the total burden (internal c.t. burden, plus burden of connecting leads, plus relay burden). Further, an overdimensioning factor has to be considered to cover the influence of the DC component in the short-circuit current. In general, an accuracy of 1% (class 5 P) is specified. The accuracy limiting factor KSSC should normally be designed so that at least the maximum short-circuit current can be transmitted without saturation (DC component not considered).

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

This results, as a rule, in rated accuracy limiting factors of 10 or 20 dependent on the rated burden of the current transformer in relation to the connected burden. A typical specification for protection cores for distribution feeders is 5P10, 15 VA or 5P20, 10 VA. The requirements for protective current transformers for transient performance are specified in IEC 60044-6. In many practical cases, the current transformers cannot be designed to avoid saturation under all circumstances because of cost and space reasons, particularly with metal-enclosed switchgear. The Siemens relays are therefore designed to tolerate current transformer saturation to a large extent. The numerical relays proposed in this guide are particularly stable in this case due to their integral saturation detection function. The required current transformer accuracy- limiting factor K’ssc can be determined by calculation, as shown in Table 8/4. The transient rated dimensioning factor Ktd depends on the type of relay and the primary DC time constant. For the normal case, with short-circuit time constants lower than 100 ms, the necessary value for K’ssc can be taken from Table 8/1.

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Seite 9

Protection and Substation Control

R’b + Rct K’ssc Kssc > Rb + Rct

Relay type

Minimum K’ssc

Kssc : Factor of the symmetrical rated short-circuit current K’ssc : Rms factor of the symmetrical rated short-circuit current Rb : Ohmic burden (rated) R’b : Connected burden Rct : Resistance of secondary winding

Overcurrent protection 7SJ60, 61, 62, 63, 64

=

Transformer protection 7UT6

≥4

And: K’ssc > Ktd

Issc. max. Ipn

UK

=

Optical waveguide line differential protection 7SD52/610

=

Line differential (pilot wire) protection 7SD600

=

, minimum is 20

Ipn

≥5

Issc. max. = Max. short-circuit current Ipn = Rated primary current Ktd = Transient dimensioning factor

Table 8/1

I>>-Setting

Iscc. max. (external fault)

for Tp ≤ 100 ms

Ipn Iscc. max. (external fault)

for Tp > 100 ms

Ipn

Iscc. max. (external fault) Ipn

and K’ssc ≥ 30

Current transformer dimensioning formulae

(Rb + Rct) • Isn • Kssc

Ipn

(K’ssc • Ipn) Line-end 1 and 3 ≤ ≤4 4

(K’ssc • Ipn) Line-end 2

3

1.3

Isn = Nominal secondary current Example: IEC60044: 600/1, 15 VA, 5 P 10, Rct = 4 Ω (15 + 4) • 1 • 10 V = 146 V BS: UK = 1.3 Rct = 4 Ω Table 8/2

Iscc. max. (external fault)

Numerical busbar protection (low-resistance) 7SS5

Distance protection 7SA522, 7SA6

1 Iscc. max. (external fault) Ipn 2

= a

Iscc. max. (close-in fault)

Tp > 30 ms:

Tp < 50 ms:

a=1 b=4

Ipn

Current transformer definition

≤ 100 Measuring range

a=2 b=5

and

Us.t. max = 20 • 5 A • Rb •

Rb = b

Pb Isn2

Us.t. max =

Kssc

Iscc. max. (line-end fault) Ipn

Tp < 200 ms: a=4 b=5

and Isn = 5 A results in

Tp : Primary time constant (system time constant) Pb • Kssc

Table 8/4

Current transformer requirements

5A

Example: IEC 60044:

600/5, 5 P 20, 25 VA

ANSI C57.13:

Us.t. max =

Table 8/3

= b

20

25 VA • 20 = 5A = 100 V corresponding to Class C100

ANSI definition of current transformers

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Seite 10

Relay burden

Burden of the connection leads

The current transformer burdens of the numerical relays of Siemens are below 0.1 VA and can therefore be neglected for a practical estimation. Exceptions are the 7SS60 busbar protection (2 VA) and the pilot wire relays, 7SD600 (4 VA).

The resistance of the current loop from the current transformer to the relay has to be considered as follows:

Normally, intermediate current transformers needn't be used any more, as the ratio adaptation for busbar and transformer protection is numerically performed in the relay. Analog static relays in general also have burdens below about 1 VA. Mechanical relays, however, have a much higher burden, up to the order of 10 VA. This has to be considered when older relays are connected to the same current transformer circuit. In any case, the relevant relay manuals should always be consulted for the actual burden values.

Rl =

l

Example: Stability test of the 7SS52 numerical busbar protection system

Assuming:

2 ρ l ohm A

= Length of the single conductor from the current transformer to the relay in m

600/1, 5 P 10, 15 VA, Rct = 4 Ohm

Specific resistance ρ A

l = 50 m 7SS52 A = 6 mm2 I scc.max. = 30 kA

= 0.0179 ohm mm2 (copper wire) m = Conductor cross section in mm2

Table 8/5

Resistance of current loop

Iscc.max.

= 30,000 A = 50 600 A

Ipn

According to Table 8/4

K’ssc

>

1 2

Rb

=

15 VA = 15 Ω 1 A2

50 = 25

RRelais = 0.1 Ω

2 0.0179 50 = 0.3 Ω 6

Rl

=

R’b

= Rl + RRelais = = 0.3 Ω + 0.1 Ω = 0.4 Ω

K’ssc

=

Rct + Rb 4 Ω + 15 Ω = Kssc = 4 Ω + 0.4 Ω Rct + R’b

=

4 Ω + 15 Ω 10 = 43.2 4 Ω + 0.4 Ω

Result: Rating factor K’ssc (43.2) is greater than the calculated value (25). The stability criterion has therefore been met.

Fig. 8/4

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Example: stability verification

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Seite 11

Protection and Substation Control

8.1 Power System Protection Introduction Siemens is one of the world‘s leading suppliers of protective equipment for power systems. Thousands of relays ensure first-class performance in the transmission and distribution networks on all voltage levels all over the world, in countries of tropical heat and arctic frost. For many years, Siemens has also significantly influenced the development of protection technology. In 1976, the first minicomputer (process-computer)-based protection system was commissioned: A total of 10 systems for 110/20-kV substations were supplied that are still working at their customers' full satisfaction today. In 1985, we were the first to produce a series of fully numerically controlled relays with standardized communication interfaces. Today, Siemens offers a complete program of protective relays for all applications including numerical busbar protection. To date, more than 350,000 numerical protection relays from Siemens are providing successful service, as stand-alone devices in traditional systems or as components of coordinated protection and substation control.

Meanwhile, the innovative SIPROTEC 4 series has been launched, incorporating the many years of operational experience with thousands of relays as well as the awareness of user requirements (power company recommendations). State of the art Mechanical and solid-state (static) relays have been almost completely phased out of our production because numerical relays are now preferred by the users. Advantages C Compact design and lower cost due to the integration of many functions into one relay C High availability even with less maintenance owing to integrated self-monitoring C No drift (ageing) of the measuring characteristics because of their complete digital processing C High availability even with less maintenance due to digital filtering and optimized measuring algorithms C Many integrated add-on functions, for example for load monitoring and event/fault recording C Local operation keypad and display designed to modern ergonomic criteria

Photo 8/3

SIPROTEC 4 numerical relays by Siemens

C Easy and secure reading of information via serial interfaces with a PC, locally or by remote access C Possibility to communicate with higher-level control systems using standardized protocols (open communication) Modern protection management All the functions, for example, of a power system protection scheme can be incorporated in one unit: C Distance protection with associated add-on and monitoring functions C Universal teleprotection interface C Auto-reclose and synchro-check

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Seite 12

52

21

67N

FL

79

25

SM

ER

FR

BM

85

Serial link to station – or personal computer to remote line end ANSI-No.*) Circuit-breaker 52 Distance protection 21 67N Directional ground-fault protection Distance-to-fault locator FL Autoreclosure 79 Synchro-check 25 Carrier interface (teleprotection) 85 SM Self-monitoring Event recording ER Fault recording FR BM Breaker monitor *) see Table 8/6 cont. Fig. 8/5

01.10.93

Fault report Fault record Relay monitor Breaker monitor Supervisory control

Numerical relays, increased availability of information

Protection-related information can be called up on-line or off-line, such as: C Distance to fault C Fault currents and voltages C Relay operation and data (fault-detector pickup, operating times etc.) C Set values C Line load data (kV, A, MW, kVAr) To fulfill vital protection redundancy requirements, only those functions which are interdependent and directly associated with each other are integrated in the same unit. For backup protection, one or more additional units have to be provided.

8/12

Load monitor

kA, kV, Hz, MW, MVAr, MVA

All relays can stand fully alone. Thus, the traditional protection concept of separate main and alternate protection as well as the external connection to the outdoor switchyard remain unchanged. “One feeder, one relay” concept Analog protection schemes have been engineered and assembled from individual relays. Interwiring between these relays and scheme testing have been carried out manually in the workshop. Data sharing now allows for the integration of several protection tasks into one single numerical relay. Only a small number of external devices may be required for completion of the overall design concept. This

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

has significantly lowered the costs of engineering, assembly, panel wiring, testing and commissioning. The reliability of the protection scheme has been highly increased. Engineering has moved from schematic diagrams towards a parameter definition procedure. The documentation is provided by the relay itself. Free allocation of LED operation indicators and output contacts provides more application design flexibility.

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Seite 13

Protection and Substation Control

Measuring function included The additional transducer was rather used for protecting measuring instruments under system fault conditions. Due to the low thermal withstand capability of the measuring instruments, they could not be connected to the protective current transformer directly. When numerical protection technology is employed, protective current transformers are in many cases accurate enough to take operational measurements. Consequently, additional transducers and measuring instruments are now only necessary where high accuracy is required, e.g. for metering used for electricity bills.

Recording

Personal computer DIGSI

Assigning

Protection

Laptop

DIGSI Recording and confirmation

Online remote data exchange A powerful serial data link provides for interrogation of digitized measured values and other information stored in the protection units, for printout and further processing at the substation or system control level. In the opposite direction, settings may be altered or test routines initiated from a remote control center. For greater distances, especially in outdoor switchyards, fiber-optic cables are preferably used. This technique has the advantage that it is totally unaffected by electromagnetic interference.

Fig. 8/6

PC-aided setting procedure of numerical protection relays

to remote control

System level

Substation level

Coordinated protection and control

Modem (option) ERTU

RTU

Data collection device Bay level

52

Offline communication with numerical relays

Relay

Control

A simple built-in operator keypad which requires no special software knowledge or code word tables is used for parameter input and readout. Fig. 8/7

Communication options

8/13

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Seite 14

This allows operator dialog with the protective relay. Answers appear largely in plain text on the display of the operator panel. Dialog is divided into three main stages: C Input, alteration and readout of settings C Testing the functions of the protective device and C Readout of relay operation data for the three last system faults and the auto-reclose counter

Setpoints

10,000 setpoints

1

200 setpoints

Modern power system protection management

20 setpoints

A notebook PC may be used for upgraded protection management. The MS Windows-compatible relay operation program DIGSI 4 is available for entering and readout of setpoints and archiving of protection data.

Fig.8/8

8/14

1 bay

system

4 flags

substation OH line

1000

Parameter

1000

Parameter 1100

Line data C

1000

Parameter 1100

1000

Line data B 1200

Parameter 1100

O/C Phase settings

Line data A 1200

1100

Line data 1200

1500

O/C Phase 1500settings O/C Ground settings O/C Phase settings 1500 O/C Ground 280 settings Fault recording O/C phase 1500settings O/C Ground 280 settings Fault recording 3900 Breaker fail O/C earth 280settings Fault recording 3900 Breaker fail

280

Fault recording 3900 Breaker fail

3900

Breaker fail

Fig. 8/9

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

300 faults p. a. approx. 6,000 km OHL (fault rate: 5 p. a. and 100 km)

System-wide setting and relay operation library

1200

Vice versa, after a system fault, the relay memory can be uploaded to a PC, and comprehensive fault analysis can then take place in the engineer’s office.

1,200 flags p. a.

system approx. 500 relays

1 substation

The relays may be set in 2 steps. First, all relay settings are prepared in the office with the aid of a local PC and stored on a diskette or the hard disk. On site, the settings can then be downloaded from a PC into the relay. The relay confirms the settings and thus provides an unquestionable record.

Alternatively, the entire relay dialog can be guided from any remote location through a modem-telephone connection (Fig. 8/7).

Relay operations

Alternate parameter groups

D

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Seite 15

Protection and Substation Control

Relay data management

Adaptive relaying

Analog distribution-type relays have some 20–30 setpoints. If we consider a power system with about 500 relays, then the number adds up to 10,000 settings. This requires considerable expenditure in setting the relays and filing retrieval setpoints.

Numerical relays now offer secure, convenient and comprehensive adjustment to changing conditions. Adjustments may be initiated either by the relay’s own intelligence or from outside via contacts or serial telegrams. Modern numerical relays contain a number of parameter sets that can be pre-tested during commissioning of the scheme (Fig. 8/9). One set is normally operative. Transfer to the other sets can be controlled via binary inputs or serial data link. There are a number of applications for which multiple setting groups can upgrade the scheme performance, for example:

A personal computer-aided man-machine dialog and archiving program, e.g. DIGSI 4, assists the relay engineer in data filing and retrieval. The program files all settings systematically in substation-feeder-relay order. Corrective rather than preventive maintenance Numerical relays monitor their own hardware and software. Exhaustive self-monitoring and failure diagnostic routines are not restricted to the protective relay itself, but are methodically carried through from current transformer circuits to tripping relay coils. Equipment failures and faults in the current transformer circuits are immediately recorded and signaled. Thus, the service personnel are now able to correct the failure upon occurrence, resulting in a significantly upgraded availability of the protection system.

d) For auto-reclose programs, i.e. instantaneous operation for first trip and delayed operation after unsuccessful reclosure. e) For cold load pickup problems where high starting currents may cause relay operation. f) For ”ring open“ or ”ring closed“ operation.

a) For use as a voltage-dependent control of o/c relay pickup values to overcome alternator fault current decrement to below normal load current when the AVR is not in automatic operation. b) For maintaining short operation times with lower fault currents, e.g. automatic change of settings if one supply transformer is taken out of service. c) For “switch-onto-fault” protection to provide shorter time settings when energizing a circuit after maintenance. The normal settings can be restored automatically after a time delay.

8/15

8

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Seite 16

8.2 Relay Design and Operation Mode of operation Numerical protective relays operate on the basis of numerical measuring principles. The analog measured values of current and voltage are decoupled electrically from the system's secondary circuits via input transducers (Fig. 8/10). After analog filtering, the sampling and the analog-to-digital conversion take place. The sampling rate is, depending on the different protection principles, between 12 and 20 samples per period. With certain devices (e.g. generator protection) a continuous adjustment of the sampling rate takes place depending on the actual system frequency.

The protection principle is based on a cyclic calculation algorithm, utilizing the sampled current and voltage analog measured values. The fault detection determined by this process must be established in several sequential calculations before protection reactions can follow. A trip command is transferred to the command relay by the processor, utilizing a dual-channel control. The numerical protection concept offers a multitude of advantages, especially with regard to higher security, reliability and user friendliness, such as:

C High measurement accuracy: The high utilization of adaptive algorithms produce accurate results even during problematic conditions C Good long-term stability: Due to the digital mode of operation, drift phenomena at components due to ageing do not lead to changes in accuracy of measurement or time delays C Security against over- and underfunctioning: With this concept, the danger of an undetected defect or malfunction in the device causing protection failure in the event of a line fault is clearly reduced when compared to conventional protection technology. Cyclical and preventive maintenance services have therefore become largely obsolete.

PC interface, substation control interface

Meas. inputs

Input filter

Current inputs (100 x /N, 1 s)

Amplifier

Input/ output ports

V.24 FO serial interfaces

Binary inputs

Alarm relay

Command relay Voltage inputs (140 V continuous)

100 V/1 A, 5 A analog

A/D converter

Processor system

0001 0101 0011

10 V analog

Fig. 8/10

Block diagram of numerical protection

8/16

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Memory: RAM EEPROM EPROM

digital

Input/ output units

Input/output contacts

LED displays

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Seite 17

Protection and Substation Control

Plausibility check of input quantities e. g.iL1 + iL2 + iL3 = iE uL1 + uL2 + uL3 = uE

Check of analog-to-digital conversion by comparison with converted reference quantities

A D

The integrated self-monitoring system (Fig. 8/11) encompasses the following areas: C Analog inputs C Microprocessor system C Command relays Implemented functions

Microprocessor system

Hardware and software monitoring of the microprocessor system incl. memory, e.g. by watchdog and cyclic memory checks

Relay

Monitoring of the tripping relays operated via dual channels

SIPROTEC relays are available with a variety of protective functions (see relay charts, page 25 cont.). The high processing power of modern numerical devices allow further integration of non-protective add-on functions. The question as to whether separate or combined relays should be used for protection and control cannot be uniformly answered. In transmissiontype substations, separation into independent hardware units is still preferred, whereas on the distribution level, a trend towards higher function integration can be observed. Here, combined feeder relays for protection, monitoring and control are gaining ground (Photo 8/4).

Tripping check or test reclosure by local or remote operation (not automatic)

Fig. 8/11

Self-monitoring system

Photo 8/4

Switchgear with numerical relay (7SJ62) and traditional control

With the SIPROTEC 4 series (types 7SJ61, 62 and 63), Siemens supports both stand-alone and combined solutions on the basis of a single hardware and software platform. The user can decide within wide limits on the configuration of the control and protection functions in the feeder, without compromising the reliability of the protection functions (Fig. 8/12). Switchgear with combined protection and control relay (7SJ63)

8/17

8

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Seite 18

Busbar 52

7SJ61/62/63/64 Local, remote control Command/checkback Motor control (only 7SJ63/64)

Trip monitor

7SJ62/63/64 Measurements during operation

CFC logic

Synchronization (only 7SJ64)

Limit values, mean values, min/max memory

Final OFF

Energy counter values as count pulses

Thermobox connection

Operation Communications Fault Motor protection element modules recording logic Bearing RS232/485/LWL temp. I< Startup time IEC 61850 ICE 60870-5-103 PROFIBUS FMS/DP SwitchLocked DNP3.0 on rotor MODBUS RTU lock

Inrush lock

U, f, P element calculated

(only 7SJ64)

Fault detector

Interm. ground fault

Ground fault detection element

Switch failure protection High-imp. Autodiff. reclosure

Fig. 8/12

Directional element Phase-sequence monitoring

Directional ground fault detection element

SIPROTEC 4 relay types 7SJ61/62/63/64, implemented functions

The following solutions are available within one relay family: C Separate control and protection relays C Protective relays including remote control of the feeder breaker via the serial communication link C Combined feeder relays for protection, monitoring and control

DIGSI 4 Telephone connection

SICAM PAS

IEC 61850 or IEC 60870-5-103 Modem

IEC 6870-5 DIGSI 4

Mixed use of the different relay types is easily possible on account of the uniform operation and communication procedures. IEC 60870-5-103

Fig. 8/13

8/18

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SIPROTEC 4 relays, options for communication

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Protection and Substation Control

Integration of relays into substation control Basically, all Siemens numerical relays are equipped with an an interface acc. to IEC 60870-5-103 for open communication with substation control systems either by Siemens (SICAM) or by any other supplier. The relays of the latest SIPROTEC 4 series, however, are even more flexible and equipped with several communication options. SIPROTEC 4 relays can still be connected to the SICAM system or to a communications system of another supplier via IEC 60870-5-103. SIPROTEC 4 protection systems and SICAM substation control technology have a uniform design. Communication is based on the PROFIBUS standard. IEC 61850 has been established as a global standard by users and manufacturers. The agreed objective of this standard is to create a comprehensive communications solution for substations. Thus, the user is provided with open communication systems which are based on Ethernet technology. SIPROTEC protective relays and bay control units are the first devices released in mid 2004 which use a communications protocol in compliance with IEC 61850. The station configurator, which is part of the DIGSI 4 operating software, can be used to configure SIPROTEC relays as well as non-Siemens relays via IEC 61850.

1 1 2

2

3

3 4

4

5

6

6

7

1 Large illuminated display 2 Cursor keys 3 LED with reset key Photo 8/5

7

4 Control (7SJ61/62 uses function keys) 5 Key switches

Front view of the 7SJ62 protective relay

SICAM PAS, the new substation control system by Siemens has been designed as an open system which employs IEC 61580 as communication standard between the bay and station control level. IEC 61580 supports interoperability and integration of substation control systems which facilitates system engineering independent of the manufacturer and reduces the planning expense at the same time. Direct operation of a SIPROTEC 4 relay All operator actions can be executed and information displayed on an integrated user interface.

6 Freely programmable function keys 7 Numerical keypad

Front view of the 7SJ63 relay combining protection, monitoring and control functions

C Large non-reflective back-lit display C Programmable (freely assignable) LED's for important messages C Arrows arrangement of the keys for easy navigation in the function tree C Operator-friendly input of the setting values via the numeric keys or with a PC by using the DIGSI 4 software C Command input protected by key lock (6MD63/7SJ63 only) or password C Four programmable keys for frequently used functions “at the touch of a button”

Many advantages are already to be found on the clear and user-friendly front panel: C Ergonomic arrangement and grouping of the keys

8/19

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DIGSI 4 – the operating software for all SIPROTEC relays For the user, DIGSI is synonymous with convenient, user-friendly parameterizing and operation of numerical protection relays. DIGSI 4 is a logical innovation for operation of protection and bay control units of the SIPROTEC 4 family. The PC software DIGSI 4 is the human-machine interface between the user and the SIPROTEC 4 units. It features modern, intuitive operating procedures. With DIGSI 4, the SIPROTEC 4 units can be configured and queried. C The interface provides you only with what is really necessary, irrespective of which unit you are currently configuring. C Contextual menus for every situation provide you with made-tomeasure functionality – searching through menu hierarchies is a thing of the past. C Explorer operation on the MS Windows standard shows the options in logically structured form. C Even with routing, you have the overall picture – a matrix shows you at a glance, for example, which LED's are linked to which protection control function(s). It just takes a click with the mouse to establish these links by a fingertip. C Thus, you can also use the PC to link up with the relay via star coupler or channel switch, as well as via the PROFIBUS® of a substation control system. The integrated administrating system ensures clear addressing of the feeders and relays of a substation. C Access authorization by means of passwords protects the individual functions, such as parameterizing, commissioning and control, from unauthorized access.

8/20

Seite 20

C When configuring the operator environment and interfaces, we have attached importance to continuity with the SICAM automation system. This means that you can readily use DIGSI 4 on the station control level in conjunction with SICAM.

Display editor (Photo 8/10) A display editor is available to design the display of SIPROTEC 4 units. The predefined symbol sets can be expanded to suit the user. The drawing of a one-line diagram is extremely simple. Load monitoring values (analog values) can be set, if required.

Configuration matrix (routing) The DIGSI 4 matrix allows the user to see the overall view of the relay configuration at a glance. For example, you can display all the LED's that are linked to binary inputs or show external signals that are connected to the relay. And with one mouse click, connections can be switched.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Commissioning Special attention has been paid to commissioning. All binary inputs and outputs can be read and set directly. This can simplify the wire checking process significantly for the user. CFC: graphic configuration With the help of the graphical CFC (Continuous Function Chart) Tool, you can configure interlocks and switching sequences simply by drawing the logic sequences; no special knowledge of software is required. Logical elements such as AND, OR and time elements are available. Hardware and software platform C Pentium 1,6 GHz or better, with at least 128 Mbytes RAM C DIGSI 4 requires more than 500 Mbytes hard disk space C One free serial interface to the protection device (COM 1 or COM 4) C One DVD/CD-ROM drive (required for installation) C WINDOWS 2000, or XP Professional

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Protection and Substation Control

Photo 8/6

DIGSI 4 Manager

Photo 8/7

Functional scope

Photo 8/8

Photo 8/9

DIGSI 4 routing matrix

Photo 8/10

Display editor

Photo 8/11

CFC logic with module library

The device with all its parameters and process data

8/21

8

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Fault analysis The evaluation of faults is simplified by numerical protection technology. In the event of a fault in the power system, all events as well as the analog traces of the measured voltages and currents are recorded. The following types of memory have been integrated in the numerical protection relay: C 1 operational event memory. Alarms that are not directly assigned to a fault in the network (e.g. monitoring alarms, alternation of a set value, blocking of the automatic reclosure function). C 5 fault-event histories. Alarms that occurred during the last 3 faults on the network (e.g. type of fault detection, trip commands, fault location, auto-reclose commands). A reclose cycle with one or more reclosures is treated as one fault history. Each new fault in the network overrides the oldest fault history. C A memory for the fault recordings for voltage and current. Up to 8 fault recordings are stored. The fault recording memory is organized as a ring buffer, i.e. a new fault entry overrides the oldest fault record. C 1 ground-fault event memory (optional for isolated or impedance grounded networks). Event recording of the sensitive ground fault detector (e.g. faulty phase, real component of residual current).

8/22

Seite 22

The time tag attached to the fault records is the relative time of fault detection with a resolution of 1 ms. Devices with integrated battery backup clock store operational events and fault detection events with the internal clock time and a data stamp. The memory for operational events and fault record events is protected against failure of auxiliary supply with battery back-up supply. The integrated operator interface or a PC supported by the DIGSI 4 programming tool is used to retrieve fault reports as well as for the input of settings and routing. Evaluation of fault records Readout of the fault record by DIGSI 4 is done by fault-proof scanning procedures in accordance with the standard recommendations for transmission of fault records. A fault record can also be read out repeatedly. In addition to analog values, such as voltage and current, binary tracks can also be transferred and presented. DIGSI 4 is supplied together with the SIGRA® (DIGSI 4 Graphic) program, which provides the customer with full graphical operating and evaluation functionality like that of the digital fault recorders (oscillostores) by Siemens (see Photo 8/12).

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 8/12

Display and evaluation of a fault record using DIGSI 4 software

Real-time presentation of analog disturbance records, overlaying and zooming of curves and visualization of binary tracks (e.g. trip command, reclose command, etc.) are also part of the extensive graphical functionality, as are setting of measurement cursors, spectrum analysis and fault resistance derivation. Data security, data interfaces DIGSI 4 is a closed system as far as protection parameter security is concerned. The security of the stored data of the operating PC is ensured by checksums. This means that it is only possible to change data with DIGSI 4, which subsequently calculates a checksum for the changed data and stores it with the data. Changes in the data and thus in safety-related protection data are reliably recorded.

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Seite 23

Protection and Substation Control

DIGSI 4 is, however, also an open system. The data export function supports export of parameterization and routing data in standard ASCII format. This permits simple access to these data by other programs, such as test programs, without endangering the security of data within the DIGSI 4 program system.

Office Analog ISDN

Modem

DIGSI PC, remotely located

With the import and export of fault records in IEEE standard format COMTRADE (ANSI), a high-performance data interface is produced which supports import and export of fault records into the DIGSI 4 partner program SIGRA.

Substation

This enables the export of fault records from Siemens protection units to customer-specific programs via the COMTRADE format.

RS232

Star coupler DIGSI PC, centrally located in the substation (option)

7XV53

Modem, optionally with call-back function

Signal converter RS232 RS485 bus

Remote relay interrogation

RS485

The numerical relay range of Siemens can also be operated from a remotely located PC via modem-telephone connection. Up to 254 relays can be addressed via one modem connection if the 7XV53 star coupler is used as a communication node (Fig. 8/14). The relays are connected to the star coupler via optical fiber links. Every protection device which belongs to a DIGSI 4 substation structure has a unique address.

7SJ60

Fig. 8/14

7RW60

7SD60

7**5

7**6

Remote relay communication

The relays are always listening, but only the addressed one answers the operator command which comes from the central PC. If the relay located in a station is to be operated from a remote office, then a device file is opened in DIGSI 4 and the protection dialog is chosen via modem.

This way, secure and time-saving remote setting and readout of data are possible. Remote diagnostics and control of test routines are also possible without the need of on-site checks of the substation.

After password input, DIGSI 4 establishes a connection to the protection device after receiving a call-back from the system.

8/23

8

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Enclosures and terminal systems The protection devices and the corresponding supplementary devices are available mainly in 7XP20 housings. Installation of the modules in a cabinet without the enclosure is not permissible. The width of the housing conforms to the 19" system with the divisions 1/6, 1/3, 1/2 or 1/1 of a 19" rack. The termination module is located at the rear of devices for panel flush mounting or cabinet mounting. Screw terminals are available for devices intended for: C Panel and cabinet mounting and C Devices with a separate operator station The following screw-connection types are to be distinguished: C Connector modules for voltage connection and C Connector modules for current connection Clamping screws are slotted screws which shall be tightened with a screw driver. A simple, 6 x 1 slotted screw driver is suitable for this type of screw heads.

Seite 24

Ring tongue connectors and forked cable lugs can be used for connection. To meet the insulation path requirements, insulated cable lugs must be used. Or else, the crimping zone must be insulated by other suitable means (e.g. by covering it with shrinkdown plastic tubing). The following requirements must be observed: Cable lugs Bolt diameter is 4 mm; maximum outer diameter is 10 mm; for cable cross sections of 1.0 mm to 2.6 mm AWG 16 to 14 accordingly. Only use copper conductors! Direct connection Solid conductors or litz conductors with end sleeves; for cable cross sections of 0.5 mm to 2.6 mm AWG 20 to 14 accordingly. The terminating end of the single strand or conductor must be pushed into the terminal compartment in such a way that it will be pulled into it when the clamping screw is tightened. Only use copper conductors! Wire stripping length 9 mm to 10 mm for solid conductors. Tightening torque Max. 1.8 Nm. The heavy-duty current plug connectors provide automatic short-circuiting of the current transformer circuits when the modules are withdrawn. Whenever secondary circuits of current transformers are concerned,

8/24

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

special precautions are to be taken. In the housing version for surface mounting, the terminals are wired up on terminal strips on the top and bottom of the device. For this purpose two-tier terminal blocks are used to attain the required number of terminals. According to IEC 60529, the degree of protection is indicated by the identifying IP, followed by a number for the degree of protection. The first digit indicates the protection against accidental contact and ingress of solid foreign bodies, the second digit indicates the protection against water. 7XP20 housings are protected against ingress of dangerous parts, dust and dripping water (IP 51). For mounting of devices into switchgear cabinets, 8MC switchgear cabinets are recommended. The standard cabinet has the following dimensions: 2,200 mm x 900 mm x 600 mm (H x W x D). These cabinets are provided with a 44 U high mounting rack (standard height unit U = 44.45 mm). It can swivel as much as 180° in a swing frame. The rack provides for a mounting width of 19", allowing, for example, 2 devices with a width of 1/2 x 19" to be mounted. The devices in the 7XP20 housing are secured to rails by screws. Module racks are not required.

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Seite 25

Protection and Substation Control

Pilot wire differential Optical waveguide current comparison

Overcurrent

7SD600

7SD610

7SJ45

7SJ46

7SJ600

7SJ602

7SJ61

7SJ62

7SJ63

7SJ64

7VH60

7UT612

7UT613

7UT63

7SS60

ANSI No.1)

Description

14

Locked rotor















V

V

V

V











21

Distance protection, phase





























Distance protection, ground































21FL

Fault locator

C C C



21N















V

V

V











24

Overfluxing ( U/f)

























V

V





25

Synchro-check



























Undervoltage















V

V

V V



27

V V











27/34

U/f protection voltage/frequency protection

































32

Directional power





























Forward power































32R

Reverse power































37

Undercurrent or underpower













V

C

C

C

V V V C



32F











40

Protection against under-excitation

































46

Load unbalance protection













C

C

47

Phase sequence monitoring

C















48

Start-up current-time monitoring













49

Thermal overload

V



C





49R

Rotor overload protection











49S

Stator overload protection











50

Instantaneous overcurrent

C







50BF

Breaker failure



C C V

C

Instantaneous ground fault overcurrent

C C V

C

50N

C C C C C







V C C C C C C

V C C C C C C

C C V C C C C C C

C C V C C C C C C

C C V C C C C C C

51GN

Stator ground-fault overcurrent























51

Overcurrent with time delay

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Type Protective functions

C Standard function 1)

Differential

Distance protection 7SA6

8.3 Relay Selection Guide

V



V

























C

C

C



























C C V

C C V



V

C C V













C

C

C





– –

V Option

ANSI (American National Standards Institute) /IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) C 37.2: IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers

Table 8/6

Relay selection guide

8/25

8

Overcurrent

7SD610

7SJ45

7SJ46

7SJ600

7SJ602

7SJ61

7SJ62

7SJ63

7SJ64

7VH60

7UT612

7UT613

7UT63

7SS60

ANSI No.1)

Description

51N

Ground-fault overcurrent with time delay

C



C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C



C

C

C



51V

Voltage-dependent overcurrent-time protection

































59

Overvoltage























C



V C





V C





V C



Residual voltage ground-fault protection

V V



59N











64

100% rotor ground fault protection (20 Hz)





























––

64R

Rotor ground fault

































67

Directional overcurrent























V











C



C C



Directional ground-fault overcurrent

C C



67N

C C











67G

Stator ground fault, directional overcurrent

































68

Oscillation detection (Block Z , t I2>, t

B Further feeders

51

51N

46

ARC

8.4 Typical Protection Schemes

7SJ60

79

2)

1)

I>, t IE>, t I2>, t

C

51

51N

7SJ60

46

Radial systems Notes on Fig. 8/15 1)ANSI no. 79 only for reclosure with overhead lines. 2)Negative sequence o/c protection 46 as back-up protection against asymmetrical faults. General notes: C The relay (D) with the largest distance from the infeed point has the shortest tripping time. Relays further upstream have to be timegraded against the next downstream relay in steps of about 0.3 seconds. C Dependent curves can be selected according to the following criteria: C Definite time: Source impedance is large compared to the line impedance, i.e. small current variation between near and far end faults C Inverse time: Longer lines, where the fault cur rent is much less at the end of the line than at the local end. C Highly or extremely inverse time: Lines where the line impedance is large compared to the source impedance (high difference for closein and remote faults) or lines, where coordination with fuses or reclosers is necessary. Steeper characteristics also provide higher stability on service restoration (probes for cold load pickup and transformer inrush currents).

Load

I>, t IE>, t I2>, t

D

51

51N

7SJ60

46

* Alternatives: 7SJ45/46, 7SJ61 Load Fig. 8/15

Load

Protection scheme with definite-time overcurrent-time protection

Infeed Transformer protection, see Fig. 8/22 52

52

7SJ60* 52

7SJ60*

I>, t IE>, t I2>, t 51

51N

46

ϑ> 49

52

I>, t IE>, t I2>, t 51

51N

46

ϑ> 49

* Alternatives: 7SJ45/46, 7SJ61

Fig. 8/16

Protection scheme for ring circuit

Ring circuits General notes on Fig. 8/16 C Tripping times of overcurrent relays must be coordinated with downstream fuses of load transformers. (Highly inverse time characteristic

with about 0.2 s grading-time delay to be preferred) C Thermal overload protection for the cables (option) C Negative sequence o/c protection 46 as sensitive protection against unsymmetrical faults (option)

8/29

8

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Seite 30

Infeed

52

I>>, I>, t 50/ 51

Distribution feeder with reclosers General notes on Fig. 8/17: C The feeder relay operating characteristics, delay times and autoreclosure cycles must be carefully coordinated with downstream reclosers, switch disconnectors and fuses. The instantaneous zone 50/50N is normally set to reach out to the first main feeder sectionalizing point. It has to ensure fast clearing of closein faults and prevent blowing of fuses in this area (“fuse saving”). Fast autoreclosure is initiated in this case. Further time-delayed tripping and reclosure steps (normally 2 or 3) have to be graded against the recloser. C The o/c relay should automatically switch over to less sensitive characteristics after longer load interruption times to enable overriding of subsequent cold load pickup and transformer inrush currents.

52

IE>>, I2>, t IE>, t 50N/ 51N

7SJ60 7SJ61

46

79

Autoreclose

Further feeders

Recloser

Sectionalizers

Fuses

Fig. 8/17

Protection scheme for distribution feeder

Infeed 52 52

I>, t IE>, t 51

51N

ϑ>

I2>, t

49

46

52 7SJ60

67

Protection same as line or cable 1

OH line or cable 2

OH line or cable 1

67N

51

51N

7SJ62

52 52 52

Fig. 8/18

52

52

Load

Load

Protection concept for parallel lines

Parallel lines General notes on Fig. 8/18: C This configuration is preferably used for the uninterrupted supply of important consumers without significant backfeed. C The directional o/c protection 67/67N trips instantaneously for

8/30

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

faults on the protected line. This allows the saving of one timegrading interval for the o/c relays at the infeed. C The o/c relay functions 51/51N have each to be time-graded against the relays located upstream.

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Seite 31

Protection and Substation Control Infeed 52 52 52

7SJ60

1)

79

52 2)

51N/ 51N

Cables or short overhead lines with infeed from both ends

Line or cable

2) Overload protection only with cables 3) Differential protection options: C Type 7SD610 with direct fiber-optic connection up to about 35 km (approx. 22 miles) or via a 64 kbit/s channel of a general purpose PCM connection (optical waveguide, microwave) C Type 7SD600 with 2-wire pilot cables up to about 12 km (approx. 7.5 miles)

7SJ60

7SD600 or 7SD610

4)

7SD600 or 7SD610

4)

Same protection for parallel line, if applicable

3)

51N/ 51N

Notes on Fig. 8/19: 1) Auto-reclosure only with overhead lines

49

87L

49

87L

2) 79

52

52

1)

52 52 Load Fig. 8/19

52

52

52

Backfeed Protection scheme using differential protection

HV infeed 52

4) Functions 49 and 79 only with relays of type 7SD610. 7SD600 is a cost-effective solution where only the function 87L is required (external 4AM4930 current summation transformer to be installed separately).

63

I>>

I>, t

IE>

ϑ> I2>, t

50

51

50N

49

RN

46

7SJ60

Optional resistor or reactor

I>> 87N 51G 52

7VH60

7SJ60

IE> Distribution bus

52 o/c relay Load Fig. 8/20

Fuse Load

Protection scheme for small transformers

Small transformer infeed General notes on Fig. 8/20: C Ground faults on the secondary side are detected by current relay 51G which, however, has to be time-graded against downstream feeder protection relays. The restricted ground-fault relay 87N may additionally be used to achieve fast clearance of earth faults in the secondary transformer winding. Relay

7VH80 is of the high-impedance type and requires class X current transformers with similar transformation ratio. C Primary breaker and relay may be replaced by fuses.

8/31

8

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Seite 32

Dual infeed with single transformer

Protection line 1 same as line 2

Notes on Fig. 8/21: 1) Line current transformers are to be connected to isolate stabilizing inputs of the differential relay 87T in order to assure stability in case of line-through-fault currents.

Protection line 2 21/21N or 87L + 51 + optionally 67/67N

52

52 7SJ60 oder 7SJ61

2) Relay 7UT613 provides numerical ratio and vector group adaptation. Matching transformers, as used with traditional relays, are therefore no longer necessary.

I>>

I>, t

IE>, t

50

51

51N

46

49

I2>

ϑ>

63

Parallel incoming to transformer feeders

87N

7SJ60

Note on Fig. 8/22: The directional functions 67 and 67N do not apply for cases where the transformers are equipped with transformer differential relays 87T.

I>>

IE>

51

51N

87T

7UT613

51G

7SJ60

52 52

52

Load bus

52

Load Fig. 8/21

Transformer protection scheme

HV infeed 1 52

I>>

I>, t

50

51

63

51G

HV infeed 2

7SJ60 or 7SJ61

IE>, t ϑ> 51N

46 Protection same as infeed 1

7SJ62

I>

I>, t IE>, t

IE>, t

49

52

I2>, t

51

67

51N

IE> 67N

7SJ60 1) 52

52 Load bus 52

52 Load

Fig. 8/22

8/32

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

52 Load

Protection scheme for transformers connected in parallel

Load

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Seite 33

Protection and Substation Control

Small and medium-sized motors < 1 MW

52

With effective or low-resistance grounded infeed (IIE ≥ IN Motor) General note on Fig. 8/23: Applicable to low-voltage motors and high-voltage motors with low-resistance grounded infeed (IE ≥ IN Motor).

IE>

ϑ>

50

51N

49

Locked rotor

I2>

49 CR

46

7SJ60

M Fig. 8/23

Protection scheme for small motors

With high-resistance grounded infeed (IIE ≤ IN Motor)

52

Notes on Fig. 8/24: 1) 1) Window-type zero-sequence current transformer. 2) Sensitive directional earth-fault protection 67N only applicable with infeed from isolated or Peterson-coil-grounded network. (For dimensioning of the sensitive directional ground-fault protection, also see application circuit No. 24)

I>>

I>>

ϑ>

I2>

50

49

46

IE>

7XR96 1) 60/1A

51G

I< 7SJ62 or 7SJ602

37

3)

2) 67N

M Fig. 8/24

Protection scheme for medium-sized motors

3) Relay type 7SJ602 may be used for power systems with isolated neutral or compensated neutral 52

I>>

ϑ>

U< I2>

Large HV motors > 1 MW Notes on Fig. 8/25: 1) Window-type zero-sequence current transformer.

50

3) This function is only needed for motors where the start-up time is longer than the safe stall time tE. According to IEC 79-7,tE is the time needed to heat up AC windings, when carrying the starting current IA, from the temperature reached in rated service and at maximum ambient temperature to the limiting temperature.

IE>

7XR96 1) 60/1A

2) Sensitive directional ground-fault protection 67N only applicable with infeed from isolated or Peterson-coil-grounded network.

49

51N

46

Fig. 8/25

M

optionally 37

67N

Monitoring of the start-up 49T stage 3) 3) Speed switch

I<

2)

27

Option: thermistor

87M

7UM62

5)

4)

Protection scheme for large motors

8/33

8

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Seite 34

A separate speed switch is used to monitor actual starting of the motor. The motor breaker is tripped if the motor does not reach speed in the preset time. The speed switch is part of the motor delivery itself.

MS

G

I>, IE>, t

I2>

ϑ>

51 51N

46

49

4) Pt100, Ni100, Ni120

7SJ60

5) 49T can only be implemented using 7XV5662 thermobox Smallest generators < 500 kW

Fig 8/26

Note on Fig. 8/26 and 8/27: If a window-type zero-sequence current transformer is provided for sensitive ground-fault protection, relay 7SJ602 with separate ground current input can be used (similar to Fig. 8/24).

Protection scheme for smallest generators with solidly grounded neutral conductor

MS

G1

Generator 2

1)

I>, IE>, t

I2>

ϑ>

51 51N

46

49

7SJ60

Small generator up to 1 MW Note on Fig. 8/28: Two current transformers in V-connection are sufficient.

RN =

Fig. 8/27

VN √3 • (0.5 to 1) • Irated

Protection scheme for smallest generators with a resistance-grounded neutral conductor

52

1)

Field

G

f> < 81

I>, t

ϑ>

I2>

51

49

46

IE>, t 51N

Fig. 8/28

8/34

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Protection scheme for generators > 1 MW

P> 32

U> 59

7UM61

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Protection and Substation Control

Generators > 1 MW Notes on Fig. 8/29: 1) Functions 81 and 59 only required where drives can assume excess speed and voltage controller may permit rise of output voltage above upper threshold.

MS 52

50 27

2) The integrated differential protection function may be used as longitudinal or transverse differential protection for the generator.

I>/U<

1)

59

U< 2)

∆I 1)

RE field<

G

81

87

f> <

7UM62

64R Field

I2>

ϑ>

46

49

-P>

I>t, U< L.O.F. 51V

40

32

IE>, t 51N

Fig. 8/29

87N

Protection scheme for generators > 1 MW

8/35

8

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Seite 36

Busbar protection by o/c relays with reverse interlocking

Infeed

General note on Fig. 8/30: Applicable to busbars without substantial (< 0,25 x IN) backfeed from the outgoing feeders.

Reverse interlocking

7SS60 busbar protection

I>, t

I>, t0 50 50N

General note on Fig. 8/31 C Applicable for single and double busbars C Different current transformer ratios are balanced by intermediate-circuit transformers C Unrestricted number of feeders C Feeder protection may be connected to the same current transformer core

51 51N

7SJ60

52

t0 = 50 ms

52

I>

I>, t

50 50N

51 51N

52

I>

I>, t

50 50N

51 51N

I>

I>, t

50 50N

51 51N

7SJ60

7SJ60

Fig. 8/30

52

7SJ60

Busbar protection with reverse interlocking

7MT70

7SS601 87 BB

52 86 52

52

52

7SV60

7SV60

7SV60

50 BF

50 BF

50 BF

Load

Fig. 8/31

8/36

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

S 7SS60 busbar protection

G

1)

7SS60

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Protection and Substation Control

8/37

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Seite B

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Seite C

Power Management

chapter 9

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Seite 2

9 Power Management Power management is the special energy point of view of an industrial plant, a commercial building, or other piece of property. The view begins with the energy import, expands to its distribution and ends at the supply to the devices themselves.

An efficiency improvement of the equipment/consumer devices saves energy and reduces cost directly. This optimization is carried out by retrofitting. When making invitations to tender for new equipment, an optimal efficiency should be demanded.

All functions are directed towards the operator with the goal of enabling an economical operation.

In addition to the ideal way of reducing power costs through limiting power consumption, power management aims, on the one hand, at an optimal use of the existing contracts – not exceeding the import quantity – and on the other hand at concluding the most advantageous new continuous purchasing contracts – buying neither too much nor too little.

To minimize the energy costs, one can C directly influence the power consumption, C modify the general specifications for energy import through the best possible use of stipulated provisions in the contract as well as through C optimally negotiating new contracts.

The optimal use of existing contracts avoids penalties for exceeding the agreed-upon import quantities. Import monitoring compares the

Energy purchasing

amounts actually used to those stipulated in the existing continuous purchasing contracts. If the amount used threatens to exceed the latter, import monitoring will influence the power consumption. This can occur within the power management via priorities-list controls, planning or, if possible, by involving in-plant generation of power. The use of several types of power in interrelation takes the cogeneration optimization into consideration. In a turbine, process heat and electricity are generated from gas. Costs arising from this can be clearly allocated to the corresponding power types.

Electricity, gas, district heat, diesel, water

Optimizing purchased quantities/prices

Import monitoring Avoiding penalties

In-plant generation

Optimization of the energy mix Coordination of all energy types involved

Energy cost savings

Energy flow representation Transparency of energy consumption

Efficiency improvement Optimal energy exploitation

Fig. 9/1

9/2

Energy savings

Power management: the special energy point of view of an industrial plant, a commercial building, or other piece of property, etc.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 3

Power Management

Electricity costs for in-plant generation are comparable to those of the energy market. As power costs on the market change daily, this comparison is not necessarily always favorable to in-plant generation. The same considerations must be made when using the primary energy sources oil, gas or coal. The energy flow representation via load curves depicts the power consumption over the course of time. It visualizes the power consumption behavior and provides transparency. Load curves make the most effective statements if there is a direct reference to the technological process. By evaluating the load curves, those responsible for the process can influence the power consumption behavior in such a way that peaks are clipped and valleys are filled. If no peaks appear in the lowest level of power consumption, the import will also – as sum of all power consumers – have no peaks; a leveling is achieved. Energy flow representation, maximum-demand monitoring and the optimization of the energy mix serve to optimize energy purchasing. Only when the customer knows his requirements exactly, can he use the offer from the various power suppliers to his best advantage.

Industry

Infrastructure Power distribution

Building automation and control Heating Ventilation Air conditioning Time controllers

Process automation/ automated manufacturing technology Batches Sequential control systems Sequence processors

G

Feeder circuitbreaker Q1.0

Busbar coupler unit Outgoing circuit-breaker to sub-distribution board Incoming circuit-breaker to sub-distribution board

Transformer T7.3

Switch-disconnector Q12.4

Fig. 9/2

Power distribution interfaces in industry and infrastructure

Composition of power costs and options for influencing them The cost of (electrical) energy is composed of quantity-based costs and basic fees. At any time, quantitybased energy costs can be employed as a lever to influence total energy cost by improving the efficiency of

the equipment in use. Another leverage is a change of that process that would yield an optimized degree of efficiency. If power consumption is reduced by down-sizing production, this is irrelevant for consideration.

Energy costs Energy savings

Energy cost savings

Kilowatt-hour rate (electricity) quantity costs

Demand rate (electricity) basic fees

Influence

Influence when negotiating new contracts

Fig. 9/3

via

via

Efficiency improvement

Continuous purchasing quantities Benefit of liberalization Optimization of power import and in-plant generation

Composition of power costs and options for influencing them

9/3

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Seite 4

A reduction of basic fees by influencing demand charges can only be effected when a contract is changed. Considering regular contract terms of 5 years, this leverage is unsuitable for immediate success. Strategy: First, continuously monitor energy import, cut off peak supplies and level consumption. These new import load curves can be used as a basis for negotiating a new, lower import limit at the next contract change.

C circuit-breakers, C isolators, switch-disconnectors, fuses, C transducers, C meters and measuring instruments; in the expansion, C generators and C transformers are also used. Circuit-breakers switch and protect the electrical power flow. They can be switched and monitored both locally and remotely. Disconnectors protect electrical installations. They can be switched onsite and monitored both on-site and remotely.

9/4

Basis for energy market

Energy purchasing

Energy transmission

Dispatch

Prognosis

Optimizing purchased quantities/prices

Virtual Default contract setting for monitoring limit per site (per minute)

Broker

Contract monitoring

Import monitoring

Prioritieslist control

Cross-connection Schedules optimisation Coordination of all energies involved

Energy flow representation

Load curves

Transparency of energy consumption

Identical, different types of energy

Efficiency improvement

Optimizing equipment

> 24 h, > 48 h

Planning

In-plant power generation

Energy operation plans

Inspection planning

Avoiding penalties

Power distribution at the industry and infrastructure level The distribution of power, whether electricity, gas or water – as a connection of the energy import with the power consumers – is set up for infrastructure projects and industrial plants with the same components. Electrical power distribution comprises medium and low voltage. The interfaces from Totally Integrated Power for building services automation and automated manufacturing technology are storey distribution boards or motor control centers. The multitude of devices used in power distribution comprise the components:

Purchasing associations

Cost center assignment Automatic Manual input

Quality Harmonics cos ϕ Overvoltages Transients

Flicker

Thermodynamic control systems

Optimal energy exploitation

Evaluations

Fig. 9/4

Reports

Maintenance

9/4 Power management modules

Transducers generate measurements with standardized interfaces; 1/5 A for current transformers and 100 V for voltage transformers. These measurements are placed on-site on display units. A remote display requires a conversion to 4- to 20-mA interfaces. Generators transform mechanical energy into electrical energy. They are started and stopped, as well as having their power output regulated, either locally or remotely. Transformers reduce the voltage levels. They can be monitored and switched either locally or remotely. The know-how of system-specific

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Data validation

power distribution is in the dimensioning of the individual elements and their interconnection with cables, busbar trunking systems and switchgear cabinets, in accordance with the local country standards. The planning tool SIMARIS design® supports this work when dimensioning new systems or new designs. When retrofitting systems in existing power distribution systems, the circuit-breakers, isolators, measurements for voltage, current, output, frequencies, etc., along with the corresponding transformers are often already on hand.

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Seite 5

Power Management

Neither new nor retrofitted systems use the information available in the distribution systems consistently. An automatic recording via bus-capable devices is the prerequisite for a centralized display and evaluation. The same bus is also used for switching within the power distribution system. See also Chapter 7 “Communications in Power Distribution.” If one further develops the initially described view of power management as the special energy point of view of an industrial plant, a commercial building, or other piece of property, modules will result which describe power management from the operator’s point of view.

Entire site P

Maximum-demand monitoring of total import t Electricity

Sub-site P

Maximum-demand monitoring of sub-site t

Energy purchasing In future, energy purchasing will tend to move away from governmentally stipulated standard contracts towards market-oriented individual contracts. The maximum-demand contract is a government-oriented standard contract. Customer requirements will play a much more important role, yet this will not cause the energy supplier’s interests to be neglected. Customers with insufficient knowledge of their requirement profile are, under such market conditions, at a disadvantage from the very beginning. Documenting the requirement profile in the form of a load curve over a lengthy period of time forms the basis to advantageously structure contractual negotiations. The liberalization of the energy market also provides the possibility to explicitly order base load, medium load and peak load. Knowing the requirements exactly is an absolute must in order to optimally use the energy market for the medium load and to avoid the spot market for the peak load.

Grafik 9/5

Einkaufsgemeinschaften – Energiedurchleitung

Purchasing associations – energy transmission If within an existing area several companies are formed out of one company through restructuring, each one of these must be considered individually with regard to its energy import. The existing supply structures cannot be adapted to the new premises/building. Rather, the power infeed is assigned to one company. This company then assumes the role of the energy supplier for all of the other companies formed on the premises. Every company in the area receives a maximum-demand contract. The energy supplier of the area, as the representative of a purchasing association, concludes an external continuous energy purchasing contract that includes the consumption quantity of the entire area. This quantity is then divided by the area’s en-

ergy supplier amongst the individual companies. If a sub-site exceeds the maximum demand, this does not necessarily lead to an exceeding of the maximum demand of the entire site: Thus no penalties will be charged. Since the total continuous purchasing contract does not represent the sum of the maximum peak imports, the situation could arise in which the total maximum demand is exceeded, but each individual subsite does not exceed its maximum demand. An advanced warning and a purposeful reduction of the import limit of all the sub-sites reduces an exceeding of the total maximum demand. The skilled use of the total continuous energy purchasing contract results in cost advantages for all companies in the purchasing association. Inside buildings there are comparable supply structures.

9/5

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Purchasing associations – dispatch Dispatch is about a purchasing association whose members are located at various sites. Examples of this are companies with their branches or amalgamations of several independent companies. A virtual total continuous purchasing contract is formed that represents the sum of all sites. The virtual total continuous purchasing contract monitors the maximum demand and within the period – e.g. 15 minutes – distributes the energy to the sites in such a way that the total continuous purchasing contract is not violated. The trick with dispatch is to combine consumption valleys of some sites with the consumption peaks of other sites in such a way that a continuous total import results. Thus, the total import can be considerably smaller than that which would result from the sum of the individual sites. The goal of dispatch is on the one hand, by pooling large quantities of energy, to get a better import price, and on the other hand to generate a continuous total import load curve and thus enable a better exploitation of the continuous purchasing contract.

9/6

Seite 6

Total import P

t Allocation of maximum imported energy Return of available switch-off power

∆P

Pdefault

Site A P

Site B P

t

Fig. 9/6

∆P

Pdefault

Site C P

t

t

Purchasing associations – dispatch

Basis for the energy market – prognosis The liberalized energy market allows the purchase of energy via energy markets in addition to the usual import of energy from the local power supply company. In Leipzig (EEX), Oslo (NordPool) and in Amsterdam (APX), there are energy markets. Since quantities of energy that have to be ordered at least 24 h in advance are traded on these energy markets, only those customers/ consumers who know their requirements in the future can bid on these markets. Consequently, a prognosis tool is absolutely necessary for the load side. The daily load curves have proven themselves as prognoses in the municipalities.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

∆P

Pdefault

For every day of the week, weekends, days taken off between a holiday and the weekend to lengthen the weekend, etc., that have a significantly different power consumption, there is a standard load curve that is super-elevated/ adapted with the daily temperature at 06:00 a.m. and the expected temperature at 12:00 noon. The procedures are proven and in use in many municipalities. In industry, energy consumption is mainly linked to production; prognoses are to be structured in correspondence with this information.

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Seite 7

Power Management Defined energy quantities can be ordered at fixed prices 24 h in advance. Demand is established via prognosis procedures.

On the Internet, an amount is agreed upon with a broker.

... A new contract will be required due to the peak established in the prognosis.

Basis for the energy market (Leipzig, Amsterdam) – prognoses

Consumption control

Priorities list block

Site x P

1 2 3

n

Consumer a Consumer b Consumer c

ON

release

Fig. 9/7

OFF

Release Blocking

Consumer x Feedback

0

Fig. 9/8

t 15

M Forced ON

Demand monitoring – priorities-list control

Import monitoring Every type of energy – electricity, gas, sometimes water – has its own continuous purchasing contract. Online energy measurement generates a load curve, a curve trace as a mountain range with peaks and valleys. An ideal power import is characterized by a curve trace that is as level as possible. The goal is to reduce peaks – higher energy consumption – and to fill valleys – not fully utilized power reserves.

Import monitoring – priority-list control Power shifts are performed by loads that, without negatively influencing the production process, can be switched on and off or controlled when required. These defined power loads will be placed in a priorities list. Monitoring refers to the contractually agreed-upon imported energy limit, which should not be exceeded. This is a case of a period average, i.e., in the period, the average of the actually imported power will be calculated and permanently compared

with the imported energy limit. If the value rises too high, the loads will be either switched off or controlled down, depending on their position in the priority list. If the period monitoring shows that too little power is being consumed, the priority list’s loads will be released either for switching on or controlling up. A priorities-list control reacts to the momentary actual state of the energy import. Loads are switched or controlled according to the priorities list, however, only in accordance with demand and not as a result of direct planning.

9/7

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Seite 8

By carefully shifting individual batch starting points, peak load situation can be detected in advance and prevented.

Import monitoring – planning Careful planning and control of energy consumption is an additional way to exploit the energy supply contract as much as possible. It is especially used where batch products are created or processed that show typical energy requirement curves in regularly recurring intervals, because their typical shape enables the prognostication of load behavior. After the analysis of the production requirements it is possible to time the production processes in such a way that an addition of load peaks is avoided and thus the energy import curve is leveled. An optimal envelope curve results that remains below the import limit. Only in exceptional situations will the priority control, that is now subordinated to the control by planning, intervene. Regarding maximumdemand monitoring for the measurement of the energy types, the relevant hardware (metrology), the affiliated wiring, and a corresponding software package for monitoring must be installed. For the open-loop control and closed-loop control of the loads, the relevant wiring from the maximum-demand monitoring into the load control must be installed.

Characteristic P 100

Product A

55

0 10

20

30

t

40

Aggregated load curve Product is started in parallel at the same point in time

P 100

110

0 10

20

30

P

t

40

Product is started within a time shift of 8 time units

100

80

0 10

Fig. 9/9

9/8

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Import monitoring – planning

20

30

40

50 t

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Seite 9

Power Management

Import limit 4.5 MW

P

Continuous energy purchasing contract Demand rate referred to import limit 4.5 MW

135

€/kW

Kilowatt-hour rate

0.06

€/kWh

15

minutes

Period

Work 1.125 MWh

15-minute period

Fig. 9/10

0

15

30

45

t

Components of the continuous energy purchasing contract

Import monitoring – in-plant power generation In-plant power generation within the framework of import monitoring is another possibility to prevent energy import levels from being exceeded. For example, existing emergency power units can be used to generate operating current. Example of an electricity purchasing contract The continuous energy purchasing contract contains the parameters demand rate, kilowatt-hour rate and period. The supplier supplies a defined amount of electrical energy in a defined period. It doesn’t matter to him when the agreed-upon amount of electrical energy is used within this period. When this is exceeded, however, penalties are assessed. The imported energy limit is calculated from the defined amount of energy within the period and is an average value.

A demand rate is set for such an import limit. This demand rate, multiplied with the imported energy limit, is the monetary value to be paid annually. Such costs arise whether energy is used or not; they correspond to the connection costs for domestic power supply. The quantity of energy actually used is calculated with the kilowatt-hour rate. The sum of the demand rate and kilowatt-hour rate is then the total electricity cost. By clipping the import peaks, a lower import limit can be agreed upon and the costs reduced.

Example for costs in Fig. 9/10 Demand rate of 607,500 € at 135 € /kW demand rate and 4,500 kW import limit. Kilowatt-hour rate of 1,296,000 € at 21,600,000 kWh power consumption and 0.06 € /kWh costs. (Power consumption at 360 days/ 24 h a day and medium power requirements of 2,500 kW). Total costs of 1,903,500 € per year. Clipping the import limit, e.g. by 10% (450 kW) corresponds to 60,750 € per year.

9/9

9

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Boiler unit

Air

19:35 Uhr

Seite 10

Air

Water power

B1

T1

Oil

External purchase

Turbine unit

G

B2

Coal T5

G

Feed-water storage tank Condensate tank

Customers

Thermal loads Return-flow

Fig. 9/11

Electrical loads

Correlations (combined heat and power)

Optimization of the energy mix Cogeneration optimization stands for the dependencies of the transformation of one type of energy into one or several others. We will use a combined heat and power plant as an example here, which generates live steam from the primary energies oil and coal. This live steam is used to generate steam in a turbine; the flashed steam is made available for the provision of heat (district heating, process heat).

9/10

Loads

The system differentiates between two control possibilities. The fast control possibility of this system consists in using live steam to generate a great deal of electricity and little heat, or a great deal of heat and little electricity. The slow control possibility consists in generating more or less live steam. The exploitation of this optimization potential is mathematically a very demanding matter and is only worthwhile after an exact assessment. Cogeneration optimizations can be interpreted along the lines of cost, but also according to other criteria, e.g. ecological aspects. For the measurement of the energy types, the relevant hardware (metrology), the affiliated wiring, and a corresponding software package for monitoring must be installed.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

AIn the boilers B1 and B2, live steam is generated using the primary energies coal or oil. This live steam is lead to turbines T1 and T5. Inside of the turbine, the live steam is flashed; it powers the generation of electricity in the generator and at the same time generates heat for thermal loads. The sum of the electricity from the generators, the energy import from power supply companies and other in-plant generation, such as from water power, generates the energy that is made available for the electrical loads. If one proceeds from the assumption that electrical energy cannot be stored but must always be available when it is needed, then this aspect cannot be used as a control value. To control the entire system, only the thermal load or the generation of live steam remains. The dependencies inside of the turbine, including the non-linear correlations, are documented in the turbine diagram. Energy flow representation In the energy flow representation, the measured values are represented over a period of time. These load curves demonstrate which energy was consumed and when it was consumed. Using these load curves, a history can be displayed in the consumption profile up to the current time. The combination of the load curves with the process knowledge represents the savings potential.

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Seite 11

Power Management

An expert interprets the load curves and makes changes in the technical, technological or organizational levels. Effects, positive as well as negative, can be checked immediately with the help of the new load curves; a feedback arises in the shortest time, so that an optimization of consumption by clipping the peaks and filling in the valleys can begin immediately. The load curve is an irreplaceable measure in a modern company for the continual energy monitoring and the optimization resulting thereof. The load curves are always a representation of the power output over a period of time. If meters are installed, measurements are recorded in the accompanying hardware and converted to power values in the software. To measure these energies, the appropriate hardware (metrology), the affiliated wiring and a corresponding software package must be installed. For the energy analysis, various load curves are simultaneously displayed one above the other. Via this representation, correlations can be seen. These types of power engineering correlations and the various dependencies within a system are generally not known to the operator. This representation works out the complex interconnections. Documentation of these is of great importance as one of the most important bases for proof of cost-cutting measures.

Identical types of energy P

1 1 2 2

3

3 t

Different types of energy P

1

1

T

G 2 2

3 3 t

Fig. 9/12

Energy flow representation – load curves

Energy flow representation – cost center assignment Every measurement inside of a system can be used for cost center assignment. A differentiation is made between certified measurements, non-certified measurements and simple measurements. Only certified measurements can be used as a basis for invoicing. For expense distribution, the total power costs are distributed on the basis of consumption to cost center. All measurements may be used for in-house expense distribution.

Normal measurements are only designed for expense distribution. To better use the measurements, each measurement can be assigned several different cost center via a % key. In many cases, there is a meter reading by means of receipts. These data are transferred to the power management system via screen mask input. The documentation of the data acquired via reading receipts uses the same types of representation as the automatic meter readings.

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Seite 12

Measurement %

Cost center

Σ

Transformer 1

Sum per cost center Rate 1 Total kWh Rate 2 Total kWh Rate 3 Total kWh 180 160

Transformer 2

140 120 100

Virtual measurement %

80

Sum per cost center

Cost center



Transformer 1

60 40 20 0

1st quarter

2nd quarter 3rd quarter

4th quarter

Rate 1 Difference kWh Rate 2 Difference kWh Rate 3 Difference kWh

BD-350A

Fig. 9/13

Energy flow representation – cost center assignment (automatic)

Input

180 160

Receipt

Measuring point

140 120

Estimated value

%

Cost center

Actual value Time

Σ

Date

Load curves P

t

Fig. 9/14

9/12

Energy flow representation – cost center assignment (manual input)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Sum per cost center Rate 1 Total kWh Rate 2 Total kWh Rate 3 Total kWh

100 80 60 40 20 0 1st quarter

2nd quarter

3rd quarter

4th quarter

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Seite 13

Power Management

Measuring energy quality

Documenting energy quality

Influencing energy quality

1

SIPCON

Compensation

1 2 2

3

3 t

Grafik 9/15 Energieflussdarstellung – Qualität (cos ϕ, Oberwellen, Überspannungen, Flicker, Transienten)

Quality Power quality stands for reactive power, harmonics and flicker. In future continuous energy purchasing contracts, these parameters will play an increasingly important role. Examples: Reactive power: Every motor generates a reactive-power component (cos j = ratio of active power to apparent power, see Fig. 9/16). Reactive- power compensation systems adjust the generated reactive-power component to the default setting. Harmonics: Electronic power loads, e.g. converters, generate harmonics. These harmonics are modulated up to the normal network frequency of 50 Hz. A network voltage that is not a pure sine wave arises. The higher the share of the harmonics (x % of the fundamental component) is, the poorer the network quality will be. The harmonics are measured and filtered by the appropriate devices.

Flicker: Flickers are temporary network interruptions in the millisecond range. The more flickers appear, the poorer the network quality will be. Flickers can, within limits, be compensated for with the appropriate devices. Efficiency improvement The efficiency improvement is always directed towards the existing equipment. Through the use of controllable drives, ECO motors, etc., an energy saving is feasible from the electrical point of view. Better insulation improves the thermal efficiency. Through full use of the control range – an adaptation to demand – or, by avoiding starts and stops – avoiding start and stop losses – a further total efficiency improvement of the generator is possible. In addition to the efficiency improvement, these measures also have a positive effect on the mechanical service life of the generator: it is increased. Through the use of controllable fluorescent lamps, only the amount of light needed to illuminate the work area is generated.

Apparent power Reactive power

ϕ Active power cos ϕ = 0.9 Apparent power Active power Reactive power ϕ Fig. 9/16

= 100 = 90 = 43.6 = 25.8

kVA kW kVAr degrees

Power types and cos ϕ

A constant workplace illumination can be guaranteed by using a mix of daylight and fluorescent light. Energy saving via new equipment requires the latest technology and an optimal design (power output always at the optimal efficiency). This point of view is first of all generator-oriented, in the second step the applied energy or type of energy plays a role.

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Efficiency improvement – thermodynamic closed-loop controllers The optimization of the start and shut-down processes of thermodynamic power loads (boilers) is not only interesting from an energy point of view, it also affects the maintenance intervals and service life. The lesser the start and shut-down times, the lower the power loss. Because of this, every operator attempts to approach the gradients (e.g. temperature) rated by the manufacturer, but not to exceed them. Further advantages are longer maintenance intervals and a longer service life.

Seite 14

MICROMASTER ECO Photo 9/1 Efficiency improvement – optimizing equipment

Evaluation – reports All information in the database is compiled in reports and presented in a customer-oriented manner. Shift protocols, daily protocols, weekly statistics and monthly statistics serve as examples here.

Reduced start-up time

Instant gradient violation

9/14

Additionally, smoother, faster start-up, longer maintenance intervals, longer service life

Maximum permissible temperature gradient

Reports present the data graphically, as a list, or include both types of representation in one. Evaluation – data validation Data validation forms characteristic values that allow a comparison with other projects. The thermal energy consumption per square meter in an office building serves as an example here. The collected values of various items of real-estate (xx kJoule/m2 per month) serve as the comparative figure. The lower the value is, e.g., the better the thermal insulation will be. Via data validation, inter-site comparisons are made that reveal the savings potentials that a point of view restricted to one locality cannot detect.

Motors

Fig. 9/17

Efficiency improvement – thermodynamic closed-loop controllers

Evaluation – maintenance The maintenance of a technical installation comprises, acc. to DIN 31051, the activities inspection (determination of the actual condition), maintenance (maintaining the desired condition) and corrective maintenance (restoring the desired state). In addition to regularly scheduled maintenance, the system can be connected online to the process in order to cyclically calculate the actual runtime (operating hours) and/or the operating cycles of the objects on the basis of the status signals (ON/OFF).

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Operating hours and operating cycle meters are integrated in the system, however, they can be realized in the automation systems. The maintenance schedule resulting from or recommended by this forms the basis for an efficient maintenance planning. The goal with this is the reduction of maintenance costs. The performance of inspections and maintenance is viewed realistically; it is done neither too early nor too late. A system failure, which is usually associated with high repair and down-time expenses, is avoided.

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Seite 15

Power Management

Daily load curve – total import P 7000 6500 High rate 6000 Low rate 5500

23:30

22:45

21:15

22:00

19:45

20:30

19:00

17:30

18:15

16:45

15:15

16:00

14:30

13:45

13:00

11:30

12:15

10:45

10:00

9:15

8:30

7:45

7:00

6:15

5:30

4:45

3:15

4:00

2:30

1:45

0:15 Fig. 9/18

1:00

5000

t

Evaluation - reports

P

Comparison 180

Evaluation

160 140

Site A

t

120

Feedback to the sites

100 80 60 40

P

20 0

Site B

Fig. 9/19

1st quarter

2nd quarter

3rd quarter

4th quarter

t

Data validation – comparison of two sites with identical processes

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Seite 16

The automatic calculation of the maintenance schedule refers to the earliest calculated time. In the example (Fig. 9/20 Maintenance orders), the runtime determines the maintenance order, operating cycles and maintenance schedule are of lesser importance. When the runtimes or operating cycles are exceeded, the represented value will continue to be counted with a negative sign up to the completion notice. A maintenance order can be automatically activated when the recommended date is reached or manually at any time by the operator. The status display of the maintenance shows all scheduled orders in tables. Important data, such as operating hours and operating cycles of the object, recommended maintenance schedule, remaining runtime until the next scheduled maintenance date, check-control indicator and much more are cyclically updated. Further detailed information can be simply called up by a “mouse click” on the “Tabs”.

Runtime Operating cycles Calendar

M-interval counter 317 h

20.000

3108

8

M

Recommended M-date 31. 07. 2000 10:05 31. 08. 2000 08:45 10. 11. 2000 12:15

Process signal Recommended M-date for your M-order Data manager

Process bus

Fig. 9/20

Maintenance orders

Fig. 9/21

Maintenance status

The check-control indicator breaks down the maintenance time via 5 symbolic LED’s in 20% intervals. The progress within the maintenance is highlighted in color.

9/16

M-interval data 1500 h

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

31. 07. 2000 10:05

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Seite 17

Power Management

Example of maximumdemand monitoring with instabus EIB

Switchover high rate/low rate

Power costs are becoming increasingly important, especially for process control.

The result: One can reduce the ordered power reserves and further save expenses.

Visualization software

S0 interface

In systems that are not monitored, power reserves, for example, must be kept ready in order to avoid load over ranges, because these make themselves noticeably felt in the calculation: expenses rise. This is where the maximum-demand monitor steps in: It effectively suppresses peak loads and thus unnecessary expenses. The only requirement is, to set up the process correspondingly and create possibilities of temporally staggering the power consumption.

Synchronous pulse from the power station

Maximumdemand monitor

PC instabus EIB

Meter

Actuators Electric heating Lighting Fan Loads available for load management

Sensors Electric heating Lighting Fan ON/OFF, blocking or release via pushbutton, binary inputs, sensors or control modules

Fig. 9/22

Schematic diagram of maximum-demand monitoring

Simple, transparent, efficient: the maximum-demand monitor’s work. On the basis of a defined maximum average power, the maximumdemand monitor switches loads and devices off or on again. In so doing, operational switching by the operator always has the highest priority. The maximum-demand monitor only interferes with operationally connected loads in correspondence to the set priority (1 to 10). Each of these loads can be blocked from the correspondingly assigned switch and released again, i.e.: If the load is blocked, the maximum-demand monitor is not available for switching. Photo 9/2

Maximum-demand monitor

9/17

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Seite 18

Up to 120 channels Up to 120 channels are available for control. The device shows the actual switching status of channels 1–8 via LED’s. Special LED’s indicate if a warning limit is exceeded during the high or low rates, and a further display shows where the maximum-demand monitor within the integration period is temporally located.

Fig. 9/23

System-specific information and limit values are entered in the general section

Fig. 9/24

Time delays for the restart function can be entered

Fig. 9/25

Specific statements about the switching performance are made for the 120 channels

Easy commissioning The maximum-demand monitor is commissioned with the EIB-Tool software for instabus®EIB®. The parameters required for load control can be set for all available 120 channels.

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 19

Power Management

Software for power statistics The software for power statistics enables the compilation of demand integration periods and daily, monthly and annual statistics which can then be exported to Excel for further evaluation. Through this, one can compile statistics – the basis for the customer’s negotiation of better and less expensive supply contracts with the power supply company. The software for power statistics is part of the instabus EIB EIB visualization software and is also available as a stand-alone version. It facilitates online tracking of the switching priorities with a PC and allows them to be changed. The current switching status and the important system parameters are displayed. Fig. 9/26

Depiction of the maximum-demand monitor in the instabus EIB visualization software

Basically, however, the maximum-demand monitor can also be operated as a mere detection unit during a recording phase. In this case, it records load curves and consumption values. The individual channels need not be parameterized for this. Integration period The power statistics of an integration period over 15 minutes are displayed in minutes. Green and red: the respective power demanded; red: the released power; green: the switchedoff power. Typical of this: The low power underrange at the beginning and the low power overrange at the end of the integration period. Over the entire cycle of the integration period, this results in an even balance.

Fig. 9/27

Integration period

9/19

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Seite 20

Daily profile The evaluation of daily statistics shows the individual integration periods. Switched-off and released power outputs represent the demanded power of all loads. When manually switching the loads, power overranges are unavoidable. In spite of changing the power demand, the maximum-demand monitor limits the released power and thus prevents an exceeding of the admissible limit value. History database In the instabus EIB visualization software’s history database, the switching states of the channels are depicted in their temporal course – just as they result from the priority assignment and requirements.

9/20

Fig. 9/28

Power statistics as software tool with daily statistics

Fig 9/29

Switching states of the channels – history database

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Power Management

Fig. 9/30

Power statistics

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Seite B

10

Measuring and Recording Power Quality

10.1

Overview

10.2

SIMEAS Q

10.3

SIMEAS R

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Seite C

Measuring and Recording Power Quality

chapter 10

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Seite 2

10 Measuring and Recording Power Quality 10.1 Overview Introduction For more than 100 years, electrical energy has been a product, measured, for example, in kilowatt-hours, and its value was determined by the amount of energy supplied. In addition, the time of day could be considered in the price calculation (cheap night current, expensive peak time rates) and agreements could be made on the maximum and minimum power consumption within defined periods. The latest development shows an increased tendency to include the aspect of voltage quality into the purchase orders and cost calculations. Previously, the term “quality” was associated mainly with the reliable availability of energy and the prevention of major deviations from the rated voltage. Over the last few years, however, the term of voltage quality has gained a completely new significance. On the one hand, devices have become more and more sensitive and depend on the adherence to certain limit values in voltage, frequency and waveshape; on the other hand, these quantities are increasingly affected by extreme load variations (e.g. in steelworks) and non-linear consumers (electronic devices, fluorescent lamps).

Power quality standards The specific characteristics of supply voltage have been defined in standards which are used to determine the level of quality with reference to C Frequency C Voltage level C Waveshape C Symmetry of the three-phase voltages These characteristics are permanently influenced by accidental changes resulting from load variations, disturbances from other machines and by the occurrence of insulation faults. In contrast to usual commodity trade, the quality of voltage depends not only on the individual supplier but, to an even larger degree, on the customers. The IEC series 1000 and the standards IEEE 519 and EN 50160 describe the compatibility level required by equipment connected to the power grid, as well as the limits of emissions from these devices. This requires the use of suitable measuring instruments in order to verify compliance with the limits defined for the individual characteristics as laid down in the relevant standards. If these limit values are exceeded, the polluter may be requested to provide for corrective action. Competitive advantage through power quality In addition to the requirements stated in standards, the liberalization of the energy markets forces the utilities to make themselves stand out against their competitors, to offer en-

10/2

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

ergy at lower prices and to take cost saving measures. These demands result in the following consequences for the supplier: C The energy rates will have to reflect the quality supplied. C Customers polluting the grid with negative effects on power quality will have to expect higher power rates – “polluter-must-pay” principle. C Cost-saving through network planning and distribution (being different from today’s practice in power systems, which is oriented towards the customers with the highest power requirements). The significant aspect for the customer is that non-satisfying quality and availability of power supply may cause production losses resulting in high costs or leading to poor product quality. Examples are in particular C Semiconductor industry C Paper industry C Automotive industry (welding processes) C Industries with high energy requirements Siemens offers a wide range of equipment for the recording, archiving and evaluation of voltage quality.

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Seite 3

Measuring and Recording Power Quality

10.2 SIMEAS Q

Front view

The SIMEAS Q quality recorder SIMEAS®Q is a is a measuring instrument for recording electrical parameters in power distribution systems, which are utilized for power quality analyses with regard to compliance to standards EN 50160 and IEC 61000, for example. Application The growing use of non-linear or unbalanced loads is increasingly having an effect on power quality in supply systems. However, many electronic consumers require a defined power quality in order to work properly. Inadequate power quality has an adverse effect on the operating safety of consumers within the power supply system and can cause outages with serious consequences. Complete recording and evaluation of power quality according to international standards is imperative. Functions SIMEAS Q is a cost-effective measuring and recording instrument for quality monitoring of electrical power supply (low voltage / medium voltage). Besides a continuous recording of all relevant parameters, the device is also capable of recording faults. In this mode, measured values will only be recorded if one or several limit values are exceeded. This enables the registration of all characteristics of voltage quality according to the relevant standards. The measured values can be automatically transferred to a central computer system at freely definable intervals via a standardized PROFIBUS®-DP interface and at a transmission rate of up to 1.5 Mbit/s.

20 21 22 23 24 25

PROFIBUS-DP

RUN BF DIA SIMEAS Q 7KG-8000-8AB/BB

1

Photo 10/1

2

3

4

5

6

7

75

8

9

10

90

SIMEAS Q power quality recorder

Side view

Special features C Cost-effective solution C Interfacing to the SICAM® PAS power automation system possible C Comprehensive measuring functions which can also be used in the field of automatic control engineering C Function modules for SIMATIC® S7-300/400 C Minimum dimensions C Communication C PROFIBUS-DP C RS 232/modem C RS 485 Measuring inputs 3 voltage inputs, 0–280 V 3 current inputs, 0–6 A

Terminal block

90 105 Connection terminals 20 21 22 23 24 25

Aux. Volt.

PROFIBUS-DP

SIMEAS Q 7KG-8000-8AB/BB

Input: Current AC

Outputs/display C 2 relays as signaling outputs, available either for – Device in operation – Energy pulse – Signaling the direction of energy flow (import, export), – Value below min. limit for cos ϕ – Pulse indicating a voltage dip – 3 LED's indicating the operating status and PROFIBUS activity

Input: Volt. AC

IL1 IL1 IL2 IL2 IL3 IL3 ULN UL1 UL2 UL3 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

All dimensions in mm Fig. 10/1

SIMEAS Q power quality recorder, dimension drawings

Auxiliary power Two types: 24 to 60 V DC and 110 to 250 V DC, as well as 100 to 230 V AC.

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Seite 4

Two different connection methods or system configurations are possible, depending on the application and existing infrastructure. One is to use a central PC as the master. It is then possible to set up a system for measured value acquisition and evaluation using the SICARO Q Manager software. The other possibility is to link up to a PLC system where the SIMEAS Q is connected to the central master as a slave.

Telecommunications network SIMEAS Q

SIMEAS Q

SIMEAS Q

SIMEAS Q

SIMEAS Q

SIMEAS Q

SIMEAS Q with PC as a master The SIMEAS Q units are installed at various points to record series of electrical quantities in order to analyze power quality. The measured values stored in the device memory are called up with a personal computer via one of 3 possible communication interfaces and can then be evaluated. For connection to a PC, the following communication interfaces are available: C PROFIBUS-DP interface C Modem-capable, serial RS232 interface C Serial RS485 interface SIMEAS Q with PLC systems as master The SIMEAS Q version with a PROFIBUS-DP interface opens up a further field of application. Together with programmable control systems (PLC), the SIMEAS Q can be used as a ”sensor for electrical quantities“. The PROFIBUS interface, implemented and certified according to standard EN 50170 Volume 2, enables fast adaptation to PLC systems. That way, measured values acquired with the SIMEAS Q can be used for control tasks.

10/4

Fig. 10/2

Using the SICARO Q Manager software and a PC with several SIMEAS Q units

SIMEAS Q

Fig. 10/3

SIMEAS Q

SIMATIC S7 PLC as the master station with various PROFIBUS-DP slaves

Detailed information on how to retrieve measurement data from SIMEAS P via PROFIBUS is available to everyone in the SIMEAS Q user description. The open communication interface permits data transmission between SIMEAS Q units and all types of PROFIBUS-DP Masters, such as programmable controllers or personal computers (with integrated PROFIBUS-DP hardware).

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SIMEAS Q

Function blocks are available for the SIMATIC S7-300 and -400 PLC systems, with an internal or external DP interface. They permit fast configuration of customer-specific PLC programs for applications combining SIMEAS Q with these PLC systems.

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Measuring and Recording Power Quality

Recording of measured values is possible in two modes, which can be used simultaneously. C Continuous recording C Fault recording

Measured variable

Possible averaging time

Max./min. possible

Rms values phase-to-ground voltages or phase-to-phase voltages

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Rms values phase currents

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

System frequency (always measured at input UL1)

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Active power per phase and total active power

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Reactive power per phase and total reactive power

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Apparent power per phase and total apparent power

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Power factor per phase and total power factor

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Voltage unbalance

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Current unbalance

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Flicker factor short-term per phase voltage (Ast or Pst)

10 min fixed acc. to IEC 60868 and IEC 60868 A – Flicker meters

no

Flicker factor long-term per phase voltage (Ast or Pst)

120 min fixed acc. to IEC 60868 and IEC 60868 A1 – Flicker meters

no

1st to 40th harmonic voltage per phase

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

1st to 40th harmonic current per phase

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Total harmonic distortion (THD) per phase

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

yes

Continuous recording In continuous recording, depending on the setting for each measured variable, the rms values are acquired and stored in the memory along with the relevant time and date information. This records a “chain of measured values” whose resolution can range from low to very high, depending on the averaging time set. In “continuous recording” mode, the SIMEAS Q can record measured variables as defined in the standards (e.g. EN 50160). Acquisition of maximum and minimum values of measured variables within the measurement period (averaging time) is also possible. Table 10/1 shows which measured variables can be acquired by continuous recording, depending on the type of power system. Fault recording “Fault recording” means that measurement data are recorded when the average measured value violates one or more defined upper or lower limits (thresholds). When a limit is reached, the current time and date information and the mean value since the last limit violation of that measured variable are stored in the memory.

Active energy – import / active energy – export 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min Reactive energy inductive / reactive energy capacitive Apparent energy Table 10/1

no

Possible measured variables for continuous recording

This type of recording is primarily used for recording voltage dips. To record voltage dips, the lowest possible averaging time of 10 ms is selected. During measurement, the SIMEAS Q compares the half period measurement of a variable, which

corresponds to the rms value, with the set thresholds and is thus able to record very short voltage dips. Table 10/2 shows the measured variables for which fault recording can be parameterized.

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Data memory and data transmission

Seite 6

Measured variable

Possible averaging time

Number of thresholds

The SIMEAS Q has a measurement memory with a capacity for 70,000 measured values. The information on time and date of the measurement are stored along with each measured value.

Rms values phase-to-ground voltages or phase-to-phase voltages

10, 20, 50, 100, 500 ms 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

5

Rms values phase currents

10, 20, 50, 100, 500 ms 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

5

In normal measurement mode, the capacity of the data memory indirectly defines the intervals at which the PC must retrieve measurement data in order to obtain an unbroken chain of values. Retrieving measurement data frees capacity in the SIMEAS Q, which is then available again for new measurement data.

System frequency (always measured at input UL1)

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

2

Active power per phase and total active power

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

2

Reactive power per phase and total reactive power

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

2

Apparent power per phase and total apparent power

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

2

Power factor per phase and total power factor

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

2

Voltage balance

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

5

Current balance

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

5

1st to 40th harmonic voltage per phase

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

2 per harmonic

1st to 40th harmonic current per phase

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

2 per harmonic

Total harmonic distortion (THD) per phase

1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30 sec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60 min

2

If the measurement data are not retrieved, the SIMEAS Q goes into memory overflow / ring buffer mode, which causes loss of data and gaps in the measured value chain. It must therefore be ensured that the measured data are always retrieved before memory overflow / ring buffer mode occurs. Relay outputs The SIMEAS Q is fitted with 2 relay outputs (opto-relays). One of the following functions can be assigned to these outputs: C Indication device active (switched on) C Energy metering pulse per settable energy value for: – Active energy, energy import – Active energy, energy export – Reactive energy, capacitive – Reactive energy, inductive – Apparent energy C Indication active power import (contact open) or active power export (contact closed) C Limit cos ϕ ((contact closed for as long as cos ϕ is lower than a settable limit value)

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Table 10/2

Possible measured variables for fault recording

C Pulses on voltage dips (contact closed for 500 ms if violation of the first threshold below rated voltage detected) The relay outputs enable the SIMEAS Q to be used for acquisition of measured values and for energy metering.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Information on SIMEAS Q configuration Up to 400 V (L-L), the device is connected directly, or, if higher voltages are applied, via an external transformer. The rated current values are 1 and 5 A (max. 6 A can be measured) without switchover.

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Seite 7

Measuring and Recording Power Quality

Single-phase AC current

4-wire 3-phase current, identical load

SIMEAS Q connection terminals

3-wire 3-phase current, identical load

SIMEAS Q connection terminals

3-wire 3-phase current, any load

SIMEAS Q connection terminals

4-wire 3-phase current, identical load (low-voltage network)

SIMEAS Q connection terminals

4-wire 3-phase current, any load (high-voltage network)

SIMEAS Q connection terminals

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SIMEAS Q connection terminals

SIMEAS Q connection examples

The above listed input circuitries are merely examples. Up to the maximum permissible current and voltage values, the device may also be connected without current or voltage transformers. Voltage transformers

can also be connected in star or V topology. All of the input/output terminals not required for measurements remain unassigned.

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10.3 SIMEAS R Recording units The SIMEAS R fault recorder and PQ recorder Application C “All-in-one” recorder for extra-high-, high- and medium-voltage systems. C Component of secondary equipment of power plants and substations or industrial plants.

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SIMEAS R systems are used in power plants …

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Fault recording

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… and to monitor overhead transmission lines

Functions Digital fault recording system. All functions can be performed simultaneously and are combined in one unit with no need for additional devices to carry out the different tasks. Special features C The modular design enables the implementation of different configurations starting from systems with 8 analog and 16 binary inputs up to the acquisition of data from any number of analog and binary channels C Clock with time synchronization using GPS or DCF77 C Data output via postscript printer, remote data transmission with a modem via the telephone line, connection to LAN and WAN Fault recording This function is used for the continuous monitoring of the AC voltages and currents, binary signals and direct voltages or currents with a high time resolution. If a fault event, e.g. a short circuit, occurs, the specific fault will be registered including its history. The recorded data are then archived and can either be printed directly in the form of graphics or be transferred to a diagnosis system which can, for example, be used to identify the fault location.

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Fault detection is effected with the help of trigger functions. With analog quantities this refers to C Exceeding the limit values for voltage, current and unbalanced load (positive and negative phase sequence system) C Falling below the limit values for voltage, current and unbalanced load (positive and negative phase sequence system) C Limiting values for sudden changes in up- or downward direction.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Monitoring of the binary signals includes C Signal status (high, low) C Status changes

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Measuring and Recording Power Quality

Logic triggers Logic triggers can be defined by combining any types of trigger event (analog or binary). They are used to avoid undesired recording by increasing the selectivity of the trigger function. The device can distinguish between different causes of a fault, e.g. between a voltage dip caused by a short circuit (low voltage, high current) which needs to be recorded, and the disconnection of a feeder (voltage low, current low) which does not need to be recorded. Sequential control An intelligent logic operation is used to make sure that each record refers to the actual duration of the fault event. This is to prevent continuous violation of a limit value (e.g. undervoltage) from causing permanent recording and blocking of the device. Analog measured values 16-bit resolution for voltages and DC quantities and 2 x 16-bit resolution for AC voltages. The sampling frequency is 256 times the network frequency, i.e. 12.8 kHz at 50 Hz and 15.36 kHz at 60 Hz for each channel. A new current transformer concept enables a measuring range between 0.5 mA and 400 Arms with tolerance ranges of < 0.2% at < 7 Arms and < 1% at > 7 Arms. Furthermore, direct current is registered in the range above 7 A; this enables a true image of the transient DC component in the short-circuit current.

Binary signals The sampling frequency at th