48659244 IGCSE History Information Pack

July 29, 2017 | Author: Carmen Yong | Category: Nazi Germany, Treaty Of Versailles, World War I Reparations, Weimar Republic, Cold War
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IGCSE INFORMATION PACK Contents: Exam structure Course structure Example Paper 1 Section A Example Paper 1 Section B Example Paper 2 Paper 1 mark scheme

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2 3-6 7-8 9 10-13 14-15



Paper 1 (2 hours) Section A answer 2 questions out of 4 on International Relations since 1919 Key questions: • Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 fair? • To what extent was the League of Nations a success? • Why had international peace collapsed by 1939? • Who was to blame for the Cold War? • How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism? • How secure was the USSR's control over Eastern Europe, 1948-c.1989? • How effective has the United Nations Organisation been? Section B answer 1 question out of 2 the Depth Study Germany 1918-45 Key questions: • Was the Weimar Republic doomed from the start? • Why was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1934? • How effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933–45? • What was it like to live in Nazi Germany? In both sections all questions will be structured into three parts: What? [5] Why? [7] How? [8]

Paper 2 (2 hours) Source questions on the Prescribed Topic. Summer 2011: The Cold War 1945-9

Coursework 2 pieces of coursework, totalling C.1500 words, on The Second World War.

Year 10 Exam (2 hours) The Y10 end of year exam will consist of three Paper 1 Section A questions (i.e. International Relations 1919-89).


COURSE STRUCTURE YEAR 10 Y10 Michaelmas & Lent Term - International Relations 1919-89 (Paper 1 Section A) 1 Were the peace treaties of 1919–23 fair? Focus Points • What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles? • Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted? • What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923? • Could the treaties be justified at the time? Specified Content The peace treaties of 1919–23: -Roles of individuals such as Wilson, Clemenceau & Lloyd George; the impact of the treaties on the defeated countries; contemporary opinions about the treaties 2 To what extent was the League of Nations a success? Focus Points • How successful was the League in the 1920s? • How far did weaknesses in the League’s organisation make failure inevitable? • How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult? • How successful was the League in the 1930s? Specified Content • The League of Nations: - strengths and weaknesses in its structure and organisation; successes and failures in peacekeeping during the 1920s; the impact of the World Depression on the work of the League after 1929;the failures of the League in the 1930s, including Manchuria and Abyssinia 3 Why had international peace collapsed by 1939? Focus Points • What were the long-term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919–23? • What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s? • How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939? • Was the policy of appeasement justified? • How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact? • Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939? Specified Content • The collapse of international order in the 1930s • The increasing militarism of Germany, Italy and Japan • Hitler’s foreign policy to 1939: - the Saar; remilitarisation of the Rhineland; involvement in the Spanish Civil War; Anschluss with Austria; appeasement; crises over Czechoslovakia and Poland; the outbreak of war 4 Who was to blame for the Cold War? Focus Points • Why did the USA-USSR alliance begin to break down in 1945? • How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948? • How did the USA react to Soviet expansionism? • What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade? • Who was the more to blame for starting the Cold War: the USA or the USSR?


Specified Content • The origins of the Cold War: - the 1945 summit conferences and the breakdown of the USA-USSR alliance in 1945–6; Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe to 1948, and American reactions to it; the occupation of Germany and the Berlin Blockade 5 How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism? Focus Points This Key Question will be explored through case studies of the following: • America and events in Cuba, 1959–62 • American involvement in Vietnam. Specified Content • events of the Cold War: - case studies of: - American reactions to the Cuban revolution, including the missile crisis and its aftermath - American involvement in the Vietnam War. 6 How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe 1948–c.1989? Focus Points • Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968, and how did the USSR react to this opposition? • How similar were events in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968? • Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961? • What was the significance of ‘Solidarity’ in Poland for the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe? • How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe? Specified Content • Soviet power in Eastern Europe: - resistance to Soviet power in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968); the Berlin Wall; ‘Solidarity’ in Poland; Gorbachev and the collapse of the Soviet Empire. 7 How effective has the United Nations Organisation been? Focus Points • What are the functions of the UNO? • How far has the organisation of the UNO hindered its effectiveness? • Case studies of the UNO in action: the Korean War and the Congo. Specified Content • The aims of the UNO, the organisation of the UNO, its agencies and their work • The implications of the growth of membership: admission of developing nations and China • Case studies of the work of the UNO in Korea (1950–3) and in the Congo (1960–3).

Y10 Summer Term – The Second World War (coursework) The Second World War - The Phoney War and Blitzkreig in the West 1939-40 - The Battle of Britain - The Battle of the Atlantic - The North Africa Campaign - Bombing Germany - Overlord - Russia and the Eastern Front - The relative contributions of Britain, America and Russia to victory in 1945 - The war against Japan in the Far East and in the Pacific


Year 11 Y11 Michaelmas Term 1. Write up Coursework on the Second World War 2. Germany 1918-45 Germany 1918-45 1 Was the Weimar Republic doomed from the start? Focus Points • How did Germany emerge from defeat at the end of the First World War? • What was the impact of the Treaty of Versailles on the Republic? • To what extent did the Republic recover after 1923? • What were the achievements of the Weimar period? 2 Why was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1934? Focus Points • What did the Nazi Party stand for in the 1920s? • Why did the Nazis have little success before 1930? • Why was Hitler able to become Chancellor by 1933? • How did Hitler consolidate his power in 1933–4? 3 The Nazi regime (a) How effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933–45? Focus Points • How much opposition was there to the Nazi regime? • How effectively did the Nazis deal with their political opponents? • How did the Nazis use culture and the mass media to control the people? • Why did the Nazis persecute many groups in German society? • Was Nazi Germany a totalitarian state? (b) What was it like to live in Nazi Germany? Focus Points • How did young people react to the Nazi regime? • How successful were Nazi policies towards women and the family? • Did most people in Germany benefit from Nazi rule? • How did the coming of war change life in Nazi Germany? Specified Content • The Revolution of 1918 and the establishment of the Republic • The Versailles Settlement and German reactions to it • The Weimar constitution, the main political divisions, the role of the army • Political disorder, 1919–23: o economic crises and hyper-inflation o the occupation of the Ruhr • The Stresemann era 5

• Cultural achievements of the Weimar period • The early years of the Nazi Party: o Nazi ideas and methods o the Munich Putsch o the roles of Hitler and other Nazi leaders • The impact of the Depression on Germany: o political, economic and social crisis of 1930–3 o reasons for the Nazis’ rise to power o Hitler takes power o the Reichstag Fire and the election of 1933 Curriculum content • Nazi rule in Germany: o the Enabling Act o the Night of the Long Knives o the death of Hindenburg o the removal of opposition o methods of control and repression o use of culture and the mass media • Economic policy including rearmament • Different experiences of Nazi rule: o women and young people o anti-Semitism o persecution of minorities o opposition to Nazi rule. • Impact of the Second World War on Germany: o the conversion to war economy o the Final Solution.

Y11 Lent Term Mocks Preparation for Paper 2:

Sources on the prescribed topic (2011 – The Cold War 1945-9)

Y11 Summer Term – Revision, study leave and exams!


EXAM PAPER 1 SECTION A: CORE CONTENT Answer any two questions from this Section. (See mark scheme for Question 1, pages 14 - 15)

1 Study the extract, and then answer the questions which follow. The Allied governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied governments and their peoples have been subjected as a result of the war. The War Guilt Clause. (a) In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles weaken Germany’s armed forces? [5] (b) Why did Clemenceau demand that a harsh peace be imposed on Germany? [7] (c) ‘The Treaty of Versailles was unfair on Germany.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

2 Study the cartoon, and then answer the questions which follow.

A cartoon entitled ‘The Doormat’, published in a British newspaper in 1932. (a) How did the League of Nations hope to prevent future wars between nations? [5] (b) Why did the League fail to stop Italian aggression against Corfu in 1923? 7


(c) ‘The League was a failure’. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

[8] [Turn over

3 Study the extract, and then answer the questions which follow. “We secured peace for our country for one and a half years, as well as an opportunity of preparing our forces for defence if Nazi Germany risked attacking our country. This was a definite gain for Russia and a loss for Germany.” Stalin speaking on the radio in 1941 (a) What was agreed at the Munich Conference of September 1938?


(b) Why was the Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 1939 important?


(c) How far was the Treaty of Versailles to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939? Explain your answer. [8]

4 Study the extract, and then answer the questions which follow. My dear friends today we have started negotiations for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from our country and for the cancellation of our obligations under the Warsaw Pact. Long live Free Hungary! From a speech by Imre Nagy, 31 October 1956. (a) What was the Berlin Wall?


(b) Why was there a rising in Hungary in 1956?


(c) Which was the more serious threat to Soviet control of Eastern Europe: events in Czechoslovakia in 1968; the emergence of Solidarity in Poland? Explain your answer.


[Turn over


SECTION B: DEPTH STUDIES Answer any one question from this Section. DEPTH STUDY A: GERMANY, 1918– 45 5 Study the photograph, and then answer the questions which follow.

A woman using banknotes to start her fire in 1923. (a) What were the main features of the Weimar Constitution. [5] (b) Why was 1923 a year of crisis for the Weimar Republic?


(c) To what extent did the Weimar Republic recover after 1923? Explain your answer. [8] 6 Study the extract, and then answer the questions which follow. I wore mostly low-quality clothes at home which my mother sewed and knitted. In the Hitler Youth I wore what I thought was a beautiful brown uniform with much leather, in which I imagined myself as one of Hitler’s young soldiers. A member of the Hitler Youth remembers his time in the organisation. (a) Describe the activities of the Hitler Youth.



(b) Explain how Nazi policies reduced unemployment. [7] (c) How successful were Nazi policies towards women and the family? Explain your answer.



NB: In Paper 2 the tropic and question structure changes each year. Below is an example of a Paper 2 question on the Treaty of Versailles Option B: 20th Century topic WHAT WERE THE AIMS OF THE PEACEMAKERS AT VERSAILLES? Study the Background Information and the sources carefully, and then answer all the questions. Background Information The Paris Peace Conference in 1919 was dominated by the ‘Big Four’: Clemenceau of France, Lloyd George of Britain, Orlando of Italy and Wilson of the USA. Were they meeting simply to punish Germany or did they have other aims? SOURCE A Severe as the Treaty of Versailles seemed to many Germans, it should be remembered that Germany might easily have fared much worse. If, instead of being restrained by Britain and the USA, Clemenceau had had his way, the Rhineland would have become an independent state, the Saarland would have been given to France and Danzig would have become an integral part of Poland. However, the Germans as a nation were not inclined to count their blessings in 1919. Most of all they resented being forced to accept war-guilt. Finally, the fact that the treaty was not negotiated but dictated to Germany and signed in humiliating circumstances made it certain that the German people would accept no responsibility for carrying out its terms. From a history book published in 1985. SOURCE B The fundamental significance of Versailles was emotional. Allied statesmen, urged on by pressure of public opinion, had made peace in a spirit of revenge. The cries of ‘Hang the Kaiser’ and ‘squeezing the German lemon until the pips squeak’ were typical of the desire not merely for a guarantee of future security, but for the national humiliation of Germany. The Germans saw every difficulty in later years as a further punishment that they alone must suffer as a result of the hated Treaty of Versailles. From a history book published in 1986. SOURCE C It must be a peace without victory. Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor’s terms imposed upon the defeated. It would be accepted in humiliation, and would leave resentment and a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as if built on sand. Peace without victory was the only sort of peace that the peoples of America could join in guaranteeing. President Wilson speaking to the American Senate in January 1917.


[Turn over


SOURCE D A cartoon from a British newspaper, May 1919. It shows the waiting room of a dentist

SOURCE E There will be strong attempts to persuade the government to depart from the strict principles of justice, in order to satisfy some shameful principles of either revenge or greed. We must resist that. Lloyd George speaking at a meeting during the 1918 election campaign in Britain. SOURCE F We propose to demand the whole cost of the war from Germany. Lloyd George speaking in January 1919. SOURCE G He was especially interested in the question of reparations, and said that if I would help him out in this direction, he would be extremely grateful. By ‘helping him out’ he meant to give a plausible reason to his people for having misled them about the question of war costs, reparations etc. He admitted that he knew Germany could not pay anything like the amount of reparations which the British and French demanded. An American delegate’s note of a conversation with Lloyd George during the peace negotiations in 1919. SOURCE H Mr President. You have sent to France your young soldiers. Eager though they were to meet the enemy they were unaware when they arrived of the monstrous crimes of the Germans. To obtain a proper view of the German conduct of the war, they had to witness the burntdown cities, the flooded mines and the crumbling factories. You will have the opportunity, Mr President, to inspect with your own eyes the extent of that disaster. The French government will also show you documents in which the German General Staff described its plan of plunder and industrial destruction. 13

President Poincaré of France in a speech of welcome to President Wilson in December 1918. [Turn over


SOURCE I 1920.

A cartoon, about the effects of the Treaty of Versailles, published in Britain in

A TRANSPARENT DODGE Germany: ‘Help! Help! I drown! Throw me the life-belt!’ Britain and France: ‘Try standing up on your feet.’ SOURCE J A cartoon published in Britain in 1919.


[Turn over


Now answer all the following questions. You may use any of the sources to help you answer the questions, in addition to those sources which you are told to use. In answering the questions you should use your knowledge of the topic to help you interpret and evaluate the sources. 1

Study Sources A and B. How far do these two sources agree? Explain your answer using the sources. [7]


Study Sources C and D. Does Source C make you surprised by what is shown in the cartoon (Source D)? Explain your answer using the sources and your knowledge. [8]


Study Sources E, F and G. Do you agree that these three sources prove that Lloyd George could not be trusted? Explain your answer using the sources and your knowledge. [8]


Study Source H. Do you think President Wilson would have been happy with this welcome? Explain your answer using the sources and your knowledge. [7]


Study Sources I and J. How similar are these two cartoons? Explain your answer using the sources and your knowledge. [8]


Study all the sources. How far do these sources show that the peacemakers at Versailles wanted to treat Germany harshly? Use the sources to explain your answer. [12]


Mark scheme for Question1 (NB the Year 10 Exam will consist of three questions of this type) (a) In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles weaken Germany’s armed forces? Level 1 General answer (1–2) e.g. ‘Germany’s armed forces were greatly reduced.’ ‘It reduced the army/navy.’ Level 2 Describes terms (2–5) e.g. ‘The army was limited to 100,000 men. (1) There was to be no conscription. (1) ‘Germany was not allowed tanks, submarines or military aircraft.’ (One mark for 1; two marks for all three) ‘The navy could only have six battleships (1) and was limited to 15,000 men.’ (1) (No credit for Rhineland.) (b) Why did Clemenceau demand that a harsh peace be imposed on Germany? Level 1 General answer (1) e.g. ‘To weaken Germany.’ Level 2 Identifies why (2–4) e.g. ‘To pay for all the damage Germany had caused.’ ‘To prevent future German attacks on France.’ ‘To gain revenge (for all the French suffering).’ ‘France lost many soldiers.’ Level 3 Explains why (4–7) e.g. ‘France had suffered enormous damage to its land, industry and people. Clemenceau was under intense pressure from his people to make Germany pay for the suffering they had endured both in 1870 and the Great War.’ ‘Ever since 1870 France had felt threatened by its increasingly powerful neighbour, Germany. Clemenceau saw the treaty as an opportunity to cripple Germany by breaking it up into small, weak states so it could not attack France again.’ ‘France had borrowed huge sums of money to fight the war and was faced with enormous debt. Clemenceau wanted Germany to pay this debt.’ (c) ‘The Treaty of Versailles was unfair on Germany.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. Level 1 Unsupported assertions (1) e.g. ‘It was a reasonable attempt at peace. It was not unfair.’ Level 2 Identifies reasons (2–3)


e.g. ‘It was unfair because it was a ‘diktat’.’ ‘Others were also to blame but not treated unfairly.’ ‘It was unfair as it left Germany unable to defend itself.’ ‘It was unfair as it was not in accordance with the ‘Fourteen Points’. ‘Germany treated Russia worse.’ ‘Germany was better off than they were letting on.’ ‘Germany had agreed the Armistice.’ ‘It was unfair because of War Guilt.’

Level 3 Explains agreement OR disagreement (3–5) Level 4 Explains agreement AND disagreement (5–7) e.g. ‘Germany did not feel it had lost the war. In 1919 many Germans did not understand how bad Germany’s military situation was at the end of the war. They believed they had simple agreed to a ceasefire and therefore should be at the Conference to negotiate rather than being treated as a defeated nation. They were not represented and had to accept a harsh settlement.’ ‘Germany thought that the ‘war guilt’ clause was particularly unfair as they were not the only ones to blame. Because they were forced to accept blame they had to pay for all the damage. They thought reparations that high would cripple them.’ ‘It was unfair to disarm Germany and not other countries and they thought that what remained was too small to defend Germany from attack.’ Germany thought that the application of self-determination was applied unfairly with millions of Germans living in other countries. ‘Germany was operating double standards. Their call for a fairer treatment did not fit with the harsh manner they treated Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.’ ‘The Treaty did not weaken Germany anywhere near as much as the Germans complained. By 1925 German steel production was twice that of Britain.’ ‘Germany’s economic problems were partly self-inflicted. Other countries had raised taxes to pay for the war. The Kaiser’s government planned to pay war debts by extracting reparations from the defeated states.’ ‘In the Armistice, the Germans agreed to reductions in their armed forces, losses of territory and the principle of reparations. Why then did they claim they had been treated unfairly?’ Level 5 Explains with evaluation of ‘how far’ (7–8)


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