45861225 Food Supply Chain of Big Bazaar
Term Paper Supply Chain Management
Food Supply Chain Management of Big Bazaar Learning facilitator: Dr. Parikshit Charan Submitted on:
13th September 2010
Submitted by: Ankit Garg (06502921) Mayur Singhal (06502917) Parul Sharma (09609075) Varun gupta (09609175) Sunil Bhardwaj (09609196) Sayantan Nandi (06502913)
Supply Chain Management of Big Bazaar
Abstract Big Bazaar has emerged as one of the leading retail chain stores in India for food, general merchandise and home products. The success mantra for Big Bazaar has been to provide quality products at the cheapest prices. And it depends on its efficient supply chain to squeeze out profits, which it further passes onto the customers. Although Big Bazaar deals with four different categories of supply chains ± food, fashion, general merchandise and home, the most critical is the food supply chain. Big Bazaar brought revolutionary methods of procurement and distribution in the food supply chain, by directly procuring farm-fresh products from farmers, and distributing them directly to the retail stores. It also maintains a world-class cold-chain infrastructure and highly efficient FMCG supply chain. This paper focuses on the above matters, and gives insight about the food supply chain of Big Bazaar. We have also tried to give a brief insight into the aspects of food supply chain that may arise in the future.
Keywords: food supply chain, cold-chain, farm fresh, agro products, logistics, and
Introduction Big Bazaar is a chain of hypermarkets in India, with more than 100 stores in operation. It is a subsidiary of Future Group Venture Ltd's, and follows the business model of United States based Wal-Mart. Big Bazaar is led by Pantaloon Retail, the group¶s flagship company, and the c ompany operates 120 Big Bazaar stores, 170 Food Bazaar stores, among other formats, in over 70 cities across the country, covering an operational retail space of over 6 million square feet. The company follows a multi-format retail strategy that captures al most the entire consumption basket of Indian customers. In the lifestyle segment, the group operates Pantaloons, a fashion retail chain and Central, a chain of sea mless malls. In the value segment, its marquee brand, Big Bazaar is a hypermarket format that combines the look, touch and feel of Indian bazaars with the choice and convenience of modern retail. In 2008, Big Bazaar opened its 100th store, marking the fastest ever organic expansion of a hypermarket. The first set of Big Bazaar stores opened in 2001 in Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore. The group¶s speciality retail formats include supermarket chain ± Food Bazaar, sportswear retailer - Planet Sports, electronics retailer - eZone, home improvement chain - Home Town and rural retail chain, Aadhaar, among others. It also operates popular shopping portal www.futurebazaar.com. This large format store comprise of almost everything required by people from different income groups. It varies from clothing and accessories for all genders like men, women and children, playthings, stationary and toys, footwear, plastics, home utility products,cosmetics, crockery,home textiles, luggage gift items, other novelties, and also food products and grocery. The added advantage for the customers shopping in Big Bazar is that there are a ll time discounts and promotional offers going on in the Big Bazar on its salable products.
Shopping in the Big Bazar is a great experience as one can find almost everything under the same roof. It has different features which caters all the needs of the shoppers. Some of the significant features of Big Bazar are: y
The Food Bazar or the grocery store with the department selling fruits and vegetables There is a zone specially meant for the a musement of the kids Furniture Bazar or a large section dealing with furnitures Electronics Bazar or the section concerned with electronic goods and cellular phones FutureBazaar.com or the online shopping portal which makes shopping easier as one can shop many products of Big Bazar at the same price from home Well regulated customer care telecalling services
Company Prof il
Future Group, whi h i led by it founder and Group CEO, Mr. K i hore Biyani, was established in 1994 with a vision to provide diverse servi es in Indian and G lobalmarkets and is now one of Ind ia¶s leading bus iness houses with multi ple businesses spann ing across the consumption space with a net sales from opera tions of abou t 5934.37 crores. Wh ile retail forms the core bus iness activity of Future Group, group subs idiar ies are present in consumer f inance, capital, insurance, leisure and ent er tainment, brand development, retail real estate development, retail media and logistics.
Led by its f lagshi p enterpr ise, Pantaloon R etail, the group opera tes over 16 million square feet of retail space in 73 cities and towns and 65 rura l locations across Ind ia. Headquar tered in Mumba i (Bombay), Pantaloon R etail employs around 30,000 peop le and is listed on the Indian stock exchanges. The company fo llows a mu lti format retail strategy that captures almost the entire consump tion basket of Indian customers. In the lifestyle segment, the group operates Pantaloons, a fash ion retail chain and Central, a cha in of seamless ma lls. In the va lue segment, its marquee brand, Big Bazaar is the hypermarket format that combines the look, touch and feel of Indian bazaars with the choice and convenience of modern retail.
pply-Chain management of Big Bazaar
The supply cha in of Big Bazaar is managed by Future Supply Chains, whichhas developed exper tise in Supply Chain Management of consumer produc t categor ies such as Fash ion, Food, Home and Genera l Merchandise. The company opera tes from 60 s trategically located hubs, servicing more than 2600 retail outlets spread across the lengthand breadth of the country. Its network of fac ilities and spec ialized exper tise enable it to manage more than 3 million SKUs. This requ ires 30 distinct supp ly cha ins to be managed s imultaneous ly, each
with their own specific requirements t hat need customized solutions. Big Bazaar¶s Supply Chain¶s transportation capability enables it t o implement Factory-Gate logistics involving pick-up of goods from vendors across the country, national distribution of goods, and city logistics that includes store deliveries and home deliveries. Big Bazaar¶s Supply Chains is the first organized intra-city transportation services company in India carrying out not only B2B deliveries but also B2C deliveries in the form of thousands of home deliveries every day across the country, especially for Furniture and Consumer Durables. Big Bazaar is also working on the vendor network as well as the logistics network. The company has identified up to 40 anchor vendors, each with turnovers of US$45 million, to achieve economies of scale. The group is also keen to ensure that its s maller vendors are able to reach turnovers of around US$1 million and a growth rate of 40% annually, to be able to pass on the benefits of scales. The company is also working towards bringing its 1,200 vendors online, like Wal-Mart. In India, Big Bazaar derives significant economies of scale in managing their supply chain. With more than 170000 products, the company maintains a strong supplier relationship in a partnership mode, avoiding the exploitative supplier ± buyer transactional philosophy. The IT enabled back-end operations and supply chain management increases the reliability and efficiency of the business. As part of the operation, Big Bazaar is also undertaking to reduce its warehousing costs through a consolidation process. In a country like India, where most retail stores ar e located in the heart of the city²where rents are high and storage space is scarce²supply chain management has even more serious business implications. Future Logistics now handles two-and-a-half million SKUs (or stock keeping units) a day across the Futur e Group's various retail formats around the country. By 2010, this number is expected to increase to more than 30 million SKUs a day. Even with 98% accuracy, some 600,000 pieces will not be delivered correctly, resulting in an estimated sales loss of more than Rs 4 crore a day.
Big Bazaar¶s four main consumer sectors ± Fashion, Food, Home and General Merchandise have varied product lines, each with their own unique needs that r equire 30 distinct supply chain solutions.
We have concentrated our studies on the Food supply chain management of Big Bazaar. Food
In the present competitive environment customers have become more demanding and asking for quality food which guarantees the safety. n time delivery is becoming a norm to reduce the inventory holding costs. The food industry is facing challenges due to increasing operational complexity, frequently changing consumer needs, government regulations and short product life cycles. It requires a very smart, efficient and agile supply chain to manage the ever changing needs of the end customers Why managing
Supply Chain is a challenge?
The food supply chain is complex and difficult to manage due to its perishable nature and short shelf life of the products as compared to other supply chains like electronics, home needs, consumer durables etc. It also requires a robust infrastructure of warehouses and transportation network connecting suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and retailers. The complexity of food supply chain increases further because of the below mentioned parameters
1. Food safety requirements 2. Regulatory requirements 3. Short shelf life of products leading to expiry and wastage
Product recalls 5. Product traceability requirements 6. Effective handling of customer complaints 7. High order frequency and low volumes 4.
Supply Chain categorization
It is basically categorized into two broad categories Perishable and non Perishable Perishable Supply Chain
In perishable supply chain the shelf life for the products is very low. It requires managing the end to end supply chain with utmost care. The perishable supply chain typically requires a cold chain to manage it properly. The cold chain infrastructure is very capital intensive. The infrastructure consists of pre-coolers, temperature controlled warehouses, refrigerated transport etc Non- perishable Supply Chain
The shelf life for the product is considerable (varying from 3-18 months). Typically FMCG/Processed products, staples etc fall under this category. Although the shelf life of the product is 3-18 months, the products falling under this category requires strict monitoring of FIF at distributors end to ensure that the products reaching the end consumer are left with enough shelf life.
What is needed to manage this unique an d complex supply chain? 1. A well organized supply chain infrastructure of warehouses and transportation covering all the major cities. 2. Sophisticated cold chain for perishable products which guarantees a cost efficient and safe delivery of products 3. Warehouse management system to ensure traceability of products and minimize the losses due to product expiry 4. State of the art warehouse infrastructure equipped with the sophisticated material handling equipments to aid cross docking, flow thru which will reduce transit times and inventory 5. Adherence to well documented GMP at the storage locations. This would ensure food safety in storage condition ( Warehouses) 6. Vehicle tracking abilities GPS/GPRS to continuously evaluate the time to destination.
Now Big Bazaar has, Gained and mastered art of managing the food supply chain due to its association with Food Bazaar. In house expertise to manage perishable ( Fruits and vegetables, dairy ,meat, poultry, Bakery ) and non perishable ( FMCG-Food, Staples, Processed food) State of the art warehouses across t he nation which can cater to the customized needs. A strong in-house transportation department with fleet of vehicles for every need and type Availability of most advanced warehouse management system which would ensure all aspects like FIF , Lot management, product traceability, product recalls Availability of transport management system with vehicle tracking facilities t o track
product movement at every stage of transportation ( Real time visibility) Food supply chain of Big Bazaar can be divided into 3 categories:-
Currently, Food Bazaar stores across the country have concessionaires handling the Farm Fresh section of their stores. The concessionaires ensure that the supply chain complexities are reduced for the store, because they¶re in charge of the goods that they bring. ver a period of time Big Bazaar has developed an expertise in managing this farm fresh foods supply chain in the most efficient manner. Big Bazaar has removed the traditional mandi route supply chain that tra ditionally existed in the Indian market, where fruits a nd vegetables would come a long and tardy way, right from the farmers to finally reach the customers, as depicted below. Food Bazaar has links with farmers growing potatoes and fruits. It has also sourced produce from farmers growing exotic vegetables like red pepper, mushroom, etc. Earlier, agricultural and farm products, would first be collected by aggregators in different villages, and then they would sell the fruits and vegetables at the agricultural farm yards, who would subsequently sell it to a wholesaler. Now semi or s maller wholesalers will buy these products from the larger wholesalers and sell them to different smaller retailers, from where the customers finally bought the products.
But Big Bazaar has shor tened the supp ly cha in path in such a way that, the farm produc ts can now directly reach the stores, or take a s lightly longer route of f irst getting collected at a collection centre, which is then passed on to the process ing and distr i bution centre, from where they would be delivered to the store for sa le to customers. These features has enab led Big Bazaar to eff iciently carve its supp ly cha in, reducing irrelevant delays and fru its and vegetables wastage. Also farmers are a t a benef it since, they are selling direct to the retailer, hence cutting out the commission of unnecessary aggrega tors, wholesalers and farm yards. b.
A cold cha in is a temperature-controlled supply chain. An unbroken co ld cha in is an uninterrupted ser ies of storage and distr i bution activities which ma intain a given temperature range. It is used to hel p extend and ensure the shelf life of products such as fresh agr icultural produce, frozen food, pho tographic f ilm, chemicals and pharmaceu tical drugs
Big Bazaar uses its cold cha in to deliver 2 k inds of produc ts ± Packaged food & Dairy Products. While dairy produc ts have much produc t life, packaged foods s till have higher produc t life. Hence, special care is provided to dairy produc ts. Big Bazaar procures its dairy products directly from da iry plants, and not through subsequen t distr i butors, reducing the lead ti me.It has even gone on to link farmers in the da iry business with the hel p of a company ca lled Dynamic Dairy in Maharashtra.
In case of packaged foods, products are collected either from cold-storage warehouses or precooling distribution centers, from where the goods are transported t o the various Big Bazaar retail outlets via refrigerated trucks or containers.
Big Bazaar maintains the supply chain of 3 different kinds of FMCG products ± Food, Nonfood, Health & Personal care, with the latter being the latest entry into its product portfolios. While FMCG-Food are again distributed through cold-chain networks, non-food and health and personal care have different supply chain networks. The FMCG-non food category items follow usual general merchandise supply chain networks, where products are first st ored from the factories to different vendors or distribution centres, from where Big Bazaar replenishes its stock based on demand of the items.
Whereas, health and personal care products may or may not be subject to refrigerated distribution. They are more or less distributed as non-food FMCG goods too.
retail supply chain
Kishore Biyani¶s Future Group is making a vigorous push to increas e its share in the fruit and vegetables business, a category that has traditionally been an Achilles heel for the country¶s largest retailer. The group behind supermarket chains such as Food Bazaar and Big Bazaar is empowering the specialised entity, Future Supply Chains which will now totally manage all the efficient supply chain for fruits and vegetables (F&V), marking a shift a way from the outsourced model it has followed so far. Mr Biyani is betting that by putting in place new sorting and grading technologies, better cold storage and aggressively cutting out middlemen, he can bring down the prices of fruits and vegetables by about 15-20% across categories. "The efficiencies created by this exercise will be passed on to the consumer," he observed. The Future Group now outsources retailing of fruits and vegetables to vendors, who are allowed to use space in its shops in exchange for a share of their revenue. Mr Biyani¶s move to take direct control of the fruits and vegetables business brings to focus the challenges faced by organised retailers in selling fresh and perishable goods. India lacks a network of cold storages and refrigerated trucking facilities that can efficiently transport fresh fruits and vegetables from a farm to t he shop-floor while retaining its freshness. Future Group has a separate company that handles its dry vegetables supplies as well, but the new entity will have independent profit and loss responsibilities as well. It will rent out space from Future Group¶s stores and separately branded counters will handle sales of fruits and vegetables. Mr. Biyani has recently anounce that he is planning to introduce the concept of freezing fruits and vegetable prices. That means, prices of fruits and vegetables will not fluctuate throughout the year but sold at one fixed price around the year further adding benefits for the customers. If Big Bazaar does implements such a scheme, it will heavily depend and rely on its highly-
efficient supply chain to deliver seemless supply of products even when deamnds are very high and cost of products very low, reaping very less profit. In the process of setting up the retail networks, these large corporations are changing the domestic agricultural landscape. For starters, t hey are introducing the Indian farmer to better seeds, new technology, supply chain management and food processing. These c ompanies have already brought in technology that increases the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Primarily, there are three models being worked on by India Inc. First, a model farm like Bharti¶s FieldFresh. Second, contract farming. Third, contact far ming. In contract farming, the farmer is supplied seeds and other ingredients by the company. The contractor buys the entire farm produce at a pre-fixed price. However, in case there is a supply shortage and the price offered by the government is higher than the price contracted by the company, the farmer can sell it all to the government. Contact farming is a more complicated. Here, a farmer takes la nd on lease from other farmers. He is generally paid Rs 15,000 per acre every year, while the marginal far mer is employed to work on his land for which he is paid a monthly salary. But Bharti says it is switching to contract farming because of the complexities of contact or collaborative farming. In Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, farmers have formed cooperatives and regularly supply mangoes to retail chains. ³We sold 35,000 tonnes of mangoes from Ratnagiri last year. The farmers managed to get 90 per cent of the original cost,´ says Arvind Chaudhary, C EO Pantaloon Retail¶s food business. If they had gone to a mandi they would have realised only 70 per cent of the cost. This year, Pantaloon¶s Food Bazaar is planning to buy 100,000 tonnes of mangoes. The supply chain is managed such that mangoes are transported to the store a week before they become ripe. Cold chain is used only in the case of potatoes, where 5,000 tonnes are stocked in UP. Pantaloons food business is growing at 25 per cent in the entire Big Bazaar chain, which also sells FMCG products. However, there are certain issues that agro-retail chains will have to address before they can make the farmer smile. Hurdles such as bad infrastructure, high cost logistics management, the middleman and the limiting APMC Act will have to be crossed if retail has t o assist the farmer. Since the existing supply chain allows them to connect with only those farms that are nearest to the cities, those living in the hinterland still have no access to markets. Importantly, the best of these stores shy away from commenting on the investments. There has also been a call to set up an exchange market for agricultural produce. This free market principle, CEOs feel, will liberate the farmer in terms of actual price realisation and keep him out of debt for the coming season. The National Spot Exchange Limited, an exchange which is dedicated for agri-produce, is supposed to create a benchmark even for the small farmer who can sell only one quintal. The NS EL is in the process of setting up 117 warehouses and cold chains of 700,000 metric tonnes capacity each to make the exchange operational.
Right now, companies are mostly dealing with farmers on the periphery of cities but analysts say they would ultimately ha ve to invest in cold chains and move into the interiors. Whether companies ² except for those with deep pockets like Reliance ² will have the courage to do that is in question. According to the confederation of Indian industry, if India has t o double fruits and vegetables production to 300 million tones by 2012, it would require pumping in close to Rs 20,000 crore. But analysts warn that such investment may not pay dividend since it doubles the cost of transportation. Fung Capital, a private equity investment company of Fung families, has decided to invest around $30 million in the logistics and supply chain arm of Kishore Biyani-led Future group. Future Supply Chain Solutions (proposed new avatar of Future Logistic Solutions Ltd.), in return, has agreed to divest up to 26 per cent of equity stake in favour of the private equity firm. Future Supply Chain Solutions, which presently sevices over 1,100 retail outlets, manages over 2.6 million SKUs and over 3 million sq ft of warehousing network spread over 30 centres, and handles a fleet of over 500 vehicles plying across the country, will use the newly raised capital for enhancing logistics infrastructure, strengthening technology platforms, and expanding supply chain network of the company for its Big and Food Bazaar arms. ³We are building a world class supply chain infrastructure for the consumption products in India which is presently very limited, despite it being a critical support required in India¶s rapidly growing economy. We will be investing in physical as well as technology infrastructure that will reduce the time-to-market and cost-to-market for fashion and apparel and other consumer categories,´ said Anshuman Singh, Managing Director of Big Bazaar. Another important future aspect of supply chain rather the biggest driver in consumer logistics is going to be zero def ect in managing the supply chain. While infrastructure, technology, automation, processes and people will all play an important role, zero defect can only be achieved through vertical integration across the entire supply chain²from raw material supply, production, wholesale and retail. The different parts of the supply chain will no longer be able to work in silos as they do today. Conclusi on
Big Bazaar is the leading retail chains in the country and is growing with everyday, especially in the food product category. With more and more new entrants into the Indian retail market, Big Bazaar is finding it hard to squeeze out more discounts for customers than its competitors and yet maintain profit. As such it depends heavily on a highly-efficient supply chains to procure and deliver its products of best quality at the cheaper rates. Currently, Big Bazaar manages 30 different supply chains spanning 4 different categories ± food, fashion, home and general merchandising, out of which food supply chain is the most crucial, as it is the most unorganized yet an untapped source of huge profit margins. Even the food supply chain is different for 3 different categories ± farm fresh products, cold-chain and FMCG products,
each having different distribution networks. Although the existing supply chains are highly efficient but yet a lot of improvements can still be made by introducing more technologies and IT in procurement and distribution. The future aspects of food supply chain lies on the perils of freezing fruits and vegetable prices, vegetable stock exchange, managing the products by themselves, partnering with dairy farms or plants, and have direct distribution from manufacturers such as P&G, who directly distribute products to the retail shops, eliminating distributors and wholesalers. The food supply chain especially the cold-chain sector in India is an unexplored mine, which if explored properly, can reap gold for all retailers, customers and farmers.
R ef erences
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