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August 14, 2018 | Author: miren48 | Category: Rhetoric, Science, Linguistics, Semantics, Lexicon
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Descripción: bigarren hezkuntzako irakaslea izateko gaitegiaren 38.gaia...

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UNIT 38 ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS. OUTLINE 1.

INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Aims of the unit. 1.2.  Notes on b ibliography iblio graphy..

2.

A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATIVE ENGLISH. 2.1. On defining the term text . 2.2. Textuality: text types. 2.2.1. The seven standards of textuality. 2.2.2. Intertextuality: text types and genres. 2.3. English for Specific Purposes (ESP). 2.3.1. Definition. 2.3.1.1. Main characteristics. 2.3.1.2. Main types. 2.3.2. Historical background. 2.3.3. Current trends and future directions. 2.4. English for Science and Technology (EST), and English for Business and Economics (EBE).

3.

ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (EST). 3.1. On defining EST. 3.1.1. Scientific and Technical Writing. 3.1.2. EST: main constraints . 3.2. EST texts: main types. 3.2.1. Regarding the audience. 3.2.2. Regarding the author’s purpo se. 3.3. EST: textual features. 3.3.1. Linguistic devices. 3.3.1.1. Cohesion. 3.3.1.2. Coherence. 3.3.2. Extralinguistic devices. 3.3.3. Paralinguistic devices.

4.

ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (EBE). 4.1. On defining EST. 4.1.1. Business and Administrative Writing. 4.1.2. EST: main constrain ts. 4.2. EBE texts: main types. 4.2.1. Regarding the audience. 4.2.2. Regarding the author’s purp ose. 4.3. EBE: textual features. 4.3.1. Linguistic devices. 4.3.1.1. Cohesion. 4.3.1.2. Coherence. 4.3.2. Extralinguistic devices. 4.3.3. Paralinguistic devices. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS. CONCLUSION. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

5. 6. 7.

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1. INTRODUC INTRODUCTION TION.. 1.1. Aims of the unit. The main aim of Unit 38 is to present the issue of  English  English for science, science, techonolo techonology, gy, business business and administration, that is,  scientific,  scientific, technological, technological, business and administrative administrative English texts in terms of structure and main features. features . Our aim is to offer a broad account of what  these  these types of texts are and why  they are used for in both linguistic and pragmatic terms, that is, how language and textual features are used to achieve the purpose of educating students to retain listening, reading, speaking, writing, and translation skills for furture professions in the fields of science (medicine), technology, business and economics. So, economics. So, we shall divide our study in six main chapters. In Chapter 2 we shall offer a theoretical framework for these types of texts since the concepts of ‘text’ and the fields of ‘science, technology, business and administration’ are related to other key notions which prove essential in the understanding of their analysis. So, in order to establish the relationship between both notions, we shall review (1) a definition of text  within   within the notion of text linguistics and Discourse Analysis; then we shall approach (2) the notion of textuality regarding (a) the seven standards of textuality and (b) the standard of intertextuality as the source for text typology. At this point we shall relate the fields of science, technology, business and administration to the notion of ‘genre’ as an extensional definition of ‘text type’ regarding the use of language for specific purposes; and finally we shall locate (3)  scientific,  scientific, technologic technological, al, business business and administrative English texts within texts within the study of English of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Here we shall offer (a) a definition of the term, (b) historical background and (c) current trends and future directions so as to prepare the ground for the analysis of English for Science and Technology and English for Business and Administration. Administration. Chapter 3 will offer then an insightful analysis of English for Science and Technology (EST) (EST) in terms of form, function and main uses, namely following morphological, phonological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic guidelines so as to get an overall view of its textual structure regarding format, technique and content. In order to do so, we shall offer (1) a definition of EST regarding (a) Scientific and Technical Writing and (b) main constraints. Then we shall analyse the writing style of scientific and technological texts taking into account how their main constraints affect their textual structure in terms of (2) types of EST texts from a pragmatic approach (a) regarding the audience and (b) main purposes; and (3) textual features regarding (a) linguistic devices (content or mechanics) so as to examine the style of EST texts (grammar, vocabulary), (b) nonlinguistic devices (punctuation, layouts, indexes), and (c) the paralinguistic devices of English for Science and Technology (illustrations, (illustrations, images, pictures, power point presentations). Chapter 4 on 4 on English for Business and Economics (EBE) will be introduced in the same way as the  previous  previous chapter on EST. Chapter 5  5  is devoted to present the main educational implications in language teaching regarding argumentative texts and Chapter 6 will offer a conclusion to broadly overview our present study. Finally, Chapter 7  will  will include all the bibliographical references used in this study.

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1. INTRODUC INTRODUCTION TION.. 1.1. Aims of the unit. The main aim of Unit 38 is to present the issue of  English  English for science, science, techonolo techonology, gy, business business and administration, that is,  scientific,  scientific, technological, technological, business and administrative administrative English texts in terms of structure and main features. features . Our aim is to offer a broad account of what  these  these types of texts are and why  they are used for in both linguistic and pragmatic terms, that is, how language and textual features are used to achieve the purpose of educating students to retain listening, reading, speaking, writing, and translation skills for furture professions in the fields of science (medicine), technology, business and economics. So, economics. So, we shall divide our study in six main chapters. In Chapter 2 we shall offer a theoretical framework for these types of texts since the concepts of ‘text’ and the fields of ‘science, technology, business and administration’ are related to other key notions which prove essential in the understanding of their analysis. So, in order to establish the relationship between both notions, we shall review (1) a definition of text  within   within the notion of text linguistics and Discourse Analysis; then we shall approach (2) the notion of textuality regarding (a) the seven standards of textuality and (b) the standard of intertextuality as the source for text typology. At this point we shall relate the fields of science, technology, business and administration to the notion of ‘genre’ as an extensional definition of ‘text type’ regarding the use of language for specific purposes; and finally we shall locate (3)  scientific,  scientific, technologic technological, al, business business and administrative English texts within texts within the study of English of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Here we shall offer (a) a definition of the term, (b) historical background and (c) current trends and future directions so as to prepare the ground for the analysis of English for Science and Technology and English for Business and Administration. Administration. Chapter 3 will offer then an insightful analysis of English for Science and Technology (EST) (EST) in terms of form, function and main uses, namely following morphological, phonological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic guidelines so as to get an overall view of its textual structure regarding format, technique and content. In order to do so, we shall offer (1) a definition of EST regarding (a) Scientific and Technical Writing and (b) main constraints. Then we shall analyse the writing style of scientific and technological texts taking into account how their main constraints affect their textual structure in terms of (2) types of EST texts from a pragmatic approach (a) regarding the audience and (b) main purposes; and (3) textual features regarding (a) linguistic devices (content or mechanics) so as to examine the style of EST texts (grammar, vocabulary), (b) nonlinguistic devices (punctuation, layouts, indexes), and (c) the paralinguistic devices of English for Science and Technology (illustrations, (illustrations, images, pictures, power point presentations). Chapter 4 on 4 on English for Business and Economics (EBE) will be introduced in the same way as the  previous  previous chapter on EST. Chapter 5  5  is devoted to present the main educational implications in language teaching regarding argumentative texts and Chapter 6 will offer a conclusion to broadly overview our present study. Finally, Chapter 7  will  will include all the bibliographical references used in this study.

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1.2. Not 1.2. Notes es on biblio bibliogr graph aphy. y. An influential influential introduction to the t he analysis of texts is based on relevant works of Werlich, Typologie der Texte: Entwurf eines textlinguistischen Modells zur Grundlegung einer Textgrammatik  (1975);   (1975); Halliday and Hasan, Cohesion in English (1976); English (1976); van Dijk, Text and Context (1984); Beaugrande and Dressler,  Intro (1988); and Esser, Text-Type as a Linguistic Unit   Introdu ducti ction on to Text Text Lingu Linguist istics ics   (1988); (1991); and Virtanen,  Issues  Issues of Text Typology: Typology: Narrative, Narrative, a Basic Type of Text?  Text?   (1992). Classic works regarding regarding English for Specific Purposes and therefore, EST and EBE, include include Mackay & Mountford,  English for Specific Purposes: A case study approach  approach  (1978); Hutchinson & Waters English  English for Specific Specific Purposes: Purposes: A learner learner-centered approach approach (1987); Strevens,  ESP after after twenty years: A re-appraisal  (1988);  (1988); Carter, Some propositions about ESP (1983); Alley, The Craft of Scientific Writing  (1996);   (1996); and Dudley-Evans,  Developments  Developments in English English for Specific Specific Purposes: Purposes: A multimulti-disciplinary disciplinary approach . (1998). The background for educational educational implications regarding regarding argumentative texts is based on the theory of communicative competence and communicative approaches to language teaching are provided  by Canale Canale,,  From Communicat Communicative ive Competenc Competencee to Communicati Communicative ve Language Language Pedagogy Pedagogy   (1983); Hymes, On communicative competence (1972). competence (1972). In addition, the  the  most complete record of current  publicatio  publications ns within within the educational educational framework framework is provided provided by the guidelines guidelines in van Ek and Trim, Vantage (2001); B.O.E. (2002); the Council of Europe,  Modern  Modern Languages: Languages: Learning, Learning, Teaching, Teaching,  Assessment.  Assessment. A Common Common European European Framework Framework of reference reference (1998); (1998); and Hedge, Teaching and  Learning  Learning in the the Langua Language ge Classroo Classroom m (2000).

2. A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGICAL, BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATIVE ENGLISH.

SCIENTIFIC,

In Chapter 2 we shall offer a theoretical framework for these types of texts since the concepts of ‘text’ and the fields of ‘science, technology, business and administration’ are related to other key notions which prove essential in the understanding of their analysis. So, in order to establish the relationship between both notions, we shall review (1) a definition of text  within   within the notion of text linguistics and Discourse Analysis; then we shall approach (2) the notion of textuality regarding (a) the seven standards of textuality and (b) the standard of intertextuality as the source for text typology. At this point we shall relate the fields of science, technology, business and administration to the notion of ‘genre’ as an extensional definition of ‘text type’ regarding the use of language for specific purposes; and finally we shall locate (3)  scientific,  scientific, technologic technological, al, business business and administrative English texts within texts  within the study of English of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Here we shall offer (a) a definition of the term, (b) historical background and (c) current trends and future directions so as to prepare the ground for the analysis of English for Science and Technology and English for Business and Administration. Administration.

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2.1. On defining the term text . The definition of ‘text’ is quite relevant in our study since it will be related to the fields of science, technology, business and administration when reviewing the notion of intertextuality and text types. Following Halliday & Hasan (1976), “the word ‘text’ is used in linguistics to refer to any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that does form a unified whole”. As a general rule, we know whether an utterance or sequence of utterances constitute a text or not though it may be spoken or written, prose or verse, fiction and non-fiction, and also anything from a joke to a biography. Yet, the oldest form of preoccupation with texts and the first foundation for the analysis of texts and 1 its articulation is drawn from the notion of text linguistics  which has its historical roots in rethoric , dating from Ancient Greece and Rome through the Middle Ages up to the present under the name of text linguistics or discourse  (and later on, discourse analysis). Traditional rethoricians were influenced by their major task of training public orators on the discovery of ideas (invention), the arrangement of ideas (disposition), the discovery of appropriate expressions for ideas (elocution), and memorization prior to delivery on the actual occasion of speaking. In the Middle Ages, rethoric was based on grammar (on the study of formal language patterns in Greek and Latin) and logic (on the construction of arguments and proofs), hence its relevance within our study. Rethoric still shares several concerns with the kind of text linguistics we know today, for instance, the use of texts as vehicles of purposeful interaction (oral and written), the variety of texts which express a given configuration of ideas, the arranging of ideas and its disposition within the discourse and the judgement of texts which still depends on the effects upon the audience.

2.2. Textuality: text types. As stated above, in the approach to text linguistics by de Beaugrande & Dressler (1988), a text, oral or printed, is defined as a purposeful interaction, that is, a communicative occurrence in which writers consciously follow a given configuration, arranging and disposition of ideas which native readers unconsciously  expect to find. This specific textual configuration has to meet seven standards of textuality (cohesion, coherence, intentionality and acceptability, informativity, situationality, intertextuality) which will shed light on the text typology under study. Hence we shall review (1) the seven standards of textuality and (2) the standard of intertextuality as the source for the text types under study. 1

  The notion of text linguistics, then, designates ‘any work in language science devoted to the text as the  primary object of inquiry’ (Beaugrande & Dressler, 1988). In fact, many disciplines have approached the study of texts, for instance, linguistics (from grammar, morphology and phonology), anthropology (different speech acts in different cultures), psychology (speaker and hearer behaviour), sociology (the speaker and listener’s environment), stylistics (correctness, clarity, elegance, appropriateness, style), and for our purposes, the fields of science, technology, business and administration so as to cope with the constant proliferation of new products and techn iques nowadays.

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2.2.1. The seven standards of textuality. We shall deal with the seven standards of textuality when analysing scientific, technological,  business and administrative text types for different reasons. For instance, (1) Cohesion  and coherence, which are text-centred notions, will be responsible for the final outcome of the text. Thus cohesion deals with the function of syntax, the components of the surface text (grammar, vocabulary), cohesive ties (anaphora, cataphora, ellipsis) and signalling relations (tense and aspect, modality, updating, junction, conjunction, disjunction and subordination) whereas coherence is “the outcome of actualizing meanings in order to make sense” (Beaugrande & Dressler, 1988) by means of a set of relations subsumed under causality (cause, reason, purpose time) and global patterns responsible for making a text be “senseless’ or non-sensical” (format, frames, plans). (2)  Intentionality  subsumes the intentions of text producers, that is, their purpose of writing specific texts. In the most immediate sense of the term, the producer  ‘intends’ the language configuration under production to a cohesive and coherent text instrumental in fulfilling the writer intentions. Here we meet the purpose of our type of texts, that is, to educate students to retain receptive and productive skills for future professions in the fields of science (namely medicine), technology, business and administration. (3)  Acceptability, on the other hand, concerns the receiver  attitude. Here a set of occurrences should constitute a cohesive and coherent text having some use or relevance for the receiver in an appropriate context of communication (a letter: love vs. business, personal and informal vs. formulaic documents). The reader expectations have to remain somewhat flexible because of the instability and slipperiness of discourse modes. (4)  Informativity  concerns the extent to which the occurrences of the text are expected vs. unexpected, known vs. unknown, formal vs. informal by means of form (content words: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs) and function (business vs. personal affairs). Hence specific lexical devices in the different types of texts (specific vocabulary for scientific, technological, business, administrative English). (5) Situationality concerns the factors which make a text “relevant to a current or recoverable situation of occurrence” (Beaugrande & Dressler, 1988). The effects of a situational setting are very rare when there is no mediation and therefore, the extent to which one feeds one’s own beliefs and goals into one’s model of the current communicative situation (i.e. again a letter in business vs. personal environment). (6) And finally, intertextuality   which will be reviewed in connection to text types and, in  particular, to scientific, technological, business and administrative texts.

2.2.2. Intertextuality: text types and genres. Actually, intertextuality concerns the factors which make the use of one text dependent upon knowledge of one or more previously encountered texts, that is, the ways in which the production and reception of a given text depends upon the participants knowledge of other texts (i.e. scientific vs. literary = objective vs. rethoric language). The usual mediation is achieved by means of the

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development and use of text types, being classes of texts expected to have certain traits for certain  purposes. Since text linguistics does not focus on literary texts only, linguists had to develop a great number of concepts to account for variety in language use or for the use of language in specific situations (i.e. laboratories, N.A.S.A., business meeting, banks). In fact, Esser (1991) defines ‘text type’ as “language variation according to the use as opposed to variation according to user”. Yet, traditional guidelines distinguish, according to Werlich (1975), five main types: description, narration, exposition, argumentation, and instruction. These five types are conceived as “an idealized norm of distinctive text structuring which serves as a deep structural matrix of rules and elements for the encoder” (Werlich, 1975). Werlich’s ideal types exist only as an abstract matrix in language users’ minds and are recognized because of three features: the ideal type (prototypical nature of the text which exist only in the user’s mind), the text form (the specific text type: the self-help manual, prescription comments), and the real manifest text as language (format: sentences, paragraphs, chapters). However, we find very often that large numbers of readers share the same names for a particular type of text (narrative: novel, short story, tale). Hence they have a shared understanding of the general purpose of a certain kind of text and a shared awareness of some of the formal text features that one associates with certain kinds of texts. So, it is the vocabulary and text forms (format) of one field which are used to rationalize and legitimize changes in another, so text types are subdivided in accordance with multiple parameters (i.e. length, oral vs. written, fictional vs. non-fictional). It is here that we find the concept of ‘genre’ as a sub-category of text types. Then, the concept of  genre  refers to ‘a specific style of expressing yourself in writing’ when the ideal types (narrative, argumentation, description, exposition, instruction and conversation) cannot account for a given type of text (scientific, business letter). So, the term ‘genre’ is often defined as an analytic tool for those sub-categories or sub-classes which work by different criteria (form, technique and content). In fact, nowadays, the concept of genre has to cope not only with new types of documents but also with new ways of searching for, retrieving and conveying electronic documents. Therefore, it is a dynamic issue to help deal with the novel circumstances and with the development in the fields of science, technology, business and administration.

2.3. English for Specific Purposes (ESP). In fact, the concept of genre accounts for those types of text which are not included in the ideal classification and which are classified as language standards (Council of Europe, 1998). Standards have been developed for a continuum of reasons ranging broadly from professional development and teaching guidance (pedagogical purposes) to curriculum direction and accountability (scientific, technological, business and administrative purposes)

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Hence, these sub-types of texts (known as genres) show differences with respect to the former typology regarding, technique, content (or theme) and the form of the work. Thus, (1) techniques refer to the functions of communication in a specific field (i.e. telephone conversation in business, conversations between doctor-patient, a letter in administrative affairs, computer manuals); (2) content refers to internal criteria on lexico-grammatical features (specific vocabulary, syntactic structures, idiomatic expressions); and finally, (3) the form of the work refers to the surface level of texts (format). It is within this multiplicity of contexts in use and the specific features of a text regarding form and function that the notion of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) comes into force. Then, we shall approach this specific use of language from different time perspectives in a time line (past, present and future) so as to prepare the ground for the analysis of English for Science and Technology and English for Business and Administration. So, we shall offer (1) a definition of the term, (2) a brief historical background and (3) current trends and future directions on ESP.

2.3.1. Definition. On defining English for Specific Purposes (ESP), we must clarify first the exact meaning of the word ‘specific’ and distinguish between its use regarding language and purposes since  special language and  specialized aims  are two entirely different notions. On the one hand, “the only  practical way in which we can understand the notion of special language is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selected from the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers every requirement within a well-defined context, task or vocation” (Mackay & Mountford, 1978). On the other hand, a  specialized aim refers to the purpose for which learners learn a language, not the nature of the language they learn (1978). Therefore, the focus of the word ‘specific’ in ESP ought to be on the purpose for which learners learn and not on the specific jargon or registers they learn. And now, what is ESP? Some people described it as simply being the the teaching of English for any purpose that could be specified. Others, however, were more precise, describing it as the teaching of English used in academic studies or the teaching of English for vocational or 2  professional purposes. Tony Dudley-Evans, co-editor of the ESP Journal , defined ESP as “an attitude of mind” since it is not necessarily concerned with a specific discipline nor does it have to  be aimed at a certain age group or ability range.

2

 The ESP Journal is now a well-established international journal dedicated to ESP discussion called “English for Specific Purposes: An international journal” whose development is reflected in the increasing number of universities offering an MA in ESP (i.e. The University of Birmingham, Aston University in the UK, Aizu University in Japan). In fact, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has grown to become one of the most  prominent areas of English Foreign Language teaching today.

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However, “What is the difference between ESP and General English approach in language teaching then?” Hutchinson et al. (1987) answered again on saying that “in theory nothing, in practice a great deal”, that is, it depends on the learner’s needs and purposes: educational or professional. Yet this doesn’t mean that ESP is useless with young students in secondary school settings. On the contrary, it is, nowadays, the most required method to meet both the learners’ and the labor market needs. Thus, in ESP teachers are expected to conduct interviews with specialists in the field, analyse the language that is required in the profession or even conduct students’ needs analysis by using General English approaches. Actually, they are interrelated since ma ny General English teachers use the ESP approach on basing their syllabi on a learner needs analysis and their own specialist knowledge of using English for real communication.

2.3.1.1. Main characteristics. On defining ESP, Dudley-Evans (1998) set out an extended view of ESP in terms of ‘absolute’ and ‘variable’ characteristics as it is considered as ‘an approach to teaching’. We must take into account that the division Dudley-Evans offers is clearly influenced by that of Strevens3  (1988). This division is very helpful in resolving arguments about what ESP is and is not, so the revised definition that he  postulates is as follows: 1.

Absolute characteristics: •

2.

ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner;



ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves (medicine, computering);



ESP is centred on the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourse and

genres appropriate to these activities. Variable characteristics: ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines; • •

ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of



general English; ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level;

• •

ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students; And finally, most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners (1998: 4-5).

It must be borne in mind that, originally, Strevens postulated a fourth absolute characteristic: ‘ESP in contrast with General English’ that is removed in Dudley-Evans’ version. Instead, the latter has 3

  Strevens (1988) originally identified four absolute and two variable characteristics. In contrast, DudleyEvans (1998) has improved this division substantially by removing the absolute characteristics that ESP has in contrast with those of General English.

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added more variable characteristics which assert that ESP is not necessarily related to a specific discipline and that is likely to be used with adult learners although it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting.

2.3.1.2. Main types. In addition, David Carter (1983) identifies three main types of ESP: English as a restricted language, English for Academic and Occupational Purposes and finally, English with specific topics. 1.

English as a restricted language. Mackay & Mountford (1978) illustrated the difference between English as a restricted language and language as such by saying that “knowing a restricted ‘language’ would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in novel situations, or in contexts outside the vocational environment” as normal language does. Yet, restricted language (or also called ‘special’ in the sense that the repertoire required is strictly limited) can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a dining-room waiter or an airhostess at the international air-traffic control.

2.

English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. The second type identified by Carter (1983) is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. In the ‘Tree of ELT’ (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987), ESP is broken down into three main branches: (1) English for Science and Technology (EST), (2) English for Business and Economics (EBE), and (3) English for Social Studies (ESS) where we shall include two sub-types: (a) English for Art and Design (EAD) and (b) English for Legal Purposes (ELP). Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). An example of EOP for the EST branch is ‘English for Technicians ‘ whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is ‘English for Medical Studies’. Hutchinson & Waters (1987) do note that there is not a clear-cut distinction between English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) on saying that “people can work and study simultaneously; it is also likely that in many cases the language learnt for immediate use in a study environment will be used later when the students take up, or return to, a job”. Perhaps this explains why Carter categorizes EAP and EOP under the same type of ESP. It seems that Carter implies that the end purpose of both types are one in the same: employment. Yet, despite the end purpose being identical, the

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means taken to achieve the end is very different indeed in terms of cognitive academic  proficiency vs. basic interpersonal skills. 3.

English with specific topics.

4.

Finally, in this type of ESP the emphasis shifts from purpose to topic. English with specific topics is uniquely concerned with anticipated future English needs of, for instance, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreign institutions. It is in fact an integral component of ESP courses or  programs which focus on situational language which is determined by the interpretation of results from needs analysis of authentic language used in target workplace settings (i.e. Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences: students’ simulation of a conference, preparation of papers, reading, notetaking, writing; presentation of a business: market research, pamphlets, creation of logos, websites, power point presentations, etc).

2.3.2. Historical background. Certainly, a great deal about the origins of English for Specific Purposes could be written, but we will follow Grice’s principles so as to introduce a general notion of the historical background which  prepares the ground for next comments on ESP. This specific use of language has long been an international movement with great strengths in research and teaching in many parts of the world, including developing countrie s as a commitment to its international responsabilities.  Notably, according to Hutchinson & Waters (1987), there are three main reasons common to the emergence of all ESP: the demands of a Brave New World, a revolution in linguistics, and a focus on the learner. They pointed out two key historical periods in ESP: First, the end of the Second World War, which brought with it an “age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale for various reasons, most notably the economic power of the United States in the post-war world” (1987:6), so the role of international language fell to English. Second, the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-ric h countries and, as a result, the language of this knowledge  became English. 1.

First, regarding the demands of a Brave New World, we shall point out that the general effect of all this development was to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods. Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny, it now  became subject to the wishes, needs and demands of people other than language teachers (1987:7).

2.

The second key reason cited as having a tremendous impact on the emergence of ESP was a revolution in linguistics. Whereas traditional linguists set out to describe the features of language, revolutionary pioneers in linguistics began to focus on the ways in which

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language is used in real communication. Hutchinson & Wate rs (1987) point out that one significant discovery was in the ways that spoken and written English vary. In other words, given the particular context in which English is used, the variant of English will change, but this idea was taken one step further. If language in different situation varies, then tailoring language instruction to meet the needs of learners in specific contexts is also possible. Hence, in the late 1960s and the early 1970s there were many attempts to describe English for Science and Technology (EST) on the part of relevant figures such as Ewer and Latorre, Swales, Selinker and Trimble who were defined as ‘a few of the prominent descriptive EST  pioneers’. 3.

Finally, the focus on the learner also influenced the emergence of ESP although it is said to have less to do with linguistics and everything to do with psychology. Rather than simply focus on the method of language delivery, more attention was given to the ways in which learners acquire langauge and the differences in the ways language is acquired. Learners were seen to employ different learning strategies, use different skills, enter with different learning schemata, and be motivated by different needs and interests. Therefore, focus on the learner’s needs became equally paramount as the methods employed to disseminate linguistic knowledge. Designing specific courses to better meet these individual needs was a natural extension of this thinking.

2.3.3. Current trends and future directions. As we have seen, to this day, the catchword in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) circles is ‘learner-centered’ or ‘learning-centered’ since language teaching still relies on cognitive approaches regarding the learner’s strategies in language learning. With this background in mind, the ESP community hopes to grow and flourish in the future since it is vital that the community as a whole understands what ESP actually represents. Only then, can new members join with confidence, and existing members carry on the practices which have brought ESP to the position it has in EFL teaching today. Perhaps this can stem from the Dudley-Evans’ definition (1998) given in this study previously but a more rigorous version is likely to be coming soon. Of course, interested parties are also strongly urged to attend future conferences on SPE in different universities around the world, which will certainly focus again on this topic and will provide us with new perspectives and theories on English for Specific Purposes.

2.4. English for Science and Technology, and English for Business and Administration. As stated above, when reviewing the main types of English for Specific Purposes, David Carter (1983) identified three main types of ESP: English as a restricted language, English for Academic and Occupational Purposes and finally, English with specific topics. Within the second type,

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English for Academic and Occupational Purposes, Hutchinson & Waters (1987) identified three main branches in their ‘Tree of ELT’ (English for Language Teaching): (1) English for Science and Technology (EST), (2) English for Business and Economics (EBE), and (3) English for Social Studies (ESS) where we shall include two sub-types: (a) English for Art and Design (EAD) and (b) English for Legal Purposes (ELP). For our purposes, we shall focus on the two first items: English for Science and Technology (EST) and English for Business and Economics (EBE). As we may observe, the former accounts for the fields of science and technology whereas the latter accounts for the fields of business and administration (or economics), as it is expressed in the title. So, let us carry out an analysis of each type of ESP in terms of form, function and main uses.

3. ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (EST). Chapter 3 will offer then an insightful analysis of English for Science and Technology (EST) in terms of form, function and main uses, namely following morphological, phonological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic guidelines so as to get an overall view of its textual structure regarding format, technique and content. In order to do so, we shall offer (1) a definition of EST regarding (a) Scientific and Technical Writing and (b) main constraints. Then we shall analyse the writing style of scientific and technological texts taking into account how their main constraints affect their textual structure in terms of (2) types of EST texts from a pragmatic approach (a) regarding the audience and (b) main purposes; and (3) textual features regarding (a) linguistic devices (content, mechanics, format: punctuation, la youts, indexes) so as to examine the style of EST texts (grammar, vocabulary), (b) nonlinguistic devices (gestures and body movements), and (c) the paralinguistic devices of English for Science and Technology (sounds, illustrations, images, pictures, power point  presentations).

3.1. On defining EST. English for Science and Technology (EST) is defined in terms of its main purposes since this specific use of English aims, in general terms, at communicating specific information about a  scientific or technical subject to a specific audience for a specific purpose as well as resolving a  specified problem or problems. Similarly, in educational terms, it aims at educating students to retain listening, reading, speaking, writing, and translation skills for future professions in the fields of Sciences (medicine) and Technology.

3.1.1. Scientific and Technical writing.

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In addition, EST is defined as the scientific and technical writing which introduces the reader or listener (student, professor, manager, engineer, scientist or technician) to the kinds of writing skills you need in practically any technically oriented professional job. The study of scientific and technical writing communications is not writing about a specific technical topic such as computers, electronics, space or medicines, but about any scientific or technical topic. The term ‘technical’ refers to knowledge that is not widespread, that is more the territory of experts and specialists in a  particular scientific or technical area. Moreover, whe never you try to write or say anything about these fields, you are engaged in scientific technical communications. Hence, its relationship to Science and Technical Writing since writing is an essential skill for the successful engineer and scientist. As an engineer or scientist, you cannot treat your writing in the same way that you treat fluid mechanics or organic chemistry. Scientific writing is not a science; rather, it is a craft. So, before you commit words to paper in an engineering or scientific document, you must understand the subject matter that you are trying to communicate. Yet, even after you have a general understanding of your subject, you still should not begin writing until you analyze your writing constraints, which are those aspects of the writing that you do not control.

3.1.2. EST: main constraints The notion of constraints   is another key element of the definition of scientific and technical communications and has much to do with style. We may identify three main constraints which includes the audience, mechanics and the format vs. the style. 1. First of all, the audience  refers to the ‘receiver of the information’ and is the most important constraint. The writer must decide who his readers are when assessing the writing situation: scientists or technicians. This consideration is often referred to as the purpose of the document, either to inform or convince the audience. 2. Secondly, mechanics which comprises grammar, punctuation and usage of English for Science and Technology and which is closely related to the notion of style (structure, language and illustration). In other words, mechanics deals with those linguistic, non-linguistic and  paralinguistic resources in a piece of text, that is, textual features (grammar structures, vocabulary) and graphological devices (punctuation, paragraphs) and style devices (images,  pictures, power point presentations) . Regarding usage, mechanics deals with the pragmatic field which surveys the purpose of texts. 3. Finally, the  format   of the document refers to ‘the way you place the type upon the page’ (the visual outcome the receiver gets) whereas the  style makes reference to ‘the way you express although in words and images’ (structure, language and illustration); this section is to be examined in detail when reviewing the structure of technological and scientific texts in next chapters.

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So, in next sections we shall analyse the writing style of scientific and technological texts taking into account their main constraints. First, we shall approach EST texts in terms of types (regarding the audience and main purposes from a pragmatic approach) and secondly, regarding their textual structure in terms of content: grammar (linguistic approach), body movements (nonlinguistic approach) and sounds and images (paralinguistic usage of English for Science and Technology).

3.2. EST texts: main types. Basically, we can distinguish two types of scientific and technological style depending on two main  parameters: first, the audience it is addressed to (technical vs. scientific) and second, the author’s  purpose (deductive vs. inductive).

3.2.1. Regarding the audience. Regarding the audience, the main types of EST texts may be technical vs. scientific. As stated  before, the writer must decide who his readers are when assessing the writing situation: managers, engineers, scientists or technicians. This consideration is often referred to as the purpose of the document, either to inform or convince the audience. Then we may refer then two types of audience depending on this duality, for instance, if an engineer designs an implantable electronics device to deliver insulin to the human body, the engineer may have two distinct audiences: electrical engineers (familiar with the electronics but not with diabetes) and on the other hand, medical doctors (familiar with diabetes, but not with electronics of this device).  Not only were the audiences different in what they knew about the subject, but they also had different purposes for reading about the design. The electronics engineers would be, for the most  part, curious about the electronics design of the mentioned device whereas the medical doctors would be interested in whether they could safely use it into patients. For that reason, the engineers’ report documenting the design had to be not only informative, but also convincing.

3.2.2. Regarding the author’s purpose. The structure of EST texts, which seek to persuade and convince the audience, cannot be a sequence of disordered arguments. Yet, it must follow some principles of order regarding the way arguments are grouped so as to present an organized sequence of selected and reasonable statements which lead the author to be effective and persuasive. The sequence of argumentation is quite frequent in essay writing since it is a dialectic form (from classical dialectic and rethoric).

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It may be oral or written and is aimed to convince the audience in a reasonable way of a universal truth, idea or thesis, almost always questionable. The fact of being questionable brings about the 4 essence of description : to present a number of data and concepts in a logical and progressive order  by showing cohesion between the different aspects of the theme (linking ideas between each  paragraph) for the audience to accept and feel interested in it. We namely identify two types of structure: deductive and inductive. (1) On the one hand, the deductive  structure deals with an analytic structure in which the thesis is placed at the beginning of the text. Here the encoder moves from the context to the text, that is, the thesis is related to a general proposition (cause-effect) which in turn is related to a particular one which serves as proof. The conclusion then is a logical number of reasonings. (2) The inductive  structure deals with a  synthetic  structure in which the thesis is developed  progressively, as propositions that lead to a logical conclusion at the end of the text. In fact, the structure is similar to the deductive type, but here the encoder moves to particular facts to general abstractions as the basis of his/her conclusion.

3.3. EST: textual features. We shall approach the analysis of the main features of EST texts from linguistic, extralinguistic (or nonlinguistic) and paralinguistic devices which correspond to the constraints of mechanics (content) and format and style (non-linguistic and paralinguistic devices). EST texts are formed by linguistic rules, that is, an abstract set of principles that specify the relations between a sequence of sounds and a sequence of meanings. In this first level of analysis, we find that languages are made up of four systems, the  phonological , the morphological , the  syntactic, and the  semantic  which, taken together, constitute its  grammar , together with lexicon (or specialized vocabulary). Then these linguistic principles are constrained by cooperative principles ruled by usage patterns which may be supported by nonlinguistic (format and style) and paralinguistic devices (images, sounds, taste, tactile). So, let us analyse the basic textual features in EST texts regarding the linguistic disciplines of syntax, pragmatics and namely semantics, together with a grammatical approach within the framework of two standards of textuality: cohesion and coherence. Then we shall start by offering (1) an analysis of linguistic features (content or mechanics) regarding (a) cohesion in terms of (i) grammatical, (ii) lexical and (iii) graphological devices; and (b) a brief analysis of coherence concerning Grice’s cooperative principles and the notions of turn-taking and adjacency pairs. In addition, we shall analyse the main (2) nonlinguistic devices (layouts, indexes), as well as (3)

4

  Regarding the author’s purpose, EST texts namely aim at classifying, illustrating (giving examples), instructing, analysing and describing.

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 paralinguistic ones (illustrations, images, pictures, power point presentations, music, mobile phone melodies).

3.4.1. Linguistic devices. We may find common features to all text types and specific features for EST texts which will be reviewed under the linguistic parameters of cohesion and coherence. For present purposes, we will think about EST texts as a set of complex, organized systems that operate in concert with nonlinguistic and paralinguistic devices so as to present a scientific or technical outcome (a new mobile  phone, computer, medicine, report).

3.4.1.1. Cohesion. Semantically speaking, the term ‘cohesion’ concerns the ways in whic h the components of the surface text (the actual words we hear or see) are mutually connected within a sequence of utterances (Beaugrande & Dressler, 1988), that is, intra-text linking devices are connected to extratextual reference. The notion of ‘cohesion’ is expressed through the stratal organization of language which can be explained as a multiple coding system comprising three levels of coding common for all text types: the semantic one (meanings), the lexicogrammatical (morphological forms, grammar and vocabulary) and the phonological and orthographic one (expressions: sounding and writing). Cohesion has been a most popular target for research, and it is well known its relation to the second of the textuality standards, coherence. Since cohesive markers are important for the understanding of EST texts, all speakers make extensive use of them, for example in order to enhance coherence,  but also for reasons of economy (e.g. articles, object pronouns). Since cohesion is expressed partly through the grammar and partly through the vocabulary, we find two main types of cohesive devices considered as general categories of cohesion:  grammatical cohesion (substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, reference) and lexical cohesion  (reiteration, collocation) by means of grammatical categories such as adjectives, nouns, process verbs, connectors and so on. 1.

Grammatical cohesion.

Thus the concept of cohesion accounts for the essential semantic relations in EST texts: substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and reference. Note that these items make reference to the terms ‘anaphora and cataphora, connectors and deixis’, quite frequent in this type of texts. It is relevant to mention first that anaphora, cataphora and deixis will be examined under the heading of reference, and connectors under the heading of conjunction. •

The cohesive device of ‘substitution’ is very similar to that of ‘ellipsis’. These two cohesive relations are thought of as processes within the text:  substitution as ‘the replacement of one

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item by another’ so as not to repeat similar vocabulary (i.e. ‘We are going to launch a new mobile phone with different  functions.’ – ‘Which ones?’). This cohesive device can also function under morphological shape with synonyms (i.e. a brand name, a product, a invention, a virus); and  ellipsis  as the omission of an item (i.e. Do think it will be successful? Yes, I do). •

The reference   type of grammatical cohesion is another well researched area within EST texts. It is defined by Halliday & Hasan (1976) as ‘the case where the information to be retrieved is the referential meaning, the identity of the particular thing or class of things that is being referred to; and the cohesion lies in the continuity of reference, whereby the same thing enters into the discourse a second time’. As we stated before, paragraph ideas are linked and interrelated although they are in different paragraphs, so theme and rheme (anaphora and cataphora) are always present in ESt texts (i.e. Have you seen my new mobile? –I think so. Is it the one you were using yesterday?). In addition, we must highlight the universal use of the definite article ‘the’ (i.e. the atom, the electronic machine).



Conjunction is a relevant relationship with respect to EST texts since connectors establish the necessary links between ideas and thoughts within the text and, in particular, between  paragraphs (coordination: and, but, although, however, in addition). They indicate how the subsequent sentence or clause should be linked to the preceding or the following sentence or parts of sentence. Connectors play an essential role in EST texts since they reflect cohesion within the discourse and show a logical and progressive development of the discussion by establishing different relationships between the presented ideas: summative (i.e. In addition, moreover), restrictive (i.e. specially, in particular), causal (i.e. because, because of, due to), explanatory (i.e. I see; yes, I know), previous reference (anaphora: As I said before), consequence (i.e. Therefore, so, thus), condition (i.e. If, as long as, provided that), and conclusive (i.e. To end up with, to conclude).



Other grammatical devices involve the use of (1)  specific morphology, as for (a) the use of indicative mood, (b) present tense for  permanent facts, and (c) the use of third person singular as a means of expressing impersonal facts. We also find the first person plural when it has a collective meaning. (2) On the other hand, we find syntactic structures, such as (a) coordinate simple and complex sentences; (b) enumerative compound sentences; (c) adverbial and  prepositional clauses so as to locate the conditions under which phenomena take  place; (d) conditional sentences, generally in finite and non-finite types (infinitive, gerund, participle) so as to examine the hypothesis stated; (e) consecutive sentences so as to establish the consequences or conclusions of a reasoning; (f) impersonal

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sentences (i.e. It is said that); (g) passive sentences (i.e. The product was launched last month); (h) and impersonal passive (i.e. The new mobile phone is said to be a successful invention); and finally, (i) the use of nominal sentences with infinitives (i.e. Having an operation is a difficult task); and finally, (j) specific formulae (apositions: that is, that is to say, in other words). 2.

Lexical cohesion.

From a lexical approach, we can determine specific and technical vocabulary which make EST texts be so clear and precise. Hence this type of texts is namely characterized by (1) the abundant use of technical vocabulary to refer to scientific and technological concepts since there is a lexical-associative field closely related to the main elements, concepts, laws and processes in science and technology. In fact, technical writing is incorporated to EST by different means: • •



Greek and Latin etimology (cardiology, photography, cefalopodus, etc). Loanwords taken from other languages, in particular English (i.e. bites, container, travelling). Derivational processes, by adding suffixes and prefixes (i.e. nightology) and composition (i.e. cristalization, recycle, fluorescence).



By adapting common terms (i.e. cristal, function).



By means of acronyms (i.e. S.I.D.A., U.V.I., U.V.A., N.A.S.A., w.w.w.).

(2) Abstract terms which refer to principles, laws, concepts and processes related to science (function, equation, derivation) and also, less concrete nouns which represent elements from the referred reality (human body parts). (3) The use of verbs which refer to transformation sources, states or processes (i.e. be, exist, turn into, become). Note that the use of emotive verbs is forbidden (i.e. love, like, hate). (4) Abundant specifying adjectives, also called neuters, which aim at qualifying and delimiting the mentioned nouns (direct, material, sinthetic). Note that we never use emotive adjectives (i.e. horrible, great, disgusting, beautiful). (5) A great number of connectors are used in order to link paragraphs (i.e. explicative, summative, restrictive, opposition, conclusive, etc). 3.

Graphological devices.

With respect to graphological resources, we are mainly dealing with format  and therefore, ‘the way you place the type upon the page’ (the visual outcome the receiver gets) as we make

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reference to orthography and punctuation, as well as with headings, foot notes, tables of contents and indexes. The arrangement of type upon the page is the choice of typeface, the  placement of headings, the method of citing references or the arrangement of information into sections for longer documents (reports), among others. In engineering and science, there is no universal format although there exist a great variety of them. These are much more detailed than common ones (double spaced and front side of the paper only) so as to make the reading  process efficient. For instance, in a laboratory report, having all the information follow a specific sequence makes it easier for readers to locate specific information such as the results. Rather, companies, journals, and courses select formats to serve their particular audiences,  purposes and occasions. Thus, we may find formats for correspondence (letters and memos), formal reports (laboratory reports, design reports, progress reports), and other documents (proposals, instructions, journal articles, and presentations visuals). Moreover, there are general guidelines for the typography, layouts, and reference citations of documents. But why are formats in engineering and science so varied? One reason is identity as a way to distinguish the look of one journal from other scientific  journals. This is achieved by means of using different types of typeface, writing the descriptive summary in italics on the article’s first page and writing the four columns for the article’s text, among others. These visual devices are a signature that helps readers identify the magazine even when they don’t see the masthead. To a lesser extent, companies and laboratories often want their own ‘look’ as well. •

Some common differences are the hierarchy of headings and the listing of references in the text. One reason that a format specifies a hierarchy for headings is so that readers can understand what information in the document is primary and what information is subordinate. The actual ways to represent these hierarchies vary considerably. Common ways are different type sizes for the headings, different amounts of white space surrounding the headings, different typestyles for the headings, and numbering schemes for different order headings. In still other cases, such as the option of word processors, the formats call for combinations of these variables.



Given the wide variety of format issues and the even wider variety of options for those issues, these format guidelines cannot possibly present every format option that we may encounter in engineering and science. Such a collection would be cumbersome and, in the end, not particularly helpful. What is important is not that we learn every format which exists, but that you realize a specified formats exist and that we may choose the appropriate professional format we need for our situation.



On the other hand, orthography is related to a correct spelling, and in relation to this term, Byrne (1979) states that the mastery of the writing system includes the ability to  spell . This device covers different word categories, but mainly, rules of suffixation,  prefixation, and addition of verbal markers as gerunds, past tenses or third person singular in present tenses. The importance of correct spelling is highlighted when Byrne

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says that most of us are obliged to consult a dictionary from time to time so as not to be indifferent to misspelling. Therefore, students are encouraged to acquire the habit of consulting a dictionary in order to ensure an adequate mastery of spelling . •

Finally, according to Quirk et al (1972) punctuation serves two main functions. Firstly, the separation of successive units (such as sentences by periods, or items in a list by commas), and secondly, the specification of language function (as when an apostrophe indicates that an inflection is genitive). Moreover, punctuation is concerned with purely visual devices, such as capital letters, full stops, commas, inverted commas, semicolons, hyphens, brackets and the use of interrogative and exclamative marks . It is worth noting that punctuation has never been standardised to the same extent as spelling, and as a result, learners tend to overlook the relevance of punctuation when producing a text.

In fact, as people speak, oral devices such as nodding, gestures, facial expressions or the way of looking become essential in the communicative exchange since the physical outcome is very important to establish communication. For instance, if we are to describe a new kind of prehistoric animal, our sight will get an overall description just by looking at it. Yet, when writing a scientific report, all this visual information must be substituted by a given enumeration of statements which describe the finding in detail. Then when writing, we must present the physical outcome in an appropriate format for our readers, where the format becomes essential in our presentation (punctuation, layouts, indexes). 4.

Phonological devices.

Finally, we shall also mention the role of  phonology. Note that in oral interactions we face another type of cohesive features since written devices are substituted by, first, a falling intonation in statements so as to highlight the discourse referential function and, second, the absence of exclamative and persuasive intonation.

3.4.1.2. Coherence. Coherence is a purely semantic property of discourse, while cohesion is mainly concerned with morpho-syntactic devices in discourse. A coherent text is a semantically connected, integrated whole, expressing relations of closeness, time or location between its concepts and sentences. A condition on this continuity of sense is that the connected concepts are also related in the real world and that the speakers identify these relations through the structure, language and illustrations of the text, that is, the style (Alley, 1996).

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In a coherent text, there are direct and indirect semantic referential links between lexical items in and between  sentences, which the reader must interpret. These markers are defined as all the devices which are needed in writing in order to produce a text in which the sentences are coherently organised so as to fulfil the writer’s communicative purpose: to ommunicate specific information about a scientific or technical subject to a specific audience for a specific purpose (educational or  professional). Hence we find a relevant coherent device in EST texts: the Gricean’s cooperative principles under the form of four conversational maxims. The English language philosopher H. Paul Grice (1969) termed the Cooperative Principle  by making their messages conform to four general rules or maxims where speakers/writers shape their utterances to be understood by readers/hearers. Thus, the maxims are quality, quantity, relation and manner: first, quality  envisages messages to be truthful; quantity, by means of which messages should be as informative as is required, but not more informative; relation, for messages to be relevant; and manner , where messages should be clear, brief and orderly. These four maxims apply perfectly to scientific and technical reports which must be clear, organized, informative and objective.

3.4.2. Extralinguistic devices. As people speak, people often gesture, nod their heads, change their postures and facial expressions, and redirect the focus of their gaze. Although these behaviors are not linguistic by a strict definition of that term, their close coordination with the speech they accompany suggests that they are relevant to an account of language use, and also, can occur apart from the context of speech, spontaneous or voluntarily. For instance, when we are to buy a mobile phone, instructions are usually given face-toface together with a set of body movements so as to show its functions. As we can see, conversational speech is often accompanied by  gesture   and the relation of these hand movements to the speech are usually regarded as communicative devices whose function is to amplify or underscore information conveyed in the accompanying speech, for our purposes, scientific or technological. Gestures are then, to be classified in different types: hand signs (press here), batons  (repetitive rhythmic hand movements coordinated with sentence prosody by using head and shoulders),  gesticulations, representational gestures, or lexical movements in order to describe things like size, strength or speed. ,

We may also find  facial expressions which deal with an automatic response to an internal state although they can be controlled voluntarily to a considerable extent, and are used in social situations to convey a variety of kinds of information (Internet icons: smiling and happiness; Sciences at school: body parts – face – smile vs. laugh vs. grice). In relation to gaze direction, a variety of kinds of significance has been attributed to both the amount of time participants spend looking at each other at conferences, meetings or in classroom settings as a way to express the communicators’ social distance.

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3.4.3. Paralinguistic devices. The primary medium by which language is expressed, speech, also contains a good deal of information that can be considered nonverbal. These non-verbal communicative uses of the vocal tract are possible by means of paralanguage, such as whistling or musical effects. When we refer to non-verbal or paralinguistic communication, visual and tactile  modes are concerned. They may be used for a variety of linguistic purposes such as the use of sign languages. For instance, the receiver may get the message by  sound   (i.e. the last trends in mobile phones with incorporated melodies,  personal voice), by sight  (morse, space signals, images, photos) or by touch  (the Braille alphabet of the blind, secret codes, tactile computer screens).

4. ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS. Similarly to the previous chapter, Chapter 4 will offer an insightful analysis of English for Business and Economics (EBE) in terms of form, function and main uses. In order to do so, we shall follow the same structure as the previous one. So, we shall offer (1) a definition of EBE regarding (a) Business and Administrative Writing and (b) main constraints. (2) types of EBE texts from a  pragmatic approach and (3) textual features regarding (a) linguistic devices (content, mechanics, format: punctuation, layouts, indexes) so as to examine the style of EBE texts, (b) nonlinguistic devices (gestures and body movements), and (c) the paralinguistic devices of English for Business and Economics (sounds, images).

4.1. On defining EBE. English for Business and Economics (EBE) is defined in terms of its main purposes since this specific use of English aims, in general terms, at communicating specific information about a business or administrative subject to a specific audience for a specific purpose. Similarly, in educational terms, it aims at educating students to retain listening, reading, speaking, writing, and translation skills for future professions in the fields of Business and Administration (Economics). On the one hand, ‘Business English’ is aimed at the non-native speakers of English for them to communicate successfully in English in their daily business life. Learners will be introduced to  business practices and situations they commonly encounter at work (i.e. phone conversations, meetings, sales presentations and writing business letters). Business English subjects will be  presented by means of language skills for learning English (such as conversation or writing), and the different areas of language (such as vocabulary and grammar) in a business context. In addition, learners will learn the correct vocabulary and expressions you need for different business situations

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(marketing, general secretarial skills, practical commercial English, computer science, international  business representative, journalism, tourism, international interpreter, etc). Thus, business language will be integrated into general English conversation and hence, its relationship with dialogic and written texts rega rding format (i.e. letters, faxes, reports). On the other hand, Administrative English (or more techically defined English for Economics) is quite similar to Business English since they share the same purposes. Yet, English for Administrative purposes is aimed at improving the competence in speaking and writing English in a  professional and social context for administrative and management purposes in different fields (i.e. language (linguistics), trade, services, professional, educational and health). These different fields  provide participants with the opportunity to actively work on everyday language for international contacts, writing letters, faxes, e-mails and reports, for taking part in meetings, and making  presentations. Written and oral language feedback is given as and when necessary.

4.1.1. Business and Economics Writing. In addition, EBE (as EST) is defined as the technical writing which introduces the reader or listener (student, professor, manager) to the kinds of writing and speaking skills we need in practically any technically oriented occupational field. Hence, its relationship to Business and Administrative Writing since writing and speaking are presented as essential skills for the successful businessman or office assistant. Yet, even after you have a general understanding of the subject (audio and video studio lab multimedia Internet classroom, phonetic interactive software, translation, business letters vs. friends’ letters), you still should not begin writing until you analyze your wr iting constraints, which are the same as for EST.

4.1.2. EBE: main constraints. As stated before, the notion of constraints is another key element of the definition of scientific and technical communications and has much to do with style, by means of which we may identify three: the audience, mechanics and the format vs. the style. 1.

First of all, the audience refers to the ‘receiver of the information’ and is the most important constraint. The writer must decide who his readers are when assessing the writing situation: tour guide, translator, flight attendant, secretary. This consideration is often referred to as the purpose of the document: accountability, reporting, program evaluations, administrative decisions which affect the future of individuals.

2.

Secondly, mechanics which comprises grammar, punctuation and usage of EBE and which is closely related to the notion of style (structure, language and illustration). In other words, mechanics deals with language purposes (to apply for a job, order a bank account, program a computer, translate a text) which are to be developed thanks to grammar structures and

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specific lexis (complaints, administrative English: letter, envelope, index, layout, etc). In

3.

addition, we find non-linguistic (body movements) and paralinguistic resources (sound, images) which prove essential in business and administrative affairs (shaking hands as a sign of agreement and power point presentations with an advert budget, respectively). Finally, the format   of the document refers to ‘the way you place the type upon the page’ (the visual outcome the receiver gets) which proves crucial to write letters or present reports in business affairs.

So, in next sections we shall analyse the writing style of scientific and technological texts taking into account their main constraints. First, we shall approach EBE texts in terms of types (regarding the audience and main purposes from a pragmatic approach) and secondly, regarding their textual structure in terms of content: grammar (linguistic approach), body movements (nonlinguistic approach) and sounds and images (paralinguistic usage of English for Business and Economics).

4.2. EBE texts: main types. Basically, we can distinguish two types of business and administrative texts depending on two main  parameters: first, the audience it is addressed to and second, the author’s purpose.

4.2.1. Regarding the audience. Regarding the audience, the main types of EBE texts are namely aimed at Advanced Study such as Technical University, Technical College, or Graduate School, and Study abroad. Then EBE texts may be framed within (1) the language field (Applied Linguistic courses): journalism English, tourism English, English teaching studies, translator, international meeting oral interpreter, etc; (2) trade field: secretary, international business representative; (3) service field: tour guide, flight attendant, travel industry services, shipping industry representative, hotel and restaurant management; (4) Professional Courses (i.e. Economics, Computer Science, Information Management, and General Secretarial Skills; (5) education field: kindergarten and elementary English teacher; and finally, (6) in hospital technology field: medical office assistant.

4.2.2. Regarding the author’s purpose. The structure of EBE texts seeks to enhance the students’ active learning in listening, reading, speaking, writing and translating skills so as to apply this learning to their own work and monitor their own progress. The active learning is usually connected with any of the fields mentioned above.

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4.3. EBE: textual features. As we did with EST text, we shall approach the analysis of the main features of EBE texts from a written and oral perspective following linguistic, extralinguistic (or nonlinguistic) and paralinguistic guidelines, which correspond to the constraints of mechanics (content) and format and style. It must  be borne in mind the relevance of format within written texts (letters, reports) as well as conversational studies in oral interactions. So, let us analyse the basic textual features in EBE texts regarding the linguistic disciplines of syntax, pragmatics and namely semantics, together with a grammatical approach within the framework of two standards of textuality: cohesion and coherence. We shall start by offering (1) an analysis of linguistic features regarding (a) cohesion in terms of (i) grammatical, (ii) lexical and (iii) graphological devices (format); and (b) a brief analysis of coherence concerning Grice’s cooperative principles and the notions of turn-taking and adjacency  pairs regarding dialogic texts. In addition, we shall analyse the main (2) nonlinguistic devices as well as (3) paralinguistic ones.

4.4.1. Linguistic devices. EBE texts which will be reviewed under the linguistic parameters of cohesion and coherence in oral and written texts. For present purposes, we will think about EBE texts as a set of complex, organized systems that operate in concert with non-linguistic and paralinguistic devices so as to  present a business or administrative outcome (letter, report, business meeting, sales conversation).

4.4.1.1. Cohesion. Semantically speaking, the term ‘cohesion’ concerns the ways in which the components of the surface text (the actual words we hear or see) are mutually connected within a sequence of utterances (Beaugrande & Dressler, 1988), that is, intra-text linking devices are connected to extratextual reference: the semantic one (meanings), the lexicogrammatical (morphological forms, grammar and vocabulary) , the graphological (format, orthography and punctuation) and the  phonological (intonation, rhythm). 1.

Grammatical devices.

Thus the concept of cohesion accounts for the essential semantic relations in EBE texts (the same as for EST texts): substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and reference (see previous notes on it) in both oral and written texts. Yet, other grammatical devices involve the use of a.  specific morphology, as for the use of third person singular when addressing individuals and also, f irst person plural when it has a collective meaning.

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 b. On the other hand, we find  syntactic structures, such as (a) brief sentences, (b) the use of active voice rather than passive voice, (c) the use of nominal sentences with infinitives (i.e. Having considered your proposition,...); and (d) specific formulae (letters, bank accounts, translators, computers). c. Combination of sentences in a brief way. Word order plays an important role in readability. It is generally desirable to keep subject and verb together, and to make sentences relatively brief. d. Linking and punctuation are crucial for the reader to be able to establish the relationships between ideas and structures of the text. 2.

Lexical cohesion.

From a lexical approach, we can determine specific and technical vocabulary which make EBE texts be so clear, simple, concise and positive. Hence this type of texts is namely characterized  by a. the abundant use of positive vocabulary (where possible) so as to avoid negative associations (i.e. blame, wrong, complaint, never, impossible, fault). Abstract terms which refer to principles, laws, concepts and processes related to science (function, equation, derivation) and also, less concrete nouns which represent elements from the referred reality (human body parts).  b. The use of simple and concise words. c. Specific formulae in letters, when writing headings, salutation, body, farewell and signature. 3.

Graphological devices.

With respect to graphological devices, we are mainly dealing with  format , which is crucial in writing letters or reports. It is the arrangement of type upon the page that makes us recognize the business and administrative letters (in formal or informal style): (1) the placing of address on the top right-hand corner; (2) the date is immediately below the address; (3) the recipent’s name and address on the left-hand side of the page, just below the date (in formal letters only); (4) use Dear Sir/Madam only when you don’t know the person’s name in salutations; (5) begin the letter on the left-hand side, next to the margin; (6) in a handwritten letter each paragraph must be indented (by starting a little way inside the margin); (7) the body must include the  purpose of the letter and information about it (complaint, greetings, acknowledgements, appointment), for instance, “I’m writing to express my deep concern about...” or “I must draw your attention to the fact that...”; (8) a short final sentence must be written on a separate line  before the ending (i.e. I’m looking forward to hearing from you); (9) the subscription, nearly the end of the letter, must be ‘Yours faithfully’ if you began with ‘Dear Sir’ (unknown addressee) or ‘Yours sincerely’ is you began with ‘Dear Mr X’ (formal letters). Yet, in informal

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letters, we use ‘Yours’, ‘Best wishes’ or ‘Love’ depending on how well we know the other  person; finally, (10) the signature must introduce the name of the writer and his full position in the company should appear below the signature (i.e. Manager, Headmaster, Secretary). On the other hand, orthography  is related to a correct spelling, and in relation to this term, Byrne (1979) states that the mastery of the writing system includes the ability to spell . This device covers different word categories, but mainly, rules of suffixation, prefixation, and addition of verbal markers as gerunds, past tenses or third person singular in present tenses. The importance of correct spelling is highlighted when Byrne says that most of us are obliged to consult a dictionary from time to time so as not to be indifferent to misspelling. Therefore, students are encouraged to acquire the habit of consulting a dictionary in order to ensure an adequate mastery of spelling . Finally, according to Quirk et al (1972)  punctuation  serves two main functions. Firstly, the separation of successive units (such as sentences by periods, or items in a list by commas), and secondly, the specification of language function (as when an apostrophe indicates that an inflection is genitive). Moreover, punctuation is concerned with purely visual devices, such as capital letters, full stops, commas, inverted commas, semicolons, hyphens, brackets and the use of interrogative and exclamative marks. It is worth noting that punctuation has never been standardised to the same extent as spelling, and as a result, learners tend to overlook the relevance of punctuation when producing a text.

4.

Phonological devices.

Regarding the linguistic level in oral discourse, the phonological system is involved and is concerned with the analysis of acoustic signals into a sequence of speech sounds, thus consonants, vowels, and syllables. At the this level, we find certain  prosodic elements which  provide us with information about the oral interaction. Thus, stress, rhythm and intonation. •

Regarding  stress, it is present in an oral interaction when we give more emphasis to some parts of the utterance than to other segments. It is a signalling to make a syllable stand out with respect to its neighbouring syllables in a word or to the rest of words in a longer utterance. We may establish a distinction between two types of stress markers, thus primary stress and  secondary stress within the same word. Primary stress is the main marker within the word and secondary stress is a less important marker. Foreign language learners must be concerned with the relevant role of primary stress, as a change of stress within a word may change the whole meaning of it. For instance, a word like record  may change its meaning from verb to noun if a student does not apply

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the righ primary stress on it.The concept of emphasis is closely related, then, to stress. Emphasis is essential in an oral exchange of information as it gives the message a nonliteral meaning, providing foreign language students with a choice to highlight the information they may consider important at the spe aking act. •

Another important element which characterizes oral interaction is rhythm, which is determined by the succession of prominent and non-prominent syllables in an utterance. We will observe a quick and monotonous rhythm if prominent and non prominent syllables take place in short equal units of time, though not easy to find in authentic speech. On the contrary, rhythm will be inexistent and chaotic if longer and irregular units of time take place in an utterance or speech act. Then, we may observe that the term establishes a relationship between accents and  pauses, which, used properly, contribute to keeping attention by allowing voice inflection, change of intonation and change of meaning. Pauses may be characterized  by being predictable or not with a rhythm group. Thus, they coincide the boundaries of the rhythm groups by fitting in naturally, or break them as it happens in spontaneous speech. Predictable pauses are, then, those required for the speakers to take breath  between sentences or to separate grammatical units, and unpredictable pauses are those  brought about by false starts or hesitation.



The third prosodic element is intonation which is characterized in general terms by the rising and falling of voice during speech, depending on the type of utterance we may  produce. In case of statements, we will use falling intonation whereas in questions we use rising intonation. As we will see, intonation and rhythm play an important role when expressing attitudes and emotions.As a general rule, speakers use a normal intonation when taking part in an oral interaction, but depending on the meaning the speakers may convey, they will use a different tone within the utterance. The tone is responsible for changes of meaning or for expressing special attitudes in the speaker, such as enthusiasm, sadness, anger, or exasperation. Three types of intonation are involved in a real situation. Thus, falling and rising tones, upper and lower range tones, and wide and narrow range of tones. Respectively, they refer first, to certainty, determination or confidence when we use falling tones in order to be conclusive whereas indecision, doubt and uncertainty is expressed by means of rising tones to be inconclusive. Secondly, excitement and animation on the part of the speaker is expressed by upper range tones whereas an unanimated attitude corresponds to lower ranges. Finally, in order to express emotional attitudes, we use a wide range of tone whereas in order to be unemotive, we rather use a narrow range tone.

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4.4.1.2. Coherence. Coherent markers are defined as all the devices which are needed in writing or speaking in order to  produce a text in which the sentences are coherently organised so as to fulfil the writer’s communicative purpose (to do business, to complain, to convince consumers to buy a product). Yet, since business and administrative affairs are often face-to-face or phone conversations, we shall concentrate on the devices that work in oral interaction rather than in writing. Hence we may establish three main coherent devices: the interlocutors’ cooperative principles under the form of four conversational maxims, and the notions of turn-taking and adjacency pairs in conversational analysis. 1. Grice’s cooperative principles. The English language philosopher H. Paul Grice (1969) was not the first to recognize that non-literal meanings posed a problem for theories of language use, but he was among the first to explain the processes that allow speakers to convey, and addressees to identify, communicative intentions that are expressed non-literally, as for him, meaning is seen as a kind of intending , and the hearer’s or reader’s recognition that the  speaker or writer means something by x is part of the meaning of x. His insight that the communicative use of language rests on a set of implicit understandings among language users has had an important influence in both linguistics and social psychology. In a set of influential papers, Grice (1957, 1969, 1975) argued that conversation is an intrinsically cooperative endeavor . To communicate  participants will implicitly adhere to a set of conventions, collectively termed the Cooperative Principle or Conversational Maxims, by making their messages conform to four general rules or maxims where speakers shape their utterances to be understood  by hearers. Thus, the maxims are quality, quantity, relation and manner: first, quality envisages messages to be truthful; quantity, by means of which messages should be as informative as is required, but not more informative; relation, for messages to be relevant; and manner , where messages should be clear, brief and orderly. 2. Conversational Analysis and Turn-Taking. A main feature of conversations is that they tend to follow the convention of turn taking . Simply, this is where one person waits for the other to finish his/her utterance  before contributing their own. This is as much a utilitarian convention as mere manners - a conversation, given the aforementioned definition, would logically cease to take  place if the agents involved insisted on speaking even when it was plain that the other was trying to contribute. It is, additionally, comforting to know that the other person respects your opinions enough not to continually interrupt you. The best example of this occurs in the Hous es of Parliament - a supposed debating chamber which is often anything but, due to the

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failure of the members to observe the turn-taking code. Note, however, that a person rarely explicitly states that they have finished their utterance and are now awaiting yours. Intriguing exceptions to this are in two-way radios, where many social and  psychological cues are lacking, and thus it is more difficult for speakers to follow turntaking. The potential for one to reply can be missed, deliberately or not, so that the first person may contribute once more. Failure to realise this can result in an awkward  pause or a cacophany of competing voices in a large crowd.

3. Conversational Analysis and Adjacency Pairs. Another fundamental feature of conversation is the idea of adjacency pairs. Posited by Goffman (1976), an example would be found in a question-answer   session. Both conversing parties are aware that a response is required to a question; moreover, a  particular response to a given question. I might invite a friend into my house and ask: “Would you like a biscuit?” To which the adjacency pair response is expected to be either “Yes” or “No”. My friend may be allergic to chocolate, however, and place an insertion sequence into the response: “Do you have any ginger snaps?” the reply to which would cause him to modify his answer accordingly. In the above consideration of turn-taking, such observations may be used in our social interactions when the second agent did not take their opportunity to respond to the first, and the implication is that they have nothing to say about the topic. But perhaps the transition relevance place was one in which the second agent was in fact selected, but failed to respond, or responded in an inappropriate manner. This infinity of responses is what makes language so entertaining, and in the above cases the speakers might make inferences about the reasons for incorrect responses. These may be not to have responded because he did not understand the question, or not to agree with the interlocutor. As Goffman notes, a silence often reveals an unwillingness to answer. Dispreferred responses tend to be preceded by a pause, and feature a declination component which is the non-acceptance of the first part of the adjacency pair. Not responding at all to the above question is one such - and has been dubbed an attributable silence, thus, a silence which in fact communicates certain information about the non-speaker. It has been noted that various physical cues, such as gestures or expressions, are in play during orthodox face-to-face exchanges, and these are obviously lacking in a telephone conversation. Since humans are so adept at speaking over the phone, it is easy to conclude that the cues are not as important as once imagined - we manage without the m so well, after all. However, this argument does not take into account the cues one picks up from the voice - it is quite easy to detect if somebody is confident, or nervous on the

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 phone, from the words they use, the pauses, the tone and pronunciations of the words. In short, we may be able to substitute these auditory cues  for more conventional  physical cues, and then empathise with the other person. This way, we could be visualising, or at least imagining with a fair degree of accuracy, how the person is feeling, and gaining cues that way. Yet, we cannot forget that speaking on the phone is an essential part of business life and may brind advantages as well as disadvantages. On the one hand, we can see face -to-face the other interlocutor and therefore establish an immediate and personal contact, which guarantees the possibility of creating a positive (or negative) impression of efficiency, reliability and professionalism. On the other hand, when we use the phone we do not handle nonlinguistic and paralinguistic parameters which help face-to-face interaction (gestures, body movement, physical appearance, interjections). Actually, we may obtain the opposite effect when using the phone badly. In terms of functional language, we may establish a sequence of functions inherent to a phone call, such as greeting, identifying oneself, asking to speak to someone, explaining the purpose of the call, sharing understanding (by means of paralinguistic signals), thanking or ending the call. We may also distinguish between formal, informal and friendly registers and highlight the relevance of maintaining clarity and politeness at all times so as to avoid misunderstandings (interrupting the other person, imposing your ideas, etc). We must, however, realize how important these functions are for students in their future professional and personal lives.

4.4.2. Extralinguistic devices. As we have just mentioned, when we speak, we often nod our heads, change our body postures and make gestures and facial expressions, as well as redirecting the focus of gaze. Although these  behaviors are not linguistic by a strict definition of that term, their close coordination with the speech they accompany suggests that they are relevant to an account of language use, and also, can occur apart from the context of speech, spontaneous or voluntarily. 1.

Gestures are usually regarded as communicative devices in conversational speech whose function is to amplify or underscore information conveyed in the accompanying speech. According to one of the icons of American linguists, Edward Sapir, people respond to  gesture with extreme alertness, in accordance with an elaborate and secret code that is written nowhere, known to none, and understood by all  (Sapir, 1921). Gestures are then, to  be classified in different types, such as •



emblems or  symbolic gestures  as essentially hand signs   with well established meanings (thumbs-up and V for victory, pointing, denial, and refusing). simple and repetitive rhythmic hand movements coordinated with sentence  prosody, called batons , as using head and shoulders.

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2.

Also,

unplanned

gestures

that

accompany

spontaneour

speech, called  gesticulations, representational gestures, or lexical movements, related to semantic content of speech in order to describe things like size, strength or speed.

Concerning  facial expression, it deals with an automatic response to an internal state although they can be controlled voluntarily to a considerable extent, and are used in social situations to convey a variety of kinds of information (smiling and happiness). Changes in addressees’ facial expressions allows the addressee to express understanding concern, agreement, or confirmation where expressions such as smiles and head nods as considered as back-channels (i.e. agreement, disagreement).

3.

In relation to  gaze direction, a variety of kinds of significance has been attributed to both the amount of time participants spend looking at each other, and to the points in the speech stream at which those glances occur, such as staring, watching, peering or looking among others. As proximity, body-orientation or touching, gazing may express the communicators’ social distance, by means of looking up to or looking down to.

4.4.3. Paralinguistic devices. And finally, paralinguistic devices (sounds, images, vocal quality) are also closely related to EBE texts since it is the primary medium by which language is expressed although it is considered nonverbal. It must be borne in mind that speech contains a good deal of information that can be non-verbal and that is possible by means of  paralanguage, such as whistling, musical effects or images. Also, the speaker’s voice may transmit so much self-assurance that it may be a tool for marketing (i.e. convincing the audience to buy as a marketing campaign). 1.

Transient changes in vocal quality   provide information about changes in the speaker’s internal state, such as hesitation or interjections. Changes in a speaker’s affective states usually are accompanied by changes in the acoustic properties of his or her voice (Krauss and Chiu 1993), and listeners seem capable of interpreting these changes, even when the quality of the speech is badly degraded, or the language is one the listener does not understand.

2.

When we refer to non-verbal or paralinguistic communication, visual and tactile modes are also concerned. They may be used for a variety of linguistic purposes such as the use of sign languages. For instance, the receiver may get the message by sound   (a specific song in a new advertisement: positive effects), by  sight   (appealing colours for food products, attractive people for sport clothes in advertisements) or by touch (smooth velvet, computer keyboard for blind people).

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5. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS. According to Hedge (2000), since the introduction of communicative approaches, the ability to communicate effectively in English has become one of the main goals in European Language Teaching. The Council of Europe (1998), in response to the need for international co-operation and  professional mobility among European countries, has recently published a document,  Modern languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. A Common European Framework of reference, in which the acquisition of communicative and pragmatic competence in a second language is emphasised. Both contributed strongly to the development of ‘the communicative classroom’, increasing the emphasis on teaching the spoken and written language. Similarly, the Spanish Educational System states (B.O.E. 2002) that there is a need for learning a foreign language in order to communicate with other European countries, and a need for emphasizing the role of a foreign language which gets relevance as a multilingual and multicultural identity. Within scientific, technological, business and administrative contexts, getting a proficiency level in a foreign language implies educational and professional reasons which justify the presence of foreign languages in the curricula at different educational levels (i.e. Technical University, Technical College, Graduate School). It means to have access to other cultures and customs as well as to foster interpersonal relationships which help individuals develop a due respect towards other countries, their native speakers and their culture. This sociocultural framework allows learners to better understand their own language, and therefore, their own culture. The European Council (1998) and, in particular, the Spanish Educational System within the framework of the Educational Reform, establishes a common reference framework for the teaching of foreign languages, and claims for a progressive development of communicative competence in a specific language. Students, then, are intended to be able to carry out several communication tasks with specific communicative goals within specific contexts. For our purposes, the learning of how to write and speak in scientific, technological ,  business and administrative contexts is provided within the framework of social interaction,  personal, professional or educational fields. Therefore, in order to develop the above mentioned communication tasks in our present educational system, a communicative competence theory includes the following subcompetences. Firstly, the linguistic competence   (semantic, morphosyntactic and phonological). Secondly, the discourse competence (language functions, speech acts, and conversations). Thirdly, the sociolinguistic competence   (social conventions, routines and formulaic speech, communicative intentions, and registers among others). Fourthly, the  strategic competence will be included as a subcompetence of communicative competence within this educational framework. So far, students will make use of this competence in a natural and systematic way in order to achieve the effectiveness of communication through the different communication skills, thus,  productive  (oral and written communication), receptive (oral and written comprehension within verbal and non-verbal codes), and interactional .

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Although students recognize the importance of developing communicative skills in the target language, they often have a passive attitude towards speaking in the classroom. Students generally have fewer problems in taking short turns, since they are required to give minimal responses to  participate in a conversation with the teacher or classmates based on simple exchanges. They tend to be reluctant, however, to expose themselves in the classroom, making it very difficult to get them to speak at any length. The main concern derives from the problem of how to actually get learners use (by speakin g and writing) English for Science, Technology, Business and Economics in a meaningful way in the classroom. But how? In class, we can do composition, technical writing ans science report sections. Thus teaching skills are mainly based on a knowledge-building method used in discussing the reading material (reading for gist or details, reading comprehension error checking), grammar (grammatical structures, grammar exercises and error checking, brainstorming team discussion), vocabulary (reviews, vocabulary buiding exercise and error checking); and listening through listening comprehension exercises and error checking.

6. CONCLUSION. This study has presented some of the most important aspects of writing and speaking in the world of science, technology, business and administration, in other words, the kind of writing that scientists, doctors, computer specialists, goverment officials, engineers, and other such people do as a part of their regular work. To learn how to write effectively for the world of work, we have examined common types of texts (EST and EBE) in terms of main types, main textual features and structure and some techniques for producing professional business letters so as to learn how to write a resume, informational abstracts and technical or science reports. Moreover, to produce this type of discourse, students are expected to handle specific discourse, syntax and structural devices. Thus discourse is the formal treatment of a subject in speech or writing. Syntax is the application of words or phrases in developing sciences, and structural structures are methods of organizing ideas and concepts in speech and writing. There are hidden influences at work beneath the textual surface: these may be sociocultural, inter and intratextual, or ecological. Our students are expected to discover these, and wherever necessary apply them in further examination. The main aims that our currently educational system focuses on are mostly sociocultural, to facilitate the study of cultural themes, as our students must be aware of their current social reality within the European framework. We may observe that dealing with EST and EBE texts is not just a linguistic matter to be developed in the classroom setting; on the contrary, defending our personal point of view about a current issue enables us to carry out everyday performances which prove essential in our current society, for

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instance, when writing formal and informal letters, complaints, advertising issues, conversation in shops (seller-customer), and so on. The role of EST and EBE texts in present society is emphasized by the increasing necessity of learning a foreign language as we are now members of the European Community, and as such, we need to communicate with other countries at oral and written levels by means of phone conversations, business meetings, sales and writing business letters. Written patterns are given an important role when language learners face the monumental task of acquiring not only new vocabulary, syntactic patterns, and phonology, but also discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence, strategic competence, and interactional competence. To sum up, we may say that language is where culture impinges on form and where second language speakers find their confidence threatened through the diversity of registers and text types, in particular, scientific, technological, business and administrative texts that make up the first language speaker’s day to day interaction. Language represents the deepest manifestation of a culture, and people’s values systems, including those taken over from the group of which they are  part, play a substantial role in the way they use not only their first language but also subsequently acquired ones.

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