36082276 Football Fundamentals

May 7, 2018 | Author: Andrew Little | Category: Quarterback, Sport Variants, Positions (Team Sports), American Football, Team Sports
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Football Fundamental s

Table of Contents

Page Basic Fundamentals of Coaching Football................................................................3 Offensive Fundamentals Offensive Line Fundamentals....................................................................................4 Offensive Line Drills.................................................................................................4 Running Back Fundamentals.....................................................................................8 Running Back Drills..................................................................................................8 Receiver Fundamentals..............................................................................................10 Receiver Drills...........................................................................................................12 Quarterback Fundamentals........................................................................................14 Quarterback Drills......................................................................................................15 Defensive Fundaments Defensive Line Fundamentals....................................................................................17 Defensive Line Drills.................................................................................................18 Linebacker Fundamentals..........................................................................................20 Linebacker Drills.......................................................................................................25 Defensive Back Fundamentals...................................................................................27 Defensive Back Drills................................................................................................30 Tackling Drills...........................................................................................................33

Table of Contents

Page Basic Fundamentals of Coaching Football................................................................3 Offensive Fundamentals Offensive Line Fundamentals....................................................................................4 Offensive Line Drills.................................................................................................4 Running Back Fundamentals.....................................................................................8 Running Back Drills..................................................................................................8 Receiver Fundamentals..............................................................................................10 Receiver Drills...........................................................................................................12 Quarterback Fundamentals........................................................................................14 Quarterback Drills......................................................................................................15 Defensive Fundaments Defensive Line Fundamentals....................................................................................17 Defensive Line Drills.................................................................................................18 Linebacker Fundamentals..........................................................................................20 Linebacker Drills.......................................................................................................25 Defensive Back Fundamentals...................................................................................27 Defensive Back Drills................................................................................................30 Tackling Drills...........................................................................................................33

Basic Fundamentals of Coaching Football Understand the Game - It's imperative that your team understands the basic rules and tactics of the game of football. football. And that has to start start at the top - YOU. Any indecision or  lack of knowledge you show will put doubt in your player’s mind. Character  - If you want your players to carry themselves with a high moral code, you need to show them the way. You must show them what a true role model is. How do you do this? Start by being consistent . When you say you're going to do something, be sure you follow through with it. Be sure your team always sees you under control no matter the situation. Show your team that any situation can be handled by staying in control of your  emotions. That doesn't mean you have to sacrifice any of your fire or intensity. It just means handling all the things that come up in practice and games ga mes without flying off the handle. If the coach can't show character, how can the players be expected to? Character is also shown when you can admit you're wrong when you make mistakes. Your team will develop much more respect for you if you apologize when you make mistakes rather than trying to set yourself above the standards you expect of them. It's OK when this happens. You're human and we all make mistakes. Just don't try to cover  them up or hide from them. You'll be amazed what that'll mean to your players. with parents and players. Be sure the players know Communication – stay in contact with what is expected and parents know what is is going on in your program. program. Keep parents informed of practice practice and game times. The more parents know through your  communications with them the less individual questions will arise.  Make it Fun - Being able to enjoy the process is vital to a team's success. If practice is all drudgery and no fun, you'll lose your players quickly. Strive to strike a balance between serious learning and a laugh or two. Allow for a little humor when mistakes are made. When players want to laugh and get loose once in awhile, take it as a sign that they're having fun, not that they're being disrespectful. Keep practices fun and keep all players involved in the process.  Be Positive - Nothing will kill your players more than a negative attitude. A positive attitude will keep you above the competition. Yes, bad things will happen. Your players will make mistakes at the absolute worst times. You'll make bad calls or decisions. Above all else, keep things in a positive light and move on. The only things you can control are you attitude and your actions. Everything else is outside of your control, so don't get negative when those things upset you. Make sure your experience coaching football is an over-all positive one for both you and your players. 

























Offensive Fundamentals

Offensive Line Fundamentals o

Stance – 3 Point Base – Feet shoulder width apart. Feet – Heal to toe Stagger – toes pointed up field. Back – Keep your back flat Back  Head – Eyes up looking at defender  Little weight on your hand     

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Steps – steps will vary depending on the play called. Proper steps are crucial to gaining the advantage on the defender. Inside Run Plays - Short, quick steps with toes pointing up field. Outside Run Plays – Steps need to be angled to aiming point on the defender.  

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Run Blocking Block with your eyes, hands, and feet. Step with foot nearest your assigned man – use quick aggressive steps Put your eyes in the chest (or appropriate location for the play called) of  your defender. Shoot your hands into the defender – punch him. Once contact is made, with your eyes and hands, lock in. Keep your feet moving up field on contact   

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Pass Blocking On the snap get out of your stance quickly. Get your shoulders up and hands ready in front of your chest. Contact the defender by punching him with your hands. Control the defender with your hands. Keep your eyes focused on the defender to see his next move. Move your feet side to side to keep yourself in front of the defender.      



Offensive Line Drills Stance Drill o Position Drill– the objective of this drill will ensure the lineman are getting in the proper stance using a progression of movements. Position 1 – Feet shoulder width apart with a heal toe stagger, • standing upright. Position 2 – Bend down and put your elbows on your knees. • Position 3 – Put your hand on the ground with light weight. Make • sure your eyes are looking straight ahead. o To start the drill, line your men up in straight lines. All  players can do this at one time. Review each of the above  positions with all players. Then go through each Position. 

Call Position 1, all players should have feet should width apart with a heal to toe stagger. Next call “Position 2” all lineman should do the next position. Be sure to check that they have the correct position. Then do the same for   position 3. Once they are all in a good stance say “Relax” they all stand up and do it again. You can also add in firing off on the snap count and then doing the drill again. 



Steps and Base – the objective of this drill is to ensure that all lineman are taking the proper steps and keeping a base. Set out 5 agility bags about 1 yard apart parallel to each other. • Have the lineman line up on the ends of each bag according to the •  position they play. 1st time through – The linemen will straddle the bag and get in a •  proper stance. On the snap count the lineman will fire off taking short aggressive steps. Also keeping their feet on each side of the  bag. Make sure the lineman keep their pad level low. (If you have • chutes you can do these drills under chutes also.) 2nd time through – The linemen will put their right foot on the back  • left corner of the bag. On the snap count the linemen will step over the back edge of the bag with their right foot placing it on the right side of the bag and continue running while straddling the bag with short aggressive steps. (This simulates blocking a defensive lineman on the linemen’s right shoulder.) 3rd time through – The linemen will put their left foot on the back  • right corner of the bag. On the snap count the linemen will step over the back edge of the bag with their left foot placing it on the left side of the bag and continue running while straddling the bag with short aggressive steps. (This simulates blocking a defensive lineman on the linemen’s left shoulder.) Variations to Steps and Base – have the lineman take just o one step and then reset. This will give you the opportunity to check to make sure the first step is in the right place. Once you have checked them all you can have them reset and then take two steps. Then reset and fire off on the snap count. Fit Drill – The objective is to teach the straight ahead base block. Align three or four defenders in the standing defensive position • with three or four offensive linemen in front of them. Have the lineman fit into the defensive player (eyes in the ch est, hands locked into the chest just above the eyes, knees bent and feet wide). At the snap, have the linemen explode pressing their hands and moving their feet through the defender, driving them off the football.











Coaching Points - Watch for good fit and follow-through during this offensive line drill. Make sure players' backs are flat, butts are down and their heads are up "seeing" the defender's jersey number.

Maintain Fit - Teach lineman to hold their blocks once contact is made. Align three or four defenders in the standing defensive position • with three or four offensive linemen in front of them. Have the lineman fit into the defensive player (eyes in the ch est, hands locked into the chest just above the eyes, knees bent and feet wide). At the snap, have the linemen explode pressing their hands and moving their feet through the defender, driving them off the football. Next, the coach signals the defender to move left or right, forcing the lineman to hold his block during the movement. The lineman must stay locked on the defender until the coach signals the end of the drill. Coaching Points - Emphasize the proper fit position and to keep • the lineman’s feet moving with the defender. Make sure the lineman is continually trying to drive the defender d own field and is not just hanging on. Six-Point Sled Drill - Roll the Hips Offensive linemen line up on the 5 man sled for this football drill. • Get the first group of lineman positioned on all fours right up close to the sled. At the whistle, have the players explode into the sled with thumbs up and hips rolled. The lineman should hit their  stomachs and then get back up quickly. Coaching Points - Be sure your offensive lineman keep their heads • up and knees on the ground for proper hip roll. Hip Roll Drill (from 3 point stance) - Develop the a bility to roll the hips with power. Offensive linemen line up on the 5 man sled for this football drill. • Get the first group of lineman positioned in a 3 point stance up close to the sled. At the whistle, have the players explode into the sled with thumbs up and hips rolled. Next have the lineman take one step with right foot and do the same drill. Then the left foot. Coaching Points - Be sure your offensive lineman keep their heads • up, sink their hips and roll forward with the correct hand  placement. Oklahoma Drill – competition drill for the whole team. This is an excellent drill for your offensive linemen. Line up two •  blockers and one running back against two defensive linemen and a linebacker. Have your blockers create a running lane to the left, right or up the middle. The coach stands behind the defense signaling which way to run the play. Coaching Points – can have several groups lined up ready to go. • Make sure all groups on the field are using proper technique.

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Picture of Oklahoma Drill

Pass Blocking Drills Set Drill – The objective is to teach the lineman to get out of their stance quick and get proper position. Have your lineman line up in 4 lines. On the snap of the ball they • must quickly get out of their stance and take a settle set. (Settle set is dropping back about a yard and setting up in front of the defender. You settle back to put your body in front of the defender  and see any moves he might make. Coaching Points – watch that the lineman is getting upright quick  • and keeping their knees bent. Also that their hands are at their  chest. 



Mirror Drill – The objective is to teach the offensive line to move their  feet to stay in front of a defender. Align two or three defenders in-between cones (can use anything) • that are placed about 3 yards apart. Have offensive lineman line up across from the defender. On the snap the defenders will run side to side between the cones. The offensive line will snap up out of their stance and “mirror” the defender. There is no contact. Coaching Points – watch that the lineman are shuffling their feet • and not crossing them over. Also make sure that the lineman are keeping their hands in the proper position.  Next, on the whistle, have the defender rush the QB. The lineman • must make sure that they punch the defender, stopping his momentum, and keep their body in front of the defender.



Running Back Fundamentals o

Stance 



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2 point – Feet shoulder width apart, slight bend in the knees and hands should rest on your thigh pads. 3 point – Heal to toe Stagger – toes pointed up field, flat back and eyes up looking at defender. Place your hand on the ground below your eyes,  placing little weight on your hand. Rest your other forearm on your thigh  pad.

Receiving a hand off  DO NOT LOOK AT THE QB! Keep your eyes focused on the location you are running the play. The elbow closest to the quarter back goes up and your thumb should be pointing to the ground. Place the other hand across the belt with your palm up. When you feel the ball touch your  chest, close your hands together and take the football. 

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Ball Tuck  4 point of pressure –  Fingers on tip of the ball • Forearm on the side of the ball • Bicep on the back of the ball • Chest on the side of the ball • Keep the ball high and tight to your body. The point of the ball should split your 1st and 2nd finger. 





Running Back Drills o

Strip Drill – the objective is to teach backs to protect the ball as well as stay upright on contact. Position two lines of players (about 5-6 men in each line) with a small  path in between. Have the running backs take handoff and then sprint into the path between the players. The players should try and strip the back as he moves by. As a variation, have the ball carriers hold a ball in each arm during this running back football drill. Coaching Points - Be sure your running backs keep a low center of  gravity, shoulders down, knees up. With the 2 -ball variation, your running  backs will have to concentrate even more on protection of the football as they squeeze both into the body. 



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Two-Line Bag Drill - the objective is to teach proper hand-off fundamentals. Using six blocking bags, position them into two rows of three bags each. Be sure the bags are one yard apart and that the two lines are about five yards apart. Create two groups each consisting of a few running backs and one quarterback. Each group should be lined up single file behind the first  blocking bag. 





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Begin this running back football drill on the coach's signal. At the whistle, each QB will handoff to the first running back in his line as the backs cradle the football properly and run through the three blocking dummies. After the backs break through the third bag in their line, the coach will signal a direction for the backs to cut to. Have the running backs change lines after each rep. Coaching Points - Make sure each back sets up in a correct stance and then uses proper technique when receiving the hand-off. As they run through the bags, be sure they lift their knees and hold onto the football securely. The cut at the end of the running back football drill should be sharp and quick.

Stumble Drill – Teach ball carriers how to k eep their balance while falling as well as keeping the ball secured. Give each back a ball and have them position themselves at the 25 yard line. At the whistle, instruct them to start running. Every 5 yards, the running backs should place their palm to the ground as if stumbling. As they get up and regain balance, they should switch the ball to the other  arm. This happens every 5 yards until they reach the goal line, then repeat the running back drill back to the 25. Coaching Points - Make sure each running back switches the ball to the opposite arm after each stumble. Teach proper technique for regaining  balance: bring the head up, the chest out and drive the knees forward for   power. 



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Fit Drill – Teach the fundamentals of basic blocking. Running backs form two groups. Each group lines up on a line of  scrimmage so there is a long line of "pairs" facing one another. One line of   players are the running backs while the other line will be defenders. At the coach's signal, the running backs move into the defenders and perform the "fit" blocking position. Fit position: Head up, butt down, flat back, and feet providing a wide base, hands inside. Coaching Points - Emphasize the correct fit position with each movement during this running back drill. 





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Maintain Contact - Teach backs to hold their blocks once contact is made. Form two single file lines facing one another (one offense, one defense). On the coach's signal, the offensive player blocks the defender using the fit position form. The coach signals the defender to move left or right, forcing the running back to hold his block during the movement. The back  must stay locked on the defender until the coach signals the end of the running back drill. Coaching Points - Emphasize the proper fit position and to keep the running back's feet moving with the defender. 



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Mirror Drill – Teach proper pass blocking to running backs.







Position 2 cones on the line of scrimmage about five yards apart. Put a running back and defender on the line facing one another. They should be approximately two yards apart. On coach's whistle, the defender shuffles back & forth between the cones while the RB breaks down and "mirrors" his movements (running back  keeps chugging his legs). The coach should signal again after about 5 seconds. At that point the defender tries to burst past the RB while the RB steps up, pass blocks him and maintains contact. Coaching Points - The running back needs to keep his knees bent during entire running back drill for a proper low position. Be sure the RB doesn't cross his feet during the initial shuffling "mirror" drill. Slide, step, slide, etc.



Receiver Fundamentals o

Stance 







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Outside foot back (this helps us keep our shoulders square to the line of  scrimmage) “Z” in the knees – You want a slight bend in the knees so that on take off  you can immediately start moving forward. The receiver should have a slight forward lean, bending at his waist. (Chest over knees, knees over toes.) Hands should be out front, elbows bent, ready to run.

Starts/Release  NO FALSE STEPS! When the receiver starts his routes all steps should  be gaining ground. If he false steps you need to change his stance so that he eliminates that false step. Release – there are a couple of different releases that can be utilized to get off of the line quickly. When running an inside route be sure to release inside. When running an outside route release outside. Rip Release- take a hard step to either the inside or outside of the • defender (depending on route) and throw your arm, nearest the defender, upward to shed the defender off of you. It is the same move defensive lineman use. You have to continue to move down field during the move. One step fake – take a hard step to the opposite side you want to • release and then step back hard to the correct side. As you come  back across use the rip move if the defender has gotten his hands on you. 



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Catching Eyes – The receiver should follow the ball with their eyes all the way to the tuck. Hands – You should form a diamond with your hands. Your 1st fingers and thumbs should touch to form a “Pocket” for the football. Be sure to keep your eyes on the football all the way through the catch to the tuck. We want to watch the point of the ball and grab the fat of the ball. This means we want the point to fit into the diamond we formed with our hands and then we grab the fat (middle) of the football. Immediately bring the football to your body, and tuck it, to avoid the defender knocking it out. 



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Ball Tuck  4 point of pressure –  Fingers on tip of the ball • Forearm on the side of the ball • Bicep on the back of the ball • Chest on the side of the ball • Keep the ball high and tight to your body. The point of the ball should split your 1st and 2nd finger. 



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Blocking – a very important part of being a good receiver is being able to block. Sprint off the football just like you are running a GO route. When the defender stops and sees that it is a run play you have to stop get a base and continue to work toward your defender under control. When you get close enough punch the defender with your hands and lock  in. Keep your feet moving the whole time and stay locked into the defender. As you are locked into the defender move your knees to his knees. This will help you stay upright and not lean on the defender. Make sure you position yourself to keep your butt to the football.  







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Routes – routes will vary depending on the offensive scheme. But the fundamentals are always the same. Explode off the line of scrimmage. You have to always run as hard as  possible, so the defensive back always believes the ball is coming to you. When making a cut do not get on your heals. Keep your weight forward and on the balls of your feet. Be sure that your shoulders are over your  toes, then as you get into the cut you lower your shoulders, and plant the foot away from the direction you are going. Explode out of the cut and get to the assigned spot. 





Receiver Drills o Tuck-It-In Drill - Teach to catch with the hands and then tuck the football in to secure it. For this wide receiver drill, align your receivers in a single-file line. Have the quarterback or coach throw to the first receiver in line. The receiver  should look the pass in, catch the ball with the thumbs in, then tuck the  ball away. After the catch, the receiver runs to the end of the line and the next receiver runs their route. Coaching Points - Be sure to throw a variety of passes (low, high, etc) so receivers can practice catching different types of balls. Also make sure the receiver watches the football all the way to the tuck. 



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"Get the Head Around" Drill - Teach receivers to get the head around and locate the ball quickly. Position the wide receivers in a single file at one of the yard lines with their backs to the quarterback. The quarterback stands about 12-15 yards  behind the line of receivers. The QB passes to the first receiver in line and yells "Ball!". On that signal, the receiver turns himself around completely, locates the football and makes the catch. Coaching Points - Be sure your wide receivers g et themselves turned all the way around and are facing the ball during this wide receiver drill. Emphasize the need to get their hands up and in good position to make the catch. 



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Release Drill - Teach receivers to release off the line properly.





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Align each receiver across from a defender. Go through different route releases. Teach receivers how to react properly to the defender's  positioning and technique. Coaching Points - Pay close attention to each receiver's release technique. Also make sure that no one is taking false steps.

Cut Drill - Teach wide receivers to make their route cuts decisively and finish each route. Helps develop hand/eye coordination. After deciding which route to run, place a cone where the cut should be made and position your receiver about 3-4 steps from the cone. The receiver starts to quickly run in place with hands pumping (as if running the route). At the QB's signal, receiver finishes the last 3-4 steps, makes the cut at the cone and catches the football. After the catch, the receiver  should tuck the ball and head up field. Coaching Points – Make sure the receiver is sinking their hips, keeping their shoulders over their toes and planting their outside foot. Teach receivers to snap their heads around quickly to better locate the ball. Be sure they have their hands in proper position to make the catch cleanly. Once they get this part of the route down, you can run the entire route out of your offensive sets. 



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Mirror Drill - Teach receivers to block defensive backs. Position 2 cones about five yards apart. Put a receiver and defender on the line facing one another. They should be approximately two yards apart. On coach's whistle, the defender shuffles back & forth between the cones while the receiver breaks down and "mirrors" his movements. The coach should signal again after about 5 seconds. At that point the defender tries to burst past the receiver while the receiver steps up, pass blocks him and maintains contact. Coaching Points - Teach your wide receivers to keep good body balance so they can stay positioned in front of the defender. Their feet shouldn't cross. Don't turn the hips. 





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Stalk Block - Teach receivers to block defensive backs. Have one line of receivers and one defender out front. The receiver  sprints off the line with the look of a deep route, to get the DB  backpedaling. On the coach’s signal, the DB is looking at the coach while  back peddling; he stops and makes a move forward. The receiver needs to slow down and keep his feet moving and make contact for the block. Coaching Points - During this wide receiver drill, teach your p layers to watch the defensive back's feet. Emphasize the need to get close to the DB during the initial drive up field. Also, look for proper blocking form hands inside, wide base, head up, butt down, feet moving. 





Quarterback Fundamentals o

Taking the snap – The center-quarterback exchange must become automatic. The first quarterback fundamental here is to practice the exchange over and over and over. Hand placement – The throwing hand is the top hand. Place the hand high in the center’s crotch so the center can feel its position. Make sure the fingers are spread, relaxed and extended. Cup the bottom hand against the top hand at an angle greater than 90° to avoid jamming the fingers. Arms – Your arms should be bent slightly to give room for extension at the snap. Avoid bending much at the waist by flexing your knees a bit. The football should be delivered so that the laces are in the throwing hand, ready to pass Receiving the ball – Ride the center as you receive the snap, then bring the  ball in cleanly to the chest with both hands as you begin to drop back. 



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Hand Off –  It’s the job of the quarterback to be sure the handoff is successful. Once you’ve put the football under the running backs inside elbow, don’t let go until you feel the back take firm hold of it. Constant repetition is required to develop the proper timing with your running back. Practice your  spacing so you don’t run into the back or fail to reach him. 

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Drop Back –  Steps – Make your first step out with the passing side foot, then crossover  with the opposite leg. Be sure to push deep after each step to get deep into the pocket. Continue this until you reach your set-up area. Ball Position – Make sure you hold the ball securely in front of your chest. When you reach the set-up area then bring the ball up for the correct throwing motion. 



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Throwing Grip: Each player will potentially have a different grip that works b est for  him. The hand should be as high on the top half of the football as •  possible. The fingers should be as spread out as possible from index to •  pinky. The thumb and middle finger should form a perfect half-circle • around the ball. If either of these two fingers (the thumb or middle finger) get higher or lower than the other, it will be difficult to throw a consistent spiral. Fingers should be placed along the laces. • 



Throwing Motion / Delivery With the ball in a high position at the ear, it should be released • with a quick and high delivery.











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The initial movement should never be down, dropping or dipping in a long, slow wind up motion. The elbow should rise up and the  ball should naturally turn out with the palm facing the sideline. Rotate the hips and shoulders to bring the elbow and arm through. The elbow should be as high as or higher than the ear. The shoulders should be leaning forward at the apex of the throw so the QB throws the ball downhill. The front foot should be planted on the ball not the heel and when the ball is released, the chin should be over the knee which should  be over the ball of the foot. (Coaching point: a stake could be driven straight through the head, knee and foot.) If the QB over  strides, and plants on his heel, the shoulders will tend to be upward and a lot of high passes will result. On a deep throw, the stride should be slightly longer to get the shoulders slightly upward and the ball up in the air. The ball should be released off of the index and middle fingers as the hand turns down and the thumb rotates. The follow through should then naturally take the hand to the opposite hip to finish the throw properly

QB Drills Grip Drill – Ball handling drill. With palm facing down, the quarterback grips the ball and moves • the ball up and down. With each motion, be sure they re-grip the football. After at least 15 reps, repeat drill with the other hand. 









Drop Drill – Ball handling drill. Extend arm from the body and hold ball with palm facing down. • Drop the ball and then re-grip instantly. Bring football back to starting point and repeat at least 15 times. Repeat drill with opposite hand. You can also do both hands at same time by using two footballs. Drop and Rotate Drill – Ball handling drill. Same as the Drop Drill except that as the ball is dropped, the • quarterback rotates his hand around the ball before re-gripping it. Perform at least 15 reps with each hand, then try with two hands at the same time. Spin Drill – Ball handling drill. With palm facing down, hold the ball at one end. With a flick of  • the fingers, give the ball a full back spin so it lands on the back of  the hand. With the back of the hand, flick the ball into a full front spin and re-grip the ball with palm facing down again. Do at least 15 reps with each hand. Basketball Drill – Ball handling drill.









Just like a basketball point guard, move the ball from hand to hand  behind the back and between the legs. Do at least 3 sets that last 25-30 seconds each. Perform this football drill as fast as you can.

Knee Drill - To develop the proper wrist snap and release of the ball. Begin the football quarterback drill with the QB's on both knees. • Align them about five yards apart. The first QB gets the proper  grip, lifts the football like he would when taking the snap and  passes the ball to his partner. Be sure the ball is brought up near  the ear, the follow-through is straight at the receiver with palm down. After ten reps back and forth, move the players five yards further apart and continue football drill from there. Coaching Points - Check for proper grip with opposite hand • securing the ball. Be sure follow-through is correct and pay attention to accuracy. Can also do the drill with only the throwing knee down. • Drop-Back Drill - Develop the three and five and step drop-backs. Quarterback starts in the pre-snap stance and on coach's whistle, •  performs a three step drop. The ball should be a chest level during the drop-back. On the third step, he should be set and ready for a  pass with the ball up ready to throw. Do the three step 5-10 times, then do the same thing with a five step drop-back. Coaching Points - Make sure your QB performs this drill with • adequate quickness and that at set-up, most of his body weight is  positioned on the back foot. If you have a net (soccer net works well) have the QB throw into the net (or to a partner) when they reach their set up. Also, make sure the proper depth is reached. (3 yards for 3 step and at least 5 yards for 5 step.) Very important - Be sure there are no false steps in the drop... • Boom, boom, boom, throw. Circle Drill - Develop "throwing on the run" skills Standing about 10-15 yards apart, have two QB's run in a circle as • they pass the ball back and forth. On the coach's signal, they will then reverse and repeat the drill in the opposite direction. Coaching Points - Be sure they get their shoulders square to the • target before throwing and utilize correct hip rotation.

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Defensive Fundamentals

Defensive Line Fundamentals Stance – 3 Point o Base – Feet at shoulder width. If a player has difficulty with lateral movement have him adjust his stance so that it is slightly less that shoulder width. Feet – Toes pointed up field with a toe to instep stagger. Arm and Hand – The down hand should be placed on the ground under the eye. Fingertips should be on the ground, not a fist. Weight should be distributed so that the hand can be picked up with a slight lean. The offhand is to be placed alongside the off-leg in a cocked position, not resting on the knee. Back – Keep a flat back. Head – The head must be up in order to see across the line and not down, looking at the ground. Get Off - The Get Off is similar to a sprinter exploding out of the blocks at a track  o meet and consists of a solid, balanced stance and excellent footwork. As the defensive lineman explodes out of his stance to execute his first step it is critical that he keep his head up, his hips down and maintain a low pad level. o Hands - As the defensive lineman is coming out of his stance and making that first step his hands must come u p hard and strike the blocker with  both hands at the designated striking points (Gap technique or head up). Coaching Point: In order to maintain a low pad level, the eyes must be below the hands, the head must be up and the hips down. Striking –  o Gap – The D Lineman has one hand striking the blocker at the center of  the chest plate and the other hand (the gap hand) striking the blocker on the gap side shoulder   pad. Head Up - The D Lineman has both hands striking the blocker in the chest  plate. o Disengagement – These skills include the Rip, Shuck, and Club. For advanced D Lineman they may use the Swim and Spin. Once the defensive lineman has controlled his gap and deciphered where the play is headed, he can use these tools to free himself up to make a play. Rip – The D Lineman will use his hands to pull the blocker to his side and then step around. While stepping around the defender will drop his shoulder and swing his arm upward to clear off the blockers hands. Shuck - The shuck is a basic grab and throw technique. The D Lineman uses his hands to pull or push the defender out of his way. Club – On the snap of the ball the D Lineman will swing his arm into the shoulder of the blocker, knocking him off balance. Then use the rip move to get past the blocker. Spin - A spin move is set up by rushing the outside shoulder of the blocker  and then when he commits to the rush, spinning hard to the inside. 

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Swim – Similar to the rip move but when stepping around the blocker the D Lineman brings his arm over the blocker and down across to clean him off.

Defensive Line Drills o Initial Step Drill (Ball) - Teach your defensive line an exp losive first step at the snap of the ball without going offsides. Align 2-3 defensive linemen on the line in their stances. The coach holds the football in front of the lineman and barks out the offensive cadence, trying to get the linemen to jump. At the snap, have the defenders explode out of their stances 4-5 yards up the field, then have the next group get set for their turn. Coaching Details - Make sure your defensive linemen have good fundamentals in their stances and when they take that initial step off the line. Break any offsides habits during this football defensive line drill. Initial Step Drill (Man) - Teach defensive linemen to react off the offensive line's o movement. Divide defensive linemen into pairs (one will be offense, one defense) and have the first pair line up on a line of scrimmage. The coach barks the signal and the offensive player explodes out into the defender when ready. The defensive player must react on the movement. Repeat drill with the next pair and so on. Coaching Points - Make sure your defensive linemen have good fundamentals in their stances and when they take that initial step off the line. Emphasize the need to react off the man, not the cadence and proper  hand use. Six-Point Sled Drill - Roll the Hips o Defensive linemen line up single-file in front of a one-man sled (can also use a 5 man sled) for this football lineman drill. Get the first lineman  positioned on all fours right up close to the sled. At the whistle, have the  player explode into the sled with thumbs up and hips rolled. The defender  then rolls sideways out of the way so the ne xt defensive lineman can get into position. Coaching Points - Be sure your defensive lineman keep their heads up and knees on the ground for proper hip roll. Hip Roll Drill (from 3 point stance) - Develop the ability to roll the hips with o  power. Defensive linemen line up single-file in front of a one-man sled. Get the first lineman positioned in a 3 point stance up close to the sled. At the whistle, have the player explode into the sled with thumbs up and hips rolled. Coaching Points - Be sure your defensive lineman keep their heads up, sink their hips and roll forward with the correct hand placement. Can also add one or two steps into the drill. Explosion Drill - Teach explosion out of the stance. o Line up the defensive linemen in a single-file in front of the sled with the first player in his stance about a yard away. On the coach's signal, the defender must explode into the sled pad and drive the sled up with short, 



















choppy steps. On the coach's next signal, the player drops the sled and rips through the sled and sprints past the sled. The coach then signals which way for the lineman to sprint lateral in either direction. Coaching Points - Check stances and take-off technique. Emphasize the need for proper hip roll as the defensive linemen lift the sled on contact. Watch hand placement fundamentals.



Line Backer Fundamentals o Stance Feet – Shoulder width apart. Knees – Bend you knees to be in an athletic breakdown stance. Hands – Elbows with a slight bend and hands in front ready for contact. Eyes – Eyes will look through the D Line into the backfield.    

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Gapology - Every defense is set up or designed to control each gap. The specific assignment of gaps simply comes down to a base defense that a team will choose to line up in. Linebackers have the gaps that the defensive lineman are not in. Weak Side vs. Strong Side: The strong side of an offensive formation is the side where the Tight End is aligned. In the graphic below the Tight End is aligned on the right side of the formation. It also shows the best way to label gaps. A through D starting from the center out.

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Here is an example of a 4-3 defense assignments. Weak side C Gap – Weak side Defensive End • Weak side B Gap – WILL Linebacker  Weak side A Gap – Weak side Defensive Tackle Strong side A Gap – MIKE Linebacker  Strong side B Gap – Strong side Defensive Tackle Strong side C Gap – Strong side SAM Strong side D Gap – Strong side Defensive End

Reads - An effective linebacker must learn how to quickly decipher what the offense is trying to do. Run Reads - The first element of a Linebacker read is a read step. A read step is an aggressive step toward the line of scrimmage at the snap of the ball that gets  players moving and prevents them from being flat footed. As the read step is

 being taken, the linebackers are gaining their vision and making their initial read on the offensive linemen. As soon as the linebacker’s foot hits the ground on his read step he will know if the play is a pass or a run. It may seem difficult to accomplish a read this quickly but what the linebacker is looking for is a pass block. It takes an offensive lineman the same amount of time to step back into a  pass blocking position as it does for the linebacker to take his read step. In effect what the linebacker is doing is eliminating the pass block first. This may seem contradictory because the main focus of a linebacker is to stop the run, but by quickly eliminating the pass block he can then instantly focus on his next read. 

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Finding the Window – As the linebackers have made their initial read and have eliminated the pass block and deciphered a run play, they must immediately be focused on the running backs and the quarterback. What linebackers must understand is that the offense is pou ring all of their  energy into creating a window for their running back to pass through. The linebackers must find this window, while keeping track of the ball, and attack it to make the stop. The ability to watch the ball and find the window takes practice. One thing that will help them learn to read a play a little quicker is the knowledge that there are only three ways the ball will flow: weak side, strong side, or up the middle. The flow of the offensive will be to one of these three areas * If a SAM or a WILL see a play moving away from them to the opposite side they must develop a discipline to look for a reverse action play such as a bootleg or reverse. If they develop the habit of just saying the words “Cutback, Bootleg and Reverse” as they see the action move away from them it will help them always be aware of this type of play. 

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An effective linebacker crew must learn how to work as a unit by funneling the  play to a teammate when necessary (Force Play) and covering a teammate’s  backside by cutting off running lanes (Angle of Attack). 

Force Play – Force play is simply forcing the ball inside when the offense is attempting to run the ball outside of the tackles. When a WILL or SAM is being blocked by an offensive lineman or a lead blocker and he cannot escape the block in time to make the tackle, he must then work to force the  play to the inside where the strength of the defense is. In order to force the  play inside, the linebacker must attack the outside shoulder of the blocker. Good footwork and an understanding of the half-man concept will help a linebacker with force play. The half-man concep t is simply attacking or  controlling 1/2 of the blocker. As he is attacking 1/2 of the blocker he must at the same time strike and grab the blocker with his hands to gain control of the blocker. The aiming point for the inside hand is the center of  the chest plate and the aiming point for the outside hand is the outside shoulder of the blocker. The linebacker must then press (push him like a  bench press) the blocker to keep him at arms length in order to maintain leverage and maneuverability. The linebacker must always keep the  blocker at arms length, stay parallel to the line of scrimmage and attack 

the outside half of the half-man. *Lead blockers (Between the Tackles) – When a linebacker sees a lead  blocker coming to an inside window between the tackles, he must attack  him before he gets to the hole and deliver a neutralizing blow. In order to neutralize the lead blocker the linebacker must strike the blocker with both hands directly on the chest plate, grab him by the jersey, press him, and force the running back to take a side. The linebacker must strike the  blocker squarely and not take a side and create a hole. 



Angle of Attack - As mentioned above a linebacker crew must develop the ability to work together to be effective. There are three basic first level attack angles that linebackers utilize. Attack , Angle, and cutback. Example 1 – If the window appears within the SAM gap range the SAM then Attacks, the MIKE Angles, and the WILL Cutback. The WILL must run parallel to the line of scrimmage and come behind the MIKE to cover  the backside of his MIKE. The SAM is either trying to blow up the play in the window or force the play over to his MIKE. If the ball gets by the MIKE the WILL is there to shut the door and cut off any avenue of  escape.

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The following two pictures show the flow for plays going into the middle and week side.

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Angle of Attack (Sweeps) - When pursuing a sweep or a run around an end, linebackers must learn how to work as a unit and take proper angles in order to shut down an outside running lane. The play side backer   becomes force and tries to keep his outside arm free and force the running  back inside or make the play if he goes to the outside so his angle needs to take him to the ball carrier’s or lead blockers outside shoulder. The Mike needs to find the window and run to it and make the play if the RB cuts  back inside of the OLB. The backside backer is checking for a reverse action play first (bootleg, cutback or reverse) and then beginning to pursue flat to a downfield angle after he ensures that no cutback against the grain will take place.



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Pass Reads – The pass read is no different that the run read as previously described. The linebackers are looking for a pass block from the offensive lineman within their gap range as they are making their read step. When a pass  block is recognized the linebackers must quickly drop into their pass coverage zone or cover the receiver that they are responsible for.



Zone Coverage – Each linebacker is responsible for a specific area of the field in zone coverage.

Example of Linebacker Pass Coverage Areas

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Re-routing – As long as the ball is not in the air defenders are allowed to knock receivers off course and disrupt their patterns. Providing that the defender doesn’t grab the receiver and the ball is not in the air this technique is within the rules. When linebackers see receivers running routes within their zone they must make every effort to re-route them to  prevent them from running their patterns effectively.

Defeating Run Blocks - Linebackers must always try to avoid being engaged by a  blocker. 









Rip Move - allows a linebacker to quickly get around a blocker and avoid engagement. The keys to an effective rip are to stay low, quickly step through while bringing the inside shoulder down and then punching upward . If engagement is inevitable linebackers rely on the following techniques and fundamentals to defeat blocks. Pad Level - Good blockers will try to keep their pad level lower than the  player they are blocking in order to develop a leverage advantage. Good linebackers on the other hand know this, and must counter this by keeping their own pad level low and neutralize the leverage of the blocker. Keep Blocker at Arm’s Length (Press) - While maintaining a low pad level, linebackers must grab the blocker’s jersey at chest level, keep the  blocker at arms length by using their arms to press them, and not let the  blocker get up into them. Attack Outside Shoulder - While at arms length a linebacker must then maneuver to attack the outside shoulder (half-man) of the blocker while keeping his own outside shoulder free. Disengage - Once a linebacker is engaged and has out-positioned the  blocker and has him under control, he can then either rip through the  blocker or legally grab, throw, shove, push and do whatever he has to do

to get off of the blocker and either force the ball to a teammate, blow up the play, or make the tackle. o

Defeating Pass Blocks – When linebackers blitz the quarterback they must rely on another set of tools to defeat pass blocks. These techniques are the same techniques that defensive linemen use to combat pass blocks. 







Shuck - The shuck is a basic grab and throw technique where a defensive lineman uses the blocker’s weight against him. The defender executes this technique by pulling the blocker violently towards him and then to the ground and then using a rip or swim to get around him. Club - The club is used to keep the blockers hands off of the defender. The defender executes the club by bringing a forearm down across the arms of  the blocker. Spin - A spin move is set up by rushing the outside shoulder of the blocker  and then when he commits to the rush, spinning hard to the inside. On a  pass rush it is important to spin only when the defender gets as deep as the QB-never deeper.

Linebacker Drills o Agility Drill - Teach good feet agility and to k eep the shoulders square. Align five dummies on a line. Place a cone about 5 yards away on either  side of the dummies. Line up your linebackers in single-file at one of the cones. On the coach's first signal, the first player in line sets up in a good hitting position. On the 2nd signal, the linebacker leads with his right foot as he shuffles over the dummies. At the last bag, the player turns and runs  past the 2nd cone. After each player goes through the bags, have them repeat the football linebacker drill in the other direction. Coaching Points - Make sure each linebacker has the shoulders square, head up and is in a proper hitting position. Be sure they shuffle their feet without crossing over. Can also have them follow your hands and tell them to go back and forth before finishing out the opposite side. 



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"Read" Drill - Develop foot agility and the ability to read the flow of the ball. Align 2-3 dummies about a yard apart and at a 45°. Then align 2-3 more dummies the same way so you create a "V" shape. The coach stands  between the bags while the linebackers are positioned in a single-file line at the point of the "V". On the coach's 1st signal, the first player gets in good hitting position. On the 2nd signal, the coach points either right or  left and the player hits the 2-3 dummies in that direction. After the last dummy, the linebacker should get back into hitting position again to finish the football linebacker drill. Coaching Points - Keep your linebackers low in proper hitting position with shoulders square, head up. Be sure they shuffle their feet without crossing over. 



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Stay In the Box Drill - Teach linebackers to stay their ground and to deliver a  blow after only one step. Use 4 cones to make a 2 yard square with the linebacker inside the square. Position 2-3 lineman about 3 yards outside the square. On the signal, the linemen try to block the linebacker out of the box. Keep the linemen coming quickly one after the other. Coaching Points- Make sure the linebacker is in good low position with the head up and delivers a good strong blow to each lineman during this football linebacker drill. 



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Step in the Hole Drill - Teach linebackers to flow to the football and then fill the hole for the tackle. Align about 6 dummies in a line about a yard or yard and a half from one another. A linebacker lines up on one side and a running back faces him on the other side. Have the back run down the line, then come forward into one of the gaps. The linebacker must mirror the back down the line, then fill the hole and make the tackle when the back makes his move. Coaching Points - Be sure the linebacker stays low and makes a quick  move into the hole with power to make the tackle. Can also have a lead  blocker on this drill with a second linebacker. Make sure they use correct techniques to defeat the block and make the tackle. 



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Attack the Lead Backer – Teach linebackers to attach the lead backer with proper  technique. Line up the linebackers in two lines facing each other. One line will be the Lead Backer and other will be the linebacker. Have the lead backer try and block the linebacker. The linebacker should step up and press the lead  backer out of the way. Coaching Points – Make sure the linebacker is using his hand and pressing the lead backer out of the way. 





Defensive Back Fundamentals o

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Cornerbacks – typically have one of the more difficult assignments in football covering fast, clever receivers in the passing game as well as being disciplined in their run stopping roles. Stance 

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Feet – Little less then shoulder width apart, outside foot slightly further   back then inside foot. Knees – Bend you knees to be in an athletic breakdown stance. Hands – Elbows with a slight bend and hands in front ready for contact. Eyes – Eyes reading the receiver.

Pass Defense 





Alignment – With any basic defensive alignment corners w ill line up over  the receiver to their side of the field, 5 to 7 yards from the line of  scrimmage and 1 yard to the inside of the receiver. This can change slightly depending on coverage. Read Steps and Play Recognition –The process of reading an offense starts with a defensive backs read steps. As the cornerbacks are watching the  ball and the snap occurs the cornerbacks initiate their read steps with two quick shuffle steps away from the line of scrimmage. As the read steps are  being taken, the first read that a corner must make is on the offensive lineman that is closest to him. The cornerback is looking for the offensive lineman to step back into a pass blocking position. Pass Recognition – As soon as a pass block is deciphered from the nearest offensive lineman, the cornerback must then immediately begin his  backpedal and get his eyes back to the receiver, (*the cornerback must focus on the belt buckle of the receiver in order to prevent being taken in  by a fake). •

Footwork – An important detail in playing Defensive back is to develop disciplined footwork that includes a weaving technique that allows a cornerback to maintain leverage and knowing how to effectively break out of a backpedal to achieve a dominant position on either a crossing route or a vertical route. (*Leverage is  positional advantage that either allows a cornerback to control a receiver or limit his routes) o

Example of Leverage – When a corner is aligned 5 yards from the line of scrimmage and 1 yard to the inside of the receiver, he has inside leverage and is taking away the inside routes and forcing the routes to go outside. In order  to maintain his leverage he must maintain his inside  position. If on the other hand he wanted to force the routes

inside he would align to the outside, forcing the routes to the inside. •

Breaking out of a Backpedal – When a vertical route is recognized, a cornerback must rotate his hips 180 degrees with no intermediate steps, continue with the route, and gain the dominant position. o



Dominant Position - The dominant position is a technique that pass defenders use to out-position receivers in order to knock the ball down, disrupt the timing of a receiver or even intercept the ball. o

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When a cornerback recognizes that a receiver is breaking off his vertical route and stepping into a crossing route, he must immediately plant one foot and drive with the other  toward the receiver. As the drive step is being taken the cornerback must then focus on gaining the dominant  position to either knock the ball away or intercept the pass.

On a vertical route, a defender gains the dominant position  by keeping his outside shoulder just in front of the inside shoulder of the receiver, make contact by bringing the outside arm across the body of the receiver, and then leaning the receiver to the outside. If a receiver gets by, or  has steps on a cornerback, the cornerback must focus on catching up to the receiver first, and not look for the ball until he has achieved the dominant position. On a crossing route, a defender gains the dominant position  by focusing on the topside shoulder of the receiver. The defender keeps his ball-side shoulder in front of, and on top of the topside shoulder of the receiver. By being in this  position, the cornerback maintains a window to the ball and is in position to break on the ball or rake the arms of the receiver as the ball arrives.

Rake and Rap up – Upon arrival of the ball on a pass play, if the cornerback cannot make the interception, he must then bring his inside arm down and rake across the receiver’s arms to knock the  ball away. As one arm is raking, the cornerback must rap up the receiver with his other arm delivering a blow to the receiver.

Run Recognition – When cornerbacks are taking their initial read steps and looking at the nearest offensive lineman, they are looking for the same thing every time, a pass block. When the pass block is eliminated, the cornerbacks can then fulfill their run defense assignments. (* If a receiver  continues on a route and does not engage the cornerback with a block, the receiver must maintain his discipline and stay with the receiver in the event of play action).



Run Responsibilities – The main responsibility of a cornerback o n run plays is to never allow a play to get outside of them. Their job is to turn the play inside where the strength of the defense is. The key to keeping the play inside is to control the outside shoulder  (*Half-Man) of the blocker while keeping his own outside arm free in case the runner tries to get to the outside. o

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Safeties – Safeties have different overall pass defense responsibilities than cornerbacks, but they share the same pass defense fundamentals described above that include read steps, footwork, leverage and dominant position. As with linebackers, safeties are expected to be aggressive and hard hitting run stoppers, and they utilize the same run defense fundamentals of stance, read steps, defeating  blocks and tackling. 

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Alignment – The safety alignment will depend on the overall coverage scheme of the defense. As a general rule of thumb for a basic defensive alignment, the Strong Safety aligns on the strong side, 10-12 yards from the line of scrimmage on the outside shade of the Tight End. The Free Safety aligns on the weak side, 10-12 yards from the line of scrimmage on the outside shade of his Defensive End.

Pass Responsibilities (Man Coverage) – In the basic 4-3 d efensive alignment the Strong Safety’s primary pass defense responsibility would be the Tight End. As the SS deciphers a pass play from his read step, he would then immediately focus on the TE, and then using good footwork, he would maintain leverage, achieve dominant position and be positioned to make a play on the ball. The Strong Safety’s secondary responsibility would be a running back working his way out of  the backfield to the strong side. The Free Safety on the other side is more concerned with the run but his primary pass responsibility would be a running  back working his way out of the backfield to the weak side. 

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*The half-man concept is simply attacking or controlling 1/2 of the blocker. The cornerback attacks the outside half  of the defender using his hands to control the blocker.

Pass Responsibilities (Zone Coverage) – When Safeties are in a zon e coverage scheme, their primary concern is to not let a receiver get behind them.

Run Recognition – When Safeties are taking their initial read step and looking at the nearest offensive lineman, they are looking for the same thing every time, a  pass block When the pass block is eliminated, the safeties can then fulfill their run defense assignments 

Run Responsibilities – When coaches are looking for a likely candidate to  play safety, their first question is “Can he run the alley?” The alley is the stretch of field from the tackle to the sideline. The primary responsibility for a Safety is to run the alley and hit like a dog. Unlike linebackers,

safeties are difficult to block and are usually unblocked which allows them to run downhill and make big hits. 



Defeating Blocks (See linebacker section for defeating blocks)

Defensive Back Drills o

Backpedal Drill - Teach DB's the proper fundamentals of the backpedal. Align your defensive backs into two, single-file lines at the sideline. Coach stands between the two lines and on his signal, the first player in each line backpedals out to the hashmarks. Continue with the next one in line until each defensive back has a sufficient number of reps. Coaching Points - Keep your DB's low, bent at the waist, shoulders over  the thighs with their weight distributed evenly over the balls of the feet. Be sure the players' eyes are locked on yours as they backpedal in a straight line (use the yard lines to keep them straight). 



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Backpedal & React to Ball Drill - Teach players to backpedal, then react to where the ball is thrown. Start this defensive back drill the same as Backpedal Drill. This time, as the DB's get to the hashmark, the coach points either to the right or left. The backs must break from their backpedal in the direction the coach  points. Coaching Points - Same as defensive back Backpedal Drill. Concentrate on getting your players to make a fast break in the correct direction. As a variation, you can have your DB's react to where you look and then throw the football to one of them. Hip Drill - Develop flexibility in the hips. Align your defensive backs into two, single-file lines at the sideline. On the coach's signal, the first DB in each line begins backpedaling. When the coach points, the players open up and run in that direction at an angle. Then the coach points in the other direction, the DB's pivot, open their  hips in the new direction and run. On the next signal, the defensive backs  break and move to the back of the line. Coaching Points - During this defensive back d rill, be sure your DB's stay low when changing directions and drive the near elbow to open up the hips. Don't allow the players to drift when turning and running. Emphasize correct stance, start and backpedaling fundamentals. 



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Pictures of more defensive back drills







Tackling 101 o

Breakdown Position - When teaching how to perform a tackle, you must begin by teaching good football position which is a position of leverage, mobility and  power. The feet should be shoulder width apart with the toes pointed straight ahead. The player should dip his body to lower his hips into the power position with knees bent and weight of the body forward on the front of the feet like  performing a three-quarter squat lift. The chest should remain over the knees while the knees remain over the toes. The eyes are focused forward and on the target with the hands relaxed hanging outside the knees. 









Focus – Aiming Point - The eyes of the tackler must be focused on the ball carrier. Approach - The approach is closing the distance between you and the ball carrier as quickly as possible while maintaining both good football  position and focus mentioned above. It is important to keep your shoulders square to the aiming point and the feet moving as well as knowing where your help is. The Tackle - While maintaining the breakdown position and focus, just  before contact, bring the hands forward and up in a quick and powerful motion causing the hips to come forward with force. As the hands come forward, contact is made with the tackler’s shoulder pa d to the ball carrier. The head is up and focused on the ball carrier. Wrap - The arms and hands should shoot through and up, grabbing cloth or anything they can to keep hold of the ball carrier. Finish - When evaluating a tackle, check for the hands shooting through. They should wrap around the ball carrier and the hands should be above the elbows. The eyes should be looking at the ball carrier. The feet continue to drive through the tackle while the ball carrier is brought to the ground. •

These key words can be used for each part of this tackling  progression:



Dip – Dip the hips into the power position and keep your head up while focusing on the target. Strike - Strike the ball carrier at the aiming point while sho oting the hands. Wrap – Shoot the hands and raise the eyes while fingers grab anything to keep a hold of the ball carrier. Drive – Don’t stop your feet but drive through the opponent. Lift the ball carrier slightly to keep you on your feet and your feet moving, to prevent dives and misses and to break the ball carrier’s  balance and contact with the ground.







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