33369999 Summer Training Project Report on NTPC by Prateek Jain VIT University

July 11, 2017 | Author: kumarhardik21 | Category: Boiler, Power Station, Steam, Fossil Fuel Power Station, Energy Production
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Download 33369999 Summer Training Project Report on NTPC by Prateek Jain VIT University...

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c ?1  cc c c cc c c c c  c cc  ccc c !c c c  c c c1cc c c cc c cc c cc c cc !c c ccc c   c  !c c#c  c 2  c: c  c c c55c cc  cc# c c c c #1 cc=cc  c >c c#1 c cc  c!c Î  c2c cc  c    c c# #c c c c c c 1c# c  c c c c cc# c5c# cc c !c c c c= cc cc  cc c >c 1c c 1c c cc c c  !c c c c c c c1c  c1c c ccc ccc c cc c  c #!c c c cc ccc  c!c, c  ccc#cc c c    c c c !c" c 2 c c#c ccc c cc1 c1cc c 21c c!c'  c c c#c cc c  cc

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c Îuel Preparation System c c $c  cc  cc c c c cc c c  cc c  cc cc cc1 ccc c cc cc#!c c cc2c 15cc c1 c c!c c 1c c#c# c  c c c ccc c c!c&cc c# c cc c c !c cc cc c= #1cc c>ccc c c c cc1ccc c c c#c   #!c ccc   c cc # cH(c# c#c c cc  c cc c55!c

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cccc c cc   c c cc c !c›c c c c cc   c c c 2  c ccc1c c c c c  c= cc>cc !c$c c  c  c c # c c1ccc#c  !c

c Îuel Îiring System and Igniter System c Îcc 15c c# c cc#c# cc c cc  c c # c c c cc c cccccc cc  c2c cc ccccc c# c c c cc cc# !c c1c c# c  c cc  c# cccc  cc  c  cc c # c c# ccc cccc   c c=# c c 2  c # c cc1c c c >!c

c Air Path c +2 c c c1cc1c c c c# !c c c c c c c cc c  c c cccc c c c #c#  c7cc1 cc c55ccc  c !c c c  c c ccÎ)c c# c c c# #c c cc   c   c c c 1c ccc  cc 1c#  c c  c!cpcc  c c c# cc  c c c c# cc $)c  c c c c# cc c cc1cc 1c c  !c cc c1 c c#c# c  c c   c 5cc cc$)c !c

c Auxiliary Systems c Î cpc(c c Î c cc  c c1c cc  c c# c c cc #c# c c=cc#>c c cc c cc  c c# c c c c !c c  c cc  c1c ccc c#cc cc# c !c,  cc  c cc     c cc cc c #: c c# c cc   c !c

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c  c0 c  c% c c& c c &ccc  c  c c c c  c c c c cc# cc cc#c c  c 1cc#c c c cc cc   ccc c1ccc#c c !cÎc c  c   c cc ccc#c c !c c ccc c c  ccc c  cc c  c c  c cc c  ccc !c" ccc  c ccc#cc c ccc #c c  ccc cc1 c c  c c c #!c   cc c 1cc#c1c cc c c ccc# c cc 0 c) c  c% c=)>!c c

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c>!c c  cc c  cc c# c c)c cc   ccc1c c#c 1c# cc7c ccc !

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c +   )& #* 

 

‘!" pcc ccc# cc c: ccc  cccc cc c c  cc c # cc c c #cc c  c cc

#!c c  cc c  c c !c c c1  cc c  c cc  ccc  c #1cc   c  !c c  c cccc cc c cccc1 1c c cc c #!c

c D c pc c c#c: c cc#c c c c#c1c c c cc1c  c    c1c cccc 1c c cc !c,  cc c c c  cc1c cc 1 c c c cc1c c cc#c  !cpc  c    c c c1  cc  cc ccc c c 5 c  c1cc1c cc  c#c  c c  !c cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c c c c c c c c c c c c c



c

 ,3 %  c c c  c cc c c  c cccc1  c c c   cc !c c 7 c  cc c  c1 c  c  !c$ c c cc  c   cc  c  c2 ccc  c ccc2c.c#c# cc=!-c?3>!cc 

#$‘$%  Oil System c pc 2  cc c cc cc  cc cc  c cc c  #c !c$c cc  cc c: c c c #8c  cc cc1 1 cc1cc1 1 cc# c c cc   cc1 c  c c cc !cpc ccc c c #c c   c c c1c# cc #c c c c1cc c cc 2  c !c

c Generator Heat Dissipation c c c c: ccc cc c cc !c 0c c c c#cc# c c c c c cc c c

c  c: c cc  !c" c c cc c  c  cc c# cc cccc c  c c  c  c c c ccc1 cc c c!c c c : c c c c   cc ccc #c c c# c  #c2c# c cc !c c c cc c   #c ccc2cc2 ccc !c c c c cc cc  c cc c c cc 1c  c c!c c c c#c c  c  c  cc c cc cc !c  c c  cc c c c c c1 c c   c cc 1c ##c#cc c cc !c & ccc cc1cc c c  cc !c c c c c c!c&cc cc c c c c c # c -!.-4c c cc 1 c c  c# c c c  cc cc cc cc cc cc1 c!c) c  c cc 1 cc !c

c Generator High Voltage System c c c1 c c c!-c4cc c cc-!.-c4cc c

!c c cc1 c c c  c c   c c # c ccc c c ccc #c cc c !c  c ccc c   c# c c c c cc   #c  !c c cc1 c c ccc c

  c ccc cc1 c c # c= ccc c c4>c c c c# cc cc!c c  cc cc1c c c ccc1 c !c   cc c  #c c cc  c cc !c$c c  c c c !-4 c c# cc1ccccc cc!-c4c# c !

c

c    c Êonitoring and Alarm system

c

c ccc Ac  cc c  !c"1 c c c   c1c c#c: !c   cc cc1ccc c  c c c cc c cc c c  c c  c1 c cc c !c

c c Battery Supplied Emergency Lighting & Communication

pc c#  c cc c c cc cc1cc  c  cc cc cc cc c ccc  8cc  c  c  c #c #cc  c c  c!c cc c c  c   c c cc cc c c !

c

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c c

+3+( @$($ c,+'[email protected] $›'c%@›(+&&c =pcp&$(c›[email protected]$+0>c c c "›0c+3+( @$($ c$&c,+'[email protected] +)Kc c  cc c# c c c cc  c cc c cc 1cc [email protected]›c,+'[email protected] ›@!c c c c#cD A=      c >cc c c#c  # c1c cc  cc#71cc cc1cc   c cc c# c c c cc cc c!c c (›p3c ›c& p+c c $cc c  c c c c !c c c# ccc c# c c c# cc  c 1c c c# c1 c# c 1c c  15c cccc c c cc cc c5c cc!c c  c c c2cc c ccc#ccc#c# c c c c  c c ccc# ccc c c c c c ccc 1 ccc  c  cc  c  c c  c c   c c  c# c c c !c c pc cc cc   cc  c cc c c c!c&c cc#c cc c  cc cc cc cc#c cc  !c c  : c c cc#cc1 ccc c #: c cc  !cc c  ccc c  c cc c c c#ccc  c c  ccc ccc1 c c c!c c ccc1 cc cc c  ccc# c c ccc  c  c c c cc c$%c cc#c c c !c c c c c cc c c#c ##c# cc  cc #c ccc#c !c$cc #cc#c c  ccc   c# c cc  cc  c c !!c c c   cc c #c=  >c cc #cccc c  cc55ccc #c# !c c cc c cc cc c c c cc c c ccc# c cc #c !c c

( cccc cc #cccc cc !c ccc c cc c 1c 1 cc cc# ccc cc c  cc1c c c c c# cc!c+ c c c ccc c  cc cc1 cc cc  c#c c  c1cc c!c c c cc c1c cc c cc c# cc cc c cc ccc  c c !c cc c  cc c  #c ccc cc  c !c c c c  c c #cc !  ccc  c c# cc !c c   cccc c  c c cc#c c cc c c1c 2!c(c cc c c1c# c# cc#c c c c#c #  c  c c c cc cc= 5c > c cc c  cc#c #!c c c

c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c c c

 c c c c*cc=c cLc-c >c c#c  c c Fc

c ·c+)$c=+ c  c) $>ccc c ·c+)$$c=+ c  c) $$>ccc c ·c(c/c$=(c/c$  >ccc

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c

(%4  $c+)$cc 1ccc c c-cFc c

Vc( c" c% c c Vcc c Vc& c c Vc"c c& c c Vc)c›c3c& c c c c c c c c

( c" c% c ( cc1c# c c  c  c# ccc!c&c c c1c # c c cc c cc1c# c1 !cpc c c c c c C c Cc c#c cc=1c c>c c cc ccc c c cc c c c c c c c c!cpc c c c c c : c c cc c1 cc5c1 c !c% c cc c  c c cc 1c c c c  ccC c C c cc cc cc cc!cpc c cc c c cc    c  c%c&  c'c)cc1 ccc c c c

ccccc c  !cc

c

 0„& c  c c  c c1 cc c#cc c 5cc#c c !c c  c c c cc c c  ccc ccc c c1c c c!c c c c c 1 c c  c c  c c1cc c ccc cc  !c&1c c #ccc cc ccc c c c c!cB c c c c c # cc !c

&c c c c  cc cC  C cccc c c ccc c cCcCcc c !c cCcCccccc  cc cCc Cc cc  c cc cc c c c c c    c c ccccc#c cc cc c  cc c ccccc!cB cc cc c  c  c c c cc c c c c  !c›c  c cc c    c c# c c c c cC Cc  cc cc !c , c c 7 cc cc c1c c# c1 c#cc  1cc1c !c c

c c c c

( cc c c c# c cc c cccc ccc=-c >cc5!c c ccc c cc c cc c c c# c ##5c1 c#c c c cc* c? !c$c c c # c 15c  cc c c 1c= c>c c cc cc cccccc c c c c  c c c 2ccc  c# c cc cc ccc  c c cc cc1c c2c c!c$c c ccc

# c 15c  cc cccc c#c c cccc cc cc c#  c c cc c# cc c c   c# c cc c !c c

@ › [email protected]›>c( c c c c1c ccc cccc( c" c% cc c @   c[email protected]› c !c ccc c  c cc("% c cc c   c cA c c c  !c(  cc   c  c# cccc c c c c  c c   #c c c c c c[email protected]›c c c 1c c c 1  # c c c c 2 c c5!c c

( c" c c ( ccc#cc c1  c c cc  c c c1 c  cc("%c !c( c cc c cc c c c# c  c   c cc c2c c1 c c cc("%!c

c &c c &c1c c   cc1  c c cc("%[email protected]›c cc 1cc c1  cc c c ccc c=>[email protected]›c cc cc cc c cc#c c c c c c !c

c  0%* „!V%   pcccc c# c  c c cc c cc c  c  c cc cc# 5cc c1 c#!cc cc c c c cc cc ccc c c 1  c c cc1cc cc: c c c  c !c c ccc cc c  c: ccc cc c  c !c3 c cc 1c c c c c c c cc cc c c  c# !c

c & c c  1 c c#c c c c c c1 c c c

cc c c!c& c c  c ccc=cc >c c   c c  c 1cc c c#cccc !cpc  c c   c1cc c ccc   Fc5  c cc  c c1  c# c cc#!c3 c cc#cc c# c

 ccc cc ccc cccc cc!c c#c c c  c cccc!c

c  3    &   „ !V%  

&c c c #cc c# ccc#!c c c cc c c cc ccccc cc1 !c& c c cc  cc c  c c cc c c1c !c& c c ccccc c5c  cc c  c1c c  cc# [email protected] cc c ccc  cc c c2c cc c!c(1c cccc c 1c ccc c cc c c c c c  !c& c [email protected] cc   c   cc c cccc!cc  c c   c  cc  c   cc  c  c!c

c c c c

@ c c

c1 c c#c c# c c  cccc# c# cc cc c  !cÎc c c# 5c c#c cc c c cc !c&c c c cc c c c  c c cc!c c c cc  c  c c# c c c c c  cc ccc !c c

c   

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"   cc c c c c# c !c c c 1c1 cc !c

c c c c c

( c& c c & c c cc c c c cccccc("%!cpc #c  cc cc c c cc c c ccccc  c cc cc#c1 c 1!cpc c cc c c cc :  cc 1c cc cccc!c c

&c c &c c cc cc cc c# c5!c c5c c c c c !c) cc c cc1c c cc  !c&c c#c  cc   c1# !c&cc c#c c c c  c c ccc c c cc  !c c

c   *0%

c c c

 c&  c c  c  c c#c cc c1 c cc  c cc = c>c cc !c   cc c c 1  #!c›c c  c cc ccc c  c c c#c1 !c c ccccc#c ccc  cc  c c c c cc cccc c ccc cc cc c cc#!c cc cc c cc c cc c#c 1 c cc c #1c c#c1 c  c !c c ccc  c cc1c ccc c cc  c1  ccc c c c cc ccc cccc !c c   c c#c c7 c  c cc c  c c  c ?c7 ccc  c ccc c# ccc c !c c

( c( c c  cc ccccc cc cc#c c cc cc c  c 5 c cccc c c c !cpcc c c 15c  c c c 2 c c5c c c#c ccc 15c ccc  c cc#c ccc c5c cc c [email protected]  c c c1 c c c cc c c c c1c c  c c c  ccc 15!c

c % 15c c c c 15ccc c!c c  cc cc    cc c cc1c# ccc 15 c c c cc  c c ccc ccc cc# !cpc  c c c  c c c c c c c c ccc  cc 15c  cc c   c  c ccc cc 15!c c  c  c c 15c c cc  15c !c

c  / *„& 5 

c

c p1  c c% 15c( c Vc% 15c cc c c c   c !c Vc$cc cc  cc   c c cc cc ccc # c   !c Vc( ccc c c c#c c c 15c# c c c#c c c  c cc c# !c Vc$ c c  cc# c c 15 !c Vc c c c  c ccc# c #c cccc c cc c # c c c  c2c cc c cc c  c# !c Vc, c  c  c c cc c c c c c c# c c c cc2cc c c# !c Vc c# ccc c c cc c c  !c Vc c#c c#c  c c cccc c c !c Vc%   cc c c#!c Vc c  c1 c: ccc cc # c c ccc # c cc cc c 1c cc !c c 15c cc c cc 15ccc#c# c c cc   c c cc cc cc cc c# c cc cc ccccc #!c c  c cc cc1cc  c c: c cc # !c c  c c c1  c  c cc !c&c c cc=c c >c c Vc›c !c&: c c cc !c&cc cc

c c c c c c  

3 0( +  cc  c cc  ccccc  cc c  ccc# c c c c c ?c c# c

cc c c: !c& cc c#cc5c : cc ccc#cc cc c c !c c1 c c cc c ccc c c c c  c c c #cc #!c%c1c c1 c  c    c cc    ccc  cc c c  cc c c c c5c !c› c: c c c cc#c c c  c!c cc  cc  c c  c c c#c c c  cc   c c c cc c# !c  c c: c c   c#c c# c #  c1 

 cc&Îc:  c c c  c cc1cc#c  cc# c  c: c  c c c cc c  !c

c

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Typesc

c pcc c c c#c ccc c cccc c#c   c# ccc # !cpc 1c  cc c c c  ccC c  c Cc=,$&> ccc c c c c  c# c 5c=&Î>c  c2  c !c›cc c ccIc1 

Jc  c !c( c# c c c c c c  c c c #cc c c !c c c cc c c c c c  c cc  c c !c c: c  cc ccc cc: c  c c c cc  c Fc c ›c c# c c c1 5 c cc cccc# c c7c cc  cc !c c , c=&Î>c c# cccc c c c c  c c c c cccc cc&Îcc: ccc !c c 4 

c c# c 1c c c= ccccc5cc  cc c  > ccc c: ccccc c1 c c  c=Nc>!c4 

c c# c c :  c ccc  1 c cc- c1!c c pc c# c c cc cc#c cc  cc  1 c c c c  c cc c c c # cc c cc  c c c#c cc !c c ( c# c c   c #cc c c c c1 c:  Fc    c#ccc c-ccc cc c c c c c1!c

      

*  &1 c c   c c c c#c Fc

c By the current rating: c ·c  c c c= 2 cc c c cc1c c   c >c ·c c( c# c cc ccc c c ·c c3 # ?3  cc cc c c c c ·c c$ c c c#c ccc cc  ccc c c c1 c !c

By voltage class: c

·c 3c c=c c**c1cp(>c ·c c"c c=c c!c4cp(>c

c By insulating medium: c ·c pc ·c c, c=&Îcc2 >c ·c c›c ·c c4 

c c

By construction type: c

·c $cc ·c c› c ·c c$  c ·c cB c ·c c c ·c c)  cc=1 #c c  c>c ·c cÎ2cc=#c >c ·c c31 c ·c c)  c ·c c c ·c c  c ·c c cc/c c c ·c cp c

c 0      „ „

c c By IEC degree of internal separation: c ·c 'c&  c ·c c c# c  c c  c c ·c c  c c2 c c  c c# c# c ·c c  c c2 c c  c c  c c# cc c cc ·c cÎ  c c  c c cc

·c  c c2 c c  c c cc ·c c  c c2 c c  c cc  c  c

c c

By interrupting device: c ·c Î c ·c cpc c( c c ·c c c›c( c c ·c c›c( c c ·c c4 

c( c c ·c c, c=&Î>c( c# c

c By operating method: c ·c c    c ·c c c ·c c&?c c c c

By type of current: c ·c p c c ·c c)c c

c By application: c ·c c)# !c ·c  c c c pcc c c c1 c c c c1 c c2  c   c#  c1 

c c#  c c    cc c c 2ccc cc c #!c @  c c  c c c c c cc# c c  c c   !c$c'cp c c$+++c cp'&$c  c c  c c c cc ccc c$+(c   ccc c  c1 1c c1  !c c c

Î c c ›c cc# c c c cc ccc c c  c c1 c c cc  c1cc  c  !c& c c1c c c c cc !c & c cc cc c c 1  # c# c cc cc  cc c c !c c

&  c c cc c c c: c c  c c cc 1c c c c !c c"  c( c1cc : cc;!cÎc2  c c cc cc c c  ccc c#cc c c1c cccc c: c cc c c c#ccc c c c cc cccc!c (2cc c#!

c

c c c c c c c c c c c c

00 (VV3 0( +

c "c1 c cc  c c c c # c c c 1 cc cc1!c"c1 c cc  c c cc cccc c c c cc1 cc !c c c c cc ccc c c c  c  cc c c c cc1 cc !c c c c : cc  c c# ccc cccc:  c cc  c  !c cc1 cc c1 c #1cc4c c  c  c c #1c-c4c cc !c c c

c

c 0    *  „ „

c cc1 c c c1c ccc cc;c  c c  ccc ccc !c$c c#c1c cc c #c cccc c cc1 c cc4!c c c c c

Îunctional Classification )c c+ c&c c  c c #1c c  c1c cccccc c ccccc  c c!c  c c cc c c c c c  c c  c c c  c c1 cc c  cc cc c cc cc  c  c !c cc ccc cc# # cc cc   c cc  c# cccc !c, c c#cc cc

 cc cc cccc1cc c cc 1c ccc c!c$c cccc c 1cc c  c# cc cc c c c= ccc pc ccc4>c cc cc c c c c c c cc c   cc# c 1c c  1c  cc # cc= cccpc cc4>!c c c

c c

c  && &  .0    

c c

"( c&c c c  c cccc c cc c !c&c cc c#c c c c c!c c c c c c c c  c c cc  c!c c

( c c c c c ccc cc  c# c c c #c c cc !c  c 1c cc c  c c cc   c  !c( c c cc :  c c1cc c   cc1 c!c  c c#c c c cc !c  c c c ccc# cc4ccc4!c

c Î c c c c c c    c c cc c1c c ccc c c 2c!c c c ccc# cc c c c c c cc !c  c c  c ccc  cc !c  c cc c1  c cc c !c$c cc c c c  cc ccc c cc  ccc cc cc 1c cc!cp cc # cc c c#c  cc  ccc !c  c c c ccc# cc4ccc4!c c

( c c c pcc1 c c# cc  #c c  c  c c# c c

cc c1 c=c 2 c1 c ccc cccc >FcBc c c c c2 ccccc ccc cc GcB c # c cc  cc  c cc !cÎcc   c c c# cccc 1c c c cc1 cc  c# cccc cc #cc  c cc c c ccc 1ccc1cc#c  c# c cc !c c  c  c$+(c.c cc c ccc  c c cc1 c c# !c c c# c  c#c: ccc1ccccc c  ccc  c=  c 5c O>c c# ccc c c  c 1 1c cc ccc c  c c cc 1c  !c

c ccc cc c# c c: cc cccc cc11 !c  c c#c: cc1cc 5ccc ?ccc ccc11 c cc c c cc cc  c    cc c  c cc  c# !c &c1c ccc 1cc  c cc c# c cc  c# cc cc!c c c

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

%+( VV( + (+  pcccc  c c ##1 c)›3c  cc c  c c c cc!c ccc cc cc c  c cc!c c c  c c cc  ccc cc cc)›3c !cpcc cc c ?c cc c   c cc1cc c cc c cc c c[email protected] c ccc c=p(cc)(> cc c c c  ccccc c cc!cpc)›3c ccc c c cccc  !c" cccc #7ccc c1 c ccc  !c(:  cc c c c c c!c c c c cc  #c c cc#c-cc=!.-c0>!c @ 1 c c c ccc #1c-c!cp c)›3c c c c 1  #c ccc c-c0cc*c4c c cc c cc0cc!c4!c&  c # c c1cc c c c c c c1 cc!c c c

c  *%    

c Êajor Components c c  c 7cc c c)c›c3c& !c  c c1c c Fc !c&c !cÎ c !c( c=+ >c *!c  c›1 [email protected] c=" c/c   >c

Auxiliary Components c pcc cc c c c cc c 2  ccc c)›3c & !c c c#   cc c cp 2  c(c1c c Fc !cp 2  c( c !c [email protected] cLc!-cc>c

c DOL Reversing Starter c cc c1#c ccc c c c#c cc c  !cpc1c cc c ccc c c1cc c c cc    !c3  cc ccc cc)›3c  Gcc cc c ccc c c !c c

c

 (/ *%      

+2 c cc& Fc c pc1 ccc ccc)›3c& c c c% c&: ( c !c c ccc cc c c  c c c c 1 c#!c0c c*4 c-c"5 c c  ccc cc ccc*4!c(:  cc c c c cccc

 c !c cc cc   c c c*4ccc c c c *4?*4c  !c

c Êotor Direction Reversal

c ( ccc c c% c&: ( cc: c c  c c !c c c#c 1c# c c cEc c c3c c 3c#cc  c cc!

c

c c c 

     

(%4 c $c+)$$cc 1ccc c ccFc

c Vc, c c Vc%c c Vc   c c c c c c c c c c c c c c 

m  +6 +7 c# c c cc ccc1c  c c1c c c c cc # cc c!c  c c cc   c c  c  c c1!c c  c c cc #cc 1c# c c c c c c c c# cc ccc cc cccc  cc c c  c  c c1 ccccc cc c=   >!c c c cccc  cc cc ccccc c c1 c cc  cccc !c c

c c 893 & #   „!V%  c

c c c c c cc c #1c  c  c c #c !c c c c  c cc  c c c cc  c c  c c# c #c !c  c c c 1 c c c cc c c  c=0>cc1 c  c cc c cc;c0!c c c   ccc   c c ccc c  cc c  cc

  c cc cc cccc'cp c c c   c cp c=c c-ccc+  cp  cp   cp c c& c p >!cpc   c  c%c& cc c-c"5c c c

c c  cc0c c;-c0!cpcc c c cc 1c c cc  cc c=c cc c# c #>ccc#c ccc #cc cc  !c"cc cc c cc c cc # ccc c c c: !c c: cc  c c   c# c   c cccc c cc  !c cccc   cccc: c#c #c c  !c cc  c cc c  c cc c c cc !c  cc1 c c ccc c c   c c# ccc c !c c cc c#c #c ccc c c c c  ccc ccc c c  cc  c c c  !c cc c c  c c   c  c=!! c> c c  2   c  c=!! c c #c> c  c  c=!! c  > c   c#c=!! cc c > c cc c=!! c c c: > c ccc cc cc c c #c  !c c

c  (     „ „

c &cc #c cc c  c  cc c cc1 c c cc c c c c :  c c-c"5 cccc :  c ccccccc!cpc c  c  c c

 #c c c c  c c  2c c   c c c c c  c2c#ccc cc !c= cc6 c 9cc c c c c c c >!cÎcc ccc  cc c c  c  2c# c ccc  cccc!c c  2c c  ccc c ccc cc  c!c c c c c1c c c c   c# cc ccc  c c c c  c1 ccc c!c c1 c  1 c cc c ccc c cc ccc1 c  c   !c c  c cc cccc c c1cc cc c cc1 c ccc c!c $c ccc c  2c# ccc c# c cc  cc c c  2c cc2cc cc c c c c  2c  c c c cccc !c c c  2c c#c  c ccc1 c!c, c c c c cc# c# c c c cc c# cc c cc c c c c   c c1[email protected]c ccc c#c cc c c c c1c  c  c c cc cc  c c c !c cc cccc cc c c c ccc!c cc c1 c   cc cc !c c c c   c ccc  c# cc cc  c  c cc c c1# c c c  c cc cc  c  c c 1 c !c cc cc cc cc  # cc  cc# ccc c1 cccc cc c#ccc c c cc c c#c #1!cc c#c ccc !c 

 ‘'   c ccc c c c  cc c# c c c # c  ccc c cc c c c cc  c# cc:  c cccccc c  c  2c c cc c c# cc!c+ cc cc c#  ccc c cc!c c c  c cc cc c#c# !c c# c ccc cccc=7 c cc>c cc#c# c c cc ccc#!c cc  c#ccc  c c cc !cc c

c c  * & #  

c c cccc1ccc  cc c c  c c !c0 ccccc c c  c cc c c c c cc!c cc c ccc c  c #cccccc c cc c#!c c# c cc cccc c c c cc c cc c cc1 c c cc ccc cccc 6 c1 !9c+ c ccc c c 1cccc  c  ccc !c c  c c#ccccc   cc c # c c#c ccc c  c !c cc#c ccc2c !c c  cc c cc c c  c: cc 1  ccc   ccc !c   c c c69c: c1 c c  c   c c c  cc 1 c1cc  c !c c c # cc  c   c c c c  c c cc c  c  c c1 c#cc c#c# !c c1 cc c#cc c#c# !c cc# cccc cc c#c cccc #c# ccccc cc#cccccc#c# c c ccccccccc cc !c cc cc# ccccc cc c c c6 9cc69c c c c  #c c!c ccc cc #cc cc c# c 1cc  ccc c#c  c  ccc# cc#c!c cc  c c cc!c›c cc c# c c cccc !c c cc cc1 c  cc cc6# !9c c # c ccc c# c c c6cc# c !9c c

# c cc cc5cc cc cc c 1 !c$cc c c cc  c c cc c#ccc cc  c cc c# c cc cc cc !c cc cccc c #c ccc c c    c # c ccccc!c$c c  c  c  c c  c1 cc c# cc c ccc c cc 1c cc!c&ccc c c c  ccc c  cc c c c  cc  c c cc cc cc  c#ccc# c!c c c  c cc c #c  c c#cccc c  c c !c) ccc1 cc   cc c# cc c #c c 1c c c c  !c $c c c c   ccc cc#  c ccccc c  c c 1c c c# cc!c c cc c# c c c1 cc ccc#c c  c cc2cc!c c c

''  c cccc cccc ccc c c# c cc # c   c  ccc#cc!c cc cc  c c c  c c ccc ccccc!cpc  cc c  cc ccc c  c c c!c cc c  ccccccc  c  ccc cccc c c!c ccc  c c c c  cc1  c c1cc c  c ccc =ccc c c ccccccc c #c c  >!c c c  ccc cc c c # c ccc c#   ccc c !c  c c  c   c c cc c c1 c c !c$c c c c c #c c 1c cccc# c cc  cc !c

  + * & #   

(c  c c1ccc c1cc cc   cc cc c  c c1cc c cc   c  !c$c c6 2  9cc cc c c c 2 c   ccc  c#c c c#c c c2 ccc c c cc 2 cc cc!c$cc c6  9c  ccc c c  c c c c #cc c ccc ccc cc #c c c!c$cc6 c c 9c ccc ccc c cc c  c ccc c1c c 1 ccc cc  c cc c# ccc c !c cc ccc c cc1 c ccc c c c c c ccc!c$c  c #c cccccc c= cc c c c> ccc cc1c# c c cc  c  cccc# !c ccccc cccc# c  cc c c c cc c!c c cc ccc c ccccc c c cc  c c c!c c c c c #7cc c c c c cc c c#cc# c cc c !c ccccc c c  c cc cccc  cc 2 c c2 c cc

cc c !c c c c  c 1  #cc c    c ccc c c 1 c!cpcccc ccc cccc c #c c cc cc c ccc c c cc#c  !c  c c c#c c ccccc   c cc c 1cc cccc2 c c c c c  !c c ccccc cccc c c  c c c ccccccc !c c 

 ‘ c pc #c c: c# cc c  cc c c c 1# !c c cc# c c#c c# c c# c c cc cc  c cc !c$cc cccc cc1 cc cc 2 cc cc cc  cc?c c c6  9c # cc c # c ccc!c c c cc 2 cc ccc ccc c c##c c c cc  c c  c21c1# ccc1 c cccc #c  c!c c c  ccc c c# c cc  c  c7  9c c6c 9c# !c   c# c ccc !cc: c # c c7 cc  ccc#c c  ccc# c c 2  c !c0c cc#  c c c #c ccc cc c cc c ccc69ccc# c  !c& cc c c6  9c c#cc c 6 9cc69c cc# cc  c cc ccc cc c c c c!c,c  c cccccc # c c cccc1# c21 c c  cccc  ccc# c !c,  c c69c cc# c c  cc 6# ##9c !c

c c ()* +‘+‘,‘ c pc c c: c 2  c cc c cc c # c c ccc#  c cc     c c c c  5c c c cc c c2 c c c   c  !c'c c c: c cc c cc : cccc5c c  c cc !cÎc  c cc

 #c ccc: c c cc c cc cc c !c›ccc  c c ccc   c  c #1c*c 4p c 1c c c c c ccc cc c  c ccc cc cc c cc  c # c c cc#  c c c  c c2 c c c c !c c c 1c 7c 2  c c c c#c cc c !c  c c1c c Fc c !c3 # c›c& c !c" c(c& c !c& c›c& c *!c& c(c0 c& c -!c+2 c& c c + c c c  c1  cc  cc c c c  c   c c c#c  cc !c c c cc  cc cc1  c c c ccc  c c c1  c  1cc c# c c c#c# !c

c %@› +( $›'c c cc c c  cccccccc  c ccc !c%cc c c# cccc1c =  c  c  c!>c c c c c #c c  cc c c cc1c1!c ccc  !c   c c c1c cc c c#ccc c c1 c c cc c cc c#c!c0c cc ccccccc: c c  c c c cc cc   cc c !c c c c c  c1c ccc5cc# c c  c  c c: c cc c c  ccc cc c # c c c c: c=1c c c1  c!>!c"1 ccc c c c  c1cccc  cccc cc : c c  c  c c 5c !c%1c c c  c c cc cc cc c=c c c c  c c ccccc>!c  c c cc c c c c c  ccc  c ccc   !c›c#c c c c

1c c#c 1 cc cc c c cc1!c cc cc c !c ccc c c  c  c c : ccc cc  cc cc c c1c  !c%   c  c?  c c c  c 1c c cc c  c2!c  cc2c  c 1ccc cccccc cc cccc :  !c+cc c cc ccc c c    cc  cc !c$c  c1cc c2 c#cc  c cc c c  c=&B > cccc c    c cc cc1c !c,1cc#cc c  c  c cc cc    cc  c  c2ccc 1ccc1cc1 !c%ccc# c   c c c c c c c!cp cc# c1cc c c c cc c cc cc1c cc cc c  #c c  c cc c 1  #c   cc   c # c c1c  c c c cc c   c c1 c!c  ccc#cc#cc#c cc1c  c c !c ccc cccccc c  cc  c c !c%c c c#c 1cc cc  c1 c= cc Ac c c c2 c > c c ?cc c  c c  c c cc c 1 c c c  c  cc  c c  c   c c c c  c c  2c #!c%1c c ccc  c1  c   c c  c  c c c cc c  c!c cc c cc c  cccc1!c&  c c cc#cc c ccc !cÎc  c c  cc cc c cc cc= c c >cc!c   c[email protected] )cc >cc# c= cccc >c c#ccc c cc c c!cÎ cc c cc c cc cc c   c c c ccc

c=!! cc>!c c c cc ccc cc c1c cccccc1c!c cc  c1c cc  c1  c  c c  cc c#c cc  c1c c c1# !c   ccc   c# c c c c#ccccc !c%c c c c#c1cc  cc !c c ccc   c  c c c  c!c c

GENERATOR PROTECTIVE ÎUNCTION %c1c cccc c c c #:  cc  ccc c c ccc!c cccc# c c cc1c c!c  ccc c c c1 c1c !c$ c c c cc c cc  c ccc c  ccc c cc cc c6 c19!c$cc cc  cc c1!c0cc 1c c c c    c 1c#c1 c ccc cc1!c c 6  9c cc1c1c c c1c c c c c c c    !c&c  c c c c c   ccc c ccc !cp1 cc c c 1cccc c1!c  c c  c c 1c c c  c 1c1c  ccc21c c 1c   c c c 1c1c !c c #c c c1c# c  c c cc #c c  c1c c c cc  c# cc2cc c cc1c c1c# cc   c c c c   c1c#c  !cpc   c c  c cc1c c: c ccc c c c c #c#cc c cc c1c#  cc c c !cp 1 cccc   c c c#c  c 1c  cc1c   !c c c  c# c c cc c   c c c c#c  cccc cc c c#  cc5c cc  c c cc   c  cc c c  cc !c @ ccc1c c1ccc c ccc c c  !c c c  cc c c  c Gcccc c c   c= c c >c !c ccc c c c c#cc # cccc  cc c  c !c c 1  c c  c c c1  !cp   cc !c&cc 2# cc !cÎc  c c  c c c  ccc c cc c c  cc c cc ? c  c c c c c cc  !cÎ cc c ccc c c c c cc  cc=  1c >!cÎ  ccc c cMc 11M  c= cc  c;;>c cc c c c# c c c2cc !c c ccccc c# cc  ccc# c1c c=1c#> c# c c c c# c c 1c cc  c c# c2ccc c c c !c$1  # c# cc2c# c cc ccc

2c# #c c c c   c# c c  c2c c c# #c!cpc # c cc c c   c  c1c !c c ccc #c c  c c  c!cpc #c cc c cc #c cc c  c cc  c cc ccccc c  c c =!! c- c-; c c.>!c›c c#cccc  c=!! c*;>!c c  c cc21cc c ccc cc   cc ccccc cccc c # c c cc !cpc2 c#  c cc c  cc cc c1c c c1c# cc cc cc1c 1!c c c -„&D.&Î&% c c

c

c c c c$cc# ccc c c cccccc c cc  c c1c c cc1  cc c ccc c  Acc  !c$  c c# cc cc1c c cc  cc !cÎcc c cc c1  c cc cc1c !c c1  c ccc c   c c c ccccc!c c c  c  c c  cccc c1c !c c1Ac  c ccc cc !c4  cc c, c%c c2 c !c c

c c

Synchronizer and Sync-Check Relays (Îunctions 15 and 25) c# c c c=->cc c=->c1cc c# cc c c c#c# c ccc    c c 5ccc !c  cc cc  c cc1 c cc c c c c  c#cc c c cc cc# c c#c!c&c c#cc c cc c c c1 !c c cccc :  c  c#cc c cc  c c#cc c c1c1  !c pc  cc c c1Fcc 5c cc !c c 1c c # cc# ccccc 1cc 1c c c  5c c c c cc ccc  c c cc1c1!c $cc   c  cc 1c  ccc   cc c c #cc c ccc c  c!c(cc# ccc    ccc c cc c1  c1c  c c :  c c c c ccc#c1  !cp cc   cc ccc# c# ccc69c# c ccc cc# ccccc c1  ccc c #c c c# cc c !c c c c ccc cc

c 5c c cc cc c  c cc c= c->!c c  c c#c  !c  ccc 1c c c  c cc  c# c c#ccccc c 5 c c Gc 1cc c c c c#  c1 c ccc cc#!c

c Short-Circuit Protection (Îunctions 21, 50, 51, 51V, and 87) c c c ccccc c  c ccc c cc cc  !c› c c c#ccc cccc  Ac#  ccc c c  cc 2  c  => ccc  # c c#  cc  c c# c=$%> c#cc  c cc   cccc  Ac!c$c c cc$%cc cc c  c c#cc c c c c 2  c   cc cc  c !c cc#c# c ccc  c c cc  c cc c c c  cc cc c cc ccc Ac cc cc  c c c1 cc !c"1 c c6#9c c cc c c c1cc c c 1c  c  c cccc c c c c ccc c cccc

c !c c

c     &:0 5„  % 

c c=-4>cc c1 c1c c ccc1 ccc 1cc  c#c c c c c c cc #  c c c!c cc2cc cc c# c cc !c  c   cc c!cp  c # c c c# c ccc c c1c# cc1 # c !cpc  c c ccc  ccc cc cc c  c1 c c  !c c  cc c=.>cccc  c cc1cc  cc1 c c  cc  !c'  cc c c ccc   c cc1c# cc c.c !c›ccc c !c cc1cc 2  c    c ccc1cc c   c  c c1 c c cc 2  c  !c+ c.cc 5c c cc c c   !c c cccc c c c c c  c !c c ccc  c11 c ?c1c  c cc# ccc c c c c c cc c c 1c  c c c1 c c c c c c c c cc c1 c c c !c c cc c cc c cc cc Accccc   cc  cc c c1 c c  c c= cc cc#cc# cc   c11 cc1c c>!c  c1c1c  c#cc  cc c c  cc1c !c$cc   cc1 ccc1 cc c  c c2c  c1!c$c c c=->c c c1c cc   c

cccc c c1 c!c c1 c c#c2 c  c c cc c# cc c  #c cc!c

c Volts/Hertz Protection (Îunction 24) c (c  c cc1c2 cc c c1!c"1 cc c1c1c 2 c  ccc# #c cc  ccc c cc Ac   ccc:  ccc c!c  ccc c  c4?"5cc#c c c c!cpc1  # cc c c 1c1c2 c c c   ccc 5 !c›c1 c cc c4?"5cc c  c #c cc #c c cc c c  c=% >!c› cc c cc% c c c1cc2 c cc  c # cc c 1  c cc c c= c c1 >c# cc4?"5c  # c  cc !c c

Over and Under Voltage Protection (Îunctions 59 and 27) c &c1 c c c c c cc=cc  c cc  c-;,'>!c›11 c c c c c c#  ccc=*>c=1c 2 >c c c c cc !c) c   cc=-;>cc c1c#  ccc=*> c# c c4?"5cc c  c1c  c   c1ccc c1 cc#cc c1  !c c c 1 c c c  c c cc c c cc c% c 1  ccc c # cc c c !c

c c Reverse Power Protection (Îunction 32) c c1c ccc ccc c cc ccc  !c$cc  cccc Ac c cc  cc1c c c  cc c!c$ ccc1c c c  c c 1: c cc#c #ccc c   c  c c c c  c c !c c cc cccc#!c"1 ccc  c1c cc c 1 c cc c ccc1!c› c cc c1 c c #c ccc1cc!c  c c c c cccc c= c c cc c c  c cc

# c #c: c cc-!cÎcc c  1c c: c1cc cc1cc c=> c c c  cc c c#c !c c

Loss-of-Îield Protection (Îunction 40) c c c c #c c1c c c cc c  c1 c cc c  c2 ccc !c c c c c#c# c c2  c 2c !cÎc  c c  cc cc c#  c c  c c c2 c c  1ccc#  c c  c cc  c1 c   [email protected]> c c c ccc c c c c cc c  2 c!c0c c ccc2 c c c   ccc c# cc  c c cccc-c c c c c #c cc c c cc1 c  ccc  !c% c 1  #c: c c cc  c c c c c c cc [email protected]cc   cc  ccc# c  c c1 c c  cc   cc  c  c c cc# c cc cc1  c c c c cc  !c(c c c ccc c c   c c1  ccc c#c  ccc1   cc   c cc  c=c cc c  c  c c c cc c cc  c cc c c  c c c# ccc  c cc cc cc  c >!c c ccc c c ccc   c c c #  c Gc1 cc cc c c# cc1c  cc c c c!c$c ccccc c c c=# cc cc c  c c c c c c  > cc cp'&$c c c c

 c  # c: c c1 c!cÎc  c c c #ccc c cc c c ccc !c$cc c[email protected] )c cccccc1 c&(p)pcc)(&!c$c c  c= c c #c c c cc  cc2c cc 6 9c > cc[email protected] )c c c c  c=1c cc c c cc c c1 c>!c$c  c c=  c  c >cc  c c[email protected] )c c#c cc c  c cc c ?ccc !c$ccBc& cc  [email protected] )c c c c  c-cc c-P(!c0c[email protected] )c c c c c    cc ›+cc cc[email protected] )!c"1 c c c  c [email protected] )c c c # cc c=!! c c c  ccc  cc1 > c[email protected] )c  c cc c  c cc!c c  ccc  c#c ccc  c c cc c cc  c !c&c 1c c cc #  c ccc#c @ )!

c

c c c c c c c c c c c c

c

@p'&Λ@[email protected] c pc  cc c c1cc c c ccccc c  ccc c c c c c c  c c#c  !c0c c  c c cc c  c c c c2c  cc !c$ c c cc ccc c c# cc c  c c cc  2ccccc  cc c1 cc  cccc !c c c c c c c cccc  c c1 cc cccccccc  c c c  cc# !c c

c

c 9 *  „ „

c p'&$?$+++c c c  c c c c c1 c11cc    c1c  c cccc cc  cc #c c cc c c c !c c  cc c ccc #cc c c# c: !c$c cc 1c  c: c c   c cc  #c c c 1  c  c  c c  c # c c c  cc ccc ccc !c›  cc c1c c# c c c cc c  c#  cc#c c c c c #c ccc  !cp cc

  c c cc c c#  c c c c c   c c1 cc c c1c c  c c  c  cc1 c  c cc  !c c c c c  c  cc c   ccc cc c # cc c ccc   # !c"1 cc  # ccc2 c cc1ccc !c c cc c c  c  cc # c c#cc cc# c c 1c   c c cc !c   c c 2 1 c cccc cc  cc# c c  c#c c cc c :  c   cc c1  c  c1 c c !c c c  c c c  c cc1  c  c c  c  c  c c!c$c   c  c %c&  cc c2 1 ccc  c  c11c c c c# c c c!c%c  c c c 21 c# c  cc  c  cc  c c  c  !c ccc  cc cc ccc  c c #cc c cc# c  c cc c   c c c c4pc c #1!c%c c   cc c c c #c c  c  c# c c cccc cc c # c  c c c c# c  !c c2 c cc c  cc c1  c c c c# c1 !c%c  c  c#c c c c cccccc c c#c1 c 1!c%c  c cc# ccc   ccc c  c cc#cc  cc cc !c%c  c c 1  #c c c  c  c c cc c c cc c c c=,&B>c   c c cc  c  c

cc c# c !c%c  c c 1  #c c c c c    !cc c

c c „  *    „ „

CONSTRUCTION c pcc  cc c1c c c=  >c c  c1 c c c cc1cc !c%c  c c cc6c 9c =  >cc1 c c c c c cc1c c c  #c c c=c1  cc >!c(1 c c  cc c c6c9c=  >ccc c1 cc1c c c   #c c c c1  c c=c1  cc >!c+cc  c c  c   c#cc c cc  cc c !cc c Vc4 c c#c c c !c+1 c  cc cc   ccc c  #c  c cc= >ccc [email protected]>cc c  c= >c c c!c ccc2c c c c cc c  c=%Q$@>!c ccccccc  c cccc c#c cc c c cc c1c=+>ccc c=%Q$+> c   c 1c c#c# c# ccc1 c cc cc1 c 1 cccc c cc c1  !c0cc cc c#c c cc1c=%Q$+ cc cRcc1cQc c >ccc ccc#c c c c1c=%Q$+ cc cRc c1cQc c  >cc c c cc#c ccc#c cc c !cc c Vc$ cc c ccc cc c!cc c c cc c # c%Q$@ c=c >cRc!ccQc c cc#c c cc cc ccc1c c1!c cc1c  c1cc c cc c%Q$@ c=c >cRc!ccQcc !c ccc  c c c c!c c Vcp cc c#c cc  c cc1 c1 c c cc c-cc.-c  c1c=4> cc1c cc c cc c 5 c c  c  #c c c1 c #1c c1!c 4 c c#c6c9cc#c 5c# cc1  c1c 1  #!c c 7 cc1 ccc1c  c cc1  cc c c # c1 ccc c#c c#c  c c  !c c Vcpcc  c 1cc# c  c c  c c  c  c c c!c+1c ccc c c c cc  cc   c c6 9c   ccc1 c c c  c cc

c11 cc  c  c#c c c c cc  Ac  !c c c cc  c cc ccc  c # c c cc  !c$cc ccc  c  ccc c c c1 ccc  cc  c c#c #7cc1c c c c !c c  c c c c 1 c c   c ccc   ccc1c c cc  !c

c  c cc1cc c cc cc  2 cc cc c cc c c c   cc c  c  c# c c c c c  c  !c cc c#c cc  ccc cc# c  c  cccc# c   c c #c  ccc!c(cc c#cccc c cc c c c c1c #c c  c  !c c  c c!ccc  c c!c!c cccc c#c   cc    cc  cc c cc c  c  [email protected]   cc c c c c c c c 2  c   c cc cc  [email protected]   cc c cc c cc cc  cc c c# c c ccc c 2 c c  c!c c c cc c  cc cc  c c c ccc c c c # c c  !c

cccccc   cc c c# ccc c #c :  c !c0ccc c c c#c  #c c  cc   ccccc cc  c  c cc  c  #!c$c c  cc c c cc cc c  c11c  c  c cc c  c c#c cc c 5c!c ccccc# c# c  c  c   c  c cc cc cccccc c  c#  !c cc c cc   cc  c #c ccc  c# cc c c#c# c c c# ccc c  ccc c2 c !c c cc c#c1 #c c c  c c cc c  cc !c cc   c c c c c# cccc 1 c c cc c c c c  c   c c1c c c c   c c c# cc c  2c cc c c  c  2 c c  c c cc c c cc 5c !c c 2 c  2c c ccccc  cc ccccc cc    c 1c c   c  c c: c1c2 c c  c c2c cc  c c   c!cÎcc

  cc  2c cc   c#c!c c c!c ccc    cc c cc#c  c!c cc!-c !c c cc# c c cc c ccc  Fcc c cc !c c Vc$c c  ccc cc c cc c !cÎc  c   ccc c   c1cc#ccc c !c$c c   ccc c c   c c c   c cc cc!c0c c c  c ccc c cc c1ccc cc # !c c

c c   % * )*  & 

Vc$c c  ccc1c c c cc c  !c ccc   c c c  cc cc c

  c6  9 c c  cc  c c c cc c cc c #c ccc !c) cc 1  cc  c c 1 c   cc ccc#c cc :  ccc c   ccc c#cc1!c 4  c c c c c c 1c c1c  ccc5c c  !c

c c   % * )*  & 

c indings ccc cc   c c c  ccc  cc c cc c#c c   c  c ccc  c  c cc!c(c c   c cc  c   c c c cc  c!c0c   cc c c  cc21c c c c ccc cpc  c c#c cc  c c cc c  c c!c (c cc  cc cc c c2 1 cc c# cc  c5c  cc   c c c#c  c  #!c$c  cc2c c c  c  c c c1# c c c#c c c1c c!c c c ccc   c c   c cc c   cc c  cc   c ccc c c ccc c !c c  c c#c cc  c c7cc ccc cc cc c ccc  cc cc c c1  cc  cc cc1c  c c  cc=>c c# c7cc  c cc!c$1 c c c#c #7cc ccc  2c

c ccc1cccc cc c c c1 c#cc c c1c  c c cc  c!c%c c cc c c cc1 c  c c cc  c cc  c !cpc1  c  cc:  c11c  c   c c c#cc c  # cc c   c c #c=( (>!c pc1c c%  c0c$c c   ccc c   c  c  c  ccc ccc cc#cc 1c cc   ccccc c cc c  !c& c  c c c cc  cc c 1c  !c0c c 1c   c1 cc c  c   c# c  c# c cc !c cc c   c cccc ccccccc c c 7 cc  c  cc c cccccc c c c 7 c!c &c cc c #cc  ccc cc  cc  c !c0ccc ccc  c c c   cc 1c cc  cc c   c  c c   cc c 1cc  c  c c # c [email protected]   ccc cc c c c  c# cc cc cc cc  c ccc c c cc    ccc c c cc2 c!cpcc c   cc c   c  c cccc c ccc c cc  c cc c  cc !c$cc c   c  c cc c !c(cc c   c c 1c cc c  cc cc c c c#cc c cc !cpc1  c cc c c: c ccc  c#c# c cc   c1 ccc c c#c cc  cc c c   c c# ccc!c ccc c cc c c: c !cpc1  c c c c c c 1c#c ccc  c cc  !c(c c#c  cc c  c1 c  c cc  cc  c 1cGc c c c#c c5  c c c c c!cpc c1  cc c ccccc  c c c c ccc !c&1 c ccccc c c  c !cc c

c c c

!/ 0%  c # cc 7 cc Ac c c c  cc c #cc  c c1  cc1 c c c ccc  c cc   c c c !c c c c#c c# c1 c !c cc c  c c#c c  c cc  #c c c c ccc ccc= c c c cI3 (Jc  >c cc  c c#c c  cc5 cc c c c !cc   c c1cc c c c cc #c c ccc c1 c  c# c c c cccc c c cc !c$c   c   cccc cc cc cc c c c c cc!c0c c  c c c cc c#c  cc 1cc  c1c c c ccc cc!cBc c  c c cc1  ccc  c c c   !cpc    c cc  c c)+ (c=5c c > cc   c1c c1c c2 ccc  cc cc  c!c0c3 (c  #c c c  cc c : c c:  cc   c cc5c cc cc   !c ccc cc # cc c c c    cc  !c

ÊAINTENANCE AINTENANCE AND TESTING c " c c  c ccc cccc  Ac  !c" cc# cccc  c c  cc c  c c c ccccc  !cpc  c: c c cc ccc cc c cc  c cc !c%cc   c11c ccc   c 25c 1  c cc cc cc  ccc c2c  !c cVc(  cc ccc   c#cc c !c cc  c c# c c c c c#c1cc cc1c cc!c)c# c c c cc1 c ccc #c c  c c c  !c  c c  c

  c c  c #ccc c c# c !c& c#  cc

  c cc !c c  Ac cc c#cc  c  c 1 c c1 c c c#c cc  cc c  c c !c c Vc cccc  c c#cc c c c#!c)c c c c c c cccc cc#cc cc cc c  # !c(  c c#cc  cc  ccc   c c#c!cc  ccc  cccc # cc 1cc  !c$cc cccc  ccc c cc ccc !c)ccc c  cc c# c c c   5cccc c  c# !c c Vcp c  c cc c ccc2cc   Ac  ccc1 #c cc  cc1  c cc cc cc cc c#c !c   cc cc c cc#c:  c c  cccc c1 c c 1c  !c" cc  cc1  #c cc  ccc   c c c cc  c c cccc !c c  cc  c c cc cc1 cc  c  ccc   c c#c!c

c

‘Î+ &  cc c  cccc  c c  !c c # c   cc   ccc1 ccc c  Ac c# c  !c cc1 c  c cc  c1ccc c c c c  cccc  !cpc!c4c cc cc  c1c!-cc!-c!c"1 cc2 c c c cc: c c   c c-c!c   cc  c5c ccc c c  c# cc:  c  !c c#c cc c   ccc  cc1 c    ccc c #  c c  ccc5!cc c Vcp cc c c c   c#c ccc   ccc1 c cc1c cc cc: c cc   cc5c cc !c c c c c c

 c cc  Ac c cccc c#c 1c# c  ccc !cc

c Vcpc c c  cc   c 1c c c cc#c c  c cc  cGc c c c cc# c  cc c !ccc c#cc# ccc#c c  cc ccc# c ccc  c cc ccc   !cp c1 c cc cc5c cc  cc  c ccccc#c c c#cc c1 cc c6c9c ccc1 c c1!c c Vc$cc c cc c cc c c5c cccc !c cc  c cccc  cccc c1c c c[email protected]cc c c c c#c cc c# c c c cc#cc c c1c !c c c c#c c 1# c c c  cc c#c c#c c  c ccc # ccc#!c c Vc&cc c: cc  cc1c= c cc >!c c cc#cc cc c c!c cc ccc c cc c c c c c c cc#c cc cc c2!c c Vcp c1 c c c c c5 c c c#cc #c cc c c 1c c c !c c c c c   c c c cc: c c#c ccc  c c cc Accc c c#c1 c# c#c  c ccc  !c& c c c#c c# c  c  c 1 c c c c !c c  Acc # cc c c1 c c c c c c: c c !c c Vc c 1c  #c cc  c c c#ccc cc c5c c ccccc cc1c c c 5!cpc5c  c c#c c# cc5c c c  c cc1 c c#c ccc 7 c!c c Vcc c  c: cc  c c c  c cc  c c#c c  c c c cccc ccc  c cc !c( c c#c c cccc c cc ccc ccc  cccc#c!c&c c  c #  cc c  ccc ccc  !cp c ccc  c c c#c ccccc ccc  c cc  c  # c!c

c

c V + V%V +(V V  c

c1c#   c # c1  c c c c c c  c c  cc  c cc 2 ccc !c c c ccc# c cc c# c cc cc c c# ccc  cc cc c  cc c  c c c c!c c $  c c#cc c c c c c c cc   c ccc  c c cc c c  !c (c c  c c c #Fc !c   c #c !c %c cc #c !c p  c #c *!c +c #c -!c 0 c c c !c Î  c&  c& 1 c& c3 #c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c

Êanometry lab  c  cc c c c  c c c c :  ccccc cc c cc1cc  c   c c ccccc c  !c$c 1c c  c c*c c)(!c$c c#c cc ccc c !cÎc : cc c  c cc c#c cc c c c c  c cc c #1c!c c —c  c$Ac c #ccc# ccBc !c$cc cc c: !c c1ccc c cc c ccc#!c —c

c —c  c% c, c$Ac c1 cc #!c$cccc 2!c$cc 1cc ccc cc cc c # c !c$cc c c cFc= >c& c cFc cc c  c c=#>c" c  cFc cc c  c c c

Protection and Interlock Lab c —c Interlocking:c$cc#   ccccc: cc c  cc: c ccc c cc !c c c c cc c cc c: ccc c  c c cccc c: cc 1c  !cÎc c c: cc c1c c cc: !c c c#cc ccc c cc c ›@c,p +!c0c c c: c cc #c c c c c # !c&c cc c c cc Fc —c RELAYFc$cc c1c1!c$c ccccc c  c# c  c  cc c: c c c  c c  c!c&c cc c: c c1  c   c c c c1 !c —c ÎUSESFc$cc ccc c cccc  cccc  1 c c c cc c c# cc !cB  c1cc

c c c c  c# Fc >c c c cc2 c c1cc

1 c !cpc c cc c  c c c cc  c c    c c c c c  c ccc!c#>c c  1 c cc1cc  c# cc c cc c c  c  c7 c ccc!c>c&1c #cc  c#c c c c c  cc1 5 c: c  c  cc  c# c cc  1 cc c !c —c Êiniature Circuit Breaker:c  c c cc# c ccc  c!c >c+ #cc c c c c# !c#>c%cc  cc c c c !c$cc c c  c  cc 1 #c cc 2!c0c c c cc c  c c c c c#c!c c cc c cLc ·c p'Bp3c @$%cc ·c "[email protected]p3c @$%cc ·c &"›@ c([email protected](B$ c @$%!c c —c Protection and Interlock System:c c!c"$,"c +'&$›'c(›' @›3c([email protected](B$ cÎccc cc c c c2c# c  c)!(c  !cÎc cc c c c#ccccc cc cc: cc 5c!c c c1c ccccc cc cc c !cc !c3›0c +'&$›'c(›' @›3c([email protected](B$ cÎccc cc c c c c2c cc!*-cE4cp!(c  !c c  c c 1c#c2 c c!c"ccccc 1c c cc ccc !c c

Automation Lab c #c cc  cc2c: c c c !c+  cc cc c cc c=)p&>c)  cp: c& c c cc#c c c  c !c cc ccc  c c c  cc=$&>c  c$  c& !c cc #c 1  c cc c  c c ccc !c"1 cc  c c c1c# c c c c c cc c!c c

Pyrometry Lab —c

—c

—c

—c

c 3: cc ccc  ccc cc#c c*c c( cccc c c  c c c#c  !c $cc3c cccccc c c #c  !cc B c1cc c1cc cc  c cc  cc  c c  c1c cc c ccc 1c c c c cc  ccc  !cc  cc c1cc# cc&++p(Ec c%+3 [email protected] !c$c c cc7 c c c  !c cc cc c cc c ccc c c!c cc c c ccc  !cc @ )[email protected] c  c>cc$c cc c c  c#   c# cc cc c c !c$cc ccc  ccc cc  c cc  !c$cc # c cc  c1c c#c # cccc# cc7 c#c  c= cc c1>c cc c  c= cc c1>!c

Îurnace Safety and Supervisory System Lab c #c cc# c c c ccc  cc #cc# c  c !cÎc c c c# c ccc c c c cc  c c c cc cc cc cc !cB# c cc1c

c c cc c c !c c  ccc#ccc c( c cccccc*c!c$cc c c cc!cpc  c 1ccc cc  cc  cc c c  c1c c cc  c c ccc c ccc cc c c4cc  cc c cc  c cc  !cÎc cc  c ccE4c c cc c ccc1c c c cc c c c c c c cc !c c  c c2c cc  c  c# c c cc c c c c !c$c c cc cc c cc cc cc c c c c# c c c cc c# c c c c 15c # !c c  c c  ccc c c cc c# c cc  c  c  cc#c c c c  cc1c c c c c ccc   cc cc# c!c

c

Electronics Lab c #c  cc # c cc c1  c !c$c c1  c  c c    c cc c c  c c c   5c!4  cc  ccc #c Fc!c  c1c 4ccp!c!cp c   5c  cc c# ccccc!c$c 2 cc c!c c c c

PRESSURE ÊONITORING % c c#cc# cc c c# c c c $c ‘   c $c m  c $c Y  cc c Îc cc c c #cFc c cY cc cc: c c   c1!c$cc c cc  cc21c c  c  c c!cc pc  c c #c c c 1c #c cccc2 c c  cccc cc c   cc c ccccc  c cc   c#!cc c

c

 c c #c% c, c c Îc&c c   c c c c c c#c c c c c c cc cc#c›'cc c ccc c#c›ÎÎcc c!c pccc  cc1ccc( cc4 c  !c c% c  c c c c1 c c c c c —c ¦ cccccc¦ c c —c - cccccc   c c 0c c*pc ccc1  cc ccc c # c cc# !c p   c c c cc1 cc!c p(([email protected](cFccScc!cc c cccc c c cc c  c$  c!c c c c c c c c c c c c c c % c c c c c c c c c c 6c75!c c c c + c c cccc c # & c c c c c c c c c c 31cc cccccccccccc c $c % ccc c c c 66c75!c c c ccccccccccc31c"c c c c c c c c c c c "c1c c c cccccc c c  cc c c c c c + c c %ccccc &c c c c c c c c c cccccccccccc% c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c c c ccccccccccccccccc+ c

c c

c c

c c

c c

c c

c c

c c

c

c

BASIC PRESSURE CONTROL ÊECHANISÊ

c

TEÊPERATURE ÊONITORING

c 0c c c  c[email protected] )c c  cc '  [email protected] )c c c cc  !c c  ccc cc Fc c $c   [email protected] c $c p   [email protected]: c c '  c c  cccYcY    Fcc "%c='( cp >c?c%c='p  cp >c cccc c c c c !c$cc21c  cccc   c 1  #cc cc1  c c#!c  c c 1  #cccTcH(ccScH(c !c‘ cc 2  c*c 4?H(!c c @ )c c c c# cccc c cc1#  c!c c 0c c c c cc c[email protected] )!c&c c [email protected] ccc4 c c [email protected] )c cc$ c c%c c%ccc c

„ccccc-ccccc=cccUcQc!-c(c>c „cccc-cccc %ccc c cc    c c c c c   c  c c  c c   c  !cÎcp c c c c cpc c) c c &c c cc c#   c  c!c c

ÎLO ÊEASUREÊENT c Îc  ccc c c cc  c7 c cc  c c cccc c

| YY|‘c [email protected] cc c1c c  cc c c c: cc cc cc  #!c$cc   cc c88!c c $c#cc c c cc c1  #c  c cc  c c c # c ccc c  cc  c 1c cc1  c cc    #c !c pc cc c c c # c   c c c  cc c  cc  cc c c# c c c cc# c 1 !cpc cc c cc  c=#cc  c cc #>cccc  cc  ccc  c!cÎ c c cc  c c  ccc c c c#ccc!c c  cc cc cc c 2  c cc  c !c c c  ccc cc  cc cccc c c cc c!cc Îc) c  cÎ c cc !cc Îcp c  cc c cc ccFc c $c Î  c $c ¦   cc   c  c $c Y  c $c   c  c=cc1c>c $c   cÎ c  c $c   cÎ c=c c1c>c c &c c ccc cc c c    c c: cc#c   cc c c cc !c

Y cc ccc c !c  ccccc cc c c cc #c c cc c c c cc cccc c !c

c ¦!Y|Y|‘ccc c c

c c @ ccc   c c 8c: ccc c c c #c  c= c cc 2 c c c c7> cc c  cc ccc c#c1c# c=V?>=1cc1>!c c pccc c c c cc1c# Fc

Î c"c#c$c%&'„(c 0c)%cc)  c% ccc% c)!c c c

CONTROL VALVES c pc1 1cc c1c c   c c  c c     c=c  c  5c  c  cc: >c# c c cc   c# c1  c    !c4 1c c  cc  c# c   c c c    !c c 4 1c c cc c1  c c  c c   c  c   c  c  !c% #c1 1c ccc#1 cc 1  c  c# c  cc c !c c

&c1 1c c1c# c c c c c  c c c  c c c cc cc ccc  !c›c c cc c c ccc›c cc1c# c c   cc c c c  7cccc c!c c   c1 1c cc   cc c c  ccc1 1c!c$ c c cc c c: c c c c c=;H>c#c c cc 1 1cc c c:  c1 1!c   c1 1 c# c1 1 c c c1 1c c c:  c1 1!c4 1c c c#cc# c1c c  c  ccc!c  c c#c  c  c c c c ccc c  c   cc cc# c c   cc   c   cc cc# cc c c c: c  c ccc !c c &cc c#   cc c c1 1c c c ccc c #cc c1 1!c  c cFc —c „  c¦  cLc c c cc ccccc c cc1cc —c r  c  cLc c 5ccc c cpc cc c#c c —c  c  cLcc1 1c cc# ccc c

c

ÎURNACE SAÎEGUARD SUPERVISORY SYSTEÊ c Α‘‘c c c c c  c& c=&>!c$cc cc # c  #ccc c1cc  cc c: c c c !c c#71c cÎ&&&ccc c  c c c#!c c c;-c0c#c cc c#!cÎc c cc c cc c !c  Ac cAc c c c c c#!c cc0c#c c c c#c=c c c"&)cccc cc >c c c  c cc!c  ccc cc cc c#!c c  ‘+‘,

c

$c  c c c  c   c c  c c  c c 1c c c  cc# cc c ccc  cc c  c"&)ccc c c  c# !c cc c-c c c c# c cccc1  c c# cc"&)!c cccc c%[email protected],$',!c c %@[email protected]+c&0$ ("c c % c c c c 1c  c  c c # c c  !c 0c  c c  ccc ccccccc  cc c c c  cc# cc !c c c c c#c cccc c ccc c c1 1!c !c   c1 1c= >c !c 5c1 1c=  >cLcccc c !c %  c1 1c=  >cWcc cc c cc c *!c "  c1 1c

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