280116298 Inorganic Chemistry Review (2)

September 24, 2017 | Author: KeishaAaliyah | Category: Magnesium, Sodium Hydroxide, Sulfur, Sodium Carbonate, Calcium
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280116298 Inorganic Chemistry Review (2)...



INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEWER Prepared by Cherry Caroline S. Chua, 11-2012 Revised by Joanna J. Orejola, 09-2013 GROUP IA (1): ALKALI METALS           

Possess only one valence electron Very reactive chemically Seldom found free in nature Lithium, Sodium, and potassium metals are stored under kerosene→Violent (exothermic, explosive) reaction with water Hydrogen, H →(Gk. hydro, water; genes, forming – produces water when burned with oxygen) Lithium, Li →(Gk. lithos, rock – because it occurs in rocks) Sodium, Na →(L. sodanum, headache remedy; symbol, L. natrium, soda) Potassium, K →(L. kalium, potash) Rubidium, Rb →(L. rubidius, dark red – discovered with the spectroscope, its spectrum shows red lines) Cesium, Cs→ (L. caesium, blue – spectral lines are blue) Francium, Fr → (France)

HYDROGEN, H    

 

“Inflammable Air” Lightest element o Among the alkali metals, only Hydrogen can exist as a monovalent ion (H+) or a monovalent anion (H-) Isotopes: o Protium →Most abundant isotope o Deuterium→ Heavy hydrogen  D2O, heavy water o Tritium →Radioactive isotope Hydrogen, under normal conditions, exist as a diatomic molecule (H2), though this form is not very useful pharmaceutically Industrial uses: o Haber process (production of ammonia) o Hydrogenation of oils o Inflating balloons

WATER, H2O Natural Water/Mineral Water  contain dissolved minerals (Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+3, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO4-2, Cl-), varying amounts of suspended matter (clay, sand, microorganisms, fragments of plants and animals), and traces of dissolved atmospheric gases, ammonia, and metabolic decomposition products  Not fit for drinking



CHARACTERISTICS o contain appreciable quantities of Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaHCO3 o contains CO2 under pressure and usually effervesce on coming to the surface o contain calcium and magnesium carbonates in solution as bicarbonate o can be natural or artificial CHALYBEATE o Contains iron in solution or in suspension WATER o Characterized by its ferruginous taste o Forms ferric hydroxide or ferric oxide upon exposure to air LITHIA WATER o Do not contain appreciable quantities of lithium, either as carbonate or chloride SALINE WATER o Contain relatively high amounts of MgSO4, (PURGATIVE Na2SO4 and NaCl WATER) SULFUR WATER o Contains dissolved H2S and deposit S upon exposure to the atmosphere SILICEOUS o Water that contain soluble alkali silicates WATER Water Hardness→ due to presence of dissolved minerals in water  Soft water→Water that does not contain appreciable amounts of Ca+2 and Mg+2 ions  Hard water→Water that contains appreciable quantities of minerals Temporary hardness o Contains mainly dissolved calcium and magnesium bicarbonate o Can be removed by boiling (promotes formation of insoluble calcium carbonate) or by addition of lime, Ca(OH)2 Permanent hardness o Contains mainly dissolved calcium and magnesium sulfate and chloride in water o Cannot be removed by boiling o Water softening is achieved by the use of ion-exchange resins Potable Water  water that is fit to drink  USP Definition: Water that is obtained by distillation, ion exchange, or reverse osmosis  meets standards for freedom from coliform organisms  water treated to remove insoluble matter through appropriate coagulating, settling, and filtering processes; destruction of pathogenic microorganisms by aeration, chlorination, or other methods, and improvement of palatability through aeration and filtration through charcoal  water fluoridation o Achieved via addition of sodium fluorosilicate o For prevention of dental caries o Drawback: could cause dental fluorosis (mottling of teeth) Purified Water  Intended for use as an ingredient of official preparations and in tests and assays unless otherwise specified


 Not for parenteral preparations HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, H2O2  Agua oxigenada, agua oxenada  Oxygenated acid, oxygenated water  Use: treatment for Vincent’s stomatitis (severe form of gingivitis), as mouthwash  Commercial availability: o 10-volume solution (3% w/v) and 20-volume solution (6% w/v) o Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution, USP o 3% w/v stabilized aqueous solution o 10-volume solution o Stabilizer: acetanilide 0.03% LITHIUM, Li  Lithos - “Earth”  Lightest metal  Pharmacologic action of lithium compounds: o Mood stabilizer (depressant) o Diuretic LITHIUM BROMIDE, LiBr  Combined sedative effects of lithium ion and bromide ion LITHIUM CARBONATE, Li2CO3  Brand names: Eskalith®, Lithase®, Quilonium-R®  Widely used in the prophylaxis and treatment of bipolar disorders and mania and in the maintenance treatment of recurrent depression  Also used for treatment of mania: o Lithium Citrate o Lithium Hydroxide o Lithium Oral Solution SODIUM, Na    

From Latin word “natrium” Principal extracellular ion Accumulation of too much sodium in the body causes fluid retention Cation of choice for organic medicinals

CALCIUM DISODIUM EDETATE, C10H12N2Na2 CaO8  Used in antidotal therapy for certain heavy metal poisoning (particularly for lead)  Does not precipitate hypocalcemia EDETATE DISODIUM, C10H14N2Na2O8.2H2O  EDTA Disodium salt  Pharmacologic Use: Chelating agent administered IV in the emergency treatment of hypercalcemia  Hypocalcemia may occur if the drug is administered too rapidly or to patients who are not initially hypercalcemicLife threatening


Not used in treatment of heavy metal poisoning since hypocalcemia rapidly develops

MONOBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, NaH2PO4  Component of Fleet enema  Fleet Enema is composed of Sodium Phosphate and Sodium Biphosphate  Saline laxative o Not absorbed from the intestines  Systemic and urinary acidifier  With Methenamine, treatment of cystitis (release of formaldehyde) o Hairs of corn, as decoction – used for cystitis  Source of phosphorus in hypophosphatemia and TPN  Indirectly lowers plasma calcium levels→Excess plasma phosphate interacts with plasma calcium and is transferred to the bone  Used in the treatment of hypercalcemia DIBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, Na2HPO4  Sodium Phosphate, Phosphate of Soda  Dibasic phosphate ion is the primary anion in the intracellular fluid  Saline laxative  Antihypercalcemic, as oral solution TRIBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, Na3PO4  No pharmacologic use  Used for cleaning glass apparatus  Very alkaline reaction with water (corrosive) SODIUM ACETATE, NaCH3COO  Diuretic  Systemic and urinary alkalizer  Pharmaceutical necessity used in solutions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis  Alkalinizing agent for Benedict’s Solution SODIUM ASCORBATE, NaC6H7O6  Vitamin C supplement  Antioxidant SODIUM BICARBONATE, NaHCO3  Baking Soda  Solvay process  Bicarbonate ion is the 2nd major anion in the extracellular fluid  Systemic alkalizer  Systemic antacid o Readily absorbed by the body o Could cause systemic alkalosis o Rebound hyperacidity  Pharmaceutically used as source of carbonation for effervescent preparations o Organic acid component: tartaric, citric, ascorbic acid o CO2 enhances palatability of preparation


  

Antidote for zinc poisoning (ingestion) Enhance elimination of acidic drugs 4 commonly used antacids o Sodium Bicarbonate o Calcium Carbonate o Magnesium Hydroxide o Aluminum Hydroxide

SODIUM BORATE, Na2B4O7  Borax  Pharmaceutic necessity: alkalinizing agent  Externally: as eyewash, buffer→Water-softener SODIUM CARBONATE, Na2CO3  Anhydrous – soda ash  Dihydrate – trona  Decahydrate – soda crystals, washing soda, sal soda  Carbonating agent SODIUM CHLORIDE, NaCl  Table salt, rock salt, sea salt, solar salt, dendritic salt  Chloride is the major extracellular anion  Electrolyte replenisher o NSS→ 0.9% w/v NaCl in water o Ringer’s Solution NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 in water→Isotonic Solution of Three Chlorides o Lactated Ringer’s NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, sodium lactate →Hartmann’s Solution o Oral rehydration salts→NaCl, glucose, KCl, sodium citrate  Tonicity-adjusting agent  Condiment  Preservative SODIUM CITRATE, Na3C6H5O7  In vitro: anticoagulant, forming complex with Ca++ necessary for blood clotting  In vivo: o Systemic and urinary alkalizer o Expectorant o In vivo (parenteral): blood coagulant o Excessive oral administration of citrate salts can have a laxative effect  Best expectorant: water vapor SODIUM FLUORIDE, NaF  Anticariogenic agent (1.1%) in dentifrices  Excess of fluoride ion causes dental fluorosis (mottling of teeth)  NaMFP (Sodium Monofluoride Phosphate) →also used in dentifrices  Fluoride ion is toxic and should not be ingested in large amounts o Precautions for use in children

  


Nonpharmaceutical use: Rodenticide and insecticide Hydrofluoric Acid is used in glass etching and causes slow-healing burns (antidote: calcium gluconate)

SODIUM FORMALDEHYDE SULFOXYLATE  Best antidote for mercuric chloride poisoning SODIUM GLUCONATE, NaC6H11O7  Electrolyte replenisher  Gluconate salts: o less irritating o water soluble o Acceptors of hydrogen ions produced by metabolic processes and act as indirect source of bicarbonate ions SODIUM HYDROXIDE, NaOH  Caustic soda, lye, sosa, soda lye  Very deliquescent→ readily absorb water from the environment and readily dissolve in the water that was absorbed  Saponifying agent→ Manufacture of soaps o Soft Soap vs. Hard Soap  Corrosive  Readily attack glass  Too alkaline to be of medicinal value→rapidly destroys tissue (caustic)  Pharmaceutical use: o alkalinizing agent to form soluble sodium salts of various drugs o Pharmaceutical necessity in preparation of Glycerin Suppositories  Ingestion of solutions of sodium hydroxide causes liquefaction necrosis/ saponification necrosis  (vs. strong acids – coagulative necrosis) SODA LIME, NaOH. Ca(OH)2  Calx sodica  Mixture of calcium hydroxide and sodium or potassium hydroxide or both  Good carbon dioxide absorber for anesthesia machines, oxygen therapy, and metabolic tests SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE, NaHPO2  Reducing agent SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE, NaOCl  Household bleach, Chlorox → 4-6% w/w NaOCl in water  Bleaching agent  Disinfectant (oxidizing property)  Dakin’s Solution → disinfectant  Labarraque’s Solution (~2.5%) →disinfectant


Modified Dakin’s Solution(450-500 mg NaOCl per 100 mL solution)→ antiseptic

SODIUM IODIDE, NaI  Iodide is an essential ion necessary for synthesis of triiodothyronine and thyroxine  Source of iodine o Lack of iodine→ simple or colloid goiter Iodides: expectorant action (oral administration)  expectorant  Pharmaceutical use→ Solubilizer of iodine in iodine-containing preparations such as Iodine Tincture and Iodine Solution  Protect from moisture and light SODIUM METABISULFITE, Na2S2O5  Water-soluble antioxidant→Good reducing agent  A combination of sodium bisulfite and sodium metabisulfite in varying proportions  It is the bisulfite of commerce and for all practical purposes possesses the same properties as the true bisulfite  Antioxidant for drugs which contain phenol or catechol nucleus (e.g: phenylephrine HCl, epinephrine HCl solutions) to prevent oxidation to quinones; also in Vitamin C solutions (usually 0.1%)→Solutions must be acid in pH  Antimicrobial property: o Fermentation industries o Preservative and bleach in food  To prepare water-soluble analogs of water-insoluble drugs (e.g.: menadione sodium bisulfite)  Drawback of sulfites and SO2 → Hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible individuals (angioedema, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis) SODIUM NITRATE, NaNO3  Chile saltpeter, salitre  Preservative SODIUM NITRITE, NaNO2  Internally acts as a vasodilator due to relaxation of smooth muscle (can cause lowering of blood pressure)  Antidote for cyanide poisoning  Used for curing meats and fish o Color development o Flavor production (with sodium chloride) o Preservation against bacteria  However: carcinogenic SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE, Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] . 2H2O  Hypotensive agent SODIUM PERBORATE, NaBO3  Mild disinfectant and deodorant


Readily releases oxygen in contact with oxidizable matter

SODIUM POLYMETAPHOSPHATE  Calgon®, Graham’s salt  Water-softener  detergent SODIUM POLYSTYRENE SULFONATE  Brand name: Kayexalate  Cation-exchange resin for treatment of hyperkalemia resulting from kidney failure SODIUM POTASSIUM TARTRATE, NaKC4H4O6 . H2O  Rochelle Salt, Sal Seginette  Saline laxative→ poorly absorbed in the intestine  Sequestering Agent in Fehling’s Solution  Acidity Regulator in food SODIUM SACCHARIN  Artificial sweetener SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE  Brand name: Explotab  Tablet disintegrant SODIUM SULFATE, Na2SO4 . 10H2O  Glauber’s salt  Saline laxative→ Sulfate ion poorly absorbed in GIT SODIUM TARTRATE, Na2C4H4O6  Primary standard for Karl Fischer Reagent used for Water Content Determination  Laxative  Diuretic  NOT converted to bicarbonate inside the body SODIUM THIOCYANATE, NaSCN  Hypotensive agent  Also used in cleaners for contact lenses and as antioxidant synergist in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations SODIUM THIOSULFATE, NaS3O3  Hypochlor, Photographer’s hypo, hypo  Sodium hyposulfite (misnomer)  Antidote for cyanide poisoning, in conjunction with sodium nitrite  Used as volumetric solution in titration  Acids decompose thiosulfate to sulfur  Bases decompose thiosulfate to sulfate  Prone to bacterial decomposition  Removal of chlorine from aqueous solutions


MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG)  Brand: Ajinomoto  Flavor enhancer o Imparts a meat flavor to foods (flavor enhancer) o Sharpens weaker flavors already present in food without adding any significant taste of their own  Causes Chinese Restaurant Syndrome→ some individuals sensitive to glutamate: light-headedness, headache, uncomfortable sense of warmth, difficulty in breathing POTASSIUM, K  “Kalium”  Principal intracellular cation  Deficiency state → Hypokalemia o Due to severe burns, diarrhea, or other causes o Signs and symptoms: muscle weakness and muscle paralysis  Pharmacologic action: o Diuretic o Involved in muscle contraction DIBASIC POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE, K2HPO4  Potassium Phosphate  Treatment of hypercalcemia o Favors deposition of calcium and phosphate in the bone o A portion is converted to pyrophosphate, a chelator of calcium, the complex excreted in the urine o High plasma phosphate levels decrease calcitriol levels and decrease absorption of calcium  Used in conjunction with monobasic salt for potassium or phosphate deficiency  Reagent for various buffers and parenteral fluids  No longer used as laxative MONOBASIC POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE, KH2PO4  Sorensen’s Potassium Phosphate  For treatment of hypercalcemia →Used in conjunction with the dibasic salt  Urinary acidifier o For treatment of calcific kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) →decrease in free calcium excretion in the urine decreases stone formation and acidification of urine and free pyrophosphate ion favor dissolution of stones o Can cause diarrhea POTASSIUM ACETATE, KCH3COO  Urinary and systemic alkalizer  Diuretic  Antacid POTASSIUM ALUM, AlK(SO4)2 .12H2O  Tawas

   


Astringent Styptic Antiperspirant Deodorant

POTASSIUM BICARBONATE, KHCO3  Systemic antacid  Diuretic  Electrolyte replenisher  May cause hyperkalemia on prolonged use  Carbonating agent for Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution, USP POTASSIUM BITARTRATE, KHC4H4O6  Cream of tartar, argol, acid potassium tartrate  Occurs in acidulous fruits = grapes  Saline laxative  Ingredient on baking powder to raise dough POTASSIUM BROMIDE, KBr  Depressant  Sedative  Used for preparation of samples for IR analysis (pellets) POTASSIUM CARBONATE, K2CO3  Potash, Pearl ash, Salt of tartar, Salt of wormwood  Pharmaceutical necessity (basic property)  Carbonating agent POTASSIUM CHLORATE, KClO3  Deodorant action due to oxidizing capability POTASSIUM CHLORIDE, KCl  Potassium salt of choice for potassium replenishment  Electrolyte replenisher  Component of Ringer’s Injection  As IV injection, administered as drip, not push →Muscles and heart contracts  Used in lethal injection  Component of Ringer’s and Darrow’s Solution (composition: KCl, NaCl and sodium lactate)  High local concentrations in the GIT can lead to ulceration POTASSIUM CITRATE, K3C6H5O7  Systemic alkalizer  Osmotic diuretic POTASSIUM GLUCONATE, KC6H11O7  Electrolyte replenisher for hypokalemic states  Less irritating compared to potassium chloride


POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE, KOH  Caustic potash, lye potash  Strong base; very corrosive  Saponifying agent  Used for manufacture of soft soap POTASSIUM IODIDE, KI  Iodide salt of choice  Expectorant  Solubilizer for iodine  Prolonged use could lead to hypothyroidism  Excessive amounts could lead to Iodism o a condition produced by excessive amounts of iodine in the body o characterized by increased lacrimation and salivation, rhinitis, weakness, and skin eruption  Used for prevention of goiter o Iodine, in the form of iodide, is a necessary nutrient for the synthesis of thyroid hormones  For treatment of hyperthyroidism  To prepare for thyroid surgery (with anti-thyroid medications) o As saturated solution  To protect the thyroid in cases of radiation emergency o Tablets, oral solution  Drug of choice for cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis (SSKI 1g/mL)  Used for prevention of goiter  Iodine, in the form of iodide, is a necessary nutrient for the synthesis of thyroid hormones  For treatment of hyperthyroidism  To prepare for thyroid surgery (with antithyroid medications)  As saturated solution  To protect the thyroid in cases of radiation emergency  Tablets, oral solution  Drug of choice for cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis (SSKI 1g/mL) POTASSIUM METABISULFITE, K2S2O5  Antioxidant  Can trigger allergic reactions in hypersensitive individuals POTASSIUM NITRATE, KNO3  Saltpeter, salitre, salt prunelle  Used as a meat preservative  Tooth-desensitizing agent POTASSIUM PERCHLORATE,KClO4  Strong oxidizing agent  Anti-thyroid agent (for the treatment of hyperthyroidism)  As blocking agent for I-131 POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE, KMnO4  Mineral chameleon

  


Dark purple or almost black crystals or granular powder, almost opaque by transmitted light and with a blue metallic luster by reflected light Strong oxidizing agent Local anti-infective, antiseptic, deodorant Used as volumetric solution in titrimetry

POTASSIUM SORBATE, KC6H7O2  Pharmaceutical aid → preservative (0.2%)  Antimicrobial → control growth of yeasts and mold in enteral formula, foods, and cosmetic preparations  Relatively ineffective above pH 6.5 POTASSIUM THIOCYANATE, KSCN  Hypotensive agent SULFURATED POTASH, K2Sx. . K2S2O3  Liver of sulfur, hepar sulfuris, potassa sulfurata o Irregular, liver brown pieces rapidly changing to greenishyellow on exposure to air o Possess odor of hydrogen sulfide  Used in preparation of White Lotion  Reacts with zinc sulfate to precipitate zinc sulfide o Source of sulfide ion in preparation of White Lotion, USP used in dermatological practice as:  Astringent, protective, mild antimicrobial and antifungal  Treatment of parasitic diseases of the skin AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS  Ammonium ion is a hypothetical alkali metal  Pseudo-alkali metal ion  Generally, ammonium compounds are very water soluble  BUT: ammonium hydroxide is a weak base as compared to alkali hydroxides which are strong bases  Pharmacologic action: o Osmotic diuretic o Buffer component o Expectorant AMMONIA, NH3  Synthesized via Haber Process  Involves combination of hydrogen and nitrogen gas at high pressures to produce ammonia  Used in pharmacy in dilute form as respiratory stimulant  Household ammonia: 10% NH3 and is known as 16o ammonia (degrees Baumé) STRONG AMMONIA SOLUTION  Stronger ammonia water, stronger ammonium hydroxide solution, spirit of Hartshorn  Prepared by Haber process: N2 + 3H2  2NH3 + heat o Contains 27% to 31% w/w of NH3


o o o o o

Very pungent and characteristic odor Strongly alkaline to litmus even when diluted On exposure to air it loses ammonia rapidly Solution is caustic and vapors irritating (avoid inhalation) Cool container well before opening, cover the closure with cloth while opening

AMMONIA WATER  Dilute Ammonia Solution o Contains 9.5-10.5% w/w of NH3 o Used as reflex respiratory stimulant o To neutralize insect stings and jellyfish stings of Portuguese man-of-war AROMATIC AMMONIA SPIRIT  Respiratory stimulant  Components: Ammonium Carbonate, NF and Strong Ammonia Solution, NF  Components: Ammonium Carbonate, NF and Strong Ammonia Solution, NF, volatile oils (nutmeg and lemon) and ethanol AMMONIATED MERCURY, HgNH2Cl  White precipitate  Topical anti-infective AMMONIUM ACETATE, Al(CH3COO3)3  Spirit of Mindererus  Buffer Component AMMONIUM ALUM, Al(NH4)(SO4)2•12H2O  Depressant  Tawas  Astringent  Styptic  Antiperspirant  Deodorant AMMONIUM BROMIDE, NH4Br  Depressant  Sedative AMMONIUM CARBONATE, (NH4)2 CO3  Ammonia crystal, sal volatile, ammonium sesquicarbonate, Preston’s salt, Hartshorn, baker’s ammonia  Composed of ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium carbamate (NH2COONH4)  Readily converted to ammonium carbonate in the presence of ammonia  Expectorant  Respiratory stimulant – decomposes to NH3 and CO2  Source of ammonia for “smelling salts”  Used in the preparation of Aromatic Ammonia Spirit

o o


Spirit of sal volatile, Spirit of Hartshorn Used as a respiratory stimulant in cases of hysterical syncope

AMMONIUM CHLORIDE, NH4Cl  Muriate of Hartshorn, sal ammoniac  Diuretic  Expectorant  Systemic acidifier  Urinary acidifier AMMONIUM FERRIC CITRATE  hematinic AMMONIUM IODIDE, NH4I  expectorant AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, (NH4)2HPO4  Formerly used as diuretic  Used as buffering agent in pharmaceutical preparations


Copper Silver Gold

COPPER AND COPPER COMPOUNDS COPPER, Cu  Cuprum  Only reddish colored metal  Third most malleable metal  Excellent conductor of heat (surpassed only by silver and gold) and electricity (surpassed by silver)  Forms two series of salts o Cuprous ion (Cu+1)  Readily undergo disproportionation  Water insoluble  All are white except Cu2S and Cu2O o Cupric ion (Cu+2)  Generally blue in solution  Important alloys o Bronze → Cu and Sn o Brass → Cu and Zn  Present on hemocyanin and cytochrome oxidase  Respiratory proteins – chromoproteins  Color is due to copper  Pharmacologic action: o Protein precipitant (heavy metal) o Enhances utilization of iron  Toxicity: Wilson’s Disease o Accumulation of too much copper in the body o Antidote: Penicillamine (Cuprimine)


COPPER ACETO-ARSENATE  Paris green  Insecticide CUPRIC SULFATE, CuSO4 . 5H2O  Blue vitriol, blue stone, Roman vitriol, Salzburg vitriol  Component of Benedict’s solution, Fehling’s solution and Barfoed’s solution→Test for reducing substances  Bordeaux Mixture→Cupric sulfate and lime (CaO) o Algaecide and fungicide in swimming pools  Enhance utilization of iron  Antidote for phosphorus poisoning SILVER AND SILVER COMPOUNDS SILVER, Ag  “Argentum”  Very soft, ductile and malleable metal  Fine silver 99.9% pure – too soft  Usually alloyed to give strength while preserving ductility and beauty of the metal o Sterling Silver (92.5% Ag, 7.5% Cu, usually)  Pharmacologic action: o Protein precipitant (heavy metal) o Oligodynamic action  Toxicity : Argyria o Darkening of skin due to chronic use of silver preparations o Antidote: NSS SILVER IODIDE, AgI  germicide SILVER NITRATE, AgNO3  Lunar caustic  Water soluble salt of silver  Lapiz infernularis (caustic pencil)  Component of indelible ink  Used for treatment of warts  1% ophthalmic solution: prophylaxis for gonorrhea ophthalmia neonatorum (can cause blindness to the newborn)  Tollen’s Reagent (ammoniacal silver nitrate) o Silver mirror test (presence of reducing substances, such as aldehydes) SILVER PROTEINATES Silver Proteinate Mild Silver Protein (Argyrol) Strong Silver Protein (Protargol) Colloidal Silver Protein(Collargol)

Medicinal Use Antiseptic for eyes Antiseptic for ears and throat

% Ag 19-23 7.5-8.5

General germicide


GOLD AND GOLD COMPOUNDS GOLD, Au  “Aurum”  King of all metals  Most malleable metal  Best conductor of electricity  Precious metal – expensive  Very soft and ductile  Can only be dissolved by: o Aqua Regia (3 parts HCl: 1 part HNO3) o Selenic Acid  Purple of Cassius→Colloidal gold with stannic hydroxide  Toxicity: Gold dermatitis o Antidote: BAL/ Dimercaprol GOLD COMPOUNDS  Used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis  Aurothioglucose  Gold Sodium Thiomalate  Auranofin→ p.o.

GROUP IIA (2): ALKALINE EARTH METALS 2 valence electrons Form divalent ions Selected General Reactions of Group 2A Elements: Equations Reaction M + 2H2O → M(OH)2 + H2↑ • Be probably reacts with steam • Mg reacts with hot water • Ca, Sr and Ba reacts rapidly with cold water   

M + 2HCl → MCl2 + H2↑

• All metals react with acids, liberating H2

Be + 4NaOH → Na2[Be(OH)4] + 2Na+

• •

Be is amphoteric Only Be reacts with NaOH

2M + O2 → 2MO

Ba + O2 (excess)→ BaO2

M + H2 → MH2 3M + N2 → M3N2

• • •

Normal oxide formed by all group members Tendency and stability in forming peroxides increases with increasing atomic number Ba forms peroxides All metals from hydrides All form nitrides at high temperatures

BERYLLIUM, Be  Not used pharmaceutically  Most toxic metal



MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS MAGNESIUM, Mg  Lightest of all structurally important metals  Natural sources: o Silicate – talc, asbestos o Carbonate – magnesite, dolomite o Sulfate – kieserite  Mg2+: o 2nd most abundant intracellular cation o Found in chlorophyll o Grignard Reagent (RMgX) used for synthesis of alcohols o Pharmacologic action:  Cathartic  Depressant action  Natural calcium-channel blocker MAGNESIUM CARBONATE, MgCO3  Magnesia  2 forms: light and heavy  Antacid  Laxative

MAGNESIUM TRISILICATE, 2MgO . 3SiO2 . H2O  Antacid  Advantages: o Can protect ulcers by forming a protective coating on the stomach o Gelatinous consistency provides prolonged antacid effect CALCIUM AND CALCIUM COMPOUNDS CALCIUM, Ca  Calcium ion is the second most abundant extracellular cation  Sources: o Dolomite MgCO3CaCO3 o Fluorite CaF o Gypsum CaSO4 o Phosphate Rock Ca3(PO4)2 o Apatite CaF and Ca3(PO4)2 

MAGNESIUM CITRATE, Mg3(C6H5O7)2  Lemonada purgante, purgative lemon  Saline cathartic MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE, Mg(OH)2  Milk of Magnesia, Magnesia Magma  Antacid  Side effect: can cause diarrhea MAGNESIUM OXIDE, MgO  Calcined Magnesia  Antacid  Laxative  Component of Universal Antidote→ MgO, activated charcoal, tannic acid  Not effective for cyanide and kerosene poisoning MAGNESIUM SULFATE, MgSO4  Epsom salt  Oral administration: cathartic  Intramuscular administration: anticonvulsant HYDRATED MAGNESIUM TRISILICATE (TALC), 3MgO.4SiO2.H2O  Soapstone, French chalk  Softest mineral  Dusting powder  Clarifying agent  Filtering aid  Adsorbent

Pharmacologic action: o Blood coagulation factor o needed for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin o Release of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine) o Muscle contraction o Structural material of bones and teeth   

Vitamin D is required for maximum absorption of Calcium Vitamin C = Fe absorption Vitamin E = Se absorption

Calcium deficiency: o Osteomalacia (adults) o Rickets (children) o Osteoporosis

CALCIUM BROMIDE, CaBr2  Sedative/depressant CALCIUM CARBIDE, CaC2  Kalburo CALCIUM CARBONATE, CaCO3  Two important forms: o Precipitated Calcium Carbonate  Commercially produced by chemical means o Prepared Calcium Carbonate  Native, calcium carbonate purified by elutriation 

2 crystal forms: o Aragonite o Calcite → natural birefringent crystal



 

 Iceland Spar→very pure form of calcite  Polarimeters  Optical birefringence Antacid Can cause rebound hyperacidity

CALCIUM CHLORIDE, CaCl2  Muriate of lime  Electrolyte replenisher in hypocalcemic states  Component of Ringer’s solution CALCIUM GLUCONATE, C12H22CaO14  Most commonly used calcium salt as electrolyte replenisher  Less irritating than Calcium Chloride CALCIUM HYDROXIDE, Ca(OH)2  Slaked lime, milk of lime, calcium hydrate  Saponifying agent CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, Ca(OCl)2  Bleaching agent  Disinfectant CALCIUM OXIDE, CaO  Lime, Quicklime, Calx, Apog, Burnt Lime, Calx Usta  Component of Bordeaux mixture → insecticide CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, Ca3(PO4)2  Bone ash  Antacid  Major component of bone  Product of cremation (CaSO4)2.H2O

CALCIUM SULFATE,  Plaster of Paris  Used in surgical cast  CaSO4 2H2O  Gypsum, terra alba  Dentifrice


CaSO4 .1/2H2O

STRONTIUM AND STRONTIUM COMPOUNDS STRONTIUM, Sr  Imparts crimson red to a nonluminous flame STRONTIUM CHLORIDE, SrCl2  Tooth desensitizing agent  Active ingredient in Sensodyne toothpaste BARIUM AND BARIUM COMPOUNDS BARIUM, Ba  “heavy”  Toxicity: Baritosis

o o o o


inhalation ingestion of water-soluble barium compounds: Muscle stimulating action Antidote: Magnesium Sulfate

BARIUM HYDROXIDE, Ba(OH)2.8H2O  Component of Barium Hydroxide Lime  Similar to soda lime  CO2 absorber  A saturated solution of barium hydroxide in water is known as baryta water BARIUM SULFATE, BaSO4  Radiopaque for imaging of GIT  Can cause constipation RADIUM RADIUM,Ra  Discovered by Marie Curie  Radioactive  Old unit for radioactivity: Curie  SI unit: Becquerel  Diagnostic purposes  Treatment of certain types of cancers


Zinc Family Metals have relatively low melting points Zinc Cadmium Mercury

ZINC AND ZINC COMPOUNDS ZINC, Zn  Present in insulin  Container for batteries and dry cells  Protective coating in galvanized iron  Pharmacologic properties: o Astringent o Antiseptic o Antiperspirant o Deodorant o similar to Aluminum  Deficiency state: Parakeratosis o Skin appears to be scaly, thickened and inflamed  Important in immune system  Deficiency state leads to impaired immunity  Antidote for Zn2+ poisoning: Sodium Bicarbonate ZINC CHLORIDE, ZnCl2  Butter of Zinc  Burnett’s Disinfecting Fluid


 

Antiseptic found in mouthwashes Dentin desensitizer

ZINC OXIDE, ZnO  Zinc White  Component of Lassar’s Paste  mild antiseptic  Astringent  Topical protectant  Toxicity: Metal Fume Fever o occupational disease from inhalation of ZnO fumes  ZnO heated with CoO → Rinman’s Green (CoZnO2)  Thenard’s Blue → Cobalt metaaluminate ZINC PEROXIDE, ZnO2  Antiseptic  Properties similar to that of hydrogen peroxide  Release of nascent oxygen provides powerful oxidizing action HYDRATED ZINC SILICATE  Natural calamine  prepared calamine→ ZnO with traces of ferric oxide as impurity ZINC SULFATE, ZnSO4  White vitriol  Used as ophthalmic astringent o 0.25% aqueous solution is the only FDA-approved OTC ophthalmic astringent  Used in preparation of White Lotion o Sulfurated potash and zinc sulfate o Active ingredient in White Lotion: ZnS o Scabicide, topical anti-infective ZINC-EUGENOL CEMENT  Dental protective  Source of eugenol: clove oil CADMIUM AND CADMIUM COMPOUNDS CADMIUM, Cd  Pharmacologic action of water-soluble compounds→ Astringent  Heavy metal  Very poisonous  Toxicity: Itai-itai disease (Japan)  Source of cadmium: cigarette smoking  Antidote: BAL/ Dimercaprol  Cadmium has high affinity for metallothioneins (stress proteins) CADMIUM CHLORIDE, CdCl2  Emetic  Used for tinea infections


CADMIUM SULFIDE, CdS  Only yellow sulfide  Antiseborrheic agent (for dandruff)  Capsebon CADMIUM SULFATE, CdSO4  Ophthalmic antiseptic MERCURY AND MERCURY COIMPOUNDS MERCURY, Hg  Hydrargyrum, quicksilver, asoge  Forms two series of salts: o Mercurous, Hg22+ →More difficult to absorb o Relatively less toxic compared to Hg+2 o Mercuric (Hg2+)  Source→Cinnabar (Aethrop’s mineral), - HgS  Encountered in thermometers, amalgams  Toxicity : Minamata Disease Signs and symptoms o Metallic taste, thirst, soreness of throat, salivation, sore gums, bloody diarrhea, severe gastric pain, vomiting (ingestion of inorganic Hg salts) o Acute poisoning→Hg+2: severe vomiting, damage to intestinal mucosa, diuresis, additional renal damage o Chronic poisoning→Behavioral and personality changes, decreased visual acuity, tremors, insomnia, ataxia o Mad hatter’s disease  Hg compounds were used to convert fur to felt  Tremors, behavioral changes in makers of felt hats (1900’s) Toxic Forms o Hg+2 > Hg2+2 > Hgo o Organic mercury more toxic than inorganic mercury (methylmercury) o Organic mercury toxicity:  Brain damage  Numbness  Loss of vision  Deafness  Madness  Death o Elemental and methylmercury → CNS o Mercury vapor → pulmonary irritant o Methylmercury → teratogenic o Inorganic mercury salts – corrosive to skin, eyes, GIT, nephrotoxic o Chronic inhalation of Hg vapor  Tremor, neuropsychiatric disturbances  Gingivostomatitis  Erethism  Mood changes


Acrodynia (children)→Pain in extremities, pinkish discoloration and desquamation (“pink disease”), hypertension, profuse sweating, anorexia, insomnia, irritability or apathy, rash Mechanism of Toxicity o Cumulative poisons o Once absorbed, Hg+2 concentrates in kidneys o Combine with –SH groups of protein leading to inactivation (generally for heavy metals) Antidotes o Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate, NF  Best antidote for Hg poisoning, especially Hg2+  Reduces Hg+2 to Hg2+2, less soluble o Penicillamine (Cuprimine®)  For elemental Hg o Dimercaprol (BAL)  not used for poisoning with metallic and organic mercury  for inorganic Hg salts only o DMSA (Succimer) – water-soluble analog of BAL  Chelating agents  For all types of mercury posioning  May redistribute Hg to brain from other tissue Pharmacologic action o Diuretic, useful for cardiac edema o Antiseptic – protein precipitant action o Antisyphilitic o Cathartic o Parasiticide and fungicide 

MERCUROUS CHLORIDE, Hg2Cl2  Calomel  Cathartic  Active ingredient in Ly-Na MERCURIC CHLORIDE, HgCl2  Corrosive sublimate  disinfectant MERCURIC IODIDE, HgI2  Treatment of syphilis  KI and HgI2 → Mayer’s reagent o most sensitive alkaloidal reagent o White precipitate (+ result) MERCURIC OXIDE, HgO  Yellow precipitate  Ophthalmic anti-infective


Mg has a diagonal relationship with aluminium


BORON AND BORON COMPOUNDS BORIC ACID, H3BO3  Sal sedativum Hombergi, Boracic acid, orthoboric acid  Toxic by ingestion or dermal absorption o Boiled lobster appearance of skin o Reddish-orange color of skin  Eyewash (2%) – antiseptic property  Tonicity adjusting agent  Buffer component o Standard pH buffer pH 8-10: Alkaline Borate Buffer o Pharmaceutical buffer systems:  Feldman’s (pH 7-8.2)  Atkins and Pantin (pH 7.6-11) – Borate buffer system  Gifford’s (pH 6-7.8)  Sorensen’s (pH 5.9-8) – Phosphate buffer system o Borate buffers are used in ophthalmic and nasal solutions and external preparations (NOT for parenteral preparations) o Limitation of phosphate buffers: formation of precipitate with certain metal ions (Ag, Zn, Al) SODIUM BORATE, Na2B4O7 .10H2O  Sodium tetraborate decahydrate  Borax  Dobell’s Solution o aqueous solution of sodium borate, sodium bicarbonate, phenol, and glycerol o used as an astringent or antiseptic wash for the throat and nose ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS ALUMINUM, Al  Most abundant metal  3rd most abundant element  Abrasive  Toxicity (inhalation)→ Shaver’s Disease o Neurotoxin (brain) o Cause Alzheimer’s disease in elderly  Source→Cryolite 3NaFAlF3 ALUMINUM CHLORIDE, AlCl3 . 6H2O  Astringent  Antiseptic  Antiperspirant  Deodorant ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE, Al(OH)3  Gastric antacid  Brand names: Amphojel, Cremalin  Side effects: o Constipation o Can interfere with absorption of phosphates


Maalox o Combination of Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 o Counteract side effects of one another

ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE, AlPO4  Gastric antacid  Brand name: Phosphagel  Advantage over Al(OH)3→Does not interfere with phosphate absorption ALUMINUM CARBONATE, Al2(PO4)3  Treatment of phosphatic calculi → Promotes elimination of phosphate via fecal route ALUM  Tawas  Ammonium Alum and Potassium Alum  Antiperspirant  Astringent  Deodorant ALUMINUM OXIDE, Al2O3  Alumina  Treatment of silicosis ALUMINUM SILICATES  Bentonite o Soapclay, mineral soap o Native colloidal hydrated aluminum silicate o Bentonite Magma  5% suspension in water  Suspending agent 

Kaolin o China clay o Native hydrated aluminum silicate o Adsorbent→ Treatment of mild diarrhea o Demulcent

Pumice o Complex silicate of aluminum, sodium and potassium o Volcanic origin o Dental abrasive  Disadvantage: too abrasive for daily use

GALLIUM  Melts at near body temperature  Substitute for mercury in the manufacture of arc lamps  Treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia by binding with transferrin


Nonmetallic in character

CARBON AND CARBON COMPOUNDS CARBON, C  Exclusively nonmetallic  Only element which can form multiple bonds with itself  CATENATION→ Chain-formation  2 allotropic modifications of Carbon: o Crystalline  Diamond (tetrahedral)  Graphite (planar o Amorphous  Coal and anthracite  Activated Charcoal o Residue from destructive distillation of various organic materials treated to increase its adsorptive power o Official in the USP: fine form o Used as adsorbent (poisoning by ingestion)  Effective for alkaloidal poisons  Ineffective against cyanide and kerosene o Treatment of diarrhea CARBON DIOXIDE, CO2  Carbonic acid gas  Most potent respiratory stimulant  Stored in GRAY containers  Used for treatment of persistent hiccups  Toxicity through suffocation  Dry ice→ solid form o Used as refrigerant o For treatment of acne, warts, corns and eczema CARBON MONOXIDE, CO  Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas  Systemic poison  Mechanism of Action: binds to hemoglobin of blood leading to hypoxia  CO has higher affinity for hemoglobin compared to oxygen gas  Treatment: o 100% Oxygen→inhalation o Artificial Air→80% He and 20% O2 o CO2-O2 mixture o Hyperbaric Oxygen

SILICON AND SILICON COMPOUNDS SILICON, Si  Second most abundant element



SILICON DIOXIDE, SiO2  Silica  Inert  Very abundant in nature  Glass is made up of silica and other additives  Causative agent of silicosis o Signs and symptoms similar to TB o Haemoptysis – blood in sputum o Silica becomes deposited in the lungs --- irritation o Alumina forms a coat with silica particles (antidote  Glass Pure silica fused with Effect sodium carbonate With MnO2 With Boron (as borate) With Potassium

Mask blue green color of iron usually present in glass Decrease coefficient of expansion of glass Render glass brown with light-resistant property→ amber-colored glass

With Lead

Increase refractive index of glass

Rare Earths

Selectively absorb light of certain wavelengths

Purified Siliceous Earth o Adsorbent o Filtering aid o Clarifying agent Silicates o Magnesium trisilicate o Aluminum silicates → Bentonite, Pumice, Kaolin o Attapulgite → Diatabs, Polymagma, Quintess o Mg5(Si8O20)(OH)28H2O o Adsorbent → used for diarrhea Simethicone o Polymer of dimethylsiloxane o Antiflatulent o Antifoaming agent

TIN AND TIN COMPOUNDS TIN, Sn  “Stannum”  Used in production of cans  two series of salts: o Stannous (Sn+2) o Stannic (Sn+4)

STANNOUS FLUORIDE, SnF2  Anticariogenic agent\

 


Vs. Sodium Fluoride → at least 4 applications\Stannous Fluoride → only one application BUT: solutions should be freshly prepared

STANNOUS PEROXIDE, SnO  Germicide against Staphylococcal organisms LEAD AND LEAD COMPOUNDS LEAD, Pb  “Plumbum”  Protein precipitant (heavy metal)  Forms two series of salts: o Plumbous (Pb+2) o Plumbic (Pb+4)  Poisoning: Plumbism/ Saturnism o Automobile exhaust o Canned foods o Old lead pipes o Paints containing lead o Diagnosis: foot drop/wrist drop o Most serious effect→ Lead encephalopathy  Memory loss  Irritability  Clumsiness  Projectile vomiting LEAD ACETATE, Pb(CH3COO3)2  Sugar of Lead  Astringent  Used for the preparation of Lead Subacetate Solution LEADSUBACETATE, Pb(CH3COO3)2  Pb(CH3COO3)2 + PbO  Goulard’s Extract  Antiseptic  Astringent

GROUP IVB (4) – TITANIUM FAMILY TITANIUM AND TITANIUM COMPOUNDS TITANIUM, Ti  Titans o Sons of the Earth o Chemically: powerful reducing agent TITANIUM DIOXIDE, TiO2  Solar ray protectant w/ high refractive index→Sunblock  White pigment o High coverage area o Opacifying agent o White capsules


o o

Pilocarpine Ocusert System (for glaucoma) Provides white background for easy visibility

ZIRCONCIUM AND ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS ZIRCONIUM, Zr  Similar to Aluminum  Antiperspirant  Deodorant  Forms: o Aluminum Zirconium Trichlorohydrate o Aluminum Zirconium Tetrachlorohydrex Gly o Aluminum Zirconium Tetrachlorohydrex PG o Aluminum Zirconium Tetrachlorohydrex PEG  Zirconium salts are are known to cause skin granuloma  Use of antiperspirants/deodorants have been linked to breast cancer→ no clear scientific evidence  Use in aerosols prohibited → pulmonary granuloma ZIRCONIUM OXIDE, ZrO  Former official compound  Antiperspirant  Treatment of athlete’s foot ZIRCONIUM CARBONATE, ZrCO3  Former official compound  Antiperspirant  Treatment of athlete’s foot

GROUP VA (15) – NITROGEN FAMILY NITROGEN AND NITROGEN COMPOUNDS NITROGEN, N2  Exists as a diatomic molecule in ordinary conditions  “without life”  Synonyms: Azote, Mephitic Air  Provides an inert atmosphere for readily oxidizable pharmaceuticals  Used as a carrier gas in GC  Stored in BLACK containers  Liquid nitrogen: o Used as a refrigerant o Cryogenic preservation NITRATES, NO3-; NITRITES, NO2 Used as preservatives  NO3-  NO2-  N-nitrosoamines (carcinogenic) NITROUS OXIDE, N2O  Laughing gas, sweet air  Inhalatory anesthetic  Stored in BLUE containers


PHOSPHORUS PHOSPHORUS, P  Light- carrier  “St. Elmo’s Fire”  Essential constituent of protoplasm, nervous tissue and bones  Three main allotropic forms: o White Phosphorus  Colorless or white solid with waxy appearance  Darkens on exposure to light  Sometimes called Yellow Phosphorus, color due to impurities  Stored under water→ handled using forceps  When exposed to air in the dark, it emits a greenish light and gives off white fumes with garlicky odor  Uses: rat poison  VERY POISONOUS! o Acute Ingestion: Garlic odor of breath, luminous vomitus, severe GI irritation, bloody diarrhea, liver damage →general protoplasmic poison o Chronic Poisoning: bony necrosis, esp. the mandible (“phossy jaw”) o Black Phosphorus  Resembles graphite in texture  Produced from white P under high pressures  Stable in air  Does not catch fire spontaneously o Red Phosphorus  Appears as red to violet powder  Properties of red P are intermediate between those of black and white P  Insoluble in organic solvents (vs. White P which is soluble in certain org. solvents)  Less chemically active compared to White P  Relatively nontoxic unless it contains White P as impurity  Uses: safety matches, pyrotechnics  Phosphates→ Of physiologic and medicinal importance ARSENIC AND ARSENIC COMPOUNDS ARSENIC, As  Lewisite metal  Salvarsan/ Compound 606/ Arsphenamine→ First anti-syphilis drug by Paul Ehrlich  Paris Green – cupric aceto-arsenite o Rodenticide, insecticide, pigment, blue colorant for fireworks o Made by combining cupric sulfate and arsenic trioxide o Cu(C2H3O2)2·3Cu(AsO2)2  Scheele’s Green – cupric hydrogen arsenite  Fowler’s Solution – 1% potassium arsenite solution (KAsO2) o Antileukemic (before)  Donovan’s Solution – arsenic (III) iodide solution


For trypanosome infections, rheumatism, arthritis, malaria, TB, diabetes (before) Acute poisoning: o Digestive problems – vomiting, abdominal pains, diarrhea accompanied by bleeding o Mees lines – characteristic white lines on nails o Hair loss Chronic poisoning: Arsenicosis o Smelters, patients treated with arsenicals, drinking water with high levels of arsenic o cancer Antidote: BAL (Dimercaprol) General protoplasmic poison o Arsenious ion (As+3):  High affinity for –SH compounds  Trivalent arsenic more toxic than pentavalent arsenic o Toxic to all types of cells Napoleon Bonaparte→Arsenic detected on hair strand o

 

ARSENIC TRIOXIDE, As2O3  Synonyms: arsenious oxide, white arsenic, arsenic (III) oxide, arsenicum album  Amphoteric oxide  Used as a wood preservative  Primary standard in titrimetric analysis  Trisenox – used as treatment for leukemia that is not responsive to first line agents→ Induces cancer cells to undergo apoptosis ANTIMONY AND ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS ANTIMONY, Sb  “Stibium”  Antimony glance o Most important source of antimony o Sb2S3 o Red-orange in color  Pharmacologic action of water-soluble compounds: o Astringent o Emetic o Expectorant o Anthelmintic  Kills and expels intestinal worms  Vs. vermifuge→ only expels worms ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATE, C8H4K2O12Sb2.3H2O  Tartar emetic  Brown mixture o Emetic o Expectorant o For treatment of schistosomiasis (liver fluke) Schistosoma japonicum→ requires 2 hosts: snails and humans


BISMUTH AND BISMUTH COMPOUNDS BISMUTH, Bi  “beautiful meadow”  Astringent  Antiseptic  Protectant  Bismuth compounds are poisonous  Cause black stools --- combination with sulfide ion  Antidote: Dimercaprol BISMUTH SUBNITRATE, Bi(OH)2NO3  Used as antacid, with astringent and antiseptic properties BISMUTH HYDROXIDE, Bi(OH)3  Milk of Bismuth→ bismuth hydroxide and bismuth subcarbonate in suspension in water o Prepared from Bismuth subnitrate, nitric acid, ammonium carbonate, strong ammonia solution, and purified water o Internal protective for gastric ulcers o Bismuth salts inhibit growth of H. pylori BISMUTH CITRATE  Colloidal bismuth subcitrate used in tx of PUD BISMUTH SUBCARBONATE BISMUTH SUBGALLATE BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE (“PINK BISMUTH”)  Active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate  Anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antacid  Bismuth Subsalicylate Magma VANADIUM  Insulin-mimetic effect (vanadate, vanadyl ion, coordination compounds)  Drawback: toxicity of the metal

GROUP VB (5) TANTALUM  Unaffected by body fluids → inert  Sheet form → surgical repair of bones

GROUP VIA (16): CHALCOGENS (OXYGEN FAMILY) OXYGEN AND OXYGEN COMPOUNDS OXYGEN, O2  Dephlogisticated air, Empyreal air, “Yne”  Exists as a diatomic molecule under ordinary conditions  Consists of 1/5 of air, by weight (in free form)


  

  

Consists of 7/8, by weight, of water and in minerals (in combined state) Obtained industrially by fractional distillation of liquid air Three allotropes: o Nascent→[O] o Atmospheric/ molecular→O2 o Ozone→O3 Employed as a therapeutic gas in the treatment of conditions involving hypoxia Stored in GREEN containers Very active chemically o Combines directly with elements except Hg, Ag, Au and members of the Pt family o Second most electronegative element (vs. fluorine) o Oxides (-2 oxidation state)  Metallic  Nonmetallic  Amphoteric

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, H2O2  Oxidation state of oxygen is -1  Good oxidizing and reducing agent  Pure solutions are stable  Commercial solutions are stabilized by acetanilide and addition of acid (e.g., H3PO4)  Commonly available in 3% and 6% solution  Reagent: 30% solution  30% Solution o Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrate, USP o Disinfectant, powerful oxidant  3% Solution (10-volume solution) o Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution, USP o Antiseptic (oxidizing germicide)  6% Solution (20-volume solution) o Hair bleach  Hydrogen Peroxide in anhydrous glycerin (1.5%)  Urea Peroxide in anhydrous glycerin (4-10%)  Carbamide Peroxide Topical Solution o More preferred for treatment of oral and ear infections ZINC PEROXIDE AND SODIUM PERBORATE  Former official compounds OZONE, O3  Powerful oxidizing agent→ Disinfectant, bleach (industrial) SULFUR AND SULFUR COMPOUNDS SULFUR, S  Brimstone, Shulbari (Sanskrit: enemy of copper), Asupre  Several allotropes o At room temp.: α-Sulfur (rhombic sulfur) is stable


At equilibrium point (96oC): β-Sulfur (monoclinic sulfur) becomes the stable form  Occurs in free state and in combination, mainly as sulfides and sulfates  Constitutes 0.05% of the crust of the Earth  Pharmaceutical Sulfur PRECIPITATED SUBLIMED SULFUR WASHED SULFUR SULFUR o

Milk of Sulfur; Lac sulfur

Flowers of Sulfur

Made by boiling Sulfur with Lime and precipitating the filtered solution with HCl Very fine, pale yellow, amorphous or microcrystalline powder, odorless and tasteless Readily dissolves in carbon disulfide

Used in ointments and lotions

Fine, yellow, crystalline powder, with faint odor and taste Slowly and usually incompletely soluble in carbon disulfide Used as cathartic

Made by treating Sublimed Sulfur with Ammonia to dissolve impurities, particularly arsenic and to remove traces of acid Fine, yellow crystalline powder, with faint odor and taste

Slowly and usually incompletely soluble in carbon disulfide

      

Used as scabicide --- fungicidal action Keratolytic effect Stimulant cathartic Stimulates hair growth Depilatory – as thioglycollate Fumigant – SO2 Antiseborrheic agent – as SeS2

Pharmaceutically relevant chemical forms: o Sulfide (-2 oxidation state)→ Hydrogen sulfide and soluble sulfides react readily with finely divided sulfur to produce polysulfides, Sx-2 o Sulfite (+4 oxidation state) o Sulfate (+6 oxidation state

SULFUR OINTMENT  Prepared from precipitated sulfur, mineral oil and White Ointment  10% Sulfur SULFURATED LIME  Vleminckx’s Solution SULFURATED POTASH  Liver of Sulfur


   

Consist mainly of polysulfide, thuisulfate and sulfate Prepared by careful heating of a solution of potassium carbonate and sublimed sulfur Used in the form of lotions, ointments, and aqueous solutions for treatment of psoriasis Also has antiparasitic activity

WHITE LOTION  Prepared from Sulfurated Potash and Zinc sulfate o Astringent and protective SELENIUM SULFIDE, SeS2  SeS2 and SeS2 Lotion (Selsun Blue)  2.5% suspension used for the topical treatment of seborrheic dermatitis o Hands should be washed off --- Se is toxic o Should not come in contact in eyes and mouth o Cadmium Sulfide, in the past, was also used for this purpose SULFUR DIOXIDE, SO2  Acid anhydride of sulfurous acid  Oxyacid: sulfurous acid  Used pharmaceutically as antioxidant and preservative SODIUM METABISULFITE, Na2S2O5  Obtained when sodium bisulfite is crystallized on an atmosphere of sulfur dioxide  Forms bisulfite upon dissolving in water  Should be used when sodium bisulfite is specified  Antioxidant SODIUM THIOSULFATE, Na2S2O3  Prepared from sulfur reacing with sulfite ions  Antidote for cyanide poisoning  Analytical reagent for determination of iodine SODIUM SULFATE, Na2SO4  Saline cathartic SELENIUM SELENIUM, Se  Selena→ moon  Toxic → Prolonged contact with skin causes contact dermatitis  Important trace element  Absorbed very slowly on the skin  Promotes absorption of Vitamin E


Chromium and Molybdenum→ Important trace elements

CHROMIUM AND CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS CHROMIUM, Cr  Glucose Tolerance Factor  Essential trace element  Deficiency symptoms are similar to that of DM  Forms o Hexavalent Chromium, Cr6+  Toxic  Dichromate→ strong oxidizing agent  Primary standard – Sodium Thiosulfate VS  Chromate →precipitant o Trivalent Chromium , Cr3+ CHROMIC CHLORIDE AND CHROMIC CHLORIDE INJECTION CHROMIUM PICOLINATE MOLYBDENUM AND MOLYBDENUM COMPOUNDS MOLYBDENUM, Mo  Essential trace element  Cofactor for enzymes associated with flavin-dependent enzymes  Cofactor for Xanthine Oxidase  Important for bacterial fixation of atmospheric oxygen MOLYBDENUM OXIDE, MoO  with ferrous sulfate → hematinic URANIUM, U    

Radioactive element Discovered by Becquerel Never employed in medicine as such Used in atomic reactors and atomic bombs


Halogen = Sea-salt producer

FLUORINE AND FLUORINE COMPOUNDS FLUORINE, F2  Most electronegative element  Strongest oxidizing agent SODIUM FLUORIDE, NaF  Sodium Fluoride Tablets; Oral Solution  Sodium Fluoride and Phosphoric Acid Gel  Sodium Fluoride and Phosphoric Acid Topical Solution  Also used in the treatment of osteoporosis  Excess fluoride in adults: o Weakening of bones o Adverse effects on the kidney o Low IQ



Suppressive effect on thyroid, particularly when iodine is deficient Excess fluoride in children→ dental fluorosis o


Bromine TS  Bromine Water→1% Bromine in water

STANNOUS FLUORIDE, SnF2  easily air-oxidized  Stannous Fluoride Gel

Bromine VS  Koppeschaar’s Solution  0.1 N Bromine VS  Components

SODIUM MONOFLUOROPHOSPHATE  Anticariogenic agent added in dentifrices

 

CHLORINE AND CHLORINE COMPOUNDS CHLORINE, Cl2  Dephlogisticated muriatic acid  Chlorine is used as a water disinfectant  Cl- →principal extracellular cation

IODINE AND IODINE COMPOUNDS IODINE, I2  Heaviest nonmetallic element  Easily undergoes sublimation, giving off violet vapor  Solid with metallic sheen  Poisonous→ Antidote: Starch solution  Io Expectorant o Antiseptic o Essential trace element necessary for synthesis of T3 and T4 hormones o T3 – triiodothyronine – more active o T4 – thyroxine – more numerous o Toxicity: Iodism o Deficiency state: Simple Goiter  Dangerous for pregnant women – cretinism  Prevention: iodized salt Iodine Preparations

CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS  Dichlorodifluoromethane, CCl2F2 o Freon o Refrigerant; aerosol propellant o Implicated in ozone layer depletion HYDROCHLORIC ACID, HCl  In diluted form→ treatment for gastric achlorrhydria  present in gastric juice  Pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells, which is activated by HCl secreted by parietal cells, to pepsin  Diluted Hydrochloric Acid is official --- 10% w/v solution SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE, NaOCl  Bleaching agent  Disinfectant  Sodium Hypochlorite Solution (Dakin’s Solution) o Effective germicide, viricide, and deodorant o Strong oxidizing agent  Sodium Hypochlorite Topical Solution o 0.025% NaClO, pH 8 (close to 7.4), buffered with phosphate o allows tissues to regenerate – healing of burns o Antiviral and antimicrobial BROMINE AND BROMINE COMPOUNDS BROMINE, Br2  Dark, reddish brown fuming liquid with suffocating odor  Powerful caustic and germicide  Mainly used as a chemical reagent  Poisoning: Bromism o Skin eruption o Headache o Weakness o Psychosis o NaCl and Ammonium Chloride

Br -→ internally acts as a sedative (depressant) Three Bromides Elixir

Iodophors  Iodine complexed with an organic complexing agent as solubilizer  Povidone Iodine (Betadine)

Advantages: o Reduced irritation


o o o o o

Reduced oral tox Lack of staining potential Low incidence of idiosyncratic reactions Slow release of iodine Stability, virtually 0 vapor pressure of I2

Phenolated iodine solution→ Boulton’s solution ASTATINE, At  The only metallic and radioactive halogen

GROUP VIIB (7) MANGANESE AND MANGANESE COMPOUNDS MANGANESE, Mn  Essential trace element  Cofactor involved in protein synthesis, phosphorylation, fatty acid, and cholesterol synthesis  Toxicity: similar to Parkinsonism o Muscle tremors POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE, KMnO4  Mineral chameleon  Strong oxidizing agent  Antiseptic  Drawback: staining of skin TECHNETIUM, Tc  “technetos” – artificial  First element produced artificially

GROUP VIIIA (18) HELIUM, He  Second lightest gas  Inhalation of pure helium produces Donald Duck -like sound  Component of Artificial Air  BROWN container  80% He and 20% O2 NEON, Ne  Advertising purposes – as Neon lights ARGON, Ar  Most abundant noble gas  Substitute for nitrogen as inert atmosphere for pharmaceuticals KRYPTON, Kr  Least abundant noble gas  Inhalational anesthesia, also Xenon RADON, Rn  “Niton”

Used for the treatment of certain types of cancers


First Triad: Fe, Co, Ni Second Triad: Rh, Ru, Pd Third Triad: Os, Ir, Pt

IRON AND IRON COMPOUNDS IRON, Fe  “Ferrum”  Common ores o Hematite (Fe2O3) o Pyrite/ “Fool’s Gold” (FeS2) o Iron stone FeCO3  Exists in two oxidation states o Fe2+ →aqueous solutions are green in color o Fe3+ →aqueous solutions are yellow to orange to brown in color  In the body: o Hemoglobin→iron in blood o Transferrin→Transport form of iron in the body o Ferritin→ Storage form of iron in the body  Physiologic role o Hematinic → In +2 oxidation state  For correction of microcytic hypochromic anemia (iron deficiency anemia)  Toxicity o Cardiac collapse o GI distress o Black stools FERROUS SULFATE, FeSO4.7H2O  Green vitriol FERROUS GLUCONATE  Fergon  Produces less gastric irritation compared to Ferrous Sulfate FERROUS FUMARATE  Toleron  More stable compared to Ferrous Sulfate FERROUS CARBONATE, FeCO3  Chalybeate Pills  Blaud’s Pills  Ferruginous Pills IRON + AMMONIUM ACETATE  Basham’s Mixture o Astringent o Styptic



FERRIC CHLORIDE, FeCl3  Astringent  Styptic  Test for presence of tannins FERRIC SUBSULFATE SOLUTION  Monsel’s Solution  Basic ferric sulfate solution  Prepared from ferrous sulfate and nitric and sulfuric acids  Used as styptic (hemostatic agent) FERROUS FERRICYANIDE  Turnbull’s Blue FERRIC FERROCYANIDE  Prussian Blue COBALT AND COBALT COMPOUNDS COBALT, Co  Development of erythrocytes and hemoglobin  As Co+2: central metal ion in Vit. B12 (Cyanocobalamin)  Permanent magnets  Used on the manufacture of beers o Enhances foam quality COBALTOUS, CoCl2  Lover’s Ink  Sympathetic Ink→ Used as indicator in silica gel beads  pink→ wet  blue→ blue

PALLADIUM, Pd  catalyst in organic reactions OSMIUM, Os  Heaviest and most dense metal  Osmium Tetroxide, Osmic Acid  Staining of specimens for electron microscopy PLATINUM, Pt  Catalyst in organic reactions  Production of crucibles and wires  Cisplatin → prostate cancer  Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum



NICKEL AND NICKEL COMPOUNDS NICKEL, Ni  Old Nick’s Copper  Found in fossil fuel combustion  Fancy jewelries  Nickel itch --- contact dermatitis  Exists in +2 oxidation state evelopment of erythrocytes and hemoglobin NICKEL CARBONATE, NiCO3  Tonic NICKEL SULFATE, NiSO4  Tonic  Parasiticide RUTHENIUM, Ru  Ru complexes are investigated for its anticancer properties




SILVER HALIDES  Silver halides are light sensitive >> they easily darken upon exposure to light  Silver halides have a characteristic curdy appearance  All silver halides are insoluble in dil. Nitric acid solution  AgCl – white curdy ppt soluble in diluted ammonia solution  AgBr – light yelow curdy ppt partially soluble in diluted ammonia solution  AgI – yellow curdy ppt insoluble in diluted ammonia solution ACTIVITY SERIES  Useful for predicting displacement reactions  For non-metals: F2>Cl2>Br2>I2  For metals o Metals located above hydrogen can displace hydrogen gas from acids o Metals located above the series are more active and can displace salts of metals from solutions o Metals located below the series are easily reduced into their metallic states



With sodium hydroxide TS or sodium sulphide TS→ aluminum hydroxide (white gelatinous precipitate soluble in excess of the reagent)

AMMONIUM 1. Add excess 1N sodium hydroxide and warm→ ammonia (pungent odor, vapour turns red litmus to blue) ANTIMONY 1. Acidify with hydrochloric acid, add hydrogen sulphide → antimony sulphide (orange precipitate, insoluble in 6N ammonium hydroxide, soluble in ammonium sulphide TS) 2. Neutral pH then add ferric chloride→ ferric acetate (blood red solution, destroyed by addition of mineral acids) BARIUM 1. With 2N sulphuric acid→ barium sulfate (white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric or nitric acid) 2. Yellowish green color to a nonluminous flame, blue through green glass BENZOATE 1. Neutral pH, add ferric chloride TS→ ferric benzoate (salmoncolored precipitate) 2. In concentrated solutions, add 2N sulphuric acid→ benzoic acid (white precipitate, soluble in ethyl ether)

BICARBONATE 1. Add acids→CO2 (effervescence, gives white precipitate upon addition of calcium hydroxide TS) 2. Add drops of phenolphthalein TS→ (no color formation)

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BISMUTH 1. Dissolve in light excess nitric or hydrochloric acid then dilute with water→ bismuth hydroxide (white precipitate colored brown by hydrogen sulphide, the resulting compound dissolves in warm mixture of equal parts of nitric acid and water)

ACETATE 1. Warm with conc sulphuric acid and 95% ethanol→ ethyl acetate (plastic balloon, fruity odor) 2. Neutralize solution then add ferric chloride TS→ ferric acetate (blood red solution, destroyed by addition of mineral acids)

BORATE 1. Acidify solution with hydrochloric acid, drops of iodine TS, drops of polyvinyl alcohol solution(1 in 50) → (intense blue color) 2. Add sulphuric acid, add methanol, ignite→ (green-bordered flame)

ALUMINUM 1. With 6N ammonium hydroxide → aluminum hydroxide (white gelatinous precipitate insoluble in excess of the reagent)

BROMIDE 1. Add chloroform, then chlorine TS dropwise, shake→ bromine (red to reddish brown lower organic layer)



With silver nitrate TS→ silver bromide (yellowish white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, slightly soluble in 6N ammonium hydroxide)

CALCIUM 1. 2 drops methyl red TS, neutralize with 6N ammonium hydroxide, add 3N hydrochloric acid until solution is pink, add ammonium oxalate TS→ calcium oxalate (white precipitate, insoluble in 6N acetic acid, soluble in hydrochloric acid) 2. Acidified solution→ transient yellowish red color to nonluminous flame CARBONATE 3. Add acids→CO2 (effervescence, gives white precipitate upon addition of calcium hydroxide TS) 4. Add drops of phenolphthalein TS→ (fuschia pink solution) CHLORATE 1. Add silver nitrate→no precipitate 2. Add sulphurous acid → white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid, soluble in 6N ammonium hydroxide 3. ignition→chlorides (forms white precipitate with silver nitrate TS, insoluble in nitric acid, soluble in ammonium hydroxide) 4. Add sulphuric acid to dry sample→ decrepitation, greenish yellowish gas CHLORIDE 1. To sample solution Add silver nitrate TS→ silver chloride (white curdy precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, soluble in slight excess of 6N ammonium hydroxide) 2. To dry salts, add equal weight manganese dioxide moisten with sulphuric acid, gently heat→ chlorine gas (turns starch iodide paper to blue) CITRATE 1. Add a few mg of dry salt to 15 ml pyridine, dissolve or suspend in 1 ml water, shake then add 5ml acetic anhydride then shake→ light red color COBALT 1. Add 3N hydrochloric acid, heat on steam bath with equal volume nitroso-2-naphthol in 9N acetic acid→ red precipitate 2. Sample solution, saturate with potassium chloride, add potassium nitrite and acetic acid→ potassium cobaltinitrite (yellow precipitate) 3. COPPER 1. Acidify with hydrochloric acid, metallic iron→ copper metal (red film on surface of iron) 2. Excess 6N ammonium hydroxide→ deep blue solution



With potassium ferrocyanide TS→ cupric ferrocyanide (reddish brown precipitate, insoluble in dilute acids)

HYPOPHOSPHITE 1. strong heating→ phosphine (flammable gas) 2. with mercuric chloride TS→ mercurous chloride become metallic mercury with excess hypophosphite (white precipitate turns gray) 3. with sulphuric acid and cupric sulphate TS→ cuprous oxide (reddish brown precipitate, insoluble in diluted acids) IRON 1.

Ferrous or ferric solution with ammonium sulphide TS→ ferrous or ferric sulphide (black precipitate, soluble in 3N hydrochloric acid with evolution of hydrogen sulphide) Ferric Salts 1. Acid solutions with potassium ferrocyanide TS→ ferric ferrocyanide (dark blue gelatinous precipitate) 2. With 1N sodium hydroxide→ ferric hydroxide (reddish brown gelatinous precipitate) 3. With ammonium thiocyante TS→ ferric thiocyanate (deep red colored solution, cannot be destroyed with dilute mineral acids) Ferrous Salts 1. with potassium ferricyanide TS→ ferrous ferricyanide (dark blue gelatinous precipitate, insoluble in 3N hydrochloric acid, soluble in 1 N sodium hydroxide) 2. With 1N sodium hydroxide→ ferrous hydroxide (green-white gelatinous precipitate, turns brown upon shaking)

LACTATE 1. Acidified with sulphuric acid, add potassium permanganate, heat→ acetaldehyde (filter paper moistened with 20% morpholine and sodium nitroferricyanide TS turns blue) LEAD 1.


With 2 N sulphuric acid→lead sulphate (white precipitate, insoluble in 3N hydrochloric or 2N nitric acid, soluble in 1N warm sodium hydroxide or ammonium acetate TS) With potassium chromate TS→ lead chromate (yellow precipitate, insoluble in 6N acetic acid but is soluble in 1N sodium hydroxide)

LITHIUM 1. With sodium carbonate TS and made alkaline with sodium hydroxide→ lithium carbonate (white precipitate on boiling, soluble in ammonium chloride TS) 2. Rendered acidic then nonluminous flame→ red colored flame 3. 2 N sulphuric acid→ no precipitation MAGNESIUM



With ammonium chloride, ammonium carbonate, dibasic sodium phosphate TS→magnesium ammonium phosphate (white crystalline precipitate, insoluble in 6N ammonium hydroxide.

MANGANESE 1. With ammonium sulphide TS→manganese sulphide (salmoncolored precipitate, soluble in acetic acid) MERCURY 1. Salt solutions, metallic copper is added→ metallic mercury (deposits with silvery appearance) 2. With hydrogen sulphide→ mercuric/mercurous sulphide (black precipitate, insoluble in ammonium sulphide TS and in boiling with 2N nitric acid. Mercuric Salts 1. With 1N sodium hydroxide →mercuric oxide (yellow precipitate) 2. With potassium iodide TS→ potassium mercuric iodide (scarlet precipitate, soluble in excess reagent) Mercurous Salts 1. With 1N sodium hydroxide →black precipitate 2. With hydrochloric acid→mercurous chloride (white precipitate, blackened by 6N ammonium hydroxide) 3. With potassium iodide TS→ potassium mercurous iodide (yellow precipitate, turns green upon standing) NITRATE 1. With equal volume sulfuric acid, cooled, add ferrous sulfate→brown color is produced at the junction of 2 liquids 2. When heated with sulphuric acid and metallic copper→ brownish-red fumes 3. Cannot decolorize potassium permanganate NITRITE 1. With dilute mineral acid or with 6N acetic acid→ brownish-red fumes 2. With starch-iodide paper→ turns paper blue OXALATE 1. Neutral or alkaline solutions with calcium chloride TS→calcium oxalate (white precipitate, insoluble in 6N acetic acid but dissolved by hydrochloric acid) 2. Hot acidified solution, add permanganate→ decolorization PERMANGANATE 1. When acidified with sulphuric acid is decolorized by hydrogen peroxide TS, sodium bisulfite TS, in the cold, and by oxalic acid, in hot solution


PEROXIDE 1. Slightly acidified with sulphuric acid, add ether, add potassium dichromate TS→ deep blue solution that is more soluble in the ether layer PHOSPHATE 1. With silver nitrate→silver phosphate (yellow precipitate, soluble in 2N nitric acid and in 6N ammonium hydroxide) 2. Acidified solutions with ammonium molybdate→ammonium phosphomolybdate (yellow precipitate soluble in 2N nitric acid and in 6 N ammonium hydroxide POTASSIUM 1. Impart violet color in nonluminous flame 2. Neutral or moderately concentrated solutions, with sodium bitartrate TS→white crystalline precipitate soluble in 6N ammonium hydroxide and solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates, hastened by addition of glacial acetic acid or ethanol) SALICYLATE 1. With ferric chloride TS→ferric salicylate (violet solution) 2. Moderately concentrated solutions with addition of acids→salicylic acid (white crystalline precipitate) SILVER 1. With hydrochloric acid→silver chloride (white curdy precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid but soluble in 6 N ammonium hydroxide) 2. With 6N ammonium hydroxide and formaldeyhde→ silver mirror upon warming SODIUM 1. To a 2mL solution, add 2ml 19% potassium carbonate and heat to boiling, then add potassium pyroantimonate TS then boil→ white precipitate 2. Impart persistent yellow color to nonluminous flame SULFATE 1. With barium chloride TS →barium sulphate (white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid) 2. With lead acetate TS→lead sulphate(white precipitate soluble in ammonium acetate TS) 3. With hydrochloric acid→no precipitation (distinction from thiosulfates) SULFITE 1. With 3N hydrochloric acid→sulfur dioxide(blackens filter paper moistened with mercurous nitrate TS TARTRATE



Few mg of the sample salt to 2 drops of sodium metaperiodate solution (1 in 20), 1 drop 1N sulphuric acid, then sulphurous acid, then few drops fuchsin-sulfurous acid TS→ reddish pink color

THIOCYANATE 1. With ferric chloride TS →ferric thiocyanate(red colored solution, not decolorized by concentrated mineral acids) THIOSULFATE 1. With hydrochloric acid→ white precipitate that turns yellow and sulphur dioxide blackens filter paper moistened with mercurous nitrate TS ZINC 1.

2. 3.

With sodium acetate and hydrogen sulfide→zinc sulphide (white precipitate, insoluble in acetic acid, but dissolved by 3N hydrochloric acid) With ammonium sulfide→zinc sulphide (white precipitate, neutral medium) With potassium ferrocyanide TS→ zinc ferrocyanide (white precipitate, insoluble in 3 N Hydrochloric acid)


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