250520834-Traduccion-Normas-B30-3-2012

May 3, 2019 | Author: Juan Ochoa | Category: Crane (Machine), Patent, Tower, Foundation (Engineering), Motion (Physics)
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ASME B30.3-2012 (Revisión de ASME B30.3-2009)

Grúas Torre Normas de Segridad !ara "e#e$%ri&os' grúas' grúas derri&' in&*es' gan&*os' ga"as + es#ingas.

,NA NRMA STANAR NA/NA AMER/AN

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Fecha de emisión: Febrero 22, 2013 La publicación de la próxima edición de estas Normas está programada para el 2015 !stas normas se harán e"ecti#as 1 a$o despu%s de la Fecha de !misión &'(! emite respuestas escritas a consultas concernientes a interpretaciones de aspectos t%cnicos de estas Normas Las interpretaciones son publicadas en la página )eb de &'(! en las áginas del +omit% de http:cstoolsasmeorg a medida -ue son emitidas Las interpretaciones tambi%n estarán incluidas en cada edición Las erratas a códigos . normas pueden ser publicadas en la página /eb de &'(! en las áginas del +omit% para pro#eer correcciones a t%rminos publicados incorrectamente, o para corregir errores tipográ"icos o gramaticales en los códigos . normas ales erratas serán usadas en la "echa publicada Las áginas del +omit% se pueden encontrar en http:cstoolsasmeorg a. una opción disponible para recibir automáticamente una noti"icación por correo electrónico cuando se publican erratas a un código o norma en particular !sta opción puede ser encontrada en la ágina del +omit% correspondiente despu%s de seleccionar !rrata en la sección  ublication n"ormation

&'(! es la marca registrada de la 'ociedad &mericana de ngenieros (ecánicos !ste código o norma "ue desarrollado ba4o procedimientos acreditados -ue cumplen los criterios para &merican National 'tandards !l +omit% de Normas 'tandards +ommitee6 -ue aprobó el código o la norma estu#o balanceado, a "in de asegurar -ue todos los indi#iduos de intereses competentes . concernientes tengan oportunidad de participar !l código o norma propuesta "ue puesta a disposición p7blica para re#isión . comentarios, lo cual pro#ee una oportunidad adicional de participación p7blica de parte de la industria, entidades acad%micas, instituciones reguladoras . el p7blico en general &'(! no aprueba, clasi"ica ni endorsa ning7n ob4eto, construcción, dispositi#o patentado ni acti#idad &'(! se abstiene de opinar con respecto a la #alide8 de cual-uier derecho de patente -ue se ha.a expresado en conexión con alg7n art9culo mencionado en este documento, . no se compromete a garanti8ar a nadie -ue utilice una norma por responsabilidad al in"ringir alguna patente aplicable, ni asume t al responsabilidad responsabilidad Los usuarios de un código o norma están ad#ertidos expresamente -ue la determinación de la #alide8 de tales derechos de in#ención, . el riesgo de in"ringir tales derechos, son en su totalidad de su propia responsabilidad La participación de representantes de agencias "ederales o personas a"iliadas con la industria no debe ser interpretada como aprobación del gobierno o la industria de este código o norma &'(! sólo acepta responsabilidad por las interpretaciones de este documento emitidas de acuerdo con los procedimientos . pol9ticas de &'(! establecidas, las cuales exc lu.en la emisión de interpretaciones por indi#iduos

'ociedad &mericana de ngenieros ( ecánicos &merican 'ociet. o" ( echanical !ngineers6 !ngineers6 hree ar &#enue, Ne/ ;or, N; 1001>0

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/NTEN ntroducción ntroducción        # +omposición +omposición del +omit% +omit%       #ii #ii ntroducción ntroducción a Norma Norma ?30       ix @esumen de de cambios cambios       xii xii

/a!"#o 3-0

A#&an&es' A#&an&es' de$ini&iones de$ini&iones + re$eren&ias re$eren&ias ........................................ .................... ........................................ ........................ .... 1

'ección 3=01 'ección 3=02 'ección 3=03

&lcances &lcances de ?303     1 Ae"iniciones Ae"iniciones       1 @e"erencias @e"erencias       10

/a!"#o 3-1

Mon"ae' "re!ado + desman"e#amien"o' &ara&"ers"i&as + &ons"r&&ión ......... ..... .... 12

'ección 3=11 'ección 3=12 'ección 3=13 'ección 3=1B 'ección 3=15 'ección 3=1< 'ección 3=1D 'ección 3=1E 'ección 3=1> 'ección 3=110 'ección 3=111 'ección 3=112 'ección 3=113 'ección 3=11B 'ección 3=115 'ección 3=11< 'ección 3=11D 'ección 3=11E 'ección 3=11> 'ección 3=120 'ección 3=121 'ección 3=122 'ección 3=123 'ección 3=12B

@e-uerimientos de dise$o para la estructura portadora de carga       12 lani"icación lani"icación de la obra     13 'oportes 'oportes base de gr7a gr7a     13 @e-uerimientos generales de monta4e . desmantelamiento         1B Cr7as auto sostenidas sostenidas      15 Cr7as trepadoras trepadoras     1< ruebas pre#ias a la operación operación     1D Cr7as alteradas alteradas o modi"icadas modi"icadas    1E Aocumentación Aocumentación      1E (ecanismos de i8a4e de carga e inclinación de pluma         20 Canchos Canchos     21 (ecanismo (ecanismo de giro giro      21 !-uipo de despla8amie despla8amiento nto     21 !-uipo de trepado      22 rolle.s carga6 carga6      22 Frenos Frenos      22 &.udas para el operador operador    22 +olgantes, +olgantes, esta.s . tirantes tirantes      23 &ccesorios &ccesorios de apare4os apare4os     23 +ontrapesos +ontrapesos . blo-ues blo-ues de lastre     23 +ontroles +ontroles     23 !-uipo el%ctrico el%ctrico      2B +abina del operador operador      2B @e-uerimien @e-uerimientos tos generales generales     25

/a!"#o 3-2

ns!e&&ión' ns!e&&ión' !re4as !re4as + man"enimien" man"enimien"oo ........................................ .................... ........................................ .................... 25

'ección 3=21 'ección 3=22 'ección 3=23 'ección 3=2B

nspección nspección       2< ruebas       2D (antenimient (antenimientoo      2E nspección, reempla8o . mantenimiento de cables            2E

/a!"#o 3-3

!era&ión !era&ión ..................................... ................. ........................................... ....................... ............................................ ........................ .................... 31

'ección 3=31 'ección 3=32 'ección 3=33 'ección 3=3B

+ali"icaciones . conducta del operador = rácticas de operación      31 rácticas rácticas de operación operación      35 'e$ales      3< (iscelánea (iscelánea      3D

6igras

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3=0212=2 3=0212=2 3=0212=3 3=0212=B 3=0212=B 3=0213=1 3=0213=1 3=021B=1 3=021B=1 3=022=1 3=022=1 3=2B2=1 3=2B2=1 3=33B=1 3=3B3=1

Cr7a torre atirantada atirantada      3 Cr7a torre de pluma inclinable = Cr7a de base "i4a, auto sostenida       B Cr7a arriostrad arriostradaa al edi"icio edi"icio     5 Cr7a de trepado interno interno      < ?ase de despla8amie despla8amiento nto para gr7a auto sostenida sostenida    D ipos de bases "i4as      E Falla de n7cleo de cables resistentes resistentes a rotación rotación    2> 'e$ales de mano estándar para control de gr7as torre           3E ona peligrosa para gr7as . cargas le#antadas -ue operen cerca de l9neas de transmisión transmisión el%ctricas el%ctricas     B0

Ta4#a 3=3B3=1

!spacio libre re-uerido en "unción del #olta4e entre "ases en operación cerca de l9neas de energ9a el%ctrica de alto #olta4e  B0

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NTR,//N !sta Norma Nacional &mericana &merican National 'tandard6, Norma de 'eguridad para tele"%ricos, gr7as, gr7as derric, /inches, ganchos, gatas . eslingas, ha sido desarrollada ba4o los procedimientos acreditados por el &merican National 'tandards nstitute &N'6 !sta Norma tu#o su inicio en Aiciembre 1>1< cuando un +ódigo de Normas de 'eguridad para Cr7as de ocho páginas, preparado por un +omit% &'(! para la rotección de raba4adores ndustriales, "ue presentado en la reunión anual de &'(! 'e sostu#ieron discusiones respecto a seguridad en gr7as, gr7as derric . /inches entre 1>20 . 1>25, inclu.endo el +omit% de +orrelación del +ódigo de 'eguridad de &'(!, la &sociación de ngenieros !lectricistas del ierro . &cero, el (useo &mericano de 'eguridad, el +omit% de Normas de ngenier9a de los !stados Gnidos &!'+6 posteriormente cambiado a &merican 'tandards &ssociation &'&6, luego a Gnited 'tates o" &merica 'tandards nstitute G'&'6, . "inalmente a &N'6, el Aepartamento de raba4o = !stado de Ne/ Herse., el Aepartamento de raba4o e ndustria = !stado de enns.l#ania, . la &sociación de Fabricantes de Cr7as Locomotrices !l 11 de Hunio de 1>25, el &!'+ aprobó la recomendación del +omit% de +orrelación del +ódigo de 'eguridad de &'(! . autori8ó el pro.ecto, teniendo como auspiciadores a la I"icina de &stilleros . (uelles de la (arina de los !stados Gnidos . a &'(! !n (ar8o de 1>2E2, el +omit% "ue reorgani8ado como +omit% de Irgani8ación &creditado, operando ba4o procedimientos desarrollados por &'(! . acreditados por el &merican National 'tandards ns titute !sta Norma presenta un 4uego coordinado de reglas -ue puede ser#ir como gu9a para el gobierno . otras entidades reguladoras . autoridades municipales responsables del resguardo e inspección del e-uipo -ue enca4a dentro de sus l9mites de aplicación Las sugerencias respecto a pre#ención de accidentes se dan tanto en "orma de obligaciones como de recomendacionesJ el cumplimiento de ambos tipos puede se r exigido por los empleadores a sus empleados !n caso de impedimentos prácticos, nue#os desarrollos o di"icultad innecesaria, la autoridad administrati#a o reguladora puede otorgar #ariaciones de los re-uerimientos literales o permitir el uso de otros dispositi#os o m%todos, pero sólo cuando es claramente e#idente -ue un grado e-ui#alente de protección está de ese modo asegurado ara asegurar la aplicación e interpretación uni"orme de estas Normas, se exhorta a las autoridades administrati#as o reguladoras a consultar al +omit% ?30, de acuerdo con el "ormato descrito en la 'ección K de la ntroducción, antes de tomar decisiones sobre puntos en disputa

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Los códigos . normas de seguridad tienen la "inalidad de me4orar la seguridad p7blica Las re#isiones son resultado de la consideración del comit% de "actores tales como a#ances tecnológicos, nue#a in"ormación, cambios ambientales . cambios en las necesidades de la industria Las re#isiones no implican -ue las ediciones pre#ias sean inadecuadas La primera edición de ?303 Cr7as orre para +onstrucción "ue publicada en 1>D5 como re#isión parcial de ?302=1>B3 @1>526 . "ue el primer #olumen -ue se dedicó a gr7as torre Nue#as ediciones "ueron publicadas en 1>D5, 1>EB, 1>>0, 1>>< . 200>, con la edición 200> -ue re#isa el t9tulo de ?303 a Cr7as orre . re"le4a los alcances re#isados -ue ahora inclu.en tanto gr7as torre para construcción como gr7as montadas permanentemente anteriormente incluidas en ?30B6 Las responsabilidades de miembros del e-uipo de i8a4e tambi%n "ueros agregadas en esa edición !sta edición 2012 inclu.e cambios . adiciones ma.ores en los alcances de los traba4os de monta4e, desmantelamiento . trepado, . toma en cuenta 8onas de #ientos dentro de los !stados Gnidos Los re-uerimientos de resistencia . estabilidad han sido tambi%n modi"icados para alinearse con la nue#a norma europea !N 1BB3> La sección de inspección ahora inclu.e re-uerimientos para nspecciones (a.ores -ue deben ser conducidas a inter#alos de e inclu.e muchos temas . re-uerimientos nue#os actuali8ados para re"le4ar cambios en el ambiente de traba4o en -ue operan las gr7as torre  La edición del olumen ?303 "ue aprobada por el +omit% ?30 . por &'(!, siendo tambi%n aprobada por &N' . designada como &merican National 'tandard el 21 de A iciembre de 2012

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/MTE ASME B30 Normas de Segridad !ara "e#e$%ri&os' grúas' grúas derri&' in&*es' gan&*os' ga"as + es#ingas La siguiente es una relación de miembros d el +omit% al momento de ap robación de estas Normas6

RE/T7A RE/T7A E /MTE E NRMAS N RMAS .. Means' residente R.M 8arne##' ice residente .M. :+am' 'ecretario 8ERSNA E /MTE E NRMAS

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NRMAS E SEG,RA 8ARA TEE6;R/S' GR ESNGAS

NTR,//N A A NRMA B30 SE//N ? A/AN/ES

?3022 Cr7as de pluma articulada La Norma &'(! ?30 contiene pro#isiones -ue se aplican a ?3023 'istemas ele#adores de personal la construcción, instalación, operación, inspección, pruebas, ?302B Cr7as para contenedores mantenimiento . uso de gr7as . otros e-uipos relacionados ?3025 (anipuladores de desechos . materiales con el i8a4e . mo#imiento de materiales ara comodidad del ?302< &pare4os lector, la Norma ha sido di#idida en #ol7menes separados ?302D 'istemas de colocación de materiales +ada #olumen ha sido escrito ba4o la dirección del +omit% de ?302E Gnidades de i8a4e "lotante auto montantes Norma &'(! ?30 . ha completado exitosamente un proceso ?302> Cr7as torre 1 consensuado de aprobación ba4o los auspicios generales del ?3030 +ables SE//N ? [email protected]/,SNES A S A/AN/ES &merican National 'tandards nstitute &N'6 & la "echa de emisión de este olumen, la Norma ?30 comprende los siguientes #ol7menes:

?301 ?302

?303 ?30B ?305 ?30< ?30D ?30E ?30> ?3010 ?3011 ?3012 ?3013 ?301B ?3015

Catas, rodillos rodillos industriales, patines de carga neumáticos . pórticos hidráulicos Cr7as ele#adas . de de pórtico puente puente de despla8amiento superior, mono puente o multi puente, i8a4e mediante trolle. de despla8amiento superior6 Cr7as torre Cr7as de portal . pedestal Cr7as mó#iles . locomotrices Cr7as derric )inches Cr7as "lotantes . gr7as derric "lotantes !slingas Canchos Cr7as monoriel . suspendidas (ane4o de cargas suspendidas de de helicóptero helicóptero &lmacena4eextracción de má-uinas . e-uipo relacionado ractores de pluma lateral Cr7as hidráulicas mó#iles

oda exclusión o limitación aplicable al e-uipo, re-uerimientos, recomendaciones u operaciones contenida en estas Normas está establecida en los alcances del #olumen a"ectado

SE//N ? 8R8ST La Norma ?30 tiene la "inalidad de: a6 pre#enir o minimi8ar lesiones a los traba4adores, #elar por la protección de la #ida e integridad de los mismos, as9 como de la propiedad mediante la prescripción de re-uerimientos de seguridad b6 pro#eer directi#as a "abricantes, propietarios, empleados, usuarios, etc comprometidos con o responsables de su aplicación c6 guiar a gobernantes . otros organismos reguladores en el desarrollo, promulgación . e4ecución de directi#as de seguridad apropiadas

SE//N 7? REG,ARAS

,S

8R

ENTAES

!stos #ol7menes pueden ser adoptados en su totalidad o en parte para uso gubernamental o regulatorio 'i es adoptado

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La construcción, instalación, inspección, pruebas, mantenimiento . operación de e-uipo "abricado . de las instalaciones construidas despu%s de la "echa de entrada en #igencia de este olumen, se adecuarán a los re-uerimientos obligatorios de este olumen

SE//N @? S/T,ES E NTER8RETA/N !l +omit% de Norma ?30 presentará una interpretación de las pro#isiones de la Norma ?30 Las solicitudes en cuestión deben ser dirigidas a:

(b) Instalaciones existentes existentes !l e-uipo "abricado . las 'ecretar., ?30 'tandard +ommitee instalaciones construidas antes de la "echa de entrada en &'(! +odes and 'tandards #igencia de este olumen de las Normas ?30 estarán su4etos hree ar &#enue a los re-uerimientos de inspección, pruebas, mantenimiento Ne/ ;or, N; 1001>0 . operación de esta Norma despu%s de la "echa de entrada Las solicitudes deben estar en el "ormato siguiente: en #igencia +itar la designación . t9tulo del #olumen No es la intención de este olumen de la Norma ?30 re-uerir olumen: +itar la edición del #olumen aplicable la actuali8ación de e-uipo existente 'in embargo, cuando un !dición: ema: +itar los n7meros de párra"os aplicables . e-uipo está siendo modi"icado, sus re-uerimientos de los t9tulos rele#antes rendimiento serán re#isados de acuerdo con los 'olicitud: @edacte la solicitud como un pedido de re-uerimientos del #olumen actual La necesidad de cumplir interpretación de una pro#isión espec9"ica en los re-uerimientos actuales será e#aluada por una persona "orma adecuada para el entendimiento . uso cali"icada seleccionada por el propietario usuario6 Los general, no como un pedido de aprobación cambios recomendados se harán por el propietario usuario6 de un dise$o o situación particulares lanos dentro del pla8o de 1 a$o o diagramas -ue expli-uen la solicitud SE//N 7? RE,ERMENTS > pueden ser presentados para aclarar la RE/MENA/NES solicitud 'in embargo, no deben contener ninguna in"ormación ni nombre registrado !stas Normas se caracteri8an por-ue en ellas se dan requerimientos . recomendaciones recomendaciones &l ser recibida por la 'ecretar9a, la solicitud será en#iada al

SE//N 7? ,S E ,NAES E MEA

'ub +omit% ?30 rele#ante para una respuesta en borrador, !stas Normas contienen unidades m%tricas ', as9 como la cual -uedará su4eta a aprobación por el +omit% de Norma medidas inglesas Los #alores presentados en unidades ?30 antes de su emisión "ormal inglesas deben considerarse como standard Las unidades Las interpretaciones de la Norma ?30 serán publicadas en m%tricas se obtienen de una con#ersión directa de las las ediciones posteriores del #olumen respecti#o, . estarán disponibles en l9nea en http:cstoolsasmeorg unidades inglesas

SE//N 7? S/T,ES E RE7SN

SE//N @? G,AS A/NAES

!l +omit% de Norma ?30 considerará solicitudes de re#isión !l e-uipo cubierto por la Norma ?30 está expuesto a riesgos de alguno de de los #ol7menes de la Norma ?30 ?30 Aichas -ue no pueden ser atenuados por medios mecánicos, sino solamente mediante la aplicación de inteligencia, cuidado . solicitudes deben ser dirigidas a: sentido com7n or lo tanto, es esencial contar con personal 'ecretar., ?30 'tandard +ommitee compenetrado con el uso . operación del e-uipo, . -ue sea &'(! +odes and 'tandards competente, cuidadoso, "9sica . mentalmente cali"icado, . hree ar &#enue entrenado en la adecuada operación del e-uipo . en el Ne/ ;or, N; 1001>0 mane4o de cargas !ntre los riesgos serios están incluidos,

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por la Norma, todo lo cual está 9ntimamente relacionado con la seguridad Los tama$os, resistencias . criterios similares dependen de muchos "actores di"erentes, -ue #ar9an "recuentemente seg7n la instalación . usos !stos "actores dependen de: (a) la condición del e-uipo o material (b) las cargas (c) la #elocidad o aceleración de los cables, cadenas, poleas, pi$ones o tambores (d) el tipo tipo de aditamentos

(e) el n7mero, tama$o, . disposición disposición de las poleas poleas . otras partes (f) condiciones ambientales -ue causan corrosión o desgaste (g) muchas otras #ariables -ue deben ser consideradas en cada caso indi#idual Los re-uerimientos . recomendaciones pro#istos en los #ol7menes deben ser interpretados correspondientemente, . se debe aplicar el buen 4uicio para determinar su aplicación

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ASME B30.3-2012 RES,MEN E /AMBS Aespu%s de su aprobación por el +omit% &'(! ?30 . por &'(!, . luego de la re#isión p7blica, el &'(! ?303=2012 "ue aprobado por el &merican National 'tandards nstitute el 21 de Aiciembre de 2012 &'(! ?303=2012 inclu.e cambios editoriales, re#isiones . correcciones, as9 como los cambios siguientes identi"icados por una nota al margen 126 Página

Ubicación

Cambio

ix=xi

ntroducción de Norma ?30

@e#isado en su totalidad

1=11

+ap9tulo 3=0

@e#isado en su totalidad

12=25

+ap9tulo 3=1

@e#isado en su totalidad

20J Irder Aepartment: 22 La / Ari#e, I ?ox 2>00, Fir"ield, NH 0D00D=2>00 ///asmeorg6

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&'(! ?303=2012

/a!"#o 3-1 Mon"ae' "re!ado + desman"e#amien"o' &ara&"ers"i&as + &ons"r&&ión

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&'(! ?303=2012

(b) esliamiento esliamiento Las gr7as serán e#aluadas por su resistencia al desli8amiento a lo largo de los rieles por el "abricante o una persona cali"icada, con el #iento actuando en la dirección menos "a#orable Los cálculos deben demostrar su"iciente resistencia de la gr7a para impedir el desli8amiento 'e pueden pro#eer morda8as para riel u otros mecanismos de ancla4e contra el #iento para impedir e l desli8amiento

restringidas, áreas accesibles a peatones, #9as p7blicas . calles, as9 como construcciones subterráneas D6 radios de traba4o de otras gr7as torre . plumas distribuidoras de materiales, . la ubicación de ele#adores de construcción, en el mismo lugar o en lugares ad.acentes -ue puedan inter"erir con la operación planeada de la gr7a E6 re-uerimientos el%ctricos de la gr7a, indicando el

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