2012 Paper P7 QandA Sample Download v1

August 3, 2017 | Author: Zin Tha | Category: Audit, Expert, Financial Statement, Accounting, Test (Assessment)
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ACCA Paper P7: ADVANCED AUDIT AND ASSURANCE (International) Practice Questions and Answers Published by Tony Surridge Online Limited in 2012

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DOWNLOAD SAMPLE Welcome to our download sample of the Tony Surridge +AddVance E-book publication:

ACCA Paper P7 – Advanced Audit and Assurance (International) Practice Questions and Answers Thanks for taking time to review a download extract of this Study Text publication which we have developed specially for the ACCA Paper P7: Advanced Audit and Assurance (International). We hope you like our electronic study material and recognise that at an extremely low price (plus VAT where applicable) the complete purchased and downloaded version represents true value for money. This is only a small sample, taken directly from the full version, and as such not all hyperlinks will be active. For illustrative purposes, the selection shown here is for parts of each type of Question and Answer, as highlighted in the table of contents. All hyperlinks are fully functional only in the full downloaded version when purchased. You may like to learn some details about the full version: (please note these details may vary slightly depending on which updated version you have purchased)

Diagnostic Questions and Answers: 460 Questions and Answers ranging over 33 ISAs covered by the syllabus , plus 60 Questions and Answers covering the IFAC’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’ Exam Questions and Answers 93

Exam Questions and Answers including tutorial comments, linkages to relevant ISAs, IFRSs, IASs and ethical codes, and examiners’ comments.

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Main Page Copyright statement Environmental notice For the ladies only Test your knowledge now!

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Syllabus

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Study Guide

The structure of the syllabus Intellectual levels Learning hours Guide to exam structure Guide to examination assessment Aim Main capabilities Relational diagram of main capabilities Rationale Detailed syllabus Approach to examining the syllabus

Contents

ACCA Paper P7 ADVANCED AUDIT AND ASSURANCE (International)

A B C D E F G

Regulatory Environment Professional and Ethical Considerations Practice Management Audit of historical financial Information Other assignments Reporting Current Issues and Developments

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Main Contents Diagnostic Tests:

ISA Short Questions and Answers

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Exam Status Questions and Answers IFAC Code Short Questions and Answers

International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) International Accounting Standards (IASs) Glossary of Terms

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TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE NOW! Take a few minutes to see if you have remembered important points from the syllabus. Test yourself. Aim to reach a high score.

If you don’t have a lot of study time (you may be studying other subjects as well) but want to excel in the exams, the DIAGNOSTIC TEST designed for PAPER P7 helps you to: 1.

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Diagnostic Test: ISA Short Questions and Answers Screen Questions

Answers

No of Q&As

ISA 200

20

24

15

ISA 210

32

35

9

ISA 220

40

45

20

ISA 230

54

57

11

ISA 240

62

68

14

ISA 250

82

85

10

ISA 260

89

93

11

ISA 265

99

102

7

ISA 300

106

109

14

ISA 315

114

122

33

ISA 320

141

144

7

ISA 330

148

154

28

ISA 402

164

168

12

ISA 450

175

178

11

ISA 500

183

188

23

ISA 501

197

202

21

ISA 505

209

213

19

ISA 510

219

222

10

ISA 520

228

231

11

ISA 530

236

241

15

ISA 540

250

256

25

ISA 550

266

270

15

ISA 560

277

280

11

ISA 570

285

289

11

ISA 580

294

298

8

ISA 600

304

308

15

ISA 610

316

319

6

ISA 620

323

327

13

ISA 700

335

340

13

ISA 705

346

356

21

ISA 706

364

368

9

ISA 710

372

375

7

ISA 720

378

380

5

International Standard on Auditing

This free sample shows the test for ISA 500

Total number of ISA Short Questions and Answers

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460

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International Standards on Auditing

ISA 500 To access the ISA click here Audit Evidence

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Question 1

A

What is the stated overall objective of ISA 500, Audit Evidence?

Question 2

A

For purposes of the ISAs, different terms have meanings attributed. In terms of the ISAs define the following: (i)

Accounting records

(ii)

Appropriateness (of audit evidence)

(iii)

Audit evidence

(iv)

Management’s expert

(v)

Sufficiency (of audit evidence).

Question 3

A

Paragraph 7, ISA 500 refers to information to be used as audit evidence and specifies that if information to be used as audit evidence has been prepared using the work of a management’s expert, the auditor shall, to the extent necessary, having regard to the significance of that expert’s work for the auditor’s purposes, carry out three procedures or tests to consider the relevance and reliability of the information provided by that expert’s work. Briefly describe these three tests or procedures.

Question 4

A

What should the actions of the auditor be if there is inconsistency in, or doubts over reliability of, audit evidence?

Question 5 Paragraph A10, ISA 500, deals with audit procedures for obtaining audit evidence and specifies that in order to obtain audit evidence from which to draw reasonable conclusions on which to base the auditor’s opinion, two main categories of tests and procedures are required.

A

What are they? ISA 500 describes seven audit procedures that may be used as risk assessment tests of controls or substantive procedures depending on the context in which they are applied by the audit. The first procedure described is ‘Inspection’. You are required to name the other six procedures.

A

Question 6 Briefly describe what inspection involves and its value to the auditor when obtaining audit evidence.

A

Question 7 Briefly describe what observation involves and its value to the auditor when obtaining audit evidence.

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Question 8

A

Briefly describe what an external confirmation involves and its value to the auditor when obtaining audit evidence.

Question 9

A

Briefly describe what recalculation involves and its value to the auditor when obtaining audit evidence.

A

Question 10 Briefly describe what reperformance involves and its value to the auditor when obtaining audit evidence.

Question 11

A

Briefly describe what analytical procedures involve and their value to the auditor when obtaining audit evidence.

Question 12

A

Briefly describe what inquiry involves and its value to the auditor when obtaining audit evidence.

Question 13

A

Paragraph 7, ISA 500 states ‘When designing and performing audit procedures, the auditor shall consider the relevance and reliability of the information to be used as audit evidence’. You are required to discuss the following: (a)

The meaning and context of relevance generally to information used as audit evidence.

(b)

The context of relevance to ‘tests of controls’.

(c)

The content of relevance to ‘substantive procedures’.

(d)

The factors that increase or reduce the reliability of information to be used as audit evidence.

Question 14 Paragraph A36, ISA 500 discusses the reliability of information produced by a management’s expert and specifies that if information to be used as audit evidence has been prepared using the work of a management’s expert, then the nature, timing and extent of audit procedures may be affected by such matters as: ….’. and then provides ten examples of relevant matters, the first being ‘The nature and complexity of the matter to which the management’s expert relates’. You are briefly discuss another nine matters which relate to audit procedures when information to be used as audit evidence has been prepared using the work of a management’s expert.

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Question 15 Paragraph A37, ISA 500 requires that if information to be used as audit evidence has been prepared using the work of a management’s expert, the audit shall, to the extent necessary, having regard to the significance of that expert’s work for the auditor’s purposes, evaluate the competence, capabilities and objectivity of that expert.

A

You are required, in context to paragraph A37, ISA 500, to briefly explain the terms: (i) (ii) (iii)

competence, capabilities, and objectivity.

Question 16

A

Paragraph A38, ISA 500 states ‘Information regarding the competence, capabilities and objectivity of a management’s expert may come from a variety of sources’. One such source may be ‘Personal experience with previous work of that expert’. (Note: the print emphasis is not part of the standard.) You are required to identify another five sources of information relevant to the needs of paragraph A38, ISA 500.

Question 17

A

Paragraph A43, ISA 500 states 'When evaluating the objectivity of an expert engaged by the entity, it may be relevant to discuss with management and that expert any interests and relationships that may create threats to the expert’s objectivity, and any applicable safeguards, including any professional requirements that apply to the expert; and to evaluate whether the safeguards are adequate. You are required to list three main threats to a management’s expert’s objectivity caused by interests and relationships.

Question 18

A

Paragraphs A44 - A47 deal with obtaining an understanding of the work of the management’s expert. Paragraph A44 states, ‘An understanding of the work of the management’s expert includes an understanding of the relevant field of expertise. An understanding of the relevant field of expertise may be obtained in conjunction with the auditor’s determination of whether the auditor has the expertise to evaluate the work of the management’s expert, or whether the auditor needs an auditor’s expert for this purpose’. Briefly discuss four aspects of the management’s expert’s field that may be relevant to the auditor’s understanding.

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Question 19

A

In the case of a management’s expert engaged by the entity, there will ordinarily be an engagement letter or other written form of agreement between the entity and that expert. Evaluating that agreement when obtaining an understanding of the work of the management’s expert may assist the auditor in determining the appropriateness of three important aspects concerning the engagement. What are these three aspects?

Question 20

A

Discuss three considerations of the auditor when evaluating the appropriateness of the management’s expert’s work as audit evidence.

Question 21

A

Paragraph 10, ISA 500 deals with selecting items for testing to obtain audit evidence and states ‘When designing tests of controls and tests of details, the auditor shall determine means of selecting items for testing that are effective in meeting the purpose of the audit procedure’. You are required to identify the three means available to the auditor for selecting items for testing.

Question 22 Paragraph A53, ISA 500 states ‘The auditor may decide that it will be most appropriate to examine the entire population of items that make up a class of transactions or account balance (or a stratum within that population). 100% examination is unlikely in the case of tests of controls; however, it is more common for tests of details’.

A

You are required to state three situations where 100% examination may be appropriate.

Question 23

A

Paragraph A54, ISA 500 states ‘The auditor may decide to select specific items from a population. In making this decision, factors that may be relevant include the auditor’s understanding of the entity, the assessed risks of material misstatement, and the characteristics of the population being tested’. Describe three bases by which specific items may be selected for testing.

“Time is more value than money. You can get more money, but you cannot get more time.” Jim Rohn

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International Standards on Auditing

ISA 500 To access the ISA click here Audit Evidence

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Answer to Question 1

Q

Paragraph 4, ISA 500 states ‘The objective of the auditor is to design and perform audit procedures in such a way as to enable the auditor to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to be able to draw reasonable conclusions on which to base the auditor’s opinion’.

Answer to Question 2

Q

Paragraph 5, ISA 500 states ‘For purposes of the ISAs, the following terms have the meanings attributed below: (a)

Accounting records – The records of initial accounting entries and supporting records, such as cheques and records of electronic fund transfers; invoices; contracts; the general and subsidiary ledgers, journal entries and other adjustments to the financial statements that are not reflected in journal entries; and records such as work sheets and spreadsheets supporting cost allocations, computations, reconciliations and disclosures.

(b)

Appropriateness (of audit evidence) – The measure of the quality of audit evidence; that is, its relevance and its reliability in providing support for the conclusions on which the auditor’s opinion is based.

(c)

Audit evidence – Information used by the auditor in arriving at the conclusions on which the auditor’s opinion is based. Audit evidence includes both information contained in the accounting records underlying the financial statements and other information.

(d)

Management’s expert – An individual or organisation possessing expertise in a field other than accounting or auditing, whose work in that field is used by the entity to assist the entity in preparing the financial statements.

(e)

Sufficiency (of audit evidence) – The measure of the quantity of audit evidence. The quantity of the audit evidence needed is affected by the auditor’s assessment of the risks of material misstatement and also by the quality of such audit evidence’.

Answer to Question 3

Q

Paragraph 8, ISA 500 states ‘If information to be used as audit evidence has been prepared using the work of a management’s expert, the auditor shall, to the extent necessary, having regard to the significance of that expert’s work for the auditor’s purposes: (a) (b) (c)

Evaluate the competence, capabilities and objectivity of that expert; Obtain an understanding of the work of that expert; and Evaluate the appropriateness of that expert’s work as audit evidence for the relevant assertion’.

Answer to Question 4

Q

Paragraph 11, ISA 500 states ‘If: (a) (b)

audit evidence obtained from one source is inconsistent with that obtained from another; or the auditor has doubts over the reliability of information to be used as audit evidence,

the auditor shall determine what modifications or additions to audit procedures are necessary to resolve the matter, and shall consider the effect of the matter, if any, on other aspects of the audit’.

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Answer to Question 5

Q

Paragraph A10, ISA 500 states ‘ .... audit evidence to draw reasonable conclusions on which to base the auditor’s opinion is obtained by performing: (a)

Risk assessment procedures; and

(b)

Further audit procedures, which comprise: (i)

Tests of controls, when required by the ISAs or when the auditor has chosen to do so; and

(ii)

Substantive procedures, including tests of details and substantive analytical procedures’.

Direct tests of financial statement balances (substantive audit procedures) that are not analytical procedures’. Definition Tests of details: These are direct tests of financial statement balances (substantive audit procedures) that are not analytical procedures. End of Definition

Answer to Question 6 Paragraphs A14 - A16, ISA 500 deal with ‘Inspection’. They state ‘Inspection involves examining records or documents, whether internal or external, in paper form, electronic form, or other media, or a physical examination of an asset. Inspection of records and documents provides audit evidence of varying degrees of reliability, depending on their nature and source and, in the case of internal records and documents, on the effectiveness of the controls over their production. An example of inspection used as a test of controls is inspection of records for evidence of authorisation.

Q

Some documents represent direct audit evidence of the existence of an asset, for example, a document constituting a financial instrument such as a stock or bond. Inspection of such documents may not necessarily provide audit evidence about ownership or value. In addition, inspecting an executed contract may provide audit evidence relevant to the entity’s application of accounting policies, such as revenue recognition. Inspection of tangible assets may provide reliable audit evidence with respect to their existence, but not necessarily about the entity’s rights and obligations or the valuation of the assets. Inspection of individual inventory items may accompany the observation of inventory counting’.

Answer to Question 7

Q

Paragraph 17, ISA 500 states ‘Observation consists of looking at a process or procedure being performed by others, for example, the auditor’s observation of inventory counting by the entity’s personnel, or of the performance of control activities. Observation provides audit evidence about the performance of a process or procedure, but is limited to the point in time at which the observation takes place, and by the fact that the act of being observed may affect how the process or procedure is performed. See ISA 501 [Specific Considerations for Selected Items] for further guidance on observation of the counting of inventory.’

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Q

Answer to Question 8 Paragraph A18, ISA 500 states ‘An external confirmation represents audit evidence obtained by the auditor as a direct written response to the auditor from a third party (the confirming party), in paper form, or by electronic or other medium. External confirmation procedures frequently are relevant when addressing assertions associated with certain account balances and their elements. However, external confirmations need not be restricted to account balances only. For example, the auditor may request confirmation of the terms of agreements or transactions an entity has with third parties; the confirmation request may be designed to ask if any modifications have been made to the agreement and, if so, what the relevant details are. External confirmation procedures also are used to obtain audit evidence about the absence of certain conditions, for example, the absence of a “side agreement” that may influence revenue recognition. See ISA 505 [External Confirmations] for further guidance’.

Answer to Question 9

Q

Paragraph A19, ISA 500 states ‘Recalculation consists of checking the mathematical accuracy of documents or records. Recalculation may be performed manually or electronically’.

Answer to Question 10

Q

Paragraph A20, ISA 500 states ‘Reperformance involves the auditor’s independent execution of procedures or controls that were originally performed as part of the entity’s internal control’.

Answer to Question 11 Paragraph A21, ISA 500 states ‘Analytical procedures consist of evaluations of financial information through analysis of plausible relationships among both financial and non-financial data. Analytical procedures also encompass such investigation as is necessary of identified fluctuations or relationships that are inconsistent with other relevant information or that differ from expected values by a significant amount. See ISA 520 [Analytical Procedures] for further guidance’.

Answer to Question 12

Q

Paragraphs A22 - A25, ISA 500 deal with ‘Inspection’. They state ‘Inquiry consists of seeking information of knowledgeable persons, both financial and non-financial, within the entity or outside the entity. Inquiry is used extensively throughout the audit in addition to other audit procedures. Inquiries may range from formal written inquiries to informal oral inquiries. Evaluating responses to inquiries is an integral part of the inquiry process. Responses to inquiries may provide the auditor with information not previously possessed or with corroborative audit evidence. Alternatively, responses might provide information that differs significantly from other information that the auditor has obtained, for example, information regarding the possibility of management override of controls. In some cases, responses to inquiries provide a basis for the auditor to modify or perform additional audit procedures. Although corroboration of evidence obtained through inquiry is often of particular importance, in the case of inquiries about management intent, the information available to support management’s intent may be limited. In these cases, understanding management’s past history of carrying out its stated intentions, management’s stated reasons for choosing a particular course of action, and management’s ability to pursue a specific course of action may provide relevant information to corroborate the evidence obtained through inquiry. . In respect of some matters, the auditor may consider it necessary to obtain written representations from management and, where appropriate, those charged with governance to confirm responses to oral inquiries. See ISA 580 [Written Representations] for further guidance’. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Answer to Question 13

Q

Paragraphs A27 - A30, ISA 500 deal with ‘relevance’. ‘(a)

The meaning and context of relevance Relevance deals with the logical connection with, or bearing upon, the purpose of the audit procedure and, where appropriate, the assertion under consideration. The relevance of information to be used as audit evidence may be affected by the direction of testing. For example, if the purpose of an audit procedure is to test for overstatement in the existence or valuation of accounts payable, testing the recorded accounts payable may be a relevant audit procedure. On the other hand, when testing for understatement in the existence or valuation of accounts payable, testing the recorded accounts payable would not be relevant, but testing such information as subsequent payments, unpaid invoices, suppliers’ statements, and unmatched receiving reports may be relevant. A given set of audit procedures may provide audit evidence that is relevant to certain assertions, but not others. For example, inspection of documents related to the collection of receivables after the period end may provide audit evidence regarding existence and valuation, but not necessarily cutoff. Similarly, obtaining audit evidence regarding a particular assertion, for example, the existence of inventory, is not a substitute for obtaining audit evidence regarding another assertion, for example, the valuation of that inventory. On the other hand, audit evidence from different sources or of a different nature may often be relevant to the same assertion.

(b)

The context of relevance to ‘tests of controls’ Tests of controls are designed to evaluate the operating effectiveness of controls in preventing, or detecting and correcting, material misstatements at the assertion level. Designing tests of controls to obtain relevant audit evidence includes identifying conditions (characteristics or attributes) that indicate performance of a control, and deviation conditions which indicate departures from adequate performance. The presence or absence of those conditions can then be tested by the auditor.

(c)

The context of relevance to ‘substantive procedures’ Substantive procedures are designed to detect material misstatements at the assertion level. They comprise tests of details and substantive analytical procedures. Designing substantive procedures includes identifying conditions relevant to the purpose of the test that constitute a misstatement in the relevant assertion.

(d)

The reliability of information to be used as audit evidence, and therefore of the audit evidence itself, is influenced by its source and its nature, and the circumstances under which it is obtained, including the controls over its preparation and maintenance where relevant. Therefore, generalisations about the reliability of various kinds of audit evidence are subject to important exceptions. Even when information to be used as audit evidence is obtained from sources external to the entity, circumstances may exist that could affect its reliability. For example, information obtained from an independent external source may not be reliable if the source is not knowledgeable, or a management’s expert may lack objectivity. While recognising that exceptions may exist, the following generalisations about the reliability of audit evidence may be useful: •

The reliability of audit evidence is increased when it is obtained from independent sources outside the entity.



The reliability of audit evidence that is generated internally is increased when the related controls, including those over its preparation and maintenance, imposed by the entity are effective.

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Audit evidence obtained directly by the auditor (for example, observation of the application of a control) is more reliable than audit evidence obtained indirectly or by inference (for example, inquiry about the application of a control).



Audit evidence in documentary form, whether paper, electronic, or other medium, is more reliable than evidence obtained orally (for example, a contemporaneously written record of a meeting is more reliable than a subsequent oral representation of the matters discussed).



Audit evidence provided by original documents is more reliable than audit evidence provided by photocopies or facsimiles, or documents that have been filmed, digitised or otherwise transformed into electronic form, the reliability of which may depend on the controls over their preparation and maintenance’.

Q

Answer to Question 14

Q

Paragraph A36, ISA 500 states ‘The nature, timing and extent of audit procedures may be affected by such matters as: •

The nature and complexity of the matter to which the management’s expert relates.



The risks of material misstatement in the matter.



The availability of alternative sources of audit evidence.



The nature, scope and objectives of the management’s expert’s work.



Whether the management’s expert is employed by the entity, or is a party engaged by it to provide relevant services.



The extent to which management can exercise control or influence over the work of the management’s expert.



Whether the management’s expert is subject to technical performance standards or other professional or industry requirements.



The nature and extent of any controls within the entity over the management’s expert’s work.



The auditor’s knowledge and experience of the management’s expert’s field of expertise.



The auditor’s previous experience of the work of that expert’.

Answer to Question 15 Paragraph A37, ISA 500 states ‘Competence relates to the nature and level of expertise of the management’s expert. Capability relates the ability of the management’s expert to exercise that competence in the circumstances. Factors that influence capability may include, for example, geographic location, and the availability of time and resources. Objectivity relates to the possible effects that bias, conflict of interest or the influence of others may have on the professional or business judgment of the management’s expert. The competence, capabilities and objectivity of a management’s expert, and any controls within the entity over that expert’s work, are important factors in relation to the reliability of any information produced by a management’s expert’.

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To access ISA 500 click here

Answer to Question 16

Q

Paragraph A38, ISA 500 states ‘Information regarding the competence, capabilities and objectivity of a management’s expert may come from a variety of sources, such as: •

Personal experience with previous work of that expert.



Discussions with that expert.



Discussions with others who are familiar with that expert’s work.



Knowledge of that expert’s qualifications, membership of a professional body or industry association, license to practice, or other forms of external recognition.



Published papers or books written by that expert.



An auditor’s expert, if any, who assists the auditor in obtaining sufficient appropriate audit evidence with respect to information produced by the management’s expert’.

Answer to Question 17

Q

Paragraph A43, ISA 500 states ‘When evaluating the objectivity of an expert engaged by the entity, it may be relevant to discuss with management and that expert any interests and relationships that may create threats to the expert’s objectivity, and any applicable safeguards, including any professional requirements that apply to the expert; and to evaluate whether the safeguards are adequate. Interests and relationships creating threats may include: • • •

Financial interests. Business and personal relationships. Provision of other services’.

Answer to Question 18

Q

Paragraph A45, ISA 500 states ‘Aspects of the management’s expert’s field relevant to the auditor’s understanding may include: •

Whether that expert’s field has areas of specialty within it that are relevant to the audit.



Whether any professional or other standards, and regulatory or legal requirements apply.



What assumptions and methods are used by the management’s expert, and whether they are generally accepted within that expert’s field and appropriate for financial reporting purposes.



The nature of internal and external data or information the auditor’s expert uses’.

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To access ISA 500 click here

Answer to Question 19

Q

Paragraph A46, ISA 500 states ‘In the case of a management’s expert engaged by the entity, there will ordinarily be an engagement letter or other written form of agreement between the entity and that expert. Evaluating that agreement when obtaining an understanding of the work of the management’s expert may assist the auditor in determining the appropriateness of the following for the auditor’s purposes: •

The nature, scope and objectives of that expert’s work;



The respective roles and responsibilities of management and that expert; and



The nature, timing and extent of communication between management and that expert, including the form of any report to be provided by that expert’.

Answer to Question 20

Q

Paragraph A48, ISA 500 states ‘Considerations when evaluating the appropriateness of the management’s expert’s work as audit evidence for the relevant assertion may include: •

The relevance and reasonableness of that expert’s findings or conclusions, their consistency with other audit evidence, and whether they have been appropriately reflected in the financial statements;



If that expert’s work involves use of significant assumptions and methods, the relevance and reasonableness of those assumptions and methods; and



If that expert’s work involves significant use of source data the relevance, completeness, and accuracy of that source data’.

Answer to Question 21

Q

Paragraph A52, ISA 500 states ‘An effective test provides appropriate audit evidence to an extent that, taken with other audit evidence obtained or to be obtained, will be sufficient for the auditor’s purposes. In selecting items for testing, the auditor is required to determine the relevance and reliability of information to be used as audit evidence; the other aspect of effectiveness (sufficiency) is an important consideration in selecting items to test. The means available to the auditor for selecting items for testing are: (a)

Selecting all items (100% examination);

(b)

Selecting specific items; and

(c)

Audit sampling.

The application of any one or combination of these means may be appropriate depending on the particular circumstances, for example, the risks of material misstatement related to the assertion being tested, and the practicality and efficiency of the different means’.

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To access ISA 500 click here

Answer to Question 22

Q

Paragraph A53, ISA 500 states ‘The auditor may decide that it will be most appropriate to examine the entire population of items that make up a class of transactions or account balance (or a stratum within that population). 100% examination is unlikely in the case of tests of controls; however, it is more common for tests of details. 100% examination may be appropriate when, for example: •

The population constitutes a small number of large value items;



There is a significant risk and other means do not provide sufficient appropriate audit evidence; or



The repetitive nature of a calculation or other process performed automatically by an information system makes a 100% examination cost effective’.

Answer to Question 23

Q

Paragraph A54, ISA 500 states ‘The auditor may decide to select specific items from a population. In making this decision, factors that may be relevant include the auditor’s understanding of the entity, the assessed risks of material misstatement, and the characteristics of the population being tested. The judgmental selection of specific items is subject to non-sampling risk. Specific items selected may include: •

High value or key items. The auditor may decide to select specific items within a population because they are of high value, or exhibit some other characteristic, for example, items that are suspicious, unusual, particularly risk-prone or that have a history of error.



All items over a certain amount. The auditor may decide to examine items whose recorded values exceed a certain amount so as to verify a large proportion of the total amount of a class of transactions or account balance.



Items to obtain information. The auditor may examine items to obtain information about matters such as the nature of the entity or the nature of transactions’.

The mighty oak was once just a small nut who stood his ground. Rianna Nadon

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Paper P7 (Int.)

+AddVance ACCA P7 Questions and Answers

Contents: Exam Status Questions and Answers Organised by Exam Paper Chronological click to the next screen

Sequence

To access the same Questions and Answers by

Syllabus Section click here for the appropriate Contents screens

“TWENTY bridges from Tower to Kew Wanted to know what the River knew, Twenty Bridges or twenty-two, For they were young, and the Thames was old And this is the tale that River told” Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865 – 1936) was an English shortstory writer, poet, and novelist chiefly remembered for his tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907. He was born in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, and was taken by his family to England when he was five years old. Kipling is best known for his works of fiction, including The Jungle Book (a collection of stories which includes "Rikki-TikkiTavi"),

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Contents: Exam-status Questions – 1 of 7

DOCS

Paper P7 (Int.)

Pages Question

Answer

Meadow Company: December 2002 A question covering audit risks, segmental information and international restructuring

391

393

Imperiol Company: December 2002 A question dealing with the acceptance of an engagement and procedures for providing an income statement forecast

404

406

Siegler Company: December 2002 A question covering different audit issues and audit evidence

414

415

Capri Group: December 2002 A question concerning the role of ‘support letters’ and expressing an opinion on consolidated financial statements

423

424

Isthmus Company: December 2002 A question covering ethical and professional issues

431

432

Corporate governance: December 2002 A question covering the appropriateness of global corporate governance standards

438

439

ABC Company: June 2003 A question covering audit risks, reliance placed on the work of an expert, audit of total costs to completion of a contract

444

445

Ferry Company: June 2003 A question covering the ‘top down approach’ in the context of business risk, identifying business risks and risk management

457

458

Dexy Company: June 2003 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence

466

467

Icehouse Publisher: June 2003 A question covering the shortcomings of an audit report

477

478

Duran Company: June 2003 A question covering ethical and professional issues and appropriateness of available audit safeguards

484

485

Audit failures: June 2003 A question covering the professional implications of possible audit failures

491

492

Hydrasports Company: December 2003 A question covering business risks, carrying amounts in the statement of financial position, social and environmental responsibilities

496

498

Pacific Group (PG): December 2003 A question covering audit risks and identity of appropriate internal controls

509

511

Vema Company: December 2003 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence

515

516

Our Answers are based on the ACCA Official solutions but extended to include tutorial guidelines (in green shaded boxes) to aid understanding as well as the use of hyperlinks to glossary terms and external sources. Note: the ACCA Official solutions are available free of charge on www.accaglobal.com. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Contents: Exam-status Questions – 2 of 7

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Pages Question

Answer

Frazil Company: December 2003 A question covering compliance with IFRSs and implications of stated situations

524

525

Sepia: December 2003 A question covering professional issues raised by stated audit situations

531

532

Developments in the field of audit: December 2003 A question covering developments concerning external audit opinion, effectiveness of internal financial controls and management representation letters

537

538

Bateleur Zoo Gardens (BZG) Company: June 2004 A question covering internal controls, financial statement risks and factors to be considered when planning the extent of substantive analytical procedures

547

548

Harrier Motors: June 2004 A question covering audit risks, conduct of a physical inventory count and audit work in respect of the useful life of a brand name

557

558

Eagle Energy: June 2004 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence concerning stated situations

565

566

Rook & Co: June 2004 A question requiring the appraisal of the appropriateness of an audit opinion

572

573

Hawk Associates: June 2004 A question covering ethical and professional issues

578

579

ISA 240: June 2004 A question covering compliance with IFRSs and implications of stated situations

583

584

Geno Vesa Farm (GVF) Company: June 2005 A question covering audit risks, and audit work performed on carrying amounts in the statement of financial position

588

589

Plaza Company: June 2005 A question covering ‘due diligence’ and related issues

597

598

Volcan Company: June 2005 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence

605

606

Hegas Company: June 2005 A question covering implications of matters concerning the auditor’s report

616

617

Bartolome Accountants: June 2005 A question covering ethical and other professional issues

624

625

Money laundering: June 2005 A question covering ‘money laundering’ and related issues

629

630

Our Answers are based on the ACCA Official solutions but extended to include tutorial guidelines (in green shaded boxes) to aid understanding as well as the use of hyperlinks to glossary terms and external sources. Note: the ACCA Official solutions are available free of charge on www.accaglobal.com. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Contents: Exam-status Questions – 3 of 7

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Pages Question

Answer

Shire Oil Co: December 2005 A question covering audit risks, audit work and auditing social and environmental responsibilities

637

639

Indigo Co: December 2005 A question covering opening balances, financial statement risks, and determining the extent of fraud

650

652

Albreda Co: December 2005 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence

662

663

Jinack Co: December 2005 A question covering audit issues

674

675

683

684

Scope of the audit: December 2005 A question covering fair value accounting, continuous auditing and nonconsolidated entities under common control

689

690

Pavia Co: December 2006 A question covering financial statement risks, analytical procedures and audit work concerning carrying amounts in the statement of financial position

696

700

Retail and Business Group (RBG): December 2006 A question concerning outsourcing of internal audit services and related issues

715

716

Seymour Co: December 2006 A question covering audit issues

723

724

Cleeves Co: December 2006 A question covering the appropriateness of an audit opinion and the implications of the audit opinion

736

737

Objectivity: December 2006 A question covering threats to objectivity and safeguards

745

746

Audit practices: December 2006 A question covering ‘lowballing’, ‘opinion shopping’ and insider dealer

752

753

Murray Co: June 2007 A question covering accepting an audit engagement, planning an audit and the effectiveness of a management letter

760

762

Cusiter Co: June 2007 A question covering ‘prospective financial information’ (PFI), and related issues

770

772

Lamont Co: June 2007 A question covering different audit issues

779

780

Petrie Company: June 2007 A question covering the audit report and associated issues

788

789

Dedza Accountants: December 2005 A question covering ethical and professional issues

This free sample shows the Q&A of Jinack Co.

Our Answers are based on the ACCA Official solutions but extended to include tutorial guidelines (in green shaded boxes) to aid understanding as well as the use of hyperlinks to glossary terms and external sources. Note: the ACCA Official solutions are available free of charge on www.accaglobal.com. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Contents: Exam-status Questions – 4 of 7

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Pages Question

Answer

Code of ethics: June 2007 A question covering the term ‘assurance team’, threats to objectives and safeguards

796

797

ISA 600: June 2007 A question covering ISA 600

802

803

Island Co: December 2007 A question covering audit risks, audit procedures and quality control procedures

811

813

Sci-Tech Co: December 2007 A question covering outsourcing, capitalised development costs, validity of an amortisation rate and audit procedures

826

828

Mulligan Co: December 2007 A question covering the review of a business plan and related aspects and ‘forensic accounting’

840

841

Nate & Co Accountants: December 2007 A question covering ‘money laundering’, ethical and professional issues

849

850

Bertie & Co Accountants: December 2007 A question covering the audit report, benefits of a company having a financial statement audit and the objective of a review engagement

857

858

Medix Co: June 2008 A question covering business risks, financial statement risks and professional, ethical and other issues

867

869

Rosie Co: June 2008 A question covering due diligence the audit of a carrying cost and ‘joint audit’ and issues involved

881

883

Pulp Co: June 2008 A question covering the audit of receivables and quality control issues

894

895

Smith & Co Accountants: June 2008 A question covering the ethical and other professional issues raised by an invoice file review and discussion on subsequent action

904

905

Blod Co: June 2008 A question covering the ‘management letter’, ethical issues and the content of a liability disclaimer paragraph and the main arguments for and against the use of the paragraph

912

913

Bluebell Co: December 2008 A question covering financial statement risks, measurement of a share-based payment expense, the recoverability of a deferred tax asset and assessment of social and environmental performance

921

923

Crocus Co: December 2008 A question covering forensic accounting and related issues

936

937

Our Answers are based on the ACCA Official solutions but extended to include tutorial guidelines (in green shaded boxes) to aid understanding as well as the use of hyperlinks to glossary terms and external sources. Note: the ACCA Official solutions are available free of charge on www.accaglobal.com. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Contents: Exam-status Questions – 5 of 7

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Pages Question

Answer

Poppy Co: December 2008 A question covering material balances recognised at fair value, reliance on the work of an external expert and associated audit procedures

945

946

Becker & Co: Accountants: December 2008 A question covering the ethical and practice management implications in respect of three aspects

953

954

Dexter Co: December 2008 A question covering going concern and related aspects

963

964

Champers Co: June 2009 A question covering the audit planning meeting, aspects of a client’s business which should be considered, evaluation of business risk and two audit procedures

971

973

Dragon Group: June 2009 A question covering the firm’s tender document, matters relating to the acceptance of an audit engagement, ‘transnational audit’ and features of it

985

987

Robster Co: June 2009 A question covering the review of audit working papers, audit evidence in respect of leases and financial assets, and analytical procedures

999

1000

Headford Co: June 2009 A question covering ‘professional competence and due care’, ethical and professional issues raised

1010

1011

Pluto Co: June 2009 A question covering the appraisal of a proposed audit report and who should perform an engagement quality control review

1018

1019

Papaya Co: December 2009 A question covering analytical procedures, overall audit strategy and audit plan and financial statements risks

1027

1029

Banana Co: December 2009 A question covering audit evidence and the management of the audit

1040

1042

Apricot Co: December 2009 A question covering procedures performed on the cash flow forecast and a report on prospective financial information

1054

1056

Peaches & Co: December 2009 A question requiring comparison between prescriptive and principles-based approaches to auditing, ethical and professional issues raised

1062

1063

Lychee Co: December 2009 A question covering subsequent events and given related aspects

1069

1070

Grissom Co: June 2010 A question covering audit risks, assessing the work of another auditor and audit procedures

1078

1080

Our Answers are based on the ACCA Official solutions but extended to include tutorial guidelines (in green shaded boxes) to aid understanding as well as the use of hyperlinks to glossary terms and external sources. Note: the ACCA Official solutions are available free of charge on www.accaglobal.com. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Pages Question

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Mac Co: June 2010 A question covering internal audit and related aspects, fraud and the benefits and drawbacks of establishing an audit committee

1097

1099

Juliet Co: June 2010 A question covering failure of audit opinion, audit procedures and ethical and other implications concerning forecasts and projections

1109

1110

Carter & Co: June 2010 A question covering ethical and professional issues raised

1118

1119

Grimes Co: June 2010 A question covering ‘Emphasis of Matter paragraph’, methods used by an audit firm to reduce exposure to litigation claims and the implications of a liability limitation agreement

1125

1126

Jolie Co: December 2010 A question covering the audit planning meeting in which a client’s business risks are evaluated, financial statements risks and audit procedures in respect of the valuation of a brand name

1132

1134

Eastwood Co: December 2010 A question covering an invitation to perform an assurance engagement, procedures to verify KPIs and audit aspects

1146

1148

Clooney Co: December 2010 A question covering audit evidence

1158

1159

Neeson & Co Accountants: December 2010 A question covering ethical and professional issues

1168

1169

Willis Co: December 2010 A question covering the appraisal of a draft audit report, managementimposed limitation on scope and the reporting requirements in respect of internal control deficiencies identified

1177

1178

Bill Co: June 2011 A question covering a partly complete contract value, the valuation of an operating division, related parties and related party transactions and audit procedures

1185

1188

Butler Co: June 2011 A question covering going concern issues, audit procedures on a cash flow forecast, going concern and forming the audit opinion

1201

1205

Wexford Co: June 2011 A question covering professional and ethical matters and opening balances

1214

1215

Jacob Co: June 2011 A question covering the potential benefits of an externally provided due diligence review and related information

1222

1223

Our Answers are based on the ACCA Official solutions but extended to include tutorial guidelines (in green shaded boxes) to aid understanding as well as the use of hyperlinks to glossary terms and external sources. Note: the ACCA Official solutions are available free of charge on www.accaglobal.com. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Contents: Exam-status Questions – 7 of 7

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Pages Question

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Nassau Group: June 2011 A question covering the forming an opinion on the consolidated financial statements of a client and related procedures

1229

1231

Oak Co: December 2011 A question covering a preliminary analytical review, audit procedures with regard to a share-based payment plan and the classification of a new lease, practice management and quality control issues

1239

1242

Willow Co: December 2011 A question covering the issues of audit work on inventory, provisions and current assets and the other issues of property revaluations, non-current asset register, procurement procedures, and the ethics of the client’s financial controller

1258

1260

Beech & Co: December 2011 A question covering the decommissioning provision, evaluating the adequacy of the auditor’s expert’s work and potential implications of the change in accounting estimates

1270

1271

Chestnut Co: December 2011 A question covering alleged fraudulent activity and related issues

1282

1283

Yew Co: December 2011 A question covering audit completion, management representation and treatment of prior year modified audit report

1292

1293

Our Answers are based on the ACCA Official solutions but extended to include tutorial guidelines (in green shaded boxes) to aid understanding as well as the use of hyperlinks to glossary terms and external sources. Note: the ACCA Official solutions are available free of charge on www.accaglobal.com.

Good, better, best Never let it rest Until the good becomes the better and the better becomes the best. English elementary school rhyme

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Jinack Co: Question A question covering audit issues

(a)

Explain the auditor’s responsibilities in respect of subsequent events.

(b)

You are the audit manager of Jinack Co, a private limited liability company. You are currently reviewing two matters that have been left for your attention on the audit working paper file for the year ended 30 September 2012: (i)

(5 marks)

Jinack holds an extensive range of inventory and keeps perpetual inventory records. There was no full physical inventory count at 30 September 2012 as a system of continuous stock checking is operated by warehouse personnel under the supervision of an internal audit department. A major systems failure in October 2012 caused the perpetual inventory records to be corrupted before the year-end inventory position was determined. As data recovery procedures were found to be inadequate, Jinack is reconstructing the year-end quantities through a physical count and ‘rollback’. The reconstruction exercise is expected to be completed in January 2013. (6 marks)

(ii)

A

Audit work on after-date bank transactions identified a transfer of cash from Batik Co. The audit senior has documented that the finance director explained that Batik commenced trading on 7 October 2012, after being set up as a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary of Jinack. No other evidence has been obtained. (4 marks)

Required: Identify and comment on the implications of the above matters for the auditor’s report on the financial statements of Jinack Co for the year ended 30 September 2012 and, where appropriate, the year ending 30 September 2013. NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters.

(15 marks)

Only do what your heart tells you. Princess Diana:

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Jinack Co: Answer Plan

Q

A question covering audit issues

The Plan and Answer: part (a)

Ask yourself …. What is being examined here?

You are required to identify and comment on the implications of two matters for the auditor’s report on the financial statements for the year ended 30 Sep 2012 and the year ending 30 Sep 2013

A 5 mark question so raise at least five points.

(a) For full answer click here AUDITOR’S RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SUBSEQUENT EVENTS Auditor’s responsibilities for subsequent events Consideration of IAS 10 and ISA 560. Events occurring up to date of auditor’s report

AUDITOR’S RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SUBSEQUENT EVENTS continuation Facts discovered after the date of the auditor’s report but before financial statements are issued continuation

Auditor is responsible for carrying out procedures designed to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that all events up to the date of the auditor’s report that may require adjustment of, or disclosure in, the financial statements have been identified.

If the auditor’s report has been released to the entity, the auditor must notify those charged with governance not to issue the financial statements (and the auditor’s report thereon) to third parties.

These procedures are in addition to those applied to specific transactions occurring after the period end that provide audit evidence of period-end account balances

The auditor has no obligation to make any inquiry regarding financial statements that have been issued.

When the auditor becomes aware of events that materially affect the financial statements, the auditor must consider whether they have been properly accounted for and adequately disclosed

Facts discovered after the financial statements have been issued

Actions taken if the auditor becomes aware of a fact which existed at the date of the auditor’s report and which, if known at that date, may have caused the auditor’s report to be modified - ISA 560

Facts discovered after the date of the auditor’s report but before financial statements are issued Actions taken by the auditor when he/she becomes aware of facts which may materially affect the financial statements - ISA 560

Answer Plan for part (b) is on the next screen

If management does not amend the financial statements (where the auditor believes they need to be amended) and the auditor’s report has not been released to the entity, the auditor should express a qualified opinion or an adverse opinion

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The Plan and Answer: part (b) (i) and (ii)

Ask yourself …. What is being examined here?

Q

A 5 mark question so raise at least five points.

You are required to explain the auditor’s responsibilities in respect of subsequent events.

(i) For full answer click here

(ii) For full answer click here

CORRUPTION OF PERPETUAL INVENTORY RECORDS

WHOLLY-OWNED FOREIGN SUBSIDIARY

Data loss (vs asset loss) ⇒ limitation of scope

Management’s oral representation – insufficient evidence

Limitation imposed by circumstances

Non-adjusting post balance sheet event (?) – disclosure?

Non-adjusting post balance sheet event - IAS 10

Sufficient evidence – records vs alternative ‘rollback’) Alternative procedures – analytical procedures Material – not pervasive

Lack of evidence ⇒ limitation of scope Limitation imposed by entity?

Potential adjustment necessary Material ⇒ modified opinion (‘except for’) Immaterial ⇒ unmodified report Not emphasis of matter

2013 – restate opening position/comparatives for error(if any) therefore unmodified - IAS 8

Material vs material and pervasive

Unmodified vs modified ‘except for’ limitation vs disclaimer

“Organising is what you do before you do something, so that when you do it, it is not all mixed up.” A. A. Milne Alan Alexander Milne (1882 – 1956) was an English author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various children's poems. Milne was a noted writer, primarily as a playwright, before the huge success of Pooh overshadowed all his previous work.

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Winni the Pooh Pooh in his original appearance. First appearance ‘When We Were Very Young ‘ (1924)

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Jinack Co: Answer

Q

A question covering audit issues

(a)

Auditor’s responsibilities for subsequent events ■



Auditors must consider the effect of subsequent events on: –

the financial statements;



the auditor’s report.

For answer plan of (a) click here

Subsequent events are all events occurring after a period end (i.e. reporting date) i.e.: –

events after the balance sheet date (as defined in IAS 10 - ‘Events After the Reporting Period’); and



events after the financial statements have been authorised for issue. Tutorial comment IAS 10.10 defines ‘Events after the reporting period’ as ‘ are those events, favourable and unfavourable, that occur between the statement of financial position date and the date when the financial statements are authorised for issue’. Reference could be made here to ISA 560. ISA 560.5 (e) defines subsequent events as ‘Events occurring between the date of the financial statements and the date of the auditor’s report, and facts that become known to the auditor after the date of the auditor’s report’. There is, of course a difference between the two final dates. End of tutorial comment

Events occurring up to date of auditor’s report ■

The auditor is responsible for carrying out procedures designed to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that all events up to the date of the auditor’s report that may require adjustment of, or disclosure in, the financial statements have been identified.



These procedures are in addition to those applied to specific transactions occurring after the period end that provide audit evidence of period-end account balances (e.g. inventory cut-off and receipts from trade receivables). Such procedures should ordinarily include: – – – –



reviewing minutes of board/audit committee meetings; scrutinising latest interim information (financial statements/budgets/cash flows, etc); making/extending inquiries to legal advisors on litigation matters; inquiring of management whether any subsequent events have occurred that might affect the financial statements (e.g. commitments entered into).

When the auditor becomes aware of events that materially affect the financial statements, the auditor must consider whether they have been properly accounted for and adequately disclosed in the financial statements.

Facts discovered after the date of the auditor’s report but before financial statements are issued Tutorial comment After the date of the auditor’s report it is management’s responsibility to inform the auditor of facts which may affect the financial statements. End of tutorial comment

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If the auditor becomes aware of such facts which may materially affect the financial statements, the auditor: – – –

Q

considers whether the financial statements need amendment; discusses the matter with management; and takes appropriate action (e.g. audit any amendments to the financial statements and issue a new auditor’s report) (ISA 560.10.)



If management does not amend the financial statements (where the auditor believes they need to be amended) and the auditor’s report has not been released to the entity, the auditor should express a qualified opinion or an adverse opinion (as appropriate).



If the auditor’s report has been released to the entity, the auditor must notify those charged with governance not to issue the financial statements (and the auditor’s report thereon) to third parties. Tutorial comment ISA 560.13 states ‘.... if management does not amend the financial statements in circumstances where the auditor believes they need to be amended, then: (a)

If the auditor’s report has not yet been provided to the entity, the auditor shall modify the opinion as required by ISA 7055 ‘Modifications to the Opinion in the Independent Auditor’s Report’ and then provide the auditor’s report; or

(b)

If the auditor’s report has already been provided to the entity, the auditor shall notify management and, unless all of those charged with governance are involved in managing the entity, those charged with governance, not to issue the financial statements to third parties before the necessary amendments have been made. If the financial statements are nevertheless subsequently issued without the necessary amendments, the auditor shall take appropriate action, to seek to prevent reliance on the auditor’s report’.

ISA 560.A16 goes on to state ‘Consequently, the auditor may consider it appropriate to seek legal advice’. End of tutorial comment Facts discovered after the financial statements have been issued ■

The auditor has no obligation to make any inquiry regarding financial statements that have been issued.



However, if the auditor becomes aware of a fact which existed at the date of the auditor’s report and which, if known at that date, may have caused the auditor’s report to be modified, the auditor should: – – –

consider whether the financial statements need revision; discuss the matter with management; and take appropriate action (e.g. issuing a new report on revised financial statements).

[ISA 560.A16] (b)

Implications for the auditor’s report (i)

Corruption of perpetual inventory records ■

For answer plan of (b)(i) click here

The loss of data (of physical inventory quantities at the balance sheet date) gives rise to a limitation on scope. Tutorial comment It is the records of the asset that have been destroyed – not the physical asset. End of tutorial comment

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The systems failure in October 2012 is clearly a non-adjusting post financial position (balance sheet) event (IAS 10 - ‘Events After the Reporting Period’). If it is material (such that non-disclosure could influence the economic decisions of users) Jinack should disclose: – –

the nature of the event (i.e. systems failure); and an estimate of its financial effect (i.e. the cost of disruption and reconstruction of data to the extent that it is not covered by insurance). [IAS 10 .21]

Tutorial comment The event has no financial effect on the realisability of inventory, only on its measurement for the purpose of reporting it in the financial statements. IAS 10.10 states ‘An entity shall not adjust the amounts recognised in its financial statements to reflect non-adjusting events after the reporting period’. End of tutorial comment ■

If material this disclosure could be made in the context of explaining how inventory has been estimated at 30 September 2012 (see later). If such disclosure, that the auditor considers to be necessary, is not made, the audit opinion should be qualified ‘except for’ disagreement (over lack of disclosure). Tutorial comment Such qualifications are extremely rare since management should be persuaded to make necessary disclosure in the notes to the financial statements rather than have users’ attention drawn to the matter through a qualification of the audit opinion. End of tutorial comment



The limitation on scope of the auditor’s work has been imposed by circumstances. Jinack’s accounting records (for inventory) are inadequate (non-existent) for the auditor to perform tests on them.



An alternative procedure to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence of inventory quantities at a year end is subsequent count and ‘rollback’. However, the extent of ‘roll back’ testing is limited as records are still under reconstruction.



The auditor may be able to obtain sufficient evidence that there is no material misstatement through a combination of procedures:





testing management’s controls over counting inventory after the balance sheet date and recording inventory movements (e.g. sales and goods received);



reperforming the reconstruction for significant items on a sample basis;



analytical procedures such as a review of profit margins by inventory category.

‘An extensive range of inventory’ is clearly material. The matter (i.e. systems failure) is not however pervasive, as only inventory is affected.

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Unless the reconstruction is substantially completed (i.e. inventory items not accounted for are insignificant) the auditor cannot determine what adjustment, if any, might be determined to be necessary. The auditor’s report should then be modified, ‘except for’, limitation on scope. (For a reminder of the different audit opinions click here.)



However, if sufficient evidence is obtained the auditor’s report should be unmodified.



An ‘emphasis of matter’ paragraph would not be appropriate because this matter is not one of significant uncertainty.

Q

Tutorial comment ISA 706.A1 states ‘ Examples of circumstances where the auditor may consider it necessary to include an Emphasis of Matter paragraph are …. • An uncertainty ….’. An uncertainty in this context is any matter whose outcome depends on future actions or events not under the direct control of Jinack, which is not relevant here. End of tutorial comment Concerning 2013 ■

If the 2012 auditor’s report is qualified ‘except for’ on grounds of limitation on scope there are two possibilities for the inventory figure as at 30 September 2012 determined on completion of the reconstruction exercise: (1)

it is not materially different from the inventory figure reported; or

(2)

it is materially different.



In (1), with the limitation now removed, the need for qualification is removed and the 2013 auditor’s report would be unmodified (in respect of this matter).



In (2) the opening position should be restated and the comparatives adjusted in accordance with citing IAS 8 ‘Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors’. The 2013 auditor’s report would again be unmodified. Tutorial comment IAS 8.42 states ‘ …. an entity shall correct material prior period errors retrospectively in the first set of financial statements authorised for issue after their discovery by: (a)

restating the comparative amounts for the prior period(s) presented in which the error occurred; or

(b)

if the error occurred before the earliest prior period presented, restating the opening balances of assets, liabilities and equity for the earliest prior period presented’.

If the error was not corrected in accordance with IAS 8 it would be a different matter and the auditor’s report would be modified (‘except for’ qualification) disagreement on accounting treatment. End of tutorial comment

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Wholly-owned foreign subsidiary

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For answer plan of (b)(ii) click here



The cash transfer is a non-adjusting post financial position (balance sheet) event. It indicates that Batik was trading after the financial position date. However, that does not preclude Batik having commenced trading before the year end.



The finance director’s oral representation is wholly insufficient evidence with regard to the existence (or otherwise) of Batik at 30 September 2012. If it existed at the balance sheet date its financial statements should have been consolidated (unless immaterial).



The lack of evidence that might reasonably be expected to be available (e.g. legal papers, registration payments, etc) suggests a limitation on the scope of the audit.



If such evidence has been sought but not obtained then the limitation is imposed by the entity (rather than by circumstances).



Whilst the transaction itself may not be material, the information concerning the existence of Batik may be material to users and should therefore be disclosed (as a non-adjusting event). The absence of such disclosure, if the auditor considered necessary, would result in a qualified ‘except for’, opinion.

Q

Tutorial comment Any matter that is considered sufficiently material to be worthy of disclosure as a nonadjusting event must result in such a qualified opinion if the disclosure is not made. End of tutorial comment ■

If Batik existed at the balance sheet date and had material assets and liabilities then its non-consolidation would have a pervasive effect. This would warrant an adverse opinion.



Also, the nature of the limitation (being imposed by the entity) could have a pervasive effect if the auditor is suspicious that other audit evidence has been withheld. In this case the auditor should disclaim an opinion.

Strength and growth come only through continuous effort and struggle. Napoleon Hill

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Q

Examiner’s Report You might find it useful to know what the Examiner reported about the quality of answers for this scenario. This question has finally attained the popularity of the ethics question (5) - though perhaps only because candidates were not prepared to tackle an unrehearsed current issues question (6). Part (a): Explain the auditor's responsibilities in respect of subsequent events Many candidates made some distinction between adjusting and non-adjusting events though this was not necessary in explaining 'auditor's responsibilities' that are covered by an auditing standard, ISA 560 ‘Subsequent Events’ (not an accounting standard, IAS 10 — ‘Events After the Reporting Period’, as asserted by many). Some candidates gave far too much detail on the accounting aspects, which did not answer the question set. As with previous exams this part of this question called for rote-learned knowledge of an auditing standard. Full marks were easily obtained to candidates who went into sufficient detail and distinguished between: events occurring up to the date of the auditor's report facts discovered after the date of the auditor's report but before the financial statements are issued facts discovered after the financial statements have been issued. Answers did not need to be long to score well. Many candidates conveyed some misconceptions about post financial position events in their answers. For example, the following are not true:

• • • •

Adjusting Occur before the statement of financial position (balance sheet) date Occur within 3 months of the statement of financial position date Occur before the auditor's report is signed Are material - therefore adjusted

• • • •

Non-adjusting Occur after the financial position date Occur more than 3 months after the statement of financial position date Occur before the auditor's report is signed Are immaterial - therefore disclosed

Part (b): Implications for the auditor's report. for the current and, where appropriate, next year end Although there were a few answers that got to the core of each matter and offered suitable opinions there were many inadequate answers. Principle weaknesses included: -

merely copying out much of the information in the question dealing with implications that had no bearing on the auditor's report (e.g. systems considerations) 'rubbishing' answers by taking a 'scattergun' approach (suggesting every possible form of audit opinion) supposing an 'emphasis of matter/explanatory paragraph' to be a universal solution.

Many candidates asserted that it was wrong that there was no full physical count and therefore a disagreement qualification would arise. Others stated (again incorrectly) that (i) could merit a disclaimer of opinion though clearly the matter was not pervasive. Candidates who found themselves considering whether or not a matter was 'fundamental' must invest in a more up-to-date textbook as this terminology has been obsolete for nearly a decade.

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Professional and Ethical Behaviour

IFA’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’ To access the IFAC Code click here

This free sample shows the full 60 Questions, but only Answers for the first seven questions

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Question 1

A

100.4 states ‘A professional accountant is required to comply with the following fundamental principles:’ …. What are the fundamental principles?

Question 2

A

100.7 states ‘A professional accountant should take qualitative as well as quantitative factors into account when considering the significance of a threat’. What actions should a professional accountant take when he or she cannot implement appropriate safeguards to prevent circumstances or relationships that may compromise compliance with the fundamental principles?

A

Question 3 100.10 states ‘Compliance with the fundamental principles may potentially be threatened by a broad range of circumstances. Many threats fall into the following categories: ….’. The Code then describes five threats. What are they?

Question 4

A

100.11 states ‘Safeguards that may eliminate or reduce such threats to an acceptable level fall into two broad categories ….’. What are they?

Question 5

A

100.12 states ‘Safeguards [to eliminate or reduce professional and ethical threats] created by the profession, legislation or regulation include, but are not restricted to: ….’. The Code then goes on to list five safeguards. What are they?

Question 6

A

100.16 states ‘In evaluating compliance with the fundamental principles, a professional accountant may be required to resolve a conflict in the application of fundamental principles’. 100.17 states ‘When initiating either a formal or informal conflict resolution process, a professional accountant should consider the following, either individually or together with others, as part of the resolution process: ….’. The Code then lists five considerations. What are they?

A

Question 7 What should be the actions of a professional accountant when a significant conflict cannot be resolved?

Question 8

A

120.1 states that the principle of objectivity imposes an obligation on all professional accountants. What is the obligation?

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Question 9

A

130.1 states that the principle of professional competence and due care imposes two main obligations on professional accountants. What are they?

Question 10

A

According to the Code what does the principle of confidentiality refrain the professional accountants from doing?

Question 11

A

Identify five circumstances or situations (stated by the Code) when the professional accountant should maintain confidentiality.

Question 12

A

Give examples of circumstances where professional accountants are or may be required to disclose confidential information or when such disclosure may be appropriate.

A

Question 13 Give six examples of circumstances that may create self-interest threats for a professional accountant in public practice.

Question 14

A

Give two examples of circumstances that may create advocacy threats for the professional accountant.

Question 15

A

Give five examples of circumstances that may create familiarity threats for the professional accountant.

Question 16

A

Give three examples of circumstances that may create intimidation threats for the professional accountant.

A

Question 17 200.10 states ‘Safeguards that may eliminate or reduce threats to an acceptable level fall into two broad categories: (a)

Safeguards created by the profession, legislation or regulation; and

(b)

Safeguards in the work environment’.

You are required to give examples of (i)

Firm-wide safeguards in the work environment, and

(ii)

Engagement-specific safeguards in the work environment.

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A

Question 18 What factors should be considered before a professional accountant in public practice accepts a new client?

Question 19 210.7 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice should agree to provide only those services that the professional accountant in public practice is competent to perform. Before accepting a specific client engagement, a professional accountant in public practice should consider whether acceptance would create any threats to compliance with the fundamental principles. For example, a self-interest threat to professional competence and due care is created if the engagement team does not possess, or cannot acquire, the competencies necessary to properly carry out the engagement’.

A

210.8 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice should evaluate the significance of identified threats and, if they are other than clearly insignificant, safeguards should be applied as necessary to eliminate them or reduce them to an acceptable level’. Give examples of seven such safeguards.

Question 20 Dealing with ‘conflicts of interest’ 220.1 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice should take reasonable steps to identify circumstances that could pose a conflict of interest. Such circumstances may give rise to threats to compliance with the fundamental principles. For example, a threat to objectivity may be created when a professional accountant in public practice competes directly with a client or has a joint venture or similar arrangement with a major competitor of a client. A threat to objectivity or confidentiality may also be created when a professional accountant in public practice performs services for clients whose interests are in conflict or the clients are in dispute with each other in relation to the matter or transaction in question’.

A

220.2 goes on to states ‘A professional accountant in public practice should evaluate the significance of any threats. Evaluation includes considering, before accepting or continuing a client relationship or specific engagement, whether the professional accountant in public practice has any business interests, or relationships with the client or a third party that could give rise to threats. If threats are other than clearly insignificant, safeguards should be considered and applied as necessary to eliminate them or reduce them to an acceptable level’. Depending upon the circumstances giving rise to the conflict, safeguards should ordinarily include the professional accountant in public practice doing what?

A

Question 21 Dealing with ‘second opinions’ 230.1 states ‘Situations where a professional accountant in public practice is asked to provide a second opinion on the application of accounting, auditing, reporting or other standards or principles to specific circumstances or transactions by or on behalf of a company or an entity that is not an existing client may give rise to threats to compliance with the fundamental principles. For example, there may be a threat to professional competence and due care in circumstances where the second opinion is not based on the same set of facts that were made available to the existing accountant, or is based on inadequate evidence. The significance of the threat will depend on the circumstances of the request and all the other available facts and assumptions relevant to the expression of a professional judgment’. What should a professional accountant do if asked to provide a ‘second’ opinion?

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A

Question 22 Is it ethical for a professional accountant in public practice to quote a fee lower than another?

Question 23 240.1 states ‘When entering into negotiations regarding professional services, a professional accountant in public practice may quote whatever fee deemed to be appropriate. The fact that one professional accountant in public practice may quote a fee lower than another is not in itself unethical. Nevertheless, there may be threats to compliance with the fundamental principles arising from the level of fees quoted. For example, a self-interest threat to professional competence and due care is created if the fee quoted is so low that it may be difficult to perform the engagement in accordance with applicable technical and professional standards for that price’.

A

240.2 states ‘The significance of such threats will depend on factors such as the level of fee quoted and the services to which it applies. In view of these potential threats, safeguards should be considered and applied as necessary to eliminate them or reduce them to an acceptable level’. Recommend two safeguards which may be adopted.

Question 24 Contingent fees are widely used for certain types of non-assurance engagements. They may, however, give rise to threats to compliance with the fundamental principles in certain circumstances. They may give rise to a self-interest threat to objectivity. The significance of such threats will depend on certain factors.

A

State four such factors.

Question 25 Dealing with ‘contingent fees’ 240.4 states ‘The significance of such threats [see Question 24] should be evaluated and, if they are other than clearly insignificant, safeguards should be considered and applied as necessary to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable level’.

A

Recommend four such safeguards.

Question 26 240.5 states ‘In certain circumstances, a professional accountant in public practice may receive a referral fee or commission relating to a client. For example, where the professional accountant in public practice does not provide the specific service required, a fee may be received for referring a continuing client to another professional accountant in public practice or other expert. A professional accountant in public practice may receive a commission from a third party (e.g., a software vendor) in connection with the sale of goods or services to a client’. 240.6 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice may also pay a referral fee to obtain a client, for example, where the client continues as a client of another professional accountant in public practice but requires specialist services not offered by the existing accountant’. Should a professional accountant in public practice pay or receive a referral fee or commission, and if so, what are the conditions under which they are acceptable?

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Question 27

A

Dealing with ‘Marketing professional services’ 250.1 states ‘When a professional accountant in public practice solicits new work through advertising or other forms of marketing, there may be potential threats to compliance with the fundamental principles. For example, a self-interest threat to compliance with the principle of professional behavior is created if services, achievements or products are marketed in a way that is inconsistent with that principle’. 250.2 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice should not bring the profession into disrepute when marketing professional services. The professional accountant in public practice should be honest and truthful ….’. What should the professional accountant in public practice not do when advertising?

Question 28

A

Dealing with ‘Gifts and Hospitality’ 260.1 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice, or an immediate or close family member, may be offered gifts and hospitality from a client. Such an offer ordinarily gives rise to threats to compliance with the fundamental principles. For example, self-interest threats to objectivity may be created if a gift from a client is accepted; intimidation threats to objectivity may result from the possibility of such offers being made public’. What does the IFAC Code specify with regard to the acceptance, or otherwise, of gifts and hospitality?

Question 29

A

Dealing with ‘Custody of Client Assets’ 270.1 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice should not assume custody of client monies or other assets unless permitted to do so by law and, if so, in compliance with any additional legal duties imposed on a professional accountant in public practice holding such assets’. 270.2 states ‘The holding of client assets creates threats to compliance with the fundamental principles; for example, there is a self-interest threat to professional behavior and may be a self interest threat to objectivity arising from holding client assets….’. When entrusted with money (or other assets) belonging to others what should a professional accountant in public practice do to safeguard against such threats?

Question 30

A

Dealing with ‘Objectivity - all services’ 280.1 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice should consider when providing any professional service whether there are threats to compliance with the fundamental principle of objectivity resulting from having interests in, or relationships with, a client or directors, officers or employees. For example, a familiarity threat to objectivity may be created from a family or close personal or business relationship’. 280.4 states ‘A professional accountant in public practice should evaluate the significance of identified threats and, if they are other than clearly insignificant, safeguards should be considered and applied as necessary to eliminate them or reduce them to an acceptable level’. Recommend five such safeguards.

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Question 31

A

Dealing with ‘ Independence—Assurance Engagements’ 290.9 states ‘The use of the word “independence” on its own may create misunderstandings. Standing alone, the word may lead observers to suppose that a person exercising professional judgment ought to be free from all economic, financial and other relationships. This is impossible, as every member of society has relationships with others….’. In light of this statement, explain the attributes of ‘independence’.

Question 32 290.13 states ‘The nature of the threats to independence and the applicable safeguards necessary to eliminate the threats or reduce them to an acceptable level differ depending on the characteristics of the individual assurance engagement: whether it is a financial statement audit engagement or another type of assurance engagement; and in the latter case, the purpose, subject matter information and intended users of the report….’.

A

What are the implications of this statement to the firm of professional accountants in public practice?

Question 33

A

Dealing with ‘Independence – Multiple responsible parties’ 290.33 states ‘ In some assurance engagements, whether assertion-based or direct reporting, that are not financial statement audit engagements, there might be several responsible parties….’. In such case what should the firm take into account with regard to threats to independence?

Question 34 290.46 states ‘If a non-assurance service was provided to the financial statement audit client during or after the period covered by the financial statements but before the commencement of professional services in connection with the financial statement audit …. consideration should be given to the threats to independence, if any, arising from the service. If the threat is other than clearly insignificant, safeguards should be considered and applied as necessary to reduce the threat to an acceptable level’.

A

Recommend four such safeguards.

Question 35

A

290.47 states that a non-assurance service provided to a non-listed financial statement audit client will not impair the firm’s independence under certain provisions. What are the provisions?

Question 36

A

Dealing with ‘financial interest’ 290.106 states that if a member of the assurance team, or their immediate family member, has a direct financial interest, or a material indirect financial interest, in the assurance client, the self-interest threat created would be significant and that only safeguards to eliminate the threat or reduce it to an acceptable level would make it permissible. What are the safeguards referred to?

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Question 37

A

290.107 states ‘If a member of the assurance team, or their immediate family member receives, by way of, for example, an inheritance, gift or, as a result of a merger, a direct financial interest or a material indirect financial interest in the assurance client, a self-interest threat would be created….’. What safeguards should be applied to eliminate the threat or reduce it to an acceptable level?

Question 38 290.108 states ‘When a member of the assurance team knows that his or her close family member has a direct financial interest or a material indirect financial interest in the assurance client, a self-interest threat may be created. In evaluating the significance of any threat, consideration should be given to the nature of the relationship between the member of the assurance team and the close family member and the materiality of the financial interest. Once the significance of the threat has been evaluated, safeguards should be considered and applied as necessary’.

A

Recommend four such safeguards.

Question 39

A

Is a loan, or a guarantee of a loan, to the firm, or professional accountant in public practice, from an assurance client that is a bank or a similar institution ethically acceptable?

Question 40

A

Is it ethically acceptable for the firm, or professional accountant in public practice, to make a loan to an assurance client, that is not a bank or similar institution, or to guarantee such an assurance client’s borrowing?

Question 41

A

Is it ethically acceptable for the firm, or professional accountant in public practice, to accept a loan from, or have borrowing guaranteed by, an assurance client that is not a bank or similar institution.

Question 42

A

290.132 states ‘A close business relationship between a firm or a member of the assurance team and the assurance client or its management, or between the firm, a network firm and a financial statement audit client, will involve a commercial or common financial interest and may create self-interest and intimidation threats’. Give three examples of such close business relationships.

Question 43 In the case of a financial statement audit client, unless the financial interest is immaterial and the close business relationship is clearly insignificant to the firm, the network firm and the audit client, no safeguards could reduce the threat to an acceptable level. In the case of an assurance client that is not a financial statement audit client, unless the financial interest is immaterial and the relationship is clearly insignificant to the firm and the assurance client, no safeguards could reduce the threat to an acceptable level. Consequently, in both these circumstances the only possible ethical courses of action are to do what?

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Question 44 Dealing with ‘Family and personal relationships’ 290.137 states ‘When an immediate family member of a member the assurance team is an employee in a position to exert direct and significant influence over the subject matter of the engagement, threats to independence may be created’.

A

What are the ethical implications?

A

Question 45 290.144 states that if a member of the assurance team, partner or former partner of the firm has joined the assurance client, the significance of the self-interest, familiarity or intimidation threats created will depend upon certain factors. What are these factors?

Question 46

A

What is the ethical position if a firm has a former officer, director or employee of the assurance client serve as a member of the assurance team?

Question 47 What is the ethical position if, prior to the period covered by the assurance report, a member of the assurance team had served as an officer or director of the assurance client, or had been an employee in a position to exert direct and significant influence over the subject matter information of the assurance engagement?

Question 48

A

What are the ethical implications and responses to a firm using the same senior personnel on an assurance engagement over a long period of time?

A

Question 49 Dealing with ‘Provision of non-assurance services to assurance clients’ 290.158 states ‘Firms have traditionally provided to their assurance clients a range of non-assurance services that are consistent with their skills and expertise. Assurance clients value the benefits that derive from having these firms, which have a good understanding of the business, bring their knowledge and skill to bear in other areas. Furthermore, the provision of such non-assurance services will often result in the assurance team obtaining information regarding the assurance client’s business and operations that is helpful in relation to the assurance engagement. The greater the knowledge of the assurance client’s business, the better the assurance team will understand the assurance client’s procedures and controls, and the business and financial risks that it faces. The provision of non-assurance services may, however, create threats to the independence of the firm, a network firm or the members of the assurance team, particularly with respect to perceived threats to independence. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the significance of any threat created by the provision of such services. In some cases it may be possible to eliminate or reduce the threat created by application of safeguards. In other cases no safeguards are available to reduce the threat to an acceptable level’. (i)

What activities would generally create self-interest or self-review threats?

(ii)

What safeguards may be put in place to avoid such threats or reduce them to an acceptable level?

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Question 50

A

Is it ethically acceptable for a firm, or network firm, to provide a financial statement audit client with accounting and bookkeeping services, including payroll services, of a routine or mechanical nature, if (a)

the client is not a listed entity, or

(b)

the client is a listed entity? If your answer is different than for (a) explain why.

Question 51

A

With reference to your answer to Question 50 (b) do the same ethical rules apply to the divisions or subsidiaries of a financial statement audit client that is a listed entity?

Question 52 Dealing with ‘Valuation Services’ 290.174 states ‘A valuation comprises the making of assumptions with regard to future developments, the application of certain methodologies and techniques, and the combination of both in order to compute a certain value, or range of values, for an asset, a liability or for a business as a whole’.

A

What are the ethical implications of a firm providing a valuation service, when: (a)

the valuation service involves the valuation of matters material to the financial statements and the valuation involves a significant degree of subjectivity, or

(b)

the valuation service involves the valuation of matters that are neither separately, nor in the aggregate, material to the financial statements, or that do not involve a significant degree of subjectivity?

Question 53

A

Dealing with ‘Provision of internal audit services to financial statement audit clients’ 290.181 states ‘A self-review threat may be created when a firm, or network firm, provides internal audit services to a financial statement audit client’. State what the safeguards that should be applied to reduce any threats to an acceptable level should ensure.

Question 54

A

What are the ethical implications of the provision of services by a firm or network firm to a financial statement audit client that involve the design and implementation of financial information technology systems that are used to generate information forming part of a client’s financial statements?

Question 55

A

What are the ethical implications of a firm being involved in the recruitment of senior management for an assurance client, such as those in a position to affect the subject matter information of the assurance engagement?

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Question 56

A

Dealing with ‘Fees—Relative Size’ 290.206 states ‘When the total fees generated by an assurance client represent a large proportion of a firm’s total fees, the dependence on that client or client group and concern about the possibility of losing the client may create a self-interest threat. The significance of the threat will depend upon factors such as: •

The structure of the firm; and



Whether the firm is well established or newly created.

The significance of the threat should be evaluated and, if the threat is other than clearly insignificant, safeguards should be considered and applied as necessary to reduce the threat to an acceptable level’. Recommend four such safeguards.

Question 57

A

What are the ethical issues to be addressed if fees due from an assurance client for professional services remain unpaid for a long time, especially if a significant part is not paid before the issue of the assurance report for the following year?

Question 58

A

You are required to complete the following statement: Dealing with ‘Pricing’ 290.209 states ‘When a firm obtains an assurance engagement at a significantly lower fee level than that charged by the predecessor firm, or quoted by other firms, the self-interest threat created will not be reduced to an acceptable level unless:’ ….

Question 59

A

You are required to complete the following statement: Dealing with ‘Contingent fees’ 290.212 states ‘ A contingent fee charged by a firm in respect of a nonassurance service provided to an assurance client may also create self-interest and advocacy threats. If the amount of the fee for a non-assurance engagement was agreed to, or contemplated, during an assurance engagement and was contingent on the result of that assurance engagement, the threats could not be reduced to an acceptable level by the application of any safeguard. Accordingly, the only acceptable action is not to accept such arrangements. For other types of contingent fee arrangements, the significance of the threats created will depend on factors such as:’ ….

Question 60

A

Dealing with ‘Actual or threatened litigation’ 290.214 states ‘When litigation takes place, or appears likely, between the firm or a member of the assurance team and the assurance client, a self-interest or intimidation threat may be created. The relationship between client management and the members of the assurance team must be characterized by complete candor and full disclosure regarding all aspects of a client’s business operations. The firm and the client’s management may be placed in adversarial positions by litigation, affecting management’s willingness to make complete disclosures and the firm may face a self-interest threat. The significance of the threat created will depend upon such factors as: •

The materiality of the litigation;



The nature of the assurance engagement; and



Whether the litigation relates to a prior assurance engagement….’.

Once the significance of the threat has been evaluated what safeguards should be applied, if necessary, to reduce the threats to an acceptable level? ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Professional and Ethical Behaviour

IFA’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’ To access the IFAC Code click here

Note: bold print and underscoring used in answers are not parts of the standard referred to.

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To access the IFAC Code click here

Answer to Question 1 100.4 states ‘A professional accountant is required to comply with the following fundamental principles: (a)

Q

Integrity A professional accountant should be straightforward and honest in all professional and business relationships.

(b)

Objectivity A professional accountant should not allow bias, conflict of interest or undue influence of others to override professional or business judgments.

(c)

Professional Competence and Due Care A professional accountant has a continuing duty to maintain professional knowledge and skill at the level required to ensure that a client or employer receives competent professional service based on current developments in practice, legislation and techniques. A professional accountant should act diligently and in accordance with applicable technical and professional standards when providing professional services.

(d)

Confidentiality A professional accountant should respect the confidentiality of information acquired as a result of professional and business relationships and should not disclose any such information to third parties without proper and specific authority unless there is a legal or professional right or duty to disclose. Confidential information acquired as a result of professional and business relationships should not be used for the personal advantage of the professional accountant or third parties.

(e)

Professional Behavior A professional accountant should comply with relevant laws and regulations and should avoid any action that discredits the profession’.

Answer to Question 2

Q

100.7 states ‘A professional accountant should take qualitative as well as quantitative factors into account when considering the significance of a threat. If a professional accountant cannot implement appropriate safeguards, the professional accountant should decline or discontinue the specific professional service involved, or where necessary resign from the client (in the case of a professional accountant in public practice) or the employing organization (in the case of a professional accountant in business)’.

Answer to Question 3

Q

100.10 states ‘Compliance with the fundamental principles may potentially be threatened by a broad range of circumstances. Many threats fall into the following categories: (a)

Self-interest threats, which may occur as a result of the financial or other interests of a professional accountant or of an immediate or close family member;

(b)

Self-review threats, which may occur when a previous judgment needs to be re-evaluated by the professional accountant responsible for that judgment;

(c)

Advocacy threats, which may occur when a professional accountant promotes a position or opinion to the point that subsequent objectivity may be compromised;

(d)

Familiarity threats, which may occur when, because of a close relationship, a professional accountant becomes too sympathetic to the interests of others; and

(e)

Intimidation threats, which may occur when a professional accountant may be deterred from acting objectively by threats, actual or perceived’.

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Answer to Question 4

Q

100.11 states ‘Safeguards that may eliminate or reduce such threats to an acceptable level fall into two broad categories: (a)

Safeguards created by the profession, legislation or regulation; and

(b)

Safeguards in the work environment’.

Answer to Question 5

Q

100.12 states ‘Safeguards created by the profession, legislation or regulation include, but are not restricted to: •

Educational, training and experience requirements for entry into the profession.



Continuing professional development requirements.



Corporate governance regulations.



Professional standards.



Professional or regulatory monitoring and disciplinary procedures.



External review by a legally empowered third party of the reports, returns, communications or information produced by a professional accountant.’

Answer to Question 6

Q

100.17 states ‘When initiating either a formal or informal conflict resolution process, a professional accountant should consider the following, either individually or together with others, as part of the resolution process: (a)

Relevant facts;

(b)

Ethical issues involved;

(c)

Fundamental principles related to the matter in question;

(d)

Established internal procedures; and

(e)

Alternative courses of action.

Having considered these issues, a professional accountant should determine the appropriate course of action that is consistent with the fundamental principles identified. The professional accountant should also weigh the consequences of each possible course of action. If the matter remains unresolved, the professional accountant should consult with other appropriate persons within the firm or employing organization for help in obtaining resolution’.

Q

Answer to Question 7 100.20 states ‘If a significant conflict cannot be resolved, a professional accountant may wish to obtain professional advice from the relevant professional body or legal advisors, and thereby obtain guidance on ethical issues without breaching confidentiality. For example, a professional accountant may have encountered a fraud, the reporting of which could breach the professional accountant’s responsibility to respect confidentiality. The professional accountant should consider obtaining legal advice to determine whether there is a requirement to report’. 100.21 states ‘If, after exhausting all relevant possibilities, the ethical conflict remains unresolved, a professional accountant should, where possible, refuse to remain associated with the matter creating the conflict. The professional accountant may determine that, in the circumstances, it is appropriate to withdraw from the engagement team or specific assignment, or to resign altogether from the engagement, the firm or the employing organization’. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Well done!

You have now completed the Questions and Answers part of our Paper P7 e-book. The remainder of the e-book screens the following:

Main contents

1335

International Standards on Auditing

1336

Financial Reporting Standards

1345

International Accounting Standards

1347

Glossary of Terms

1351

Technical Articles

1436

Specimen Working Papers

1441

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Paper P7 (Int.)

+AddVance ACCA P7 Questions and Answers

Main Contents Study classification Short Questions and Answers: International Standards on Auditing

Screen

19

Exam Status Questions and Answers

383

IFAC Code Short Questions and Answers

1300

Did you know? From 1986 poetry became and remains a familiar sight on London Underground’s trains and posters. One of the first poems to be published on the Underground was Wordsworth’s ‘Composed Upon Westminster Bridge’ which prompted twenty people to gather on the bridge at dawn on 3rd September 1986, the 184th anniversary of the poems composition, to read it aloud. Source: Stephen Halliday, ‘London Underground Facts, ‘D&C’.

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Paper P7 (Int.)

International Standards on Auditing: December 2012 – 1 of 8

The ISA 210 link is enabled for this free sample

The following seven screens itemise the International Audit Standards and other examinable documents for the June and December 2012 examination. Reference is made to them as applicable in the body of this Tony Surridge +AddVance e-publication. Hyperlinks are provided both on the following screens or when referred to in the text.

Lisa Weaver, examiner for Paper P7, looks at the topic of assurance, describing a framework for the classification of assurance and non-assurance engagements, and giving guidance on the practical approach required ‘Continue to be ‘rest assured’ To access this article click here.

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International Standards on Auditing: December 2012 – 2 of 8 Knowledge of new examinable regulations issued by 30th September will be examinable in examination sessions being held in the following calendar year. Documents may be examinable even if the effective date is in the future. This means that all regulations issued by 30th September 2011 will be examinable in the June 2012 and December 2012 examinations. The study guide offers more detailed guidance on the depth and level at which the examinable documents should be examined. The study guide should therefore be read in conjunction with the examinable documents list.

Accounting Standards Paper P7 Advanced Audit and Assurance The accounting knowledge that is assumed for Paper P7 is the same as that examined in Paper P2. Therefore, candidates studying for Paper P7 should refer to the Accounting Standards listed under Paper P2. N.B. P7 will only expect knowledge of accounting standards and financial reporting standards from Paper P2. Knowledge of exposure drafts and discussion papers will not be expected.

Click here

Title

F8

P7





















International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) CLICK

Glossary of Terms http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A005_Gl ossary.pdf

CLICK

International Framework for Assurance Assignments http://web.ifac.org/download/2008_Auditing_Handbook_A055_Fr amework.pdf

CLICK

Preface to the International Standards on Quality Control, Auditing, Review, Other Assurance and Related Services http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A004_20 09_Preface-WithConformingAmendments.pdf

ISA 200

Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A008_IS A_200.pdf

ISA 210

Agreeing the Terms of Audit Engagements http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A009_IS A_210.pdf

ISA 220

Quality Control For An Audit Of Financial Statements



http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/a010-2010iaasb-handbook-isa-220.pdf

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International Standards on Auditing: December 2012 – 3 of 8 Click here ISA 230

Title (Redrafted) Audit Documentation

F8

P7









































http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A011_IS A_230.pdf

ISA 240

(Redrafted) The Auditor’s Responsibilities Relating to Fraud in an Audit of Financial Statements http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A012_IS A_240.pdf

ISA 250

(Redrafted) Consideration of Laws and Regulations in an Audit of Financial Statements http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A013_IS A_250.pdf

ISA 260

(Revised and Redrafted) Communication with Those Charged with Governance http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A014_IS A_260.pdf

ISA 265

Communicating Deficiencies in Internal Control to those Charged with Governance and Management http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A015_IS A_265.pdf

ISA 300

(Redrafted) Planning an Audit of Financial Statements http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A016_IS A_300.pdf

ISA 315

(Redrafted) Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement Through Understanding the Entity and Its Environment http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A017_IS A_315.pdf

ISA 320

Materiality in Planning and Performing and Audit http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A018_IS A_320.pdf

ISA 330

(Redrafted) The Auditor’s Responses to Assessed Risks http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A019_IS A_330.pdf

ISA 402

Audit Considerations Relating to an Entity Using a Service Organisation http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A020_IS A_402.pdf

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Paper P7 (Int.)

International Standards on Auditing: December 2012 – 4 of 8 Click here ISA 450

Title Evaluation of Misstatements Identified During the Audit

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http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A021_I SA_450.pdf

ISA 500

Audit Evidence http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A022_I SA_500.pdf

ISA 501

Audit Evidence – Specific Considerations for Selected Items http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A023_I SA_501.pdf

ISA 505

External Confirmations http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A024_I SA_505.pdf

ISA 510

(Redrafted) Initial Audit Engagements – Opening Balances http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A025_I SA_510.pdf

ISA 520

Analytical Procedures http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A026_I SA_520.pdf

ISA 530

Audit Sampling http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A027_I SA_530.pdf

ISA 540

(Revised and Redrafted) Auditing Accounting Estimates, Including Fair Value Estimates and Related Disclosures http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A028_I SA_540.pdf

ISA 550



Related parties http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/a029-2010iaasb-handbook-isa-550.pdf

ISA 560

(Redrafted) Subsequent Events









http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A030_I SA_560.pdf

ISA 570

(Redrafted) Going Concern http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A031_I SA_570.pdf

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Paper P7 (Int.)

International Standards on Auditing: December 2012 – 5 of 8 Click here

Title

ISA 580

(Revised and Redrafted) Written Representations

F8

P7





http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A032_ISA_5 80.pdf

ISA 600



Special Considerations – Audits of Group Financial Statements (including the work of component auditors) http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/a033-2010-iaasbhandbook-isa-600.pdf

ISA 610

Using the Work of Internal Auditors





























http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A034_ISA_6 10.pdf

ISA 620

Using the Work of an Auditor’s Expert http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A035_ISA_6 20.pdf

ISA 700

Forming an Opinion and Reporting on Financial Statements http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A036_ISA_7 00.pdf

ISA 705

Modifications to the Opinion in the Independent Auditor’s Report http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A037_ISA_7 05.pdf

ISA 706

Emphasis of Matter Paragraphs and Other Matter Paragraphs in the Independent Auditor’s Report http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A038_ISA_7 06.pdf

ISA 710

Comparative Information – Corresponding Figures and Comparative Financial Statements http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A039_ISA_7 10.pdf

ISA 720

(Redrafted) The Auditor’s Responsibilities Related to Other Information in Documents Containing Audited Financial Statements http://web.ifac.org/download/2009_Auditing_Handbook_A040_ISA_7 20.pdf

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International Standards on Auditing: December 2012 – 6 of 8 Click here

Title

F8

P7

International Auditing Practice Statements (IAPSs) IAPS 1000

Inter-bank Confirmation Procedures



http://web.ifac.org/download/2008_Auditing_Handbook_A220_IAPS_1 000.pdf

IAPS 1010



The Consideration of Environmental Matters in the Audit of Financial Statements http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/b007-2010-iaasbhandbook-iaps-1010.pdf

IAPS 1013

Electronic Commerce: Effect on the Audit of Financial Statements









http://web.ifac.org/download/2008_Auditing_Handbook_A250_IAPS_1 013.pdf

International Standards on Assurance Engagements (ISAEs) ISAE 3000

Assurance Engagements other than Audits or Reviews of Historical Financial Information http://web.ifac.org/download/2008_Auditing_Handbook_A270_ISAE_3 000.pdf

ISAE 3400

The Examination of Prospective Financial Information



http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/b013-2010-iaasbhandbook-isae-3400.pdf

ISAE 3402

Assurance Reports on Controls at a Service Organisation



http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/b014-2010-iaasbhandbook-isae-3402.pdf

International Standards on Quality Control (ISQCs) ISQC 1

Quality Control for Firms that Perform Audits and Reviews of Financial Statements, and Other Assurance and Related Services Engagements



http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/a007-2010-iaasbhandbook-isqc-1.pdf

International Standards on Related Services (ISRSs) ISRS 4400

Engagements to Perform Agreed-Upon Procedures Regarding Financial Information



http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/b015-2010-iaasbhandbook-isrs-4400.pdf

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Paper P7 (Int.)

International Standards on Auditing: December 2012 – 7 of 8 Click here

Title

F8

P7

International Standards on Review Engagements (ISREs) ISRE 2400

ISRE 2410



Engagements to Review Financial Statements http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/publications/exposuredrafts/20110113-IAASB-ED_Proposed_ISRE_-2400_(Revised)-V1final.pdf



Review of Interim Financial Information Performed by the Independent Auditor of the Entity http://www.ifac.org/sites/default/files/downloads/b011-2010-iaasbhandbook-isre-2410.pdf

Exposure Drafts (Eds) Click here

Proposed ISA 315 (revised) Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement through Understanding the Entity and Its Environment



Click here

Proposed ISA 610 (Revised) Using the Work of Internal Auditors



Click here

Proposed ISRE 2400 (Revised) Engagements to Review Historic Financial Statements



Click here

ISAE 3000 (Revised) Assurance Engagements Other than Audits or Reviews of Historic Financial Information



Other Documents Click here

ACCA’s ‘Code of Ethics and Conduct’

Click here

IFAC’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’

Click here

ACCA’s Technical Factsheet 94 – Anti MoneyLaundering (Proceeds of Crime and Terrorism)





http://rulebook.accaglobal.com/



http://web.ifac.org/download/2008_Auditing_Handbook_A025_Code_of_Et hics.pdf



http://www.accaglobal.com/pubs/members/publications/technical_factshee ts/downloads/94.pdf

Click here

The UK Corporate Governance Code - 2010 (As an example of a code of best practice.)



http://www.frc.org.uk/getattachment/b0832de2-5c94-48c0-b771ebb249fe1fec/The-UK-Corporate-Governance-Code.aspx

Click here

The UK Corporate Governance Code - 2010 (As an example of a code of best practice in relation to audit committees.)



http://www.frc.org.uk/getattachment/b0832de2-5c94-48c0-b771ebb249fe1fec/The-UK-Corporate-Governance-Code.aspx

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Paper P7 (Int.)

International Standards on Auditing: December 2012 – 8 of 8 Click here

Title

F8

P7

Other Documents continuation Click here

IAASB Practice Alert Challenges in Auditing Fair Value Accounting Estimates in the Current Market Environment (October 2008)



Click here

IAASB Practice Alert Audit Considerations in Respect of Going Concern in the Current Economic Environment (January 2009)



Click here

IAASB Applying ISAs Proportionately with the Size and Complexity of an Entity (August 2009)



Click here

IAASB XBRL: The Emerging Landscape (January 2010)



Click here

IAASB Auditor Considerations Regarding Significant Unusual or Highly Complex Transactions (September 2010)



Note: Topics of exposure drafts are examinable to the extent that relevant articles about them are published in student accountant. For a summary of the ISAs etc. click to the next screen

Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication. Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452 – 1519) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomised the Renaissance humanist ideal.

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Self-portrait in red chalk, circa 1512 to 1515 Royal Library of Turin

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Summary of ISAs and services of the professional accountant The types of accountancy services and levels of assurance given in reports are summarised in the following table:

Auditing

Related services

Assurance services

Nature of service

Comparative level of assurance provided by auditor

AUDIT OF HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION

REVIEW OF HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ASSURANCE ENGAGEMENTS ON MATTERS OTHER THAN HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION

AGREEDUPON PROCEDURES

COMPILATION

HIGH, BUT NOT ABSOLUTE ASSURANCE

MODERATE ASSURANCE

MODERATE ASSURANCE

NO ASSURANCE

NO ASSURANCE

ISREs 2400 and 2410

ISAEs 3000 and 3400

ISRS 4400

ISRS 4410

FACTUAL FINDINGS OF PROCEDURES

IDENTIFICATION OF INFORMATION COMPILED

ISAs 200 - 810

Report provided

POSITIVE ASSURANCE ON ASSERTION(S)

NEGATIVE ASSURANCE ON ASSERTION(S)

NEGATIVE ASSURANCE ON ASSERTION(S)

Negative assurance is when an auditor gives an assurance that nothing has come to his attention which indicates that the financial statements have not been prepared according to the framework. In other words, he or she gives their assurance in the absence of any evidence to the contrary.

Notice: with ‘agreed-upon-procedures’ and ‘compilation engagements’ the professional accountant does not give assurance.

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Paper P7 (Int.)

International Financial Reporting Standards : December 2012 – 1 of 2

The IFRS 3 link is enabled for this free sample

The following six screens itemise the International Financial Reporting Standards and other examinable documents for the December 2012 examination. Reference is made to them as applicable in the body of this Tony Surridge +AddVance e-publication. Hyperlinks are provided both on the following screens or when referred to in the text.

Examiner for Paper P7 Lisa Weaver provides guidance on the financial reporting issues that require a detailed level of knowledge, and those for which less detailed knowledge will be expected in her article ‘The importance of financial reporting standards to auditors’. To access this article click here.

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Paper P7 (Int.)

International Financial Reporting Standards : December 2012 – 2 of 2 #

Name

Issued

IFRS 1

First-time Adoption of International Financial Standards

2008*

IFRS 2

Share-based Payment

2004

IFRS 3

Business Combinations

2008*

IFRS 4

Insurance Contracts (NOT EXAMINED)

2004

IFRS 5

Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations

2004

IFRS 6

Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Assets (NOT EXAMINED)

2004

IFRS 7

Financial Instruments: Disclosures

2005

IFRS 8

Operating Segments

2006

IFRS 9

Financial Instruments

Summary

(Effective date 1st January 2013)

2010*

IFRS 10 Summary

IFRS 11 Summary

IFRS 12 Summary

IFRS 13 Summary

Consolidated Financial Statements

2011

Joint Arrangements

2011

Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities

2011

Fair Value Measurement

2011

“You know you are getting old when the candles cost more than the cake.” Bob Hope

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Paper P7 (Int.)

International Accounting Standards : December 2012 – 1 of 4

The IAS 16 link is enabled for this free sample

The following six screens itemise the International Accounting Standards and other examinable documents for the December 2012 examination. Reference is made to them as applicable in the body of this Tony Surridge +AddVance e-publication. Hyperlinks are provided both on the following screens or when referred to in the text.

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International Accounting Standards : December 2012 – 2 of 4 #

Name

Issued

IAS 1

Presentation of Financial Statements

2007*

IAS 2

Inventories

2005*

IAS 3

Consolidated Financial Statements

1976

IAS 4

Depreciation Accounting

IAS 5

Information to Be Disclosed in Financial Statements

Superseded in 1989 by IAS 27 and IAS 28

Withdrawn in 1999

1976

Superseded by IAS 1 effective 1 July 1998

IAS 6

Accounting Responses to Changing Prices

IAS 7

Statement of Cash Flows

1992

IAS 8

Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

2003

IAS 9

Accounting for Research and Development Activities

Superseded by IAS 15, which was withdrawn December 2003

Superseded by IAS 39 effective 1 July 1999

IAS 10

Events After the Reporting Period

2003

IAS 11

Construction Contracts

1993

IAS 12

Income Taxes

1996*

IAS 13

Presentation of Current Assets and Current Liabilities Superseded by IAS 39 effective 1 July 1998

IAS 14

IAS 15

Segment Reporting Superseded by IFRS 8 effective 1 January 2009

Information Reflecting the Effects of Changing Prices

1997

2003

Withdrawn December 2003

IAS 16

Property, Plant and Equipment

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2003*

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International Accounting Standards : December 2012 – 3 of 4 #

Name

Issued

IAS 17

Leases

2003*

IAS 18

Revenue

1993*

Employee Benefits

1998

IAS 19

Superseded by IAS 19 (2011) effective 1 January 2013

IAS 19

Employee Benefits (2011)

2011*

IAS 20

Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance

1983

IAS 21

The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates

2003*

Business Combinations

1998*

IAS 22

Superseded by IFRS 3 effective 31 March 2004

IAS 23

Borrowing Costs

2007*

IAS 24

Related Party Disclosures

2009*

IAS 25

Accounting for Investments Superseded by IAS 39 and IAS 40 effective 2001

IAS 26

Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans (NOT EXAMINED)

1987

IAS 27

Separate Financial Statements (2011)

2011

IAS 27

Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements Superseded by IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27 (2011) effective 1 January 2013

2003

IAS 28

Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures (2011)

2011

IAS 28

Investments in Associates Superseded by IAS 28 (2011) and IFRS 12 effective 1 January 2013

2003

IAS 29

Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies (NOT EXAMINED)

1989

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International Accounting Standards : December 2012 – 4 of 4 #

IAS 30

Name

Issued

Disclosures in the Financial Statements of Banks and Similar Financial Institutions

1990

Superseded by IFRS 7 effective 1 January 2007

Interests In Joint Ventures Superseded by IFRS 11 and IFRS 12 effective 1 January 2013 (NOT EXAMINED)

2003*

IAS 32

Financial Instruments: Presentation

2003*

IAS 33

Earnings Per Share

2003*

IAS 34

Interim Financial Reporting

1998

Discontinuing Operations

1998

IAS 31

IAS 35

Superseded by IFRS 5 effective 1 January 2005

IAS 36

Impairment of Assets

2004*

IAS 37

Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

1998

IAS 38

Intangible Assets

2004*

IAS 39

Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement

2003*

Superseded by IFRS 9 effective 1 January 2015

IAS 40

Investment Property

2003*

IAS 41

Agriculture

2001

Note The above tables list the most recent version (or versions if a pronouncement has not yet been superseded) of each pronouncement and the date that revisions was originally issued. Where a pronouncement has been reissued with the same or a different name, the date indicated in the above tables is the date the revised pronouncement was reissued (these are indicated with an asterisk (*) in the tables). The majority of the pronouncements have also been amended through IASB or IFRS Interpretations Committee projects, for consequential amendments arising on the issue of other pronouncements, the annual improvements process, and other factors.

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS (* International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board [IAASB] - February 2009)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

K W

L X

No links on this screen are enabled for the free sample

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS (* International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board [IAASB] - February 2009)

Institutional shareholders Institutional investors are organisations which pool large sums of money and invest those sums in securities, real property and other investment assets. They can also include operating companies which decide to invest their profits to some degree in these types of assets. Types of typical investors include banks, insurance companies, retirement or pension funds, hedge funds, investment advisors and mutual funds. Their role in the economy is to act as highly specialised investors on behalf of others.

Intangible asset An identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance.

Integrity The principle of integrity imposes an obligation on all professional accountants to be straightforward and honest in professional and business relationships. Integrity also implies fair dealing and truthfulness. (Also see Fundamental Principles.)

Intended users* The person, persons or class of persons for whom the practitioner prepares the assurance report. The responsible party can be one of the intended users, but not the only one.

Interim audit An interim audit is undertaken prior to the final audit, often during the period under review. The auditor is likely to carry out tests of control at interim audits. This should be compared with the final audit.

Interim financial information or statements* Financial information (which may be less than a complete set of financial statements as defined above) issued at interim dates (usually half-yearly or quarterly) in respect of a financial period.

Interim financial report A financial report that contains either a complete or condensed set of financial statements for an interim period. (Interim period is a financial reporting period shorter than a full financial year [most typically a quarter or half-year]). (Note: for purposes of ISRE 2410.2, interim financial information is ‘financial information that is prepared and presented in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework and comprises either a complete or a condensed set of financial statements for a period that is shorter than the entity’s financial year’.)

Interest rate risk The risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates.

Internal audit ‘Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organisation’s operations. It helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes’ (The Institute of Internal Auditors).

Internal audit function* An appraisal activity established or provided as a service to the entity. Its functions include, amongst other things, examining, evaluating and monitoring the adequacy and effectiveness of internal control.

Internal auditors* Those individuals who perform the activities of the internal audit function. Internal auditors may belong to an internal audit department or equivalent function. ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS (* International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board [IAASB] - February 2009)

Other comprehensive income Comprises items of income and expense (including reclassification adjustments) that are not recognised in profit or loss as required or permitted by other IFRSs. The components of other comprehensive income include: (i)

changes in revaluation surplus (see IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 38 Intangible Assets);

(ii)

actuarial gains and losses on defined benefit plans recognised in accordance with paragraph 93A of IAS 19 Employee Benefits;

(iii)

gains and losses arising from translating the financial statements of a foreign operation.

(iv)

gains and losses on re-measuring available-for-sale financial assets (see IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement);

(v)

the effective portion of gains and losses on hedging instruments in a cash flow hedge (see IAS 39).

Other information* Financial and non-financial information (other than the financial statements and the auditor’s report thereon) which is included, either by law, regulation, or custom, in a document containing audited financial statements and the auditor’s report thereon.

Other Matter paragraph* A paragraph included in the auditor’s report that refers to a matter other than those presented or disclosed in the financial statements that, in the auditor’s judgment, is relevant to users’ understanding of the audit, the auditor’s responsibilities or the auditor’s report.

Other price risk The risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market prices (other than those arising from interest rate risk or currency risk), whether those changes are caused by factors specific to the individual financial instrument or its issuer, or factors affecting all similar financial instruments traded in the market.

Outcome of an accounting estimate* The actual monetary amount which results from the resolution of the underlying transaction(s), event(s) or condition(s) addressed by the accounting estimate.

Outsourcing Outsourcing is any task, operation, job or process that could be performed by employees within an organisation, but is instead contracted to a third party for a significant period of time. In addition, the functions that are performed by the third party can be performed on-site or off-site. So, for example, Hiring a temporary employee while your secretary is on maternity leave is not outsourcing.

Overall audit strategy* Sets the scope, timing and direction of the audit, and guides the development of the more detailed audit plan.

Oversight To watch over and direct; supervise.

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Technical Articles ACCA Paper P7

Only the link to the article ‘Audit and solvency’ is enabled for the free sample

The following four screens itemise the technical articles which are appropriate for ACCA Paper P7. The articles written by the Examiner, Lisa Weaver are highlighted in green. Other articles are also relevant. The articles can be hyperlinked – simply click and go!

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Syllabus and Study Guide update 29 Mar 2012 Lisa Weaver, Paper P7 examiner, outlines changes to the Syllabus and Study Guide that are effective from the June 2012 exam session

Completing the audit 19 Oct 2011 In this article, Paper P7 examiner Lisa Weaver explores some of the key requirements of International Standards on Auditing (ISA) that are relevant at the completion stage, and discusses the practical implications of those requirements

Summary of changes to the ACCA Qualification for all 2012 study guides 03 Oct 2011 This article by ACCA qualifications manager Gareth Owen is the first in a series which explains the changes that have been made to the individual syllabuses, study guides, exams or other components within the ACCA Qualification

Auditor's reports in the UK 19 Sep 2011 Lisa Weaver, Paper P7 examiner, explores the rationale behind the UK retaining its own version of the clarified ISA 700, and highlights the main differences between the UK version and its international equivalent

How to tackle exams - a marker's perspective 06 May 2011 A lack of knowledge is not the only thing that can lead to exam failure - poor technique could also let you down. Sean Purcell, Paper P3 marker, highlights some common errors all ACCA students need to avoid

Clarity auditing standards 05 Apr 2011 Allan Lee overviews the clarity auditing standards, with a focus on the new ISA/HKSA 265 (Clarified), Communicating Deficiencies in Internal Control to those Charged with Governance and Management

Audit and insolvency 05 Apr 2011 Lisa Weaver, examiner for Paper P7, highlights some of the issues that auditors may have to deal with in respect of insolvency

Group auditing 05 Apr 2011 Graham Fairclough reviews the most significant elements of group audits and changes to ISA 600 that were introduced as a result of the recent Clarity project

Acceptance decisions for audit and assurance engagements 23 Mar 2011 Lisa Weaver discusses the learning outcomes of Professional Appointments from Syllabus reference C4 Articles written by the Examiner ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Changes in question style for Paper P7 26 Jan 2011 The Examiner Lisa Weaver provides guidance on the new question style, which will be seen in all adaptations of the paper from June 2011

Specific aspects of auditing in a computer-based environment 12 Jan 2011 Brian Pine provides guidance on various aspects of auditing in a computer-based accounting environment

Change of syllabus 12 Jan 2011 The Examiner Lisa Weaver highlights the nature of the Paper P7 syllabus changes and the impacts on the exams that will be set

Audit of estimates and fair values 04 Nov 2010 Graham Fairclough provides guidance on making estimates, a vital part of preparing financial statements

Analytical procedures 08 Sep 2010 Charles Fung outlines the analytical procedures relevant to the audit papers

A matter of opinion? 06 May 2010 Simon Finley revisits the basic principles of forming an audit opinion and looks at how this knowledge should be applied by considering a past Paper P7 exam question.

Focus on PER - PO 18 22 Mar 2010 Performance objective 18, Evaluate and report on audit

Focus on PER - PO 17 09 Mar 2010 Prepare and collect evidence for audit

Change in question requirements 08 Feb 2010 Lisa Weaver describes the change in Section A questions for Paper P7 from the June 2010 session onwards Going concern 08 Feb 2010 Lisa Weaver describes the additional guidance given for ISA 570, Going Concern

How to tackle audit and assurance case study questions 04 Nov 2009 Lisa Weaver goes through part of a typical Paper P7 Section A case study question, applying the recommended approach ©Tony Surridge Online Limited, 2012

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Audit risk 02 Nov 2009 Martyn Jones outlines and explains the concept of audit risk, making reference to the key auditing standards which give guidance to auditors about risk assessment.

Testing, testing - one, two, three 13 Oct 2009 Gareth Owen explains how the design of the new ACCA Qualification can help students learn more effectively.

The IAASB Clarity Project 25 Aug 2009 Lisa Weaver provides a summary of the reasons for, and effects of, the Clarity Project from an international and a UK and Ireland perspective.

Massaging the figures 07 Apr 2009 Lisa Weaver explains earnings management - what it is, when it becomes fraud, and implications for auditors

Risk and environmental auditing 11 Mar 2009 David Campbell, examiner for Paper P1, looks at Section D1c and Section E7d of the Paper P1 study guide

ISA 240 (redrafted), auditors and fraud 11 Mar 2009 Martyn Jones, assessor for Paper F8, examines the definitions given by International Standard on Auditing (ISA) 240 (Redrafted) of fraud and error, and the historical expectations of the audit role

The importance of financial reporting standards to auditors 18 Nov 2008 Examiner for Paper P7 Lisa Weaver provides guidance on the financial reporting issues that require a detailed level of knowledge, and those for which less detailed knowledge will be expected

Forensic auditing 11 Sep 2008 Examiner for Paper P7 Lisa Weaver explores some of the key issues relevant to forensic investigations

Crucial audit output 10 Apr 2008 Examiner for Paper P7, Lisa Weaver, discusses the important reporting 'output' produced as a result of the audit process, that of the auditor's communication to those charged with governance

Objectives and responsibilities 10 Mar 2008 Examiner for Paper P7, Lisa Weaver, summarises some of the sections of ISA 600 (Revised and Redrafted)

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Continue to be ‘rest assured’ 15 Oct 2007 Lisa Weaver, examiner for Paper P7, looks at the topic of assurance, describing a framework for the classification of assurance and non-assurance engagements, and giving guidance on the practical approach required

How to tackle audit and assurance case study questions - part 1 01 Aug 2007 Examiner for Paper P7 Lisa Weaver provides an insight into the recommended approach for Section A questions

How to tackle audit and assurance case study questions - part 2 14 Sep 2007 In the second of a two-part series Lisa Weaver, examiner for Paper P7, outlines the recommended approach to answering typical Section A case study questions

Making the right choice 01 Aug 2007 ACCA qualifications development manager Gareth Owen provides guidance on making an informed choice about the Options papers you choose to study for the ACCA Qualification

Experience transfer 27 Feb 2007 Guidance on what you can do in preparation to transfer to the practical experience requirements

Examiner's approach to Paper P7 30 Jan 2007 Lisa Weaver, examiner for Paper P7, provides her approach to the advanced audit and assurance paper

Examining evidence 18 Dec 2006 Connie Richardson explains the importance of understanding audit evidence

Money laundering 04 Feb 2005 Kim Smith outlines the international anti-money laundering standard and illustrates the implementation of its recommendations in the UK and globally.

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Paper P7 (Int.)

APPENDIX

Specimen audit working papers: The following screens provide specimen audit working papers. They are not exclusive. You do not have to reproduce these forms in the exam. They are included simply to help enlarge your understanding.

Only the link to the document ‘Audit Programme – Accounts Receivable’ is enabled for the free sample

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APPENDIX

Specimen Working Papers: Index 1 of 2 Specimen Audit Working Papers are also hyperlinked from relevant screens in the text.

SPECIMEN AUDIT WORKING PAPERS ‘Click and go’

Number of screens

F8

P7

Title Screen

1





Click here

Permanent File

1





Click here

Current File

1





Click here

Account Analysis Schedule

1





Click here

Client Risk Evaluation Questionnaire

7





Click here

Risk Assessment Internal Control Questionnaire

1





Click here

Audit Planning Memorandum

6





Click here

Audit Programme – Accounts Receivable

1





Click here

Organisation Chart of Assignment of Authority and Responsibility

1





Click here

Trial Balance

1





Click here

Lead Schedule

1





Click here

List Schedule

1





Click here

Reconciliation: Accounts Receivable

1





Click here

Test of Reasonableness Schedule

1





Click here

Narrative Description of the Control Environment

1





Click here

Internal Control Narrative Table

1





Click here

Internal Control Evaluation Questionnaire

2





Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: Accounts Receivable

2





Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: General Accounting System

2





CLICK AND GO

Title

Please go to the next screen to continue ‘Specimen Audit Working Papers’

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APPENDIX

Specimen Working Papers: Index 2 of 2 SPECIMEN AUDIT WORKING PAPERS - 2 Click and go

Title

Number of screens

F8

P7

Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: Cash Funds

2





Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: Cash Receipts

2





Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: Cash Disbursements

2





Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: Inventory and Cost of Sales

2





Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: Non-Current Assets

2





Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: Accounts Payable

2





Click here

Internal Control Questionnaire: Payroll

2





Click here

Manual System: Chart of Accounts

1





Click here

Computer System: Chart of Accounts

1





Click here

Analytical Review: Planning Stage

3





CLICK AND GO

Don't play the saxophone. Let it play you. Charlie ’Bird’ Parker Charles Parker, Jr. (1920 – 1955), also known as Yardbird and Bird, was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Parker acquired the nickname "Yardbird" early in his career and the shortened form, "Bird", which continued to be used for the rest of his life, inspired the titles of a number of Parker compositions, such as "Yardbird Suite", "Ornithology", "Bird Gets the Worm", and "Bird of Paradise.“ Parker was a highly influential jazz soloist and a leading figure in the development of bebop, a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos, virtuosic technique, and improvisation.

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Charlie Parker with Tommy Potter, Max Roach and Miles Davis at Three Deuces, New York, NY

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Specimen Working Papers: Audit Plan (Programme) – Accounts Receivable Substantive procedures – Accounts Receivable Client: Goodies Sweet Manufacturing Ltd Date: 31st December 2011 Index: Accounts receivable - 5 Page: 1 of 1 Prepared by: Janie Wong Review by: Description

Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Recorded sales are for dispatches actually made to bona fide customers (existence) Recorded sales are correctly invoiced for the amount of goods ordered (completeness and accuracy) Cut-off is proper (completeness and existence) All revenue from the sale of goods and performance of service are recorded accurately in the journal and ledger based on sales, credit authorization, and sales agreements (completeness, accuracy, measurement, and rights and obligations). 5. Trade account receivable represent uncollected sales or other charges to bona fide customers and are owned by the entity (existence, valuation and, rights and obligations). 6 All disclosures are in compliance with local and international standards (presentation and disclosure). Objective Done Reference Audit event # By Page # Vouch sales from dispatch records to sales journal, authorisation, and sales invoices, including relevant data (e.g. party, price, description, quantity, and dates). Sample 100 throughout year. Trace journals to the general ledger and master file printout. Obtain a sample of dispatch documents and compare dates on dispatch documents to dates recorded in the journal. Sample 100 throughout year. Select a sample of general ledger sales entries and trace them to the sales journals. Sample 200 throughout the year. Observe if authorised price list is used to price the product. Sample sales invoices for agreement with the price list. Sample 100 throughout year. Confirm a sample of receivables and perform alternative procedures for non-responses. Sample 100. Vouch (match) a sample of recorded receivables to sales agreements. Sample 50. Trace a sample of credit sales invoices to accounts receivable invoices. Sample 50 throughout year. Compare a sample of dispatch documents to related sales invoices. Sample 200 throughout year. Investigate the credit ratings for delinquent and large receivables accounts. Obtain an aged trial balance of receivables, test its clerical accuracy and reconcile to the ledgers, Perform procedures to identify receivables from related parties.

Note: This is an extract from a typical audit plan for the final audit (in other words, after the interim audit [tests of controls] has been performed). It is incomplete.

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Paper P7 (Int.)

+AddVance ACCA P7 Questions and Answers

Contents: Exam Status Questions and Answers Organised logically by Subject

Section

Syllabus section

Screen

A

Regulatory Environment

1574

B

Professional and Ethical Considerations

1575

C

Practice Management

1576

D

Audit of Historical Financial Information

1577

E

Other Assignments

1581

F

Reporting

1582

G

Current Issues and Developments

1583

To access the same Questions and Answers by

Exam Paper Chronological Sequence click here for the appropriate Contents screens

“TWENTY bridges from Tower to Kew Wanted to know what the River knew, Twenty Bridges or twenty-two, For they were young, and the Thames was old And this is the tale that River told” Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865 – 1936) was an English shortstory writer, poet, and novelist chiefly remembered for his tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907. He was born in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, and was taken by his family to England when he was five years old. Kipling is best known for his works of fiction, including The Jungle Book (a collection of stories which includes "Rikki-TikkiTavi"),

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Contents 1 of 1 A Regulatory Environment 1. International regulatory frameworks for audit and assurance services. 2. Money laundering. 3. Laws and regulations.

Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Frazil Company: December 2003 A question covering compliance with IFRSs and implications of stated situations

524

525

ISA 240: June 2004 A question covering compliance with IFRSs and implications of stated situations

583

584

Money laundering: June 2005 A question covering ‘money laundering’ and related issues

629

630

ISA 600: June 2007 A question covering ISA 600

802

803

Nate & Co Accountants: December 2007 A question covering ‘money laundering’, ethical and professional issues

849

850

Peaches & Co: December 2009 A question requiring comparison between prescriptive and principles-based approaches to auditing, ethical and professional issues raised

1062

1063

The future has a way of arriving unannounced. George Will

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Contents 1 of 1 B Professional and Ethical Considerations 1. Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants. 2. Fraud and error. 3. Professional liability.

Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Indigo Co: December 2005 A question covering opening balances, financial statement risks, and determining the extent of fraud

650

652

Objectivity: December 2006 A question covering threats to objectivity and safeguards

745

746

Code of ethics: June 2007 A question covering the term ‘assurance team’, threats to objectives and safeguards

796

797

Smith & Co Accountants: June 2008 A question covering the ethical and other professional issues raised by an invoice file review and discussion on subsequent action

904

905

Blod Co: June 2008 A question covering the ‘management letter’, ethical issues and the content of a liability disclaimer paragraph and the main arguments for and against the use of the paragraph

912

913

Becker & Co: Accountants: December 2008 A question covering the ethical and practice management implications in respect of three aspects

953

954

Headford Co: June 2009 A question covering ‘professional competence and due care’, ethical and professional issues raised

1010

1011

Mac Co: June 2010 A question covering internal audit and related aspects, fraud and the benefits and drawbacks of establishing an audit committee

1097

1099

Wexford Co: June 2011 A question covering professional and ethical matters and opening balances

1214

1215

Chestnut Co: December 2011 A question covering alleged fraudulent activity and related issues

1282

1283

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Contents 1 of 1 C. Practice Management 1. Quality control 2. Advertising, publicity, obtaining professional work and fees. 3. Tendering. 4. Professional appointments.

Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Imperiol Company: December 2002 A question dealing with the acceptance of an engagement and procedures for providing an income statement forecast

404

406

Audit practices: December 2006 A question covering ‘lowballing’, ‘opinion shopping’ and insider dealer

752

753

Murray Co: June 2007 A question covering accepting an audit engagement, planning an audit and the effectiveness of a management letter

760

762

Dragon Group: June 2009 A question covering the firm’s tender document, matters relating to the acceptance of an audit engagement, ‘transnational audit’ and features of it

985

987

Pluto Co: June 2009 A question covering the appraisal of a proposed audit report and who should perform an engagement quality control review

1018

1019

Eastwood Co: December 2010 A question covering an invitation to perform an assurance engagement, procedures to verify KPIs and audit aspects

1146

1148

A budget tells us what we can't afford, but it doesn't keep us from buying it. William Feather

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Contents 1 of 4 D Audit of historical financial information 1. The audit of historical financial information including: i) ii) iii)

Planning, materiality and assessing the risk of misstatement, Evidence. Evaluation and review

2. Group audits.

Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Meadow Company: December 2002 A question covering audit risks, segmental information and international restructuring

391

393

Siegler Company: December 2002 A question covering different audit issues and audit evidence

414

415

ABC Company: June 2003 A question covering audit risks, reliance placed on the work of an expert, audit of total costs to completion of a contract

444

445

Ferry Company: June 2003 A question covering the ‘top down approach’ in the context of business risk, identifying business risks and risk management

457

458

Dexy Company: June 2003 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence

466

467

Hydrasports Company: December 2003 A question covering business risks, carrying amounts in the statement of financial position, social and environmental responsibilities

496

498

Pacific Group (PG): December 2003 A question covering audit risks and identity of appropriate internal controls

509

511

Vema Company: December 2003 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence

515

516

Bateleur Zoo Gardens (BZG) Company: June 2004 A question covering internal controls, financial statement risks and factors to be considered when planning the extent of substantive analytical procedures

547

548

Harrier Motors: June 2004 A question covering audit risks, conduct of a physical inventory count and audit work in respect of the useful life of a brand name

557

558

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Contents 2 of 4 Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Eagle Energy: June 2004 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence concerning stated situations

565

566

Geno Vesa Farm (GVF) Company: June 2005 A question covering audit risks, and audit work performed on carrying amounts in the statement of financial position

588

589

Volcan Company: June 2005 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence

605

606

Shire Oil Co: December 2005 A question covering audit risks, audit work and auditing social and environmental responsibilities

637

639

Albreda Co: December 2005 A question covering audit issues and audit evidence

662

663

Jinack Co: December 2005 A question covering audit issues

674

675

Scope of the audit: December 2005 A question covering fair value accounting, continuous auditing and non-consolidated entities under common control

689

690

Pavia Co: December 2006 A question covering financial statement risks, analytical procedures and audit work concerning carrying amounts in the statement of financial position

696

700

Seymour Co: December 2006 A question covering audit issues

723

724

Lamont Co: June 2007 A question covering different audit issues

779

780

Petrie Company: June 2007 A question covering the audit report and associated issues

788

789

Island Co: December 2007 A question covering audit risks, audit procedures and quality control procedures

811

813

Sci-Tech Co: December 2007 A question covering outsourcing, capitalised development costs, validity of an amortisation rate and audit procedures

826

828

Medix Co: June 2008 A question covering business risks, financial statement risks and professional, ethical and other issues

867

869

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Contents 3 of 4 Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Pulp Co: June 2008 A question covering the audit of receivables and quality control issues

894

895

Bluebell Co: December 2008 A question covering financial statement risks, measurement of a share-based payment expense, the recoverability of a deferred tax asset and assessment of social and environmental performance

921

923

Poppy Co: December 2008 A question covering material balances recognised at fair value, reliance on the work of an external expert and associated audit procedures

945

946

Dexter Co: December 2008 A question covering going concern and related aspects

963

964

Champers Co: June 2009 A question covering the audit planning meeting, aspects of a client’s business which should be considered, evaluation of business risk and two audit procedures

971

973

Robster Co: June 2009 A question covering the review of audit working papers, audit evidence in respect of leases and financial assets, and analytical procedures

999

1000

Papaya Co: December 2009 A question covering analytical procedures, overall audit strategy and audit plan and financial statements risks

1027

1029

Banana Co: December 2009 A question covering audit evidence and the management of the audit

1040

1042

Apricot Co: December 2009 A question covering procedures performed on the cash flow forecast and a report on prospective financial information

1054

1056

Lychee Co: December 2009 A question covering subsequent events and given related aspects

1069

1070

Grissom Co: June 2010 A question covering audit risks, assessing the work of another auditor and audit procedures

1078

1080

Jolie Co: December 2010 A question covering the audit planning meeting in which a client’s business risks are evaluated, financial statements risks and audit procedures in respect of the valuation of a brand name

1132

1134

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Contents 4 of 4 Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Clooney Co: December 2010 A question covering audit evidence

1158

1159

Willis Co: December 2010 A question covering the appraisal of a draft audit report, management-imposed limitation on scope and the reporting requirements in respect of internal control deficiencies identified

1177

1178

Bill Co: June 2011 A question covering a partly complete contract value, the valuation of an operating division, related parties and related party transactions and audit procedures

1185

1188

Butler Co: June 2011 A question covering going concern issues, audit procedures on a cash flow forecast, going concern and forming the audit opinion

1201

1205

Nassau Group: June 2011 A question covering the forming an opinion on the consolidated financial statements of a client and related procedures

1229

1231

Oak Co: December 2011 A question covering a preliminary analytical review, audit procedures with regard to a share-based payment plan and the classification of a new lease, practice management and quality control issues

1239

1242

Willow Co: December 2011 A question covering the issues of audit work on inventory, provisions and current assets and the other issues of property revaluations, non-current asset register, procurement procedures, and the ethics of the client’s financial controller

1258

1260

Beech & Co: December 2011 A question covering the decommissioning provision, evaluating the adequacy of the auditor’s expert’s work and potential implications of the change in accounting estimates

1270

1271

Yew Co: December 2011 A question covering audit completion, management representation and treatment of prior year modified audit report

1292

1293

Business, that's easily defined - it's other people's money. Peter Drucker

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Contents 1 of 1 E Other assignments 1. Audit-related services. 2. Assurance services. 3. Prospective financial information. 4. Forensic audits. 5. Internal audit. 6. Outsourcing.

Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Plaza Company: June 2005 A question covering ‘due diligence’ and related issues

597

598

Retail and Business Group (RBG): December 2006 A question concerning outsourcing of internal audit services and related issues

715

716

Cusiter Co: June 2007 A question covering ‘prospective financial information’ (PFI), and related issues

770

772

Mulligan Co: December 2007 A question covering the review of a business plan and related aspects and ‘forensic accounting’

840

841

Rosie Co: June 2008 A question covering due diligence the audit of a carrying cost and ‘joint audit’ and issues involved

881

883

Crocus Co: December 2008 A question covering forensic accounting and related issues

936

937

1222

1223

Jacob Co: June 2011 A question covering the potential benefits of an externally provided due diligence review and related information

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Contents 1 of 1 F Reporting 1. Auditor’s reports. 2. Reports to those charged with governance and management. 3. Other reports.

Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Icehouse Publisher: June 2003 A question covering the shortcomings of an audit report

477

478

Rook & Co: June 2004 A question requiring the appraisal of the appropriateness of an audit opinion

572

573

Hegas Company: June 2005 A question covering implications of matters concerning the auditor’s report

616

617

Cleeves Co: December 2006 A question covering the appropriateness of an audit opinion and the implications of the audit opinion

736

737

Bertie & Co Accountants: December 2007 A question covering the audit report, benefits of a company having a financial statement audit and the objective of a review engagement

857

858

Grimes Co: June 2010 A question covering ‘Emphasis of Matter paragraph’, methods used by an audit firm to reduce exposure to litigation claims and the implications of a liability limitation agreement

1125

1126

An economist is an expert who will know tomorrow why the things he predicted yesterday didn't happen today. Laurence J. Peter

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Contents 1 of 2 G Current Issues and Developments 1. Professional and ethical. 2. Information technology. 3. Transnational audits. 4. Social and environmental auditing. 5. Other current issues.

Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

Isthmus Company: December 2002 A question covering ethical and professional issues

431

432

Corporate governance: December 2002 A question covering the appropriateness of global corporate governance standards

438

439

Capri Group: December 2002 A question concerning the role of ‘support letters’ and expressing an opinion on consolidated financial statements

423

424

Duran Company: June 2003 A question covering ethical and professional issues and appropriateness of available audit safeguards

484

485

Audit failures: June 2003 A question covering the professional implications of possible audit failures

491

492

Sepia: December 2003 A question covering professional issues raised by stated audit situations

531

532

Developments in the field of audit: December 2003 A question covering developments concerning external audit opinion, effectiveness of internal financial controls and management representation letters

537

538

Hawk Associates: June 2004 A question covering ethical and professional issues

578

579

Bartolome Accountants: June 2005 A question covering ethical and other professional issues

624

625

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Paper P7 (Int.)

Contents 2 of 2 Pages Exam Question Question

Answer

683

684

Juliet Co: June 2010 A question covering failure of audit opinion, audit procedures and ethical and other implications concerning forecasts and projections

1109

1110

Carter & Co: June 2010 A question covering ethical and professional issues raised

1118

1119

Neeson & Co Accountants: December 2010 A question covering ethical and professional issues

1168

1169

Dedza Accountants: December 2005 A question covering ethical and professional issues

The superior man understands what is right; the inferior man understands what will sell. Confucius

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Paper P7 (Int.)

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