POLICE INTELLIGENCE AND SECRET SERVICE HISTORICAL SETTING MOSES One of the first recorded formalized intelligence efforts, with format, can also be found in the Holy Bible Numbers 13:17 “And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan and said unto them, get you up this way southward, and go up into the mountain; and see the lands, what it is; and the people that dwell therein, whether they are strong or weak, few or many; and what the land they dwelt in, whether in tents, or in strongholds; and what land is; whether it be fat or lean, whether there be wood therein, or not. And be of good courage and bring of the fruit of the land.” The scriptures also named the twelve intelligence agents whom the Lord directed Moses to sent into the land of Canaan and records that “all those men were heads of the children of Israel.” RAHAB The Harlot of Jericho (Joshua 2:1-21)” who sheltered and concealed the agents of Israel, made a covenant with the agents and duped their pursuers. She was not only an impromptu confederate of immense value for the Jewish leader of that far distant day, but also established a plot-pattern which is still of periodic relief to motion picture producers. DELILAH The Philistine used her when she allowed Philistine spies to hide in her house (Judges 16). Delilah was an impromptu intelligence agent. Apart from her tonsorial specialty, she also allowed sex to gain intelligence from a powerful enemy. She achieved the largest effective force of her employer’s adversaries and contriving the stroke which put that force out of action”. EVENTS AND PERSONALITIES IN THE WORLD OF INTELLIGENCE Sun –Tzu “Know thy enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the results of a hundred battles” “If you know yourself and not the enemy, for every victory, you are a fool who will meet defeat in every battle.” Alexander the Great When Alexander the Great was marching to Asia, were rumors of disaffection growing among his allies and mercenaries, he sought the truth, and got it by simplest expedient by devising the first “ ” and opening to obtain information. Sertorius He was the Roman Commander in Spain who possessed a White Fawn and allowed it to become widely known that he derived secrets and guidance from the fawn. His intelligence agents credited their information to the supernatural power of animals. Akbar He was known to be the sagacious master of the Hindustan. He employed more than 4,000 agents for the sole purpose of bringing him the truth that his throne might rest upon it. Genghis Khan He was known “The Great Mongol”, who used intelligence to conquer China and invade Cathay. He instructed his Generals to send out spies and used prisoners as sources of information. The leader of the so-called MONGOL CONQUERORS - made use of effective propaganda machine by spreading rumors of Mongol Terror, they collected information on weaknesses and rivalries of Europe. The leaders usually disguised as merchants. RENAISSANCE PERIOD With the rise of Nationalism and development of modern armies, intelligence became apparent to large states. In England, Sir Francis Walsingham, under Queen Elizabeth, organized the first National Intelligence Service. He
employed spies on the staff of the Admiral in Command of the Spanish Army and able to obtain information regarding Spanish Army as to their ships, equipment, forces and stores. He protected Queen Elizabeth I from countless assassins. In France, Richlieu – introduced the network of covert collectors who transmitted prompt and accurate information to Paris regarding the activities of the rebels and dissidents of the kingdom. Louis XIV – systematized political policy, continuous surveillance, postal censorship and military intelligence organization were his contributions. The French Intelligence System continued since 15th Century. Napoleon Bonaparte once said, “One Spy in the right place is worth 20,000 men in the field”. He organized two Bureaus of Interest: Bureau of Intelligence – which consolidate all incoming information regarding the enemy for presentation to the emperor and to obtain information as desired, and Topographic Bureau – which maintains a large map which covers the latest information regarding both enemy and friendly forces. He maintained Military Intelligence and Secret Political Police Service all over Europe. His main arm was “Spy against spy” concept. Frederick the Great He was known as the “Father of Organized Military Espionage”. He has divided his agents into four classes: Common spies – those recruited among poor folk, glad to earn a small sum or to accommodate as military officer. Double spies – are unreliable renegades, chiefly involved in spreading false information to the enemy. Spies of Consequences – couriers and noblemen, staff officers, and kindred conspirators, requiring a substantial bribe or bait, Persons who were forced to undertake espionage against their own will. Hannibal He was considered one of the brilliant military strategists in the history of military intelligence. He had developed an effective intelligence system for 15 years in Rome. He usually roam around the city often disguise himself as a beggar to gather first hand information. George Washington Conspirator under oath abounds in the history of every nation. George Washington was grand master in intelligence. He mobilized the Free Masons of the colonies at the outbreak of the American war of Independence. Karl Schulmeister Karl Schulmeister was Napoleon’s eye, Napoleon’s military secret, born on August 5, 1770. He began his career in offensive espionage under a cover role. He was able to infiltrate the Austrian General Staff. Wilhelm Stieber He incorporated intelligence in the General Staff Support System. He further device military censorship and organized military propaganda. He introduced military censorship and organized military propaganda. He works as a census taker and developed informal gathering of data. Alfred Redl He was one of the most brilliant intelligent agents. Though a homosexual, he became Chief of the Austro – Hungarian Secret Service. He became a double agent of Russia. In 1913, his treason was discovered and he was forced to commit suicide. His treason also led to the death of almost 500,000 agents and soldiers combined in his 13 years espionage episode. Maj. General Donovan He was the organizer of the OSS, builder of a central intelligence system - OSS whose exploits become legendary in World War II. Battle of Midway In June 1442, the turning point of the Naval in the Pacific, the victory gained by the Americans was due to the disrupted messages from the Imperial Japanese Navy. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
April 1943, He was the crypto analyst of the U.S. Navy Communications Intelligence intercepted a top-secret signal relaying the travel of the Admiral. En route, he was intercepted and crashed in the Jungles of Baungainville. State Informer Edward I, King of England in 1725 organized a systematic police system so called Witch and Ward. By Royal proclamation, the profession “State Informer “was created in 1734 enjoining all informers to expose criminal activities and be compensated. Fouche of France A Frenchman born in 1759, rose to become the most feared and respected intelligence director in French history. He created a network of agent. His assistance founded the modern system of spying on spies, which later was known as counter espionage. Joseph Petrosino He was member of the New York Police Department in early 1900, he was the head of the Italian Squad. Through extensive intelligence network, he was credited to smash and neutralization of the Black Society. Federal Bureau of Investigation First established in 1908 as an investigative arm of the U.S. Department of Justice and became what is known as the F.B.I. under its first director John Edgar Hoover in 1924. On September 6, 1939 by a presidential directive, it came to its responsibility the task of a domestic intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency The agency was created under the US National Security Act of 1947. It was the Central Intelligence group established during the time of President Truman in January 1946. The CIA was under the National Security Council. Committee for State Security Russia - The Intelligence agency known as the KGB - Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (KGB) British Secret Service – Great Britain Mossad – Israel, BND – West Germany KCIA – Korean Central Intelligence Agency Britain: Scotland Yard, London Metropolitan Police Force It was established by Sir Robert Peel in 1829 which signaled the beginning of a colorful legendary police force and considered one of the most efficient in the world today.
ESSENTIAL INTERESTS IN INTELLIGENCE Intelligence Defined According to Government - Commission Task Force - It means the collection, processing, collation, interpretation, evaluation and dissemination of information, with references to national security. In certain context, it may also mean the network or the system for the collection, collation, interpretation, evaluation, processing, and dissemination of information. “The term as used here doesn’t include any police powers or authorities, any investigative function other than those involve in the collection of information nor any function involved in the enforcement of laws, orders, or regulation. According to Military Terminologies - Intelligence is the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information which my have immediate or potential significance to the development and execution of plans, policies and programs of the users.
According to Police Parlance - The end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of al available information regarding the activities of criminal and other law violators for the purpose of affecting criminals and other law violators for the purpose of affecting their arrest, obtaining evidence, and forestalling plan to commit crime. Functions of Intelligence in General Today all counties have their intelligence services. They maybe different in their organization, efficiency and method but they all have the basic functions such as: 1. 2. 3. 4.
the collection or procurement of information the evaluation of the information which then become intelligence the dissemination of intelligence to those who need it. counter intelligence or negative intelligence, which is dedicated to the concealment and protection of one’s own information from the adversary intelligence operation. It is a defensive function of intelligence.
Principles of Intelligence Criteria a. Universality of application - it should apply to as many phases and aspects of intelligence as possible. It should guide not only the production of intelligence but also the concomitant activities essential to the process as well as the organization and the thought and actions of the individual composing it. b. It must be broad - it should form the basis for a formulation of corollary and subsidiary guides. c. It must be important, indeed essential, to intelligence- if a guide is truly important and essential, then its violations should bring its own immediate penalties. Doctrines a. There exists an essential unity between knowledge and action; that knowledge enhances the effectiveness of action – and minimizes the chances of error. b. “The knowledge requirements of decision-making are complex and beyond the capacities of anyone necessary to meet there requirements.” Principles Objectivity - in intelligence, only the well guided succeed. It is a basic intelligence concept that there must be unity between knowledge and action. It follows therefore that intelligence should interact and condition the decision. Intelligence must be adapted to the needs of the decision; it is both giver and taker. Action or decision is planned by knowledge and guided by it at every step. Interdependence - Intelligence is artificially subdivided into component elements to insure complete coverage, eliminate duplication and to reduce the overall task or manageable sizes. Nevertheless, each subdivision remains as essential part of unity; contributes proportionately to the end result; possesses a precise interrelationship; and interacts with each other so as to achieve a balanced and harmonious whole. Continuity - Intelligence must be continuous. It is necessary that coverage be continuous so that the shape of what happens today could be studied in the light of what happened before, which in turn would enable us to predict the shape of things to come. Communication - Intelligence adequate to their needs must be communicated to all the decision makers in manner that they will understand and form that will permit its most effective use. Usefulness - Intelligence is useless if it remains in the minds, or in the files of its collectors or its producers. The story must be told and it must be told well. The story must be convincing and to be convincing it must not only be plausible or factual but its significance must be shown. Selection - Intelligence should be essential and pertinent to the purpose at hand. Intelligence involves the plowing through a maze of information, considering innumerable number of means or of picking the most promising of a multitude of leads. The requirement of decision-making covers very nearly the entire span of human knowledge. Unless there is selection of only the most essential and the pertinent, intelligence will go off in all directions in one monumental waste of effort. Timeliness - Intelligence must be communicated to the decision maker at the appropriate time to permit its most effective use. This is one of the most important and most obvious, for Intelligence that is too soon or too late are equally useless. Timeliness is one principle that complements all the others. Security - Security is achieved by the measures which intelligence takes to protect and preserve the integrity of its activities. If intelligence has no security, it might be as well being run like a newspaper to which it is similar. General Activities in Police Intelligence 1.
Strategic Intelligence – it is an intelligence activity which is primarily long range in nature with little practical immediate operation value.
Line Intelligence – it is an intelligence activity that has the immediate nature and value necessary for more effective police planning and operation. 3. National Intelligence - it is the integrated product of intelligence developed by all the governmental branches, departments concerning the broad aspect of national security and policy. It is concerned to more than one department or agency and it is not produced by single entity. It is used to coordinate all the activities of the government in developing and executing integrated and national policies and plans. 4. Counter-Intelligence – phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted in destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and to the protection of info against espionage, subversion and sabotage. 5. Undercover Work – is an investigative process in which disguises and pretext cover and deception are used to gain the confidence of criminal suspects for the purpose of determining the nature and extent of any criminal activities that maybe contemplating or perpetuating. Functional Classification of Police Intelligence 1. Criminal Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders. 2. Internal Security Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order. 3. Public Safety Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties. Forms of Intelligence 1. Sociological Intelligence – deals with the demographic and psychological aspects of groups of people. It includes the population and manpower and the characteristics of the people, public opinion – attitude of the majority of the people towards matter of public policy and education. 2. Biographical Intelligence – deals with individual’s personalities who have actual possession of power. 3. Armed Force Intelligence – deals with the armed forces of the nation. It includes the position of the armed forces, the constitutional and legal basis of its creation and actual role, the organizational structure and territorial disposition, and the military manpower recruitment and Order of Battle 4. Geographical Intelligence – deals with the progress of research and development as it affects the economic and military potential of a nation. KINDS OF INTELLIGENCE A. Strategic Intelligence – as defined earlier, it is an intelligence data that are not of an immediate value. It is usually descriptive in nature, accumulation of physical description of personalities, modus operandi. It does not have immediate operational value but rather long range that may become relevant to future police operations. B. Line Intelligence – It is the kind of intelligence required by the commander to provide for planning and conduct tactical and administrative operation in counter insurgency. This pertains to knowledge of People, Weather, Enemy and Terrain (PWET) used in planning and conducting tactical and administrative operation in a counter insurgency. Intelligence information to be determined in Line Intelligence are: People - living condition of the people, sources of income, education of the people, government livelihood projects, extent of enemy influence to the people Weather – visibility, cloudy, temperature, precipitation (rain), wind Enemy - location of the enemy, strength of the enemy, disposition, tactical capability, enemy vulnerability Terrain - relief and drainage system, vegetation, surface material, man made features. There are military aspects of terrain which includes cover and concealment, obstacle, critical key terrain features, observation and fields of fire, and avenues of approach. C. Counter Intelligence (CI) - this kind of intelligence covers the activity devoted in destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and to the protection of info against espionage, subversion and sabotage. Hence, the three activities of CI are: protection of information against espionage; protection of personnel against subversion; and protection of installations and material against sabotage. Counter Intelligence is also known as Negative Intelligence - a generic term meaning three different things; Security Intelligence – means that the total sum of efforts to counsel the national policies, diplomatic decisions, military data, and any other information of a secret nature affecting the security of the nation form unauthorized persons. It is an effort to deny information to unauthorized persons by restricting to those who are explicitly authorized to possess it. Counter-Intelligence - counter intelligence is the organized effort to protect specific data that might be of value to the opponent’s own intelligence organization. Some of its functions are: Censorship – of the following: correspondence, broadcast, telecast, telephone conversations, telegrams and cables, etc., prevention of the dissemination of any information that might aid an opponent; maintenance of files of suspect; surveillance of suspects; mail reading, wire
tapping and recording; infiltration of the enemy intelligence organized to procure information about its method, personal, specific operations and interest. Counter-Espionage - In counter-espionage, negative intelligence becomes a dynamic and active effort. Its purpose is to investigate actual or theoretical violation of espionage laws, to enforce those laws and to apprehend any violators. Five Categories of CI Operation 1. Military Security – it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself against espionage, enemy operation, sabotage, subversion or surprise. 2. Port Frontier and Travel Security – has to do with the application of both military and civil security measures for CI control at point of entry and departure, international borders or boundaries. 3. Civil Security – it encompasses active and passive CI measures affecting the non-military nationals permanently or temporarily residing in an area under military jurisdiction. 4. Censorship – it is the control and examination of the civil, national, armed forces, field press, and POWs. 5. Special Operations – counter subversion, sabotage and espionage Counter Intelligence (CI) Operation 1. Counter Human Intel (HUMINT) – seeks to overcome enemy attempts to use human sources to collect information or to conduct sabotage and subversion which includes CI special operations, liaison, counter security, and CI screening. 2. Counter Imagery Intel (IMINT) - includes action taken to determine enemy SIGINT and related enemy weaknesses, capabilities and activities. These actions include surveillance radar, photo thermal and infrared systems. Successful counter – IMINT operations rely heavily on pattern and movement analysis and evaluation of the enemy. 3. Counter Signal Intel (SIGINT) – determine enemy SIGINT and related enemy weaknesses, capabilities and activities, assess friendly operations to identify patterns, profiles and develop, recommend and analyze counter measures.