February 27, 2019 | Author: christian_upmeier | Category: Visual Journalism, Map, Cartography, Graphic Design, Infographics
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Graphical aspects of visualization II

Above all else show the data. Tufte, 1983

Edward Tufte: ›The visual display of quantitative Information‹, 1983


Edward Tufte: Graphical Integrity ¶


Time Magazine: Ölpreisanstieg, 1979; aus Tufte:

·presentquantitiesdirectly proportionaltothenumbers represented ·applyclear,detailedlabeling preerablyinthegraphicitsel  ·showdatavariations,notdesign  variations ·thenumberovisuallydefned dimensionsinthegraphicshould equalthenumberodimensions inthedata (abb (a bbre revi viat ated ed))

New York Times, 2009 (interactive):

New York Times, 2009 (interactive):

John Snow (dot map):

John Snow: Deaths from Cholera. Two aggregations over time

Other example for aggregation

Mathew Bloch; New York Times:

Kartogramme — maps with data

Martin Waldseemüller: Globussegemente aus

Satellitenweltkarte nach Mercator Projektion

Jost Murers: Karte des Zürichgaus, 1566;

Michel Turgot/Louis Bretez: Plan de Paris, 1739;

Constantine Anderson: Isometric map of midtown

Google Maps, 2012

Use of color

Same color is inuenced by dierent surrounding colors

aus: Josef Albers:

Contrasting hues (Farbton) and similar lightness (HellDunkelstufe) create visual vibration

aus: Josef Albers:

Colors of similar lightness next to one another, are less distinguishable, even if they dier in saturation or hue.

aus: Josef Albers:


Use of Color in Cartography¶


·avoidbrightorstrongcolorsinlargeareas; usethemorhighlightingimportantdetails ·avoidbrightcolorsnexttowhite (visualvibration) ·usemutedorsubtlecolorsonbackgrounds andlargeareas ·unitetwoormorelargeandenclosedcolor areasusingtintsothesamecolor Q UA UA D RA RA AT AT  (F (F R ED ED  SM SM E IJ IJ E RS RS  19 19 9 5) 5)

Eduard Imhof: Cartographic Relief Presentation. Berlin, 1982

Landeskarte der Schweiz 1 : 100 000, 1965

Eduard Imhof : Schweizerischer Mittelschulatlas,

Charles Joseph Minard: Weinexport Frankreich, 1864;

Charles Joseph Minard (ow map):

1500 Personen = 1 Millimeter

Santos Henarejos (Detail):

Santos Henarejos:

Vincent Meertens:

Use of shapes and lines

Edward Tufte: Marshalling signals, 1983;


Use of shapes and lines ¶

Gestalt psychology (Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koa, Wolfgang Köhler); frist half of 20th century

·1+1=3 ·Visualperceptionactively constructsmeaning

Gesetz der Geschlossenheit 


Gaetano Kanizsa: Cognitive Contours, 1974 (nach Tufte: ›Envisioning Information‹, 1990)


Use of shapes and lines ¶

Gesetz der Nähe

Gestalt psychology (Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koa,


Gesetz der guten Forts Fortsetzung etzung

Masaru Kazumie:

Western Europe Recommended Main International Highways, 1948

Tschechoslowakische Luftverkehrsgesell.: Flugplan, 1933;

It might be possible to tidy it up. Beck, 1968

Quad royal map, 1926

Four main Underground railways:

F. H. Stingemore:

F. H. Stingemore:

Harryy C. Beck Harr Beck :

Harryy C. Beck Harr Beck :

Harryy C. Beck Harr Beck :


Harryy C. Beck Harr Beck :



Harry C. Beck (not commissoned commissoned anymore): anymore):

Internal diagram with planned lines, 1994

Corporate Identity ¶

Schema ¶

Hans P. Brandt; Jancees van Westering: Edwa Ed ward rdT Tuf ufte te: :The visual display of Quantitative Information. ›Form• fabricates function‹. in: Total • Identity. Edwa Ed ward rdT Tuf ufte te: :Envisioning Information. Cheshire,1990 Amsterdam, 2003

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