105MM Howitzer Motor Carriages M37.~187

September 13, 2017 | Author: Dongelx | Category: Cartridge (Firearms), Shell (Projectile), Artillery, Fuze, Ammunition
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Download 105MM Howitzer Motor Carriages M37.~187...



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/ ES~RICTE6MATTER::--the I~f~rDISSEMINATION Of R d ~e essential c\.oroderlshCS . stricted documents on • w~ to be in the

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service. t e • n~e coo rating in., Gov~rnment wo !uthorbed military discretion who or., ';;. to th. press ellcept by a 5 M 1944.) communicated to the ~u IC(;:e olsopor. i3b, A,R 380-5, 1 or public relations agenCies.


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mahon contClined in restricted documents and the essential characteristics oJ restricted ~terial may be 'Jiven to dny person known to .b'e in the service oJ the United States and to pers~ns oJ undoubted 14alty and discretion who ~re cooperatin'J in Go~em'ment work, but 'will not be communicated ta the public or to the press e.~ept by auth~rized' military


public relations a'Je~cies.

(See also Par. 23b, AR 380-5; 15 Mar'1944.) I






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FM 6-76, Service of the Piece, 105mm Howitzer Motol Carriage, M37, is published for the inform?tion an~


guidance of all concerned. [AG 300.7 (15 Apr 45) ]



G. C. MARSHALL, Chief of Staffl

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Section II




. COMPOSITION. a. The personnel of the howitzer ~ction consists of the following: One chief of section, ne gunner, four cannoneers (Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4), and ne driver. b. Relief cannoneers. Ammunition handlers from the mmunition section act as relief cannoneers when so lirected by the battery executive. They are assigneq luties in the howitzer section by the chief of section.

:. FORMATIONS. a. Dismounted. For the first disnounted formation of the howitzer section for any drill . Ir exercise, the order to FALL IN. is preceded by AS -IOWITZER SECTIONS. The place of formation may >e stated in the command to FALL IN. For example: .. AS HOWITZER SECTIONS, 2. IN FRONT OF {OUR PIECES, 3. FALL IN. The chief of section takes lis post four paces in front of center of vehicle, faces :he vehicle, and supervises the formation. The gunner :epeats the command FALL IN and takes his post two ?aces in front of the right fender facing the front. The :emainder of the section moves at double time, falls in it close interval at the gunner's left, as shown in figure ~, dresses to the right, and faces to the front. I b. Call off. (1) The chief of section commands CALL pFF. The gunner calls off GUNNER; the cannoneer Dn the left of the gunner calls off ONE; the cannoneer 3.

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Figure 2.




section, dismounted


the left of No.1, TWO; and so on, ending with the ver who calls off DRIVER. 2) After having called off, if a subsequent formation >rdered, the cannoneers fall in at once in their proper ler. ~.Change posts. To train each member of the section all duties connected with service of the piece, the :its of individual cannoneers should be changed freently. The cannoneers being at their dismounted sts, the command is: 1. CHANGE POSTS, 2. :MARCH. this command, No.1 passes quickly in rear of the ~tionand takes the post of the driver. No.2 moves to ~ post of No. 1, other cannoneers take the post of ~ next lower number, and the driver takes the post No.4. The gunner changes only when specifically rected. The command is: 1. GUNNER AND CAN)NEERS CHANGE POSTS, 2. MARCH. The gunner dckly takes the post of the driver, No.1 moves to the 1stof gunner, other cannoneers take the post of the ~xtlower number, and driver takes the 'post of No.4.


Section ill


6. POSTS. Dismounted, mounted, and prepared for a tion posts are shown in figures 2, 3, and 4 respective]

7. TO MOUNT THE HOWITZER SECTION. Being dismounted posts or dismounted, the section is mount' at the command or signal MOUNT. (This may be pr ceded by the command' or signal PREPARE 1 MOUNT. At this command or signal: a.. Driver mounts over the slope plate and takes. ~ mounted post. ' . b. Gunner and No.2 mount over the left side of ~ motor carriage and take their mounted posts. c. No.1, No, 3, and No. 4 mount over the right si of the motor carriage and take their mounted posts. d. After .all other members of the section ,ha' mounted, the chief of section mounts over the left si of the motor carriage and takes his mounted post. .

8. TO DISMOUNT THE HOWITZER SECTION. T section, being at mounted posts or mounted, is d mounted at the command or signal 1. PREPARE 1 DISMOUNT, 2. DISMOUNT. At the preparatory CO] mand, members of the section stow all vehicular equi men,t. At the command DISMOUNT, members of t section dismount in reverse of the order prescribed paragraph 7 and take their dismounted posts (figure 6

, TO POST THE SECTION. The section being at rest r dismounted from the vehicle and not in any formaon, at the command 1. CANNONEERS, 2. POSTS, ach gunner repeats the command POSTS, and the river and cannoneers move at double time to the ac-. on posts shown in figure 4. If the section is dismounted, ley mount as shown in paragraph 7 and then take ction posts.




Figure 3.



Howitzer section, mounted posts.


Figure 4.


section, action posts.


Section IV




10. GENERAL. a. The. inspections and operations ~

scribed in this section are those which must be pej formed to maintain the motor carriage and its weapo~ in good mechanical condition and the stowed equi.~ ment complete, serviceable, and ready for combat. T~ chief of section is responsible for their proper perfor~~ ance. He supervises the entire operation and uses discretion in delegating duties to other than the p scribed individual when, for any reason, the compo~ tion of the section is altered or a particular operati~ or group of operations might be improperly perform~ due to individual lack of proficiency. .J

b.Checks of 'weapons, sighting equipment, and a munition, a.nd of the vehicle engines, power train, trac1 and suspension system, instruments, towing cable, cd nections, shackles, battery, accessory drives, electric wiring, controls, and equipment are made in accordani with provisions of the appropriate vehicle technic manuals. Deficiencies are reported and corrected as tht are found. The WD Form No. 48 (Driver's Trip Tick and PM Service Record) should be carefully at thoroughly prepared, and all' maintenance work ~ qui~ed recorded on it in as complete detail as praet1 able. Any. irregularity noted which is not correet/ before the next use of the vehicle should be re-enteri

I 10

1 WD Form No. 48 until it has been lre of.



c. The battery executive will make a daily general lspection and a weekly detailed inspection of all ma:riel. Purpose of this daily inspection, which will be • lade at the same time that sections are conducting ~eir maintenance formations, will be to insure that the ~ttery is properly performing its preventive mainten?ce functions. A general inspection of the motor carages and weapons for appearance and a thorough spot ~eck of several parts will be made. At formal inspecpn, all personnel of the firing battery will be present. ne executive will make a thorough mechanical check t the motor carriage and will also inspect ordnance tool i~s, spare parts, and equipment for condition and com~~teness. Maintenance personnel and the artillery mecht ~c will accompany the executive. Minor repairs or dJustments will be performed by battery personnel. ajor repairs will be reported to ordnance.











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Section V


16. AMMUNITION TRAILER.. a. General. When howitzer section prepares for action, the ammunitj trailer, if possible, is uncoupled and left a short distar to the rear of the final firing position of the motor c riage. The trailer must never be allowed to handic the movements of the motor carriage during firing. b. Uncouple trailer. To uncouple the ammuniti trailer, the chief of section orders the driver to stop t motor carriage and' then gives the command U COUPLE TRAILER. Cannoneers Nos. 2, 3, and 4 d mount and Nos. 3 and 4 set the hand parking brak' No.2 lowers,the'wheel stand, making sure that it is the full "DOWN" position. No.2 then unlocks the pin hook at the rear of the motor carriage, while Nos. and 4 lift the lunette out..While Nos. 3 and 4 hold t trailer handles, No. 2 signals the chief of section have the motor carriage moved forward. The chief section, by voice or interphone to the driver, contr( the movement of the motor carriage into the firil position. Nos. 3 and 4 set the wheel stand down, aI all cannoneers proceed at double time to the mot car~iage. c;. Couple trailer. At the command CO U P L TRAILER, the driver starts the engines, if they i not running, while cannoneers Nos. 2, 3, and 4 dismotI and proceed at double time to the trailer. The chief 28




1bChon , , by

interphone or voice to the driver, controls ~ e movement of the motor carriage back to the posifon of the trailer. While No. 2 opens the pintle hook the rear of the motor carriage, Nos. 3 and 4 hold the ailer. No.2 signals the chief of section to have the I otor carriage back up. to the lunette. Nos. 3 and 4 ~ace the lunette in the pintle hook and No. 2 locks it. os. 3 and 4 release the hand parking brakes while.No. raises the trailer support stand. The cannoneers then ,eturn to' their mounted posts in the motor carriage.

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7. HAND SIGNALS.' The following are the signals ~ed to indicate to the driver the. proper movement of e motor carriage. They are given from a dismounted osition, facing the driver, and are illustrated in figures and 6. a. Start engines. Describe a cranking motion in front

f body.

f b. Stop engines. body.

Cross forearms


in front


c. Move forward or backward. Motion with repeated [ ove~ents of both hands in front of face, palms facing . e ?lrection of travel. Speed of movement is controlled Y Increasing or decreasing speed with which hands' re mOved.

d. Halt. Clasp hands in front of face. Warning for aIt is given by holding arms to the front, fingers exended and joined, palms turned inward. Hands are ~oved together to approximate the amount of moveent stilI to be made . . e. Change direction. Clench and slightly raise the 1st on the side to which the turn is to be made (side ~n ~hich brake is applied). Execute thrusts in direction ::J

res Ired,



. 29


CHANGE DIRECTION Execute thrusts in direction desired Figure 5a.


Hand signals.



STOP ENGINE Used in units having vehicles with turrets


For execution,

clasp hands ~~ front of face

Figure 5b.

Hand signals.



several times


several times

Figure 6.


Hand signals.






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Section VI .


20. GENERAL~-The principal duties in firing for ea' member of the section are listed below. For comple lists and detailed descriptions of the duties of eat member of the section, see paragraphs 21-23 inclusiJ . For additional duties during direct fire, see Secti! VII. . a. Chief of section. Supervises action of all memb of the section. b. Driver. Remains at his post. c. Gunner. Lays the piece for direction.


and closes the breech, e. Cannoneer No.2. f. Cannoneer No.3. g. Cannoneer No.4. munition for firing.

and fires the piece.. Loads the piece. . Prepares ammunition for. firiI1 Assists No.3 in preparing aIt'1


21. CHIEF OF SECTION, LIST OF DUTIES. a. Ii -lays all fire commands from the battery executive. 'ac~~r~::t.y.that .all commands are e'iIecuted rapidly


. c. Measures the minimum quadrant elevation. d. Indicates to gunner the aiming point or referriIl point. 38


e. Lays for elevation, assisted by No.1, when the quadrant is used. Measures the range or elevation. Ig. Indicates when the piece is ready to fire. ~~.Signals or commands FIRE. ,.1, Reports errors and other unusual incidents of fire ~the battery executive. •j. Conducts pr~arranged firing schedules. tk. Records basic data. . Frequently notes. functioning of materiel. L~' Checks all rounds which have been prepared for tlng, but not fired, before they are replaced in con(ners. , tn. Assigns duties under unusual conditions. Controls movement of motor carriage.









t ON OF DUTIES. a. Relays all fire commands from

e battery executive. The chief 'of section relays all e c.o. mmands received over intr,a-battery communican system. He is prepared to repeat any part of the rnrnand to any cannoneer who has failed to hear it. ~b. Sees that all commands are executed rapidly and f,c~rately. The chief of section frequently checks th.e l~l~gof the piece and sees to it that all member~ of hIS h h?n.. are working as accurately and as rapIdly as rSSIble. lc. Measures the minimum quadrant elevation. The rrnand is MEASURE THE MINIMUM QUADRANT EVATION. . ' ~~l) The., chief of section, Sight.ing. along the lowest ~ent of the bore, orders No. 1 to elevate the piece tII the line of sight just cleats the crest. ..






(2) He sets the micrometer on the gunner's quadr at zero and seats the quadrant shoes on the leve1 plates of the breech ring with the "Line of Fire" afl pointing toward the muzzle. j . (3) He frees and raises the quadrant arm, and ~ lowers it slowly until the level bubble passes throv the center of the level. (4) He engages the plunger in the notches and t,," the micrometer knob until the level bubble is accud ly centered. ~ (5) He reads the red or black figures according the engraved instructions below the micrometer. (6) After reading the angle, the chief of section ports it to the battery executive, MINIMUM QU RANT ELEVATION, NUMBER (SO AND SO), MUCH).


d. Indicates to gunner the aiming point or refer point. Whenever an aiming point or referring point-1 been designated by the battery executive, the chiet,. section makes sure that he has properly identified point in qUestio.n and .then calls o.ff, .AIMING POI~ IDENTIFIED. He then indicates it to the gunner~~ there is any possibility of misrmderstanding, the cb of section turns the panoramic telescope until the h zontal and vertical cross hairs of the reticle are on designated point. With the aid of the sight, the gun is then able to identify the point and announce to chief of section, AIMING POINT IDENTIFIED .. .

e. Lays for elevation, assisted by No.1, when . gunner's quadrant is used. The command QUAD RA _(SO MUCH) in the fire command indicates that gunner's quadrant is to be used.' The chief of sectl sets the announced quadrant elevation on the gunn d quadrant. When the piece is loaded and the breej,

block closed, he places .the quadrant on the leveU 40




a:tes.of the breech ring. He stands squarely opposite sIde of the quadrant and holds it firmly on the • eling plates parallel to the axis of the bore. No. 1 'ev~tes or depresses the piece until the quadrant bube IS centered, making sure that the last' movement is the direction in which it is most difficult to turn the evating handwheel. The chief of section warns No. When the bubble is approaching the center, in order ,at the proper leveling may be performed accurately. 1,


,f. Measures elevation (range). At the command ~E:ASURE THE ELEVATION (RANGE), the piece CVI~g been laid, the chief of section causes No. 1 to ~t sIte 300 and, with the range drum knob, to center ~e longitudinal-level bubble of the range quadrant. Ihe chief of section then reads the elevation (range) ~t on the elevation scale (range drum) and announces elevation (range) thus set. For example: ELEV A, ON (RANGE) NUMBER (SO AND SO), (SO MUCH).


~g. Indicates when the piece is. ready to fire. When battery executive can see arm signals given by the lIef of section, the chief of section will extend his bgh~ arm vertI,'cally as a Sign,al that the piece is ready lEhre. He gives this signal as soon as the gunner calls I ~DY. When arm signals cannot be seen, the chief of ~~~on reports orally to the battery executive, NUM..: I (SO AND SO), READY. r. h. Signals and commands FIRE. The chief of section. ~Vesthe signal to fire by dropping his right arm sharp~Nto his side and orally commanding, NUMBER (SO '. D SO), FIRE. The chief of section will not give the IIgnal to fire until all' cannoneers are in their proper I aces. .


I i. Reports errors and other unusual incidents of fire ~ the battery executive. If for any reason the piece .annot be fired, the chief of section will promptly re-



h f . th. b .... th 1 port t at act to e attery executIve, gIvmg e 1 son: NUMBER (SO AND SO), OUT (REASON). Wb ever it is discovered that the piece has been fired ~ an error in laying, the chief of section will reporf once the amount of error and whether corrected' not. For example: NUMBER (SO AND SO) FIRED MILS RIGHT, ERROR HAS (HAS NOT) BEEN cC RECTED. The gunner also reports any other unu~ incidents that affect the service of the piece. J j. Conducts prearranged firing schedules. Whene the execution of prearranged fire schedules is orde~ the chief of sectio.n ..conducts the fire of the piece strict conformity to the schedule prescribed.


k. Records basic data. The chief of section reco in a notebook such information as minimum elevati base deflections, including aiming points used; pr~ ~anged firing schedules, when prepared schedules) y not furnished;. safe.t. .. limits, in ele.va.lionand defleCII number of rounds fired, with the hour and date; calibration corrections when appropriate. . I. Notes frequently the functioning of materiel. chief of se"ction notes the functioning of all mate during firing. He carefully observes the functioning the recoil system at all' times. He promptly reports; the battery exeCUII ..ve any materiel that is not func.tJ ing properly. m. Checks all rounds which have been prepared firing, but not fired, before they are replaced in , tainers..The chief.of section personally checks all rou1 not fired which have been prepared for firing, as .safety precaution to prevent short bursts. He sees ~

aJI seven increments are present in proper conditi ~ assembled in the .proper numerical order, and that Wl are of the proper lot number, before they are repla. in the container. He also checks to see that the I






,lmber on the ammunition corresponds to the lot numOn the container. He obtains a slip of paper on k~i.chan .officer of the battery has certified with his ltIalSthat all required .precautions as to checking in~ents have been taken and gives it to No. 3 for inSlon under the seal when unused ammunition is reced in containers and sealed. ~ Assigns duties under unusual conditions. Whenever personnel of the section serving the piece is temraril~ reduced or other conditions r.e.quire it, the c.hief sectIon assigns additional duties ..that will. facilitate e service of the piece. For example, the chief of sec~n may direct the driver, No.2, and No.3 to assist ~th the carrying and un crating of ammunition, or No. f may act as driver for a large deflection shift when ~edriver is handling ammunition. f o. Controls. movement of the motor carriage. When it : n:cessary to move the motor carriage, the chief. of :chon instructs the driver to start the engines. He then )~trols the displacement of the motor carriage by lIce Or interphone.





~'flC~NNER, LIST OF DUTIES. ~ ectlOn. b. Applies deflection difference. Cd' Lays the piece for direction .

a. Sets or changes

. Calls READY. :. Refers the piece. . Records the base deflection. g. Measures the deflection. CUNNER, DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TIES. a. Sets or changes deflection. (1) Sets deflecon: When a piece is prepared for action with known ~Ing POint, the elevation indexes, azimuth scale, and ~Irnuth micrometer on the panoramic telescope are ~


set at zero. Then at the command, for example, ~ FLECTION 1885, the gunner first sets the micromt index opposite the zero .of the fixed deflection sd if it is not already so set. He then pushes the throw lever and turns the rotating head until the hundr graduation (18 in this case) is opposite the azirnl scale index. He releases the throwout lever and grasp1 the azimuth worm knob with his right hand, turns 1 top of the worm knob away from him until the grad tion 85 is opposite the index. Care. must be taken! avoid a 100 mil error. The line of sight will then m~ a horizontal angle of 1885 mils with the axis of the b~ the angle desired in this example.

(2) Changes deflection. The gunner should be trai to grasp the azimuth worm knob with his right h~ and to turn the knob. in the same direction as the



or. the "R" on the fixed de..fleClion scale.,. depending. whether the command is LEFT or RIGHT. He sho also be taught that turning the top of the azimuth wo knob away horn him increases the deflection set on telescope and results in moving the muzzle to the when the piece is laid with the new deflection. Si larly, turning' the top of the azimuth worm knob f ward him decreases the deflection and results in rn~ ing the inuzzle to the right when the piece is laid. deflection having been set at 1885 mils, if a sUbseq;~ command is, for example, RIGHT 65, the gunner tur the top of the azimuth worm knob toward him (in ~ same direction as the "R" on the fixed deflection scl:L by an amount equal to 65 divisions. on the scale. Sit1 '. this decreases the deflection, the resulting deflect~ will be 1820 mils. Should the command be LEFT (:x '1\1UCH), the deflection setting is changed in a sirnil manner, except that the gunner moves the top of t azjmuth worm knob away from him (in the same dir tion as the "L" on .the fixed deflection scale).





To use the micrometer index. In the method

dellbed above, the gunner can reset. the micrometer ~ex opposite the most convenient 10'-mil graduation t e: each deflection resetting is made. This facilitates th~g off the tens an.d units on the azimuth micro. meter. read the deflection on the azimuth micrometer, the crometer index is turned to zero on the deflection ~ laIe, and the setting opposite the arrow on the mic,meter index is read.

I~' Applies

deflection dl.'fference. (1) The command is NO. (SO AND SO) OPEN (CLOSE) (SO MUCH). e gunner of the piece indicated in the command does :>t change the deflection set on his telescope. Each r the other gunners. changes his deflection setting by ~e number of mils specified in the command if his lece is next in line to the piece indicated, by twice this • mber of mils if his piece is second in line from the ~ece indicated, by three times this number of mils if Is piece is third in line from the piece indicated, and ~d~n. Cunners are taught to use the telescope as an i lllg machine, instead of totaling the shifts.

h I

If the command is, for example, ON No.1 OPEN , e gunner on No.1 makes no change; the gunner ~ No ..2 turns. the top of the azimuth worm knob away tm hIm and sets off 5 mils once; the gunner on No. Urns the top of the azimuth worm knob in a similar ~a~ner, except that he sets off 5 mils twice, .or a total o mils; the gunner on No. 4 also turns the azimuth ~or~ knob in a similar manner, except that he sets off 1111Isthree times, a total of ..15 mils. I (~


Should the command be, for example, ON NO. z. LOSE 10, the gunner on No.1 turns the top of the .• IImuth Worm knob away from him and sets off 10 111 St. 11 Wlce or a total of 20 mils; the gunner on No.2 rns the top of the azimuth worm knob in a simila;r



manner, except that he sets off l() mils once; the on No.3 makes no change; the gunner on No.4 tt1 the top of the azimuth worm knob toward him and off 10 mils once. (4) \Vhen ference are RIGHT 30, the gunner's change and

a deflection change and a .deflection announced at the same time, for exam ON NO. 1 CLOSE 5, both of which af piece, he should first set off the deflec~ then apply the deflection difference.


(5) Due to the variety of formations of the armO artill~ry, it often will be necessary to order deflec shifts for each individ. ual piece. The command WilI given by the battery executive and will indicate number of the piece and the deflection change to made. For example, NUMBER THREE, RIGHT FI~ The change will be made in the same manner as ~aking any deflection change.


c. Lays the piece for direCtion. (1) \Vith the deflec set on the panora~ic telescope, the gunner trave. the piece until the vertical cross hair of the panora

centers the bubbles of the telescope mount. The gun now brings the vertical cross hair into exact aligml1. with the aiming point and then rechecks the bubbr To take up lost motion and insure accuracy, the movement of the traversing h.andwheel should be that the cross hair is always brought onto the same p of the aiming point from the left. .The gunner sho . habitually follow the above procedure in laying piece for direction.





(2) If the amount of movement necessary is grea than. can be obtained by traversing the piece, the nerwill. center traverse the howitzer. and indicate: the driver the movement required. Any movement the carriage will involve ~ displacement from the







f aiming posts, if in use. The gunner will control the ?v~ment of the carriage until it is returned to its nglllal position with the sight approximately on the ne of aiming posts. Before correction for alignment is rdered, he lays for direction by traversing the piece o that the far post appears on the horizontal. cross hair ~1fway between the vertical cross hair and the near Iming post. (See paragraph 53.) . d. Calls READY. When the piece is laid for direction, d No.1 has called SET, the gunner moves his head ~ear of the eye shield, checks the cross- and longitudi[hi-Iev.elson the telescope mount, checks the setting of :h~azlmuth scale and. micrometer, and indicates to the i lef of section that the piece is ready to fire by anlOuncing READY. I e. Refers the piece. When the piece is laid for di(;Ction,-to refer the piece the command is AIMING l. O!NT(SO AND SO), REFER. Without disturbing the ~~Ing of the piece, the gunner brings the vertical cross a~r.of the panoramic telescope on -to the new aiming ) POInt.He then reads .and announces the deflection. He ~tes it and the referring point on a convenient part of I e motor carriage. Records base deflection~ At the command RECORD theSE DEFLECTION, the gunner reads the deflectio? t n set on the panoramic. telescope and announces It (~ the recorder as BASE DEFLECTION, NUMBER . ~AND SO), (SO MUCH). He notes this deflection ~: t~e aiming point used on a convenient part of the tor carriage. Measures the deflection. The command is AIMING 1'10NT (SO .AND SO), :MEASURE THE DEFLE~t b~. The piece being laid for direction, without dlspur Ing the laying of the piece the gunner turns .the anoramic telescope until the vertical cross hair is ?n






the designated aImIng point. He centers the bubb on the telescope mount, rechecks line of sighting of panoramic telescope, and then reads the deflection on the azimuth scale and micrometer. He announ this ..reading as DEFLECTION NUMBER (SO A SO), (SO MUCH). 25. CANNONEER NO.1, LIST OF DUTIES. angle of site. b. Sets range. c. Sets elevation. d. Lays the piece for range. e. Opens and closes the breech. f. Calls SET. g. Fires the piece. h. Mans the machine gun.

a. S

26. CANNONEER NO.1, DETAILED DESCRIPTI. OF DUTIES. a. Sets angle of site. The angle of site.r set on the angle of site scale and micrometer of tg~ range quadrant. No. 1 turns the angle of site wort' knob until the announced figure is approximately dicated on the angle of site scale. He then makes small final adjustment of the micrometer to bring t~ last two figures of the angle of site opposite the micr~ meter index. For example, the command is SI 275. N'. 1 turns the angle of site worm knob until the SC8~ index is one-quarter the distance from the "3" to tb i "2" graduation. He then adjusts the micrometer to re9~ 75. The last motion is made in the direction of increa~ ing site. f b. Sets range. Range is set on the range drum ~ the range quadrant. To set range, No. 1 first install the range' drum corresponding to the announced charg1 He grasps the range drum knob and turns it until tb,

it I



!,nounced range is opposite the index, making sure (t the last movement is in the dir.ection of increasing

~nge. I c. Sets elevation. No. 1 turns the range drum knob til the announced elevation is approximately indicated r. the elevation scale. By a small movement of the llcrometer he then brings the last two figures of the levation opposite the elevation micrometeJ.' index. He ta~es Sure that the last movement is in the direction r Increasing elevation. For example, the command is :LEVATION 464. No.1 sets the elevation scale index etween the "4" and "5" graduations. He then adjusts lemicrometer to read 64. (Caution: A large final ad1stment of the micrometer indicates either an improper, adjusted elevation scale or an incorrect initial setting. , check should be made to see that a IOO-mil error Oes not exist.) .


d. Lays the piece for range .. After setting the range n the range drum or setting the elevation on the elevaOn scale and micrometer, No. 1 lays the piece for ~nge. He first centers the cross-level bubble by turning e cross-leveling worm knob. Next, he elevates or deIre~ses the piece by turning the elevating handwheel nhi the bubble in the longitudinal-level is approxilat de IY centered. No. 1 now rechecks the cross-level n He now Cc centers .. the bubble . .. again.,.if necessary. .. Urately centers. the longitudinal-level bubble, mak~g s~re that the final movement of the tube is i.n the lrechon in which it is most difficult to turn the elevatng handwheel.

e. Opens and closes the breech. (1) To open. No. 1 queezes the breech operating lever 'handle in his left land t o release the catch and draws it to the rear, openng the breech.

(2) To close. No.1

grasps the operating

lever handle 49

with his left hand and pushes the handle forward u the breech is closed and the latch is engaged. f. Calls SET. No.1 calls SET when the piece has b loaded, the breech closed, and the piece laid for elt tion or range. . g. Fires the piece. At the chief of section's signal command NUMBER (SO' AND SO), FIRE, No. 1 fi the piece.. ~ h. Mans the machine gun. The machine gun. will operated by No.1 when so directed by the chief section. When the motor carriage is traveling, No will remain on the alert, prepared to operate the chine gun instantly. • I.

27. CANNONEER NO.2, LIST OF DUTIES. a. Lo thep~re. . b. Calls out number of round. c. Inspects chamber and bore after firing each roU d. Sets out aiming posts when ordered. e. Disposes of used cartridge cases. .



28. CANNONEER NO.2, DETAILED DESCRIPTl OF DUTIES. a.'Loads the piece. No.2 takes the rou~ grasping it with his right hand at the base of the c~ ridge case and his left hand in front of the rotatJ band. He then faces the breech, inserts the round id the chamber, and pushes it home with his right ha~ He must use care, especially at. higher elevations, avoid injuring his hand. When it is necessary for No. . to' insert his hand into the breech recess to push round home, he should first close his fist. He will . particularly careful to avoid striking 'the fuze agai a,ny portion of the materiel. A round to be loaded be held well out of the path of the recoil of the howit until the howitzer returns to battery. (See AR 750-1




J ...




. b. Calls out number of round. When the method of e is other than one round, No. 2 calls out the range . d the number of the round as he loads -the piece; and , he loads the last round, adds LAST ROUND. He ould speak only loud enough to be heard by memrs of. his own section. . . .. c: Inspects chamber and bore afte~ firing each round. o. 2 will inspect the bore and chamber after firing eh round to make certain that no foreign matter has en left which. may injure the. tube or burst the piece . obstructing the bore. d. Sets' out aiming posts when ordered. When so' dieted e . by the chief of . section , No.2 dismounts and takes I aIming posts from the rear of the motor carriage. esets up the aiming posts under the guidance of the tunner.


~. Disposes of used cartridge cases. During lulls in r~g, .No. 2 will throw used cartridge cases over the t g t SIdeof the motor carriage. . 19. ~ANNONEER NO.3, LIST OF. DUTIES. a. Places a~ aged, ammunition on radiator cover. . Re~oves round from container., ~. Cleans and inspects projectile; d. Sets fuze setter. . e. Cuts or sets fuzes. . f. Resets fuzes and replaces in containers rounds pre~ ared for firing but not fired.


~~ CANNONEER 3, DETAILED DESCRIPTION k'DUTIES. a. Places packaged ammunition on rear ee A f ' .. ~ t. s SOonas No.3 knows what type 0 ammumtIon ~ o.~e fired, he takes a packaged round from the am~ ~e~n~Ionrack and. places it, projectile end up, on the reek of the motor carriage.' ,. " 1.



Figure 7.

Figure 8.



opening projectile container.


No. 4 recewmg projectile from ammunition container held by No.3.









i...............•...... ckaged i •.i: gure 7)

round, strips the the container tape from. theand proJ'ectile en.d and throws cap tape away. e p~cks up the container and tips the projectile into o. 4.s waiting hands. (See figure 8.) No.3 reverses the ntamer and strips the tape from the other end (figure throwing the tape and cap away. He tips the cartge case into No. 4's hands (figure 10) and disposes the container.




c. Cleans and 'inspects projectile. No. 3 wipes off e projectile with a clean rag or waste and carefully spects the rotating band for burrs. If it is burred, o. 3 sets it aside until he has an opportunity to file OWn the burrs. '-

d . Sets fuze setter. ' When time fuzes are to be used,


o. 3 sets on the fuze setter' the corrector and time . ounced. He also sets changes announced., durmg e firing.



e. Cuts or sets fuzes. (1) Time fuzes. No. 3 removes ~~ safety pin and cuts the fuze to the time ordered, ~m g t h"e fuze setter. (See figure 11.) tl (2) Impact fuzes. No. 3 sets the adjustable impact i' Zes to «QUICK" (SQ) or "DELAY" (D), as ordered. uzes are originally furnished set "SQ", but this setting Ust be v en'f"Ied III . eac'h case. . r )rf. Resets fuzes and replaces in containers the rounds :ue~ar~~ for firing but not fired. Under the personal '0 ~, rVISlonof the chief of section, No.3 resets time fuzes ~u SAFE'; and replaces the safety pin, checks impact n Zes and resets the "setting sleeve" to SQ, and replaces )eContainers all projectiles and cartridge cases that have h e n prepared for firing but not fired. He is careful t h~ lthe lot number on the ammunition corresponds. to ;to ot number on the container and that the packmg p and cardboard cover are included. He includes the





Figure 9.


opening cartridge case end of ammunitil container.

Figure 10.


recetvtng cartridge case from ammunitjO~ container held by No.3.

..•...•. 1•..•of pape.r (Officer's Certificate), obtained from the If of section under one of the seals in a visible ition when r~sealing the containers.



)kCANNONEERNO.4, LIST OF DUTIES. a. Passes " aged rounds to No.3. . . Receives projectile and cartridge case from No.3. . Cleans and ..inspects cartridge case. . . Prepares charges. . Assembles rounds. . Places.prepared rounds on radiator cover. . Replaces in cartridge cases increments of all rounds pared for firing but not fired.

~NNONEER NO.4, DETAILED DESCRIPTION UTIES. a. Passes packaged pieces to No.3. 04 passes packaged rounds forward to No.3 . . Receives projectile and cartridge case from No.3. e~ NO.3 opens the projectile end of the ammunition ta~?er,he tips the fuzed projectile into No. 4's hands. e 19ure 8.) No. 4 lays the projectile down in the ugh. (See figure 9.) He then receives the cartridge e, which is tipped from the other end of the conner by No.3. (See figure 10.) . . . Cleans and inspects cartridge case. No.4 wipes off . Cartridge case with a clean rag or waste. While ~kg this, he carefully inspects the cartridge case to ~ e sure that it is not bent or damaged. If the cartIige case. is in such condition that it cannot be used, ~~set aside until it can be straightened or disposed of. c~repares. charges. The fire comma~d. designates. 1ge arge to be fired. When No.4 receIves the cart:g case from No. 3 he withd.raws the increments , Ure II) , lar e : removes those numbered higher than the g deSIgnated, and puts them aside. An empty con-.



Figure 11.


Figure 12.


cutting fuze while No.4

No. 4 assembling

fixes charge.


ner is a good receptacle for this purpose. He replaces ~ ~emaining increments in the cartridge case in their Igll1al numerical order.

e. Assembles rounds. When No.4 has prepared the arge and No.3 has set or cut the fuze, No.4 assembles ~ projectile and cartridge case in the ammunition lugh. (See figure 12.) f. Places prepared rounds on radiator cover. When >. 4 assembles a round he places it on the radiator ve~ of the motor carriage (figure 13) ready for No.2 l~lCk up and load into the breech. When No. 2 is Y to load the piece and no rounds are prepared, >. 4 passes the prepared rounds to No.2. To do this, passes the round to No. 2 in such a manner that



No. 4 placing round on radiator cover, pro;ecti 1e pointing to rear.


No.2 is able to grasp it with his left hand in fr< the rotating band and his right hand on the base c cartridge case, making sure that the projectile and' ridge case do not separate. g. Replaces increments in cartridge cases of' all r( prepared for firing but not fired. Under the pet supervision "of the chief, of section, No. 4 replaci cartridge cases increments of all rounds prepare£ firing but not fired. No. 4 is careful to see thal reconstituted rounds contain all seven incremen1 good condition, in the proper numerical order, and 1 ing the proper lot number. . . 'I


33., DRIVER, LIST OF DUTIES. a. Remains at his b. :Movesmotor carriage as directed by the chi section or gminer. ,



34. DRIVE~, DETAILED DES C RIP TI 0 N DUTIES. a. Remains at his post. During firing, driver normally remains in the driver's seat. He, k the engines running until the piece, is laid initially b. Move; motor carriage as directed by, the chi~ section .or gunner. The driver starts' the engine~ . command of the chief of section and moves the rrt carriage as directed by the chief of section or .gu~ The driver must see to it that the mechanical condi of the engines is such that they will start quickly easily at all times. When in action, the driver will up the engines from,time to time, to keep them in co . tion for'immediate starting.


Section VII



GENERAL. Delivery of direct fire demands a high

.Iee of training in its special technique, since it re~es the section to operate as an independent uni~. T~e ~ standards of speed and accuracy required III Ill~ect fire are even more. important during direct fire on larget which may, in turn, be firing on you.

~ fREPARATORY STEPS. In order to obtain the best ~ustswhen using direct fire, the following preparatory -P should be taken: ~: Inspect the coaxial telescope mount to see that it a~r~ly bolted in place, and that the telescope is fully b e and tightly clamped. v '1BOresight the coaxial telescopes with tru~nions as e as Possible. .

:irBORESIGHTING. a. Accurate fire of any type reen~~aCCurate adjustment of sighting and la.ying eq~ip)rt All personnel must be impressed with the ImQeance of. accurate boresightingat every opportunity. is tests and adjustments described in Section IX of liull1anual, and in TM 9-324, will insure accurate sight b strnent for direct laying. lr~ Fhr direct fire, the horizontal and vertical planes )ax~gl the zero range and deflection cross. hairs of the la telescope (figure 14) must be parallel to the same. 59-





= 100













Figure 14.




Reticle pattern, telescope M76G.

planes through the axis of the tube. In boresighting'd. is accomplished by bringing the alignment of the s~ coincide with that of the tube on a distant objec by placing each on its proper portion of a correctly 1 sitioned test target. (See paragraph 64c.)







' FIRE COMMANDS. Fire commands. for direct fire . t given by the gun commander who normally is the Ff~e' of section. The batterv• executive designates the Or pleces to fire, and the target, followed by the I ~and FIRE AT WILL. When the chief ()f section f~es thi~ preliminary command, he gives a fire com~ to hIs section containing in sequence, the fol-



. . [ l' ..I



Alert. Target. A~munition. DIrection of target. Lead . R.ange.


LERT. The command to alert the section is (SO SECTION. At the command, members of the tial fmove to their action posts to be ~eady for th.e trn Ire command. If the target is outsIde the maXln traverse of the howitzer, the alert is followed by ;e ec~ssary signals to the driver to get the howitzer POInted in the approximate direction
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