10 Complete Practice Tests - eBook

August 28, 2017 | Author: Vaidotas Vaičeliūnas | Category: Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, Color, Bulimia Nervosa, Eating Disorder
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Contents TEST 1 ......................................................................................................................................................... 2 TEST 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 25 TEST 3 ....................................................................................................................................................... 48 TEST 4 ....................................................................................................................................................... 71 TEST 5 ....................................................................................................................................................... 93 TEST 6 ..................................................................................................................................................... 118 TEST 7 ..................................................................................................................................................... 141 TEST 8 ..................................................................................................................................................... 163 TEST 9 ..................................................................................................................................................... 185 TEST 10 ................................................................................................................................................... 207 AUDIOSCRIPTS .................................................................................................................................... 228 LISTENING & READING ANSWER KEYS ...................................................................................... 309 MODEL ANS SAMPLE ANSWERS FOR WRITING TASKS ......................................................... 337 MODEL AND SAMPLE ANSWERS FOR SPEAKING TASKS ...................................................... 349

TEST 1 LISTENING SECTION 1 Questions 1-4 Answer the questions below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Which documents could Sam use as proof of her name? Example


1.................................. 2.................................. Which could she use as proof of her address? council tax bill 3.................................. phone bill (fixed line) 4.................................. Questions 5-7 Complete the notes below. Write NO Complete the notes below.

MORE THAN TWO WORDS OR NUMBERS for each answer. Name of bank?

Savings Bank

Open which days?


Opening hours?




Free gift?


Questions 8-10 Match the places in Questions 8-10 to the appropriate letters A-H on the map. 8 Royal Bank


9 Northern Bank.


10 National Bank.


SECTION 2 Questions 11-14 Complete the table below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Preparing for the interview

What to do

How to do it

Step 1: Prepare things to Gather all documents, e.g. copies of resume. Choose 11………………… e.g. designs, drawings, written work.





more Check you have pen and paper.


Ask firm for a 12……………………… See profiles at Chamber of Commerce, library.

Step 3: Focus on you and Contact 13………………….. of this or related firms. the job.

Compare yourself with what is required. Imagine likely questions and your answers. Decide how to make up for any 14…………….. you lack

Questions 15-20 Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. At the interview

Arrive no more than 15..................................before the time of the interview. After you hear the question, you can 16..................................before you reply. You can 17..................................if you don’t understand what they’re asking you. Wait for them to offer you the job before you say what 18.................................. you want. Learning from the experience will make you more 19..................................in future interviews. Pay attention to your 20..................................- it shows you have a positive attitude.

SECTION 3 Questions 21-24 Complete the summary below by writing NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS in the spaces provided. To many employers, academic success and personal development as a result of being at 21..................................can









22..................................modules that you may do well in. You should, however, think more carefully about your choice if your course is 23 ................................... In this case the course normally includes all the modules necessary for professional training, but if you are in any doubt check with your academic department or the 24..................................at the university. Questions 25-29 Write the appropriate letters A-C against questions 25-29. Which modules have the following features? A. Applied Chemical Engineering

B. Fluid Mechanics C. Chemical Engineering: Science 1 25

developing computer skills



exemption from part of a module



assessment by formal examination



developing speaking and writing skills



learning through problem-solving


Question 30 30 Which chart shows the percentage of private study time on the Spanish 1A module?

SECTION 4 Questions 31-33 Label the diagram. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Questions 34-36 Choose from letters A-C and write them on your answer sheet. 34 The crater at Acraman is A

nowadays entirely covered by sea water.


one of the most beautiful on Karth.


less spectacular than others in Australia.

35 Williams realised what had happened at Acraman when he A

saw pictures of the area taken from above.


visited Acraman for the first time in 1980.


noticed a picture of the crater in a textbook.

36 Where was rock from Acraman found? A

Only in the Flinders Mountains.


At several placcs over 300 km from Acraman.


At a place 500 km from Acraman, but nowhere else.

Questions 37-40 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.


What made the sea water shake? ..................................


What threw the pebbles into the air? ..................................


What was mixed with silt to form a layer of rock? ................

40 What shaped the ripples on top of the rock? .........................

READING READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. Questions 1-5 Reading Passage 1 has five sections, A-E. Choose the correct headings for sections A-E from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings i. Mushrooms that glow in the dark ii. Bright creatures on land and in the sea iii. Evolution’s solution iv. Cave-dwelling organisms

v. Future opportunities in biological engineering vi. Nature’s gift to medicine vii. Bioluminescence in humans viii. Purposes of bioluminescence in the wild ix. Luminescent pets

1. Section A 2. Section B 3. Section C 4. Section D 5. Section E

Bioluminescence A. In the pitch-black waters of the ocean’s aphotic zone – depths from 1,000m to the sea floor – Rood eyesight does not count for very much on its own. Caves, in addition, frequently present a similar problem: the complete absence of natural light at any time of the day. This has not stopped some organisms from turning these inhospitable environments into their homes, and in the process many have created their own forms of light by developing one of the stunning visual marvels of the biological universe – bioluminescence. B. Many people will encounter bioluminescence at some point in their life, typically in some form of glowworm, which is found on most continents. North and South America are home to the “firefly”, a glowing beetle which is known as a glow-worm during its larvae stage. Flightless glowing beetles and worms are also found in Europe, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Less common flies, centipedes, molluscs, and snails have bioluminescent qualities as well, as do some

mushrooms. The most dramatic examples of bioluminescence, however, are found deep below the ocean’s surface, where no sunlight can penetrate at all. Here, anglerfish, cookie-cutter sharks, flashlight fish, lantern fish, gulper eels, viperfish, and many other species have developed bioluminescence in unique and creative ways to facilitate their lives. C. The natural uses of bioluminescence vary widely, and organisms have learnt to be very creative with its use. Fireflies employ bioluminescence primarily for reproductive means – their flashing patterns advertise a firefly’s readiness to breed. Some fish use it as a handy spotlight to help them locate prey. Others use it as a lure; the anglerfish, for example, dangles a luminescent flare that draws in gullible, smaller fishes which get snapped up by the anglerfish in an automated reflex. Sometimes, bioluminescence is used to resist predators. Vampire squids eject a thick cloud of glowing liquid from the tip of its arms when threatened, which can be disorientating. Other species use a single, bright flash to temporarily blind their attacker, with an effect similar to that of an oncoming car which has not dipped its headlights. D. Humans have captured and utilized bioluminescence by developing, over the last decade, a technology known as Bioluminescence Imaging (BLI). BU involves the extraction of a DNA protein from a bioluminescent organism, and then the integration of this protein into a laboratory animal through trans-geneticism. Researchers have been able to use luminized pathogens and cancer cell lines to track the respective spread of infections and cancers. Through BLI, cancers and infections can be observed without intervening in a way that affects their independent development. In other words, while an ultra-sensitive camera and bioluminescent proteins add a visual element, they do not disrupt or mutate the natural processes. As a result, when testing drugs and treatments, researchers are permitted a single perspective of a therapy’s progression. E. Once scientists learn how to engineer bioluminescence and keep it stable in large quantities, a number of other human uses for it will become available. Glowing trees have been proposed as replacements for electric lighting along busy roads, for example, which would reduce our dependence on non-renewable energy sources. The same technology used in Christmas trees for the family home would also eliminate the fire danger from electrical fairy lights. It may also be possible for crops and plants to luminesce when they require watering, and for meat and dairy products to “tell us” when they have become contaminated by bacteria. In a similar way, forensic

investigators could detect bacterial species on corpses through bioluminescence. Finally, there is the element of pure novelty. Children’s toys and stickers are often made with glow-in-the dark qualities, and a biological form would allow rabbits, mice, fish, and other pets to glow as well. Questions 6-9 Choose FOUR letters. A—G. Write the correct letters in boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet. Which FOUR uses are listed for bioluminescence in nature? A. ways of attracting food B. tracing the spread of diseases C. mating signals D. growing trees for street lighting E. drug trials F. defensive tactics G. a torch to identify food Questions 10-13 Complete the sentences below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet 10. The luminescent fluid that a vampire squid emits has a …………………… effect on its predator.

11. In order to use bioluminescence in a trans-genetic environment, ……………………. must first be removed from a bioluminescent creature. 12. One advantage of BLI is that it could allow researchers to see how a treatment is working without altering or disturbing ……………………. 13. In the future, …………………… may be able to use bioluminescence to identify evidence on dead bodies.

READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14—26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. CHANGES IN MALE BODY IMAGE A. The pressures on women to look slender, youthful, and attractive have been extensively documented, but changing expectations for women’s bodies have varied widely. From voluptuous and curvy in the days of Marilyn Monroe to slender and androgynous when Twiggy hit the London scene in the mid-1960s, and then on to the towering Amazonian models of the 1980s and the “heroin chic” and size-zero obsession of today, it is not just clothes that go in and out of fashion for women. The prevailing notion of the perfect body for men, however, has remained remarkably static: broad shoulders, a big chest and arms, and rippling, visible abdominal muscles and powerful legs have long been the staple ingredients of a desirable male physique. B. A growing body of evidence suggests this is changing, however. Rootsteins, a mannequin design company in Britain, has released its newest male model – the homme nouveau – with a cinched-in 27-inch waist. “To put that into perspective,” says one female fashion reporter, “I had a 27-inch waist when I was thirteen _ and I was really skinny.” The company suggests that the homme nouveau “redresses the prevailing “beefcake” figure by carving out a far more streamlined, sinuous silhouette to match the edgier attitude of a new generation”.

C. Elsewhere in the fashion industry, the label American Apparel is releasing a line of trousers in sizes no larger than a 30-inch waist, which squeezes out most of the younger male market who have an average waistline over five inches larger. Slender young men are naturally starting to dominate the catwalks and magazine pages as well. “No one wanted the big guys,” model David Gandy has said, describing how his muscled physique was losing him jobs. “It was all the skinny, androgynous look. People would look at me very, very strangely when I went to castings.” D. Achieving such a physique can be unattainable for those without the natural genetic make-up. “I don’t know that anyone would consider my body archetypal or as an exemplar to work towards,” notes model Davo McConville. “You couldn’t aim for this; it’s defined by a vacuum of flesh, by what it’s not.” Nevertheless, statistics suggest it is not just an obsession of models, celebrities, and the media – more and more ordinary men are prepared to go to great lengths for a slender body. One indication is the growing number of men who are discovering surgical reconstruction. Male breast-reduction has become especially popular, in 2009, the year-on-year growth rate for this procedure rose to 44 per cent in the United Kingdom. Liposuction also remains popular in the market for male body reconstructive surgery, with 35,000 such procedures being performed on men every year. E. Additionally, more men now have eating disorders than ever before. These are characterized by normal eating habits, typically either the consumption of insufficient or excessive amounts of food. Eating disorders are detrimental to the physical and mental condition of people who suffer from them, and the desire to achieve unrealistic physiques has been implicated as a cause. In 1990, only 10% of people suffering from anorexia or bulimia were believed to be male, but this figure has climbed steadily to around one quarter today. Around two in five binge eaters are men. Women still make up the majority of those afflicted by eating disorders, but the perception of it being a “girly” problem has contributed to men being less likely to pursue treatment. In 2008, male eating disorders were thrust into the spotlight when former British Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, admitted to habitually gorging on junk food and then inducing himself to vomit while in office. “I never admitted to this out of the shame and embarrassment,” he said. “I found it difficult as a man like me to admit that I suffered from bulimia.”

F. In some respects, the slim male silhouette seems to be complementing, rather than displacing, the G. I. Joe physique. Men’s Health, one of the only titles to weather the floundering magazine market with sales increasing to a quarter of a million per issue, has a staple diet of bulky men on the cover who entice readers with the promise of big, powerful muscles. Advertising executives and fashion editors suggest that in times of recession and political uncertainty, the more robust male body image once again becomes desirable. Academic research supports this claim, indicating that more “feminine” features are desirable for men in comfortable and secure societies, while “masculine” physical traits are more attractive where survival comes back to the individual. A University of Aberdeen study, conducted using 4,500 women from over 30 countries, found a pronounced correlation between levels of public healthcare and the amount of effeminacy women preferred in their men. In Sweden, the country considered to have the best healthcare, 68 per cent of women preferred the men who were shown with feminine facial features. In Brazil, the country with the worst healthcare in the study, only 45 per cent of women were so inclined. “The results suggest that as healthcare improves, more masculine men fall out of favour,” the researchers concluded. G. Ultimately, columnist Polly Vernon has written, we are left with two polarized ideals of masculine beauty. One is the sleek, slender silhouette that exudes cutting-edge style and a wealthy, comfortable lifestyle. The other is the “strong, muscular, austerity-resistant” form that suggests a man can look after himself with his own bare hands. These ideals co-exist by pulling men in different directions and encouraging them to believe they must always be chasing physical perfection, while simultaneously destabilizing any firm notions of what physical perfection requires. H. As a result, attaining the ideal body becomes an ever more futile and time-consuming task. Vernon concludes that this means less time for the more important things in life, and both sexes should resist the compulsive obsession with beauty. Questions 14-20 Reading Passage 2 has eight paragraphs, A-H. Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once. 14. an opinion on whether body image changes have positive or negative effects 15. a historical comparison of gendered body images 16. a humiliating confession of overeating by a public figure 17. a cosmetic operation that has become increasingly popular 18. a health condition afflicting increasing numbers of men 19. the effect of changing body ideals on a male model 20. an explanation of how living standards affect the desirability of male physiques Questions 21-26 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 21—26 on your answer sheet, write YES

if the statement agrees with the views of the writer


if the statement contradicts with the view of the writer


if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

21. A thin body is achievable for men regardless of their genes. 22. Male liposuction is more popular than male breast-reduction. 23. Rating disorders harm the mind and body. 24. Women seek help for eating disorders more often than men.

25. Men’s Health has suffered from a downturn in magazine sales. 26. As public healthcare improves, men become more feminine.

READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. EATS, SHOOTS AND LEAVES A Book Review The title of Fats, Shoots and Leaves refers to a famously misplaced comma in a wildlife manual that ended up suggesting a panda rather violently “eats, shoots and leaves” instead of eating shoots and leaves. The author of this book, journalist Lynne Truss, is something akin to a militant linguist, dedicating this “zero tolerance” manifesto on grammar to the striking Bolshevik printers of St. Petersburg who, in demanding the same remuneration for punctuation as they received for letters, ended up setting in motion the first Russian Revolution. Some of the book involves humorous attacks on erroneous punctuation. There is the confused Shakespearian thespian who inadvertently turns a frantic plea: “Go, get him surgeons!” into the cheerful encouragement of “Go get him, surgeons!” Street and shop signs have a ubiquitous presence. A bakery declares “FRESH DONUT’S SOLD HERE” and a florist curiously announces that “Pansy’s here!” (Is she?). The shameless title of a Hollywood film Two Weeks Notice is reeled in for criticism – “Would they similarly call it One Weeks Notice?’’, Truss enquires – and sometimes, as in the case of signs promoting “ANTIQUE’S” and “Potatoe’s” – one questions whether we are bearing witness to new depths of grammar ignorance, or a postmodern caricature of atrocious punctuation. Eats, Shoots and Leaves is not just a piece of comedy and ridicule, however, and Truss has plenty to offer on the question of proper grammar usage. If you have ever wondered whether it is

acceptable to simply use an “em dash”1 in place of a comma – the verdict from Truss is that you can. “The dash is less formal than the semicolon, which makes it more attractive,” she suggests. “It enhances conversational tone; and … it is capable of quite subtle effects.” The author concludes, with characteristic wry condescension, that the em dash’s popularity largely rests on people knowing it is almost impossible to use incorrectly. Truss is a personal champion of the semicolon, a historically contentious punctuation mark elsewhere maligned by novelist Kurt Vonnegut Jr., as a “transvestite hermaphrodite representing absolutely nothing”. Coming to the semicolon’s defence, Truss suggests that while it can certainly be overused, she refers to the dying words of one 20th century writer: “I should have used fewer semicolons, the semicolon can perform the role of a kind of Special Policeman in the event of comma fights.” Truss has come under criticism on two broad points. The first argument criticises the legitimacy of her authority as a punctuation autocrat. Louis Menand, writing in the New Yorker, details Eats, Shoots and Leaves’ numerous grammatical and punctuation sins: a comma-free non-restrictive clause; a superfluous ellipsis; a misplaced apostrophe; a misused parenthesis; two misused semicolons; an erroneous hyphen in the word “abuzz”, and so on. In fact, as Menand notes, half the semicolons in the Truss book are spuriously deployed because they stem from the author’s open flouting of the rule that semicolons must only connect two independent clauses. “Why would a person not just vague about the rules but disinclined to follow them bother to produce a guide to punctuation?” Menand inquires. Ultimately, he holds Truss accused of producing a book that pleases those who “just need to vent” and concludes that Eats, Shoots and Leaves is actually a tirade against the decline of language and print that disguises itself, thinly and poorly, as some kind of a style manual. Linguist David Chrystal has criticised what he describes as a “linguistic purism” coursing through Truss’ book. Linguistic purism is the notion that one variety of language is somehow more pure than others, with this sense of purity often based on an idealised historical point in the language’s development, but sometimes simply in reference to an abstract ideal. In The Fight for English: How Language Pundits Ate, Shot and Left, Chrystal – a former colleague of Truss – condemns the no-holds-barred approach to punctuation and grammar. “Zero tolerance does not allow for flexibility,” he argues. “It is prescriptivism taken to extremes. It suggests that language is in a state where all the rules are established with 100 per cent certainty. The suggestion is false. We do not

know what all the rules of punctuation are. And no rule of punctuation is followed by all of the people all of the time.” Other detractors of Truss’ “prescriptivism” are careful to disassociate needless purism from robust and sensible criticism, an oppositional stance they call descriptivism. “Don’t ever imagine,” Geoffrey K. Pullum on the Language Log emphasizes, “that I think all honest attempts at using English are just as good as any others. [Bad] writing needs to be fixed. But let’s make sure we fix the right things.” In other words, we do not require a dogmatic approach to clean up misused language. Charles Gaulke concurs, noting that his opposition to “prescriptivism” does not require contending with the existence of standards themselves, but questioning whether our standards should determine what works, or whether what works should determine our standards. Ultimately, it is unlikely the purists and pedagogues will ever make absolute peace with those who see language as a fluid, creative process within which everyone has a role to play. Both sides can learn to live in a sort of contentious harmony, however. Creativity typically involves extending, adapting and critiquing the status quo, and revising and reviving old traditions while constructing new ones. Rules must exist in order for this process to take place, if only for them to be broken. On the flip side, rules have an important role to play in guiding our language into forms that can be accessed by people across all manner of differences, so it is vital to acknowledge the extent to which they can be democratic, rather than merely autocratic in function. Nevertheless, all the regulations in the world cannot stem the natural spring of language, which bursts through rivets and snakes around the dams that linguistic authorities may try to put in place. We should celebrate rather than curse these inevitable tensions. Questions 27-32 Look as the following statements (Questions 27-32) and the list of people below. Match each statement with the correct person A-E. Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once.

27. Mistakes should be corrected on the basis of common sense. 28. No one has legitimacy as an ultimate authority on punctuation use. 29. Eats, Shoots and Leaves is not the type of book it claims to be. 30. The idea that some forms of language can be better than others is wrong. 31. The semicolon has no real purpose. 32. We can ask whether rules are helpful without undermining the need for rules. List of people A. Kurt Vonnegut Jr. B. Louis Menand C. David Chrystal D. Geoffrey K. Pullum E. Charles Gaulke

Questions 33-37 Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 33-37 on your answer sheet. Eats, Shoots and Leaves is a book on punctuation by journalist Lynne Truss, who could be described as a 33 …………………… She dedicates the book to the Bolshevik printers who started the 34 …………………. by protesting for better pay conditions. The book is partly a humorous

criticism of incorrect punctuation. Some of the examples are so bad it is possible that they are actually a 35 …………………. Truss also guides the reader on correct punctuation usage. She likes the em dash because it is not as 36 ……………………. as the semicolon, for example, but remains a 37 ……………………. of the latter due to its ability to discipline areas of text that are crowded with commas. Questions 38-40 Choose THREE letters, A—G. Write the correct letters in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet. Which THREE of the following statements form part of the author’s conclusion? A. Rules prevent the creation of new things. B. A centralised point of control can effectively guide the flow of language. C. Both the descriptivists and prescriptivists have important roles to play in language evolution. D. Disputes over matters of language rules need not be condemned. E. Prescriptivists and descriptivists are both wrong. F. Rules help everyone use language and do not merely prescribe usage. G. An essential part of creativity is the rejection of that which has come before.

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The line graph below shows the average daily maximum temperatures for Auckland and Christchurch, two cities in New Zealand, and London and Edinburgh, two cities in the United Kingdom. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this topic. Write about the following topic: Children nowadays watch significantly more television than those in the past, which reduces their activity levels accordingly. Why is this the case? What measures can you suggest to encourage higher levels of activity among children? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory) 

Good morning/afternoon. My name is. Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please? Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself. Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live. •

Have there been any recent improvements to your home town0

Are there any other areas which you think could be improved? Why?

Which area of your home town is the most attractive? Why?

Let's talk about your studies. •

What are you studying at present?

What type of career do you hope to have after completing your

Alter graduating,, do you intend doing any further study:?


Interview (choose 2) Now let’s talk about free time. •

Tell me about what you like to do in your free time.

Does it cost much money to do this activity?

Do many of your friends enjoy the same types of activities?

Do you think you will have more or less free time in the future? Why?

Now let's talk about seasons.

Which season of the year is your favourite? Why?

What is the weather typically like where you live during the season?

Do you think you will always prefer this season? Why?

Wbat types of things do you enjoy doing during this season? Why?

Now let's talk about the outdoors. •

Which outdoor places or locations do you enjoy going to? Why?

Do you prefer to spend time indoors or outdoors? Why?

What are some of your outdoor hobbies?

Do some parts of your country have more beautiful outdoor spaces than others?

PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, I’m going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to talk about a traditional story which is popular in your country. Describe a traditional story that is popular in your country. You should say: what the story' is about why the story is well known how you came to know this story and explain what you learnt from this story. Rounding- off questions: •

Would you recommend this story to others?

Do you enjoy traditional stories?

PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about a story which is well known in your country and now I'd like to discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let's consider first the topic of traditional stories. •

Many people believe that traditional stories are irrelevant to modem society. Do you agree

or disagree? •

What type of traditional stories do children generally enjoy? Vhy do you think this is so?

What can traditional stories tell us about a culture?

Now, let's talk about preserving and protecting traditions. •

In what ways have traditions changed in your country, if at all, over the last fifty or so

years? •

Many societies are losing aspects of their culture and tradition as time passes. What are

some of the solutions to this issue? •

Do you think the current generation is more or less interested in tradition than previous

generations? Why might this be so?

TEST 2 LISTENING SECTION 1 Questions 1 - 10 Complete the form below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer. Tom's Computer Maintenance Customer Information Form Date: Sunday, 12th May Example: Reason for call:

Answer. computer problem

What happened: the screen 1.............................. Troubleshooting checklist: Restarted computer The computer is 2................... – not running on battery Activity when the problem occurred: 3............................................... Possible diagnosis: a virus Anti-virus programme: 4..............................................

Appointment Location: 5...................................... Time scheduled for visit: 6.......................................... Street address: 14 7........................................ Crescent, 2F3 Customer name: Sandra 8.......................................... Name on buzzer: the same as above Fee: 9........................................for the first hour’s work, then £40 per hour Estimated time for job: less than 10............................................

SECTION 2 Questions 11 - 17 Choose the correct letter, A, B or C. 11 The speaker's job requires A. a great deal of walking. B extensive travel. B. extensive travel. C. clean water. 12 Why is this story being told? A. to promote Charity-Water B for entertainment purposes C to encourage Helen B. for entertainment purposes C to encourage Helen

C. to encourage Helen 13 Why do the charity workers usually surprise communities? A. It makes people happy. B. It is difficult to spread news. C. It makes their work easier. 14 When villagers heard of the charity workers’ arrival, they A. had a party. B. were suspicious. C. took no notice. 15 Helen is feeling A. ecstatic about her new life. B. curious about the charity workers. C. nostalgic about her old life. 16 What did the speaker notice about Helen? A. that she had bathed recently B. the care she took with her appearance C that she was wearing a green uniform C. that she was wearing a green uniform 17 Making someone feel beautiful was A. part of the speaker’s job description.

B. an unexpected bonus for the speaker. C. of little importance to the speaker. Questions 18 - 20 In what THREE ways did the new well improve Helen's life? Choose THREE letters A - G. 18.........................



A. Her children enjoyed better health

E. She had more choices and options

B. It increased her household income

F. She made new friends in her village

C. It gave her more free time

G. It allowed her to go to school

D. She got a leadership position

SECTION 3 Questions 21 - 25 Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer. 21 Jessica is interviewing Dr Kitching for ...................................... for the school newspaper. 22 Everyone Jessica knows is rather ........................................ about how to ask for references. 23 Dr Kitching gives Jessica permission ................................... to their conversation. 24 Dr Kitching writes more than ..................................... a year.

25 The majority of ...................................... are in the spring or early summer when students start thinking about their future. Questions 26 - 30 Complete the flow-chart below. Choose FIVE answers from the box and write the correct letter A - G next to questions 26 - 30. STEPS TO TAKE WHEN ASKING FOR A REFERENCE AFTER GRADUATION Start with a(n) 26....................... Say what 27............................... you took and when you took it. Give any 28 ............................. to identify yourself. Follow up with a(n) 29....................... Ask for a(n) 30.............................. A. message B. meeting C. information D. exam E. telephone call F. course G. email

SECTION 4 Question 31 - 40 Complete the notes below.

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Date: 6th November Lecture Topic Primate Behaviour Review - Last lecture we talked about how physical features apply to: 

living primates



Human evolution is not just about how people have 32.......................... but also about how our behaviour evolved.

The most notable thing about humans is not just that they walk on two legs but that they can 33............................ Primate Cognitive Abilities Cognition = the amount of 34........................... that goes into a behaviour. It's difficult to come up with 35......................... to measure cognition. How sentient are the 36.................................. Sentient = there is 37.............................. conscious thought Behaviours that support the presence of conscious thought in primates:

Various sorts of 38................................ (helping others without benefit)

"Machiavellian Intelligence" or deliberate 39......................................

Chimps can be language-trained - highly intelligent

Cognition and intelligence in primates has deep 40................................... ramifications.

READING READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. Communicating in Colour There are more than 160 known species of chameleons. The main distribution is in Africa and Madagascar, and other tropical regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe and Asia. There are introduced populations in Hawaii and probably in California and Florida too. New species are still discovered quite frequently. Dr Andrew Marshall, a conservationist from York University, was surveying monkeys in Tanzania, when he stumbled across a twig snake in the Magombera forest which, frightened, coughed up a chameleon and fled. Though a colleague persuaded him not to touch it because of the risk from venom, Marshall suspected it might be a new species, and took a photograph to send to colleagues, who confirmed his suspicions. Kinyongia magomberae, literally “the chameleon from Magombera”, is the result, and the fact it was not easy to identify is precisely what made it unique. The most remarkable feature of chameleons is their ability to change colour, an ability rivalled only by cuttlefish and octopi in the animal kingdom. Because of this, colour is not the best thing for telling chameleons apart and different species are usually identified based on the patterning and shape of the head, and the arrangement of scales. In this case it was the bulge of scales on the chameleon’s nose. Chameleons are able to use colour for both communication and camouflage by switching from bright, showy colours to the exact colour of a twig within seconds. They show an extraordinary range of colours, from nearly black to bright blues, oranges, pinks and greens, even several at once. A popular misconception is that chameleons can match whatever background they arc placed on, whether a chequered red and yellow shirt or a Smartie box. But each species has a characteristic set of cells containing pigment distributed over their bodies in a specific pattern, which determines the range of colours and patterns they can show. To the great disappointment of many children,

placing a chameleon on a Smartie box generally results in a stressed, confused, dark grey or mottled chameleon. Chameleons are visual animals with excellent eyesight, and they communicate with colour. When two male dwarf chameleons encounter each other, each shows its brightest colours. They puff out their throats and present themselves sidc-on with their bodies flattened to appear as large as possible and to show off their colours. This enables them to assess each other from a distance. If one is clearly superior, the other quickly changes to submissive colouration, which is usually a dull combination of greys or browns. If the opponents are closely matched and both maintain their bright colours, the contest can escalate to physical fighting and jaw-locking, each trying to push each other along the branch in a contest of strength. Eventually, the loser will signal his defeat with submissive colouration. Females also have aggressive displays used to repel male attempts at courtship. When courting a female, males display the same bright colours that they use during contests. Most of the time, females are unreceptive and aggressively reject males by displaying a contrasting light and dark colour pattern, with their mouths open and moving their bodies rapidly from side to side. If the male continues to court a female, she often chases and bites him until he retreats. The range of colour- change during female displays, although impressive, is not as great as that shown by males. Many people assume that colour change evolved to enable chameleons to match a greater variety of backgrounds in their environment. If this was the case, then the ability of chameleons to change colour should be associated with the range of background colours in the chameleon’s habitat, but there is no evidence for such a pattern. For example, forest habitats might have a greater range of brown and green background colours than grasslands, so forest-dwelling species might be expected to have greater powers of colour change. Instead, the males whose display colours are the most eye-catching show the greatest colour change. Their displays are composed of colours that contrast highly with each other as well as with the background vegetation. This suggests that the species that evolved the most impressive capacities for colour change did so to enable them to intimidate rivals or attract mates rather than to facilitate camouflage.

How do we know that chameleon display colours are eye-catching to another chameleon – or, for that matter, to a predatory bird? Getting a view from the perspective of chameleons or their bird predators requires information on the chameleon s or bird’s visual system and an understanding of how their brains might process visual information. This is because the perceived colour of an object depends as much on die brain’s wiring as on the physical properties of the object itself. Luckily, recent scientific advances have made it possible to obtain such measurements in the field, and information on visual systems of a variety of animals is becoming increasingly available. The spectacular diversity of colours and ornaments in nature has inspired biologists for centuries. But if we want to understand the function and evolution of animal colour patterns, we need to know how they are perceived by the animals themselves – or their predators. After all, camouflage and conspicuousness are in the eye of the beholder. Questions 1-4: Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDSfrom the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet. 1. What kind of climate do most chameleons live in? ………………………. 2. Which animal caught a chameleon from an undiscovered species? …………………….. 3. What was the new species named after? ………………………… 4. Which part of the body is unique to the species Kinyongla magomberae?……………………….. Questions 5-13: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 5-13 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts the information


if there is no information on this

5. Few creatures can change colour as effectively as cuttlefish. 6. Chameleons can imitate a pattern provided there are only two colours. 7. Chameleons appear to enjoy trying out new colours. 8. Size matters more than colour when male chameleons compete. 9. After a fight, the defeated male hides among branches of a tree. 10. Females use colour and movement to discourage males. 11. The popular explanation of why chameleons change colour has been proved wrong. 12. There are more predators of chameleons in grassland habitats than In others. 13. Measuring animals’ visual systems necessitates removing them from their habitat.

READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 13-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. The Pursuit of Happiness A. In the late 1990; psychologist Martin Seligman of the University ol Pennsylvania urged colleagues to observe optimal moods with the same kind of focus with which they had for so long studied illnesses: we would never learn about the full range of human functions unless we knew as much about mental wellness as we do about mental illness. A new generation of psychologists built up a respectable body of research on positive character traits and happiness-boosting practices. At the same time, developments in neuroscience provided new clues to what makes us happy and what that looks like In the brain. Self appointed experts took advantage of the trend

with guarantees to eliminate worry, stress, dejection and even boredom. This happiness movement has provoked a great deal of opposition among psychologists who observe that the preoccupation with happiness has come at the cost of sadness, an important feeling that people have tried to banish from their emotional repertoire. Allan Horwitz of Rutgers laments that young people who are naturally weepy after breakups are often urged to medicate themselves instead of working through their sadness. Wake Forest University’s Eric Wilson fumes that the obsession with happiness amounts to a ‘craven disregard” for the melancholic perspective that has given rise to the greatest works of art. “The happy man,” he writes, ‘is a hollow man.’ B. After all people are remarkably adaptable. Following a variable period of adjustment, we bounce back to our previous level of happiness, no matter what happens to us. (There are some scientifically proven exceptions, notably suffering the unexpected loss of a job or the loss of a sjiou.se. Both events tend to permanently knock people back a step.) Our adaptability works in two directions. Because we are so adaptable, points out Professor Sonja J.yubomirsky of the University of California, we quickly get used to many of the accomplishments we strive for in life, such as lauding the big job or getting married. Soon alter we reach a milestone, we start to feel that something is missing. We begin coveting another worldly possession or eyeing a social advancement. But such an approach keeps us tethered to a treadmill where happiness is always just out of reach, one toy or one step away. It’s possible to get off the treadmill entirely by focusing on activities that arc dynamic, surprising, and attention-absorbing. and thus less likely to bore us than, say, acquiring shiny new toys. C. Moreover, happiness is not a reward tor escaping pain. Russ Harris, the author of The Happiness Trap, calls popular conceptions of happiness dangerous because they set people up for a ‘struggle against reality*. They don’t acknowledge that real life is full of disappointments, loss, and inconveniences.”If you’re going to live a rich and meaningful life.* Harris says, “you’re going to feel a full range of emotions.” Action toward goals other than happiness makes people happy. It is not crossing the finish line that is most rewarding, it is anticipating achieving the goal. University of Wisconsin neuroscientist Richard Davidson has found that working hard toward a goal, and making progress to the point of expecting a goal to be realized, not only activates positive feelings but also suppresses negative emotions such as fear and depression.

D.We are constantly making decisions, ranging from what clothes to put on. to whom we should marry, not to mention all those flavors of ice cream. We base many of our decisions on whether we think a particular preference will increase our well-being. Intuitively, we seem convinced that the more choices we have, the better off we will ultimately be. But out world of unlimited opportunity imprisons us more than it makes us happy. In what Swarthmore psychologist BarrsSchwartz calls “the paradox of choice.” lacing many possibilities leaves us stressed out – and less satisfied with whatever we do decide. Having too many choices keeps us wondering about all the opportunities missed. E. Besides, not everyone can put on a happy face, Rirlxira Held, a professor of psychology at Bowdoiu College, rails against “the tyranny of the positive attitude”. ‘Looking on the bright side isn’t possible for some people and is even counterproductive,” she insists. ‘When you put pressure on people to cope in a way that doesn’t fit them, it not only doesn’t work, it makes them feel like a failure on top of already feeling bad.” The one-size-fits-all approach to managing emotional life is misguided, agrees Professor Julie Norem, author of The Positive Power of Negative Thinking. In her research, she has shown that the defensive pessimism that anxious people feel can be harnessed to help them get things done, which in turn makes them happier. A naturally pessimistic architect, for example, can set low expectations for an upcoming presentation and review all of the bad outcomes that she’s imagining, so that she can prepare carefully and increase her chances of success. F. By contrast, an individual who is not living according to their values, will not be happy, no matter how much they achieve. Some people, however, are not sure what their values are. In that case Harris has a great question: ‘Imagine I could wave a magic wand to ensure that you would have the approval and admiration of everyone on the planet, forever. What, in that case, would you choose to do with your life?” Once this has been answered honestly, you can start taking steps toward your ideal vision of yourself. The actual answer is unimportant, as long as you’re living consciously. The state of happiness is not really a state at all. It’s an ongoing personal experiment. Questions 14-19: Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs A-F. Which paragraph mentions the following?

Write the correct letter A-F in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once. 14. the need for individuals to understand what really matters to them 15. tension resulting from a wide variety of alternatives 16. the hope of success as a means of overcoming unhappy feelings 17. people who call themselves specialists 18. human beings’ capacity for coping with change 19. doing things which are interesting in themselves Questions 20 and 21: Choose TWO letters A-E. Write the correct letters in boxes 20 and 21 on your answer sheet Which TWO of the following people argue against aiming for constant happiness? A. Martin Seligman B. Eric Wilson C. Sonja Lyubomirsky D. Russ Harris E. Barry Schwartz Questions 22 and 23: Choose TWO letters A-E. Write the correct letters in boxes 22 end 23 on your answer sheet. Which TWO of the following beliefs are identified as mistaken in the text? A. Inherited wealth brings less happiness than earned wealth.

B. Social status affects our perception of how happy we are. C. An optimistic outlook ensures success. D. Unhappiness can and should be avoided. E. Extremes of emotion are normal in the young. Questions 24-26: Complete the sentences below. Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORDfrom the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet. 24. In order to have a complete understanding of how people’s minds work, Martin Seligman suggested that research should examine our most positive ……………………. as closely as it does our psychological problems. 25. Soon after arriving at a …………………… in their lives, people become accustomed to what they have achieved and have a sense that they are lacking something. 26. People who are ………………….. by nature are more likely to succeed if they make thorough preparation for a presentation.

READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. The Deep Sea At a time when most think of outer space as the final frontier, we must remember that a great deal of unfinished business remains here on earth. Robots crawl on the surface of Mars, and spacecraft

exit our solar system, but most of our own planet has still never been seen by human eyes. It seems ironic that we know more about impact craters on the far side of the moon than about the longest and largest mountain range on earth. It is amazing that human beings crossed a quarter of a million miles of space to visit our nearest celestial neighbor before penetrating just two miles deep into the earths own waters to explore the Midocean Ridge. And it would be hard to imagine a more significant part of our planet to investigate – a chain of volcanic mountains 42,000 miles long where most of the earth’s solid surface was born, and where vast volcanoes continue to create new submarine landscapes. The figure we so often see quoted 71% of the earth’s surface – understates the oceans’ importance. If you consider instead three-dimensional volumes, the land dwellers’ share of the planet shrinks even more toward insignificance: less than 1% of the total. Most of die oceans’ enormous volume, lies deep below the familiar surface. The upper sunlit layer, by one estimate, contains only 2 or 3% of the total space available to life. The other 97% of the earth’s biosphere lies deep beneath the water’s surface, where sunlight never penetrates. Until recently, it was impossible to study the deep ocean directly. By the sixteenth century, diving bells allowed people to stay underwater for a short time: they could swim to the hell to breathe air trapped underneath it rather than return all the way to the surface. Later, other devices, including pressurized or armored suits, heavy’ metal helmets, and compressed air supplied through hoses from die surface, allowed at least one diver to reach 500 feet or so. It was 1930 when a biologist named William Beebe and his engineering colleague Otis Barton sealed themselves into a new kind of diving craft, an invention that finally allowed humans to penetrate beyond the shallow sunlit layer of the sea and the history of deep-sea exploration began. Science then was largely incidental – something that happened along the way. In terms of technical ingenuity and human bravery, this part of die story is every’ bit as amazing as the history of early aviation. Yet many of these individuals, and the deep-diving vehicles that they built and tested, arc not well known. It was not until the 1970s that deep-diving manned submersibles were able to reach the Midocean Ridge and begin making major contributions to a wide range of scientific questions. A burst of discoveries followed in short order. Several of these profoundly changed whole fields of science, and their implications are still not fully understood. For example, biologists may now be seeing – in the strange communities of microbes and animals that live around deep volcanic vents – clues

to the origin of life on earth. No one even knew that these communities existed before explorers began diving to the bottom in submersible. Entering the deep, black abyss presents unique challenges for which humans must carefully prepare if the wish to survive. It is an unforgiving environment, both harsh and strangely beautiful, that few who have not experienced it firsthand can fully appreciate. Even the most powerful searchlights penetrate only lens of feet. Suspended particles scatter tile light and water itself is for less transparent than air; it absorbs and scatters light. The ocean also swallows other types of electromagnetic radiation, including radio signals. That is why many deep sea vehicles dangle from tethers. Inside those tethers, copper wires or fiber optic strands transmit signals that would dissipate and die if broadcast into open water. Another challenge is that the temperature near the bottom in very deep water typically hovers just four degrees above freezing, and submersibles rarely have much insulation. Since water absorbs heat more quickly than air. the cold down below seems to penetrate a diving capsule for more quickly than it would penetrate, say, a control van up above, on the deck of the mother ship. And finally, the abyss clamps down with crushing pressure on anything that enters it. ‘I his force is like air pressure on land, except that water is much heavier than air. At sea level on land, we don’t even notice 1 atmosphere of pressure, about 15 pounds per square inch, the weight of the earths blanket of














about 1,200 atmospheres. 18,000 pounds per square inch. A square-inch column of lead would crush down on your body with equal force if it were 3,600 feet tall. Fish that live in the deep don’t feel the pressure, because they are filled with water from their own environment. It has already been compressed by abyssal pressure as much as water can be (which is not much). A diving craft, however, is a hollow chamber, rudely displacing the water around it. That chamber must withstand the full brunt of deep sea pressure – thousands of pounds per square inch. If seawater with that much pressure behind it ever finds a way to break inside, it explodes through the hole with laserlike intensity. It was into such a terrifying environment that the first twentieth-century explorers ventured. Questions 27-30: Write the correct letter. A. B. C or D, in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet. 27. In the first paragraph, the writer finds it surprising that …………………….

A. we send robots to Mars rattier than to the sea bed. B. we choose to explore the least accessible side of the moon. C. people reached the moon before they explored the deepest parts of the earth’s oceans. D. spaceships are sent beyond our solar system instead of exploring it. 28. The writer argues that saying 71 % of the earth’s surface is ocean is not accurate because it …………………. A. ignores the depth of the world’s oceans. B. is based on an estimated volume. C. overlooks the significance of landscape features. D. refers to the proportion of water in which life is possible. 29. How did the diving bell help divers? A. It allowed each diver to carry a supply of air underwater. B. It enabled piped air to reach deep below the surface. C. It offered access to a reservoir of air below the surface. D. It meant that they could dive as deep as 500 feet. 30. What point does the writer make about scientific discoveries between 1930 and 1970? A. They were rarely the primary purpose of deep sea exploration. B. The people who conducted experiments were not professional scientists. C. Many people refused to believe the discoveries that were made.

D. They involved the use of technologies from other disciplines. Questions 31-36 Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 31-36 on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer NO it the statement contradicts the views of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 31 The Midocean Ridge is largely the same as when the continents emerged. 32 We can make an approximate calculation of the percentage of the ocean which sunlight penetrates. 33 Many unexpected scientific phenomena came to light when exploration of the Midocean Ridge began. 34 The number of people exploring the abyss has risen sharply in the 21st century. 35 One danger of the darkness is that deep sea vehicles become entangled in vegetation. 36 The construction of submersibles offers little protection from the cold at great depths. Questions 37-40: Complete the summary using the list of words A-I below. Deep diving craft A diving craft has to be 37 enough to cope with the enormous pressure of the abyss, which is capable of crushing almost anything. Unlike creatures that live there, which are not 38 ……………… because they contain compressed water, a submersible is filled with 39

………………….. If it has a weak spot in its construction, there will be a 40 …………………….. explosion of water into the craft. A. ocean B. air C. deep D. hollow E. sturdy F. atmosphere G. energetic H. violent I. heavy

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The table below gives information about the percentage of land covered by forest in various countries in 1990 and 2005 with estimated figures for 2015. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this topic. Write about the following topic: Some people believe that the advent of economical air travel has been very beneficial by making international travel more accessible, while others argue that it has had a very negative impact. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory) 

Good morning/afternoon. My name is__________ Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please? Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself. Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live.

Gan you tell me something about the town or city you grew up/in?

Do you still live in the same town or city?

Which tourist attractions would you recommend in the town or city you grew up in? Let's talk about your studies.

Where are you studying at the moment?

How do you hope to use your studies in the future?

What do you like most about your studies? Interview (choose 2) Now, let's talk about morning routines.

What rime do you usually get up in the mornings? Why?

What sort of things does your morning routine include?

Have you always had a similar morning routine?

Would you say you are a person who prefers mornings or nights? Why? Let's talk about reading.

What types of reading material do you prefer to read? Why?

Do you read as much now as you did when you were younger? Why Why not?

Where do you usually read? Why?

What do you like most about reading? Why? Now, Let’s talk about relaxing.

How do you nomarly relax? Why?

Have you always relax in the same way?

Do you prefer to relax by yourself or with other people? Why?

Do you think men and women relax different ways? Why? PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, I’m going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to describe an item that you bought but don’t really use. Describe something you bought-but don't really use. You should say: what it was where and when you bought it why you don't use it and say what you finally did with the item. Rounding-off questions:

Did it cost a lot of money?

Do you often buy things that aren’t useful? PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about something you bought but did not use and now I'd like to discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let's consider, first the topic of recycling.

There is a growing trend towards introducing public recycling schemes in many countries. What are the reasons for and the results of this?

Do you believe individuals or governments should be responsible for recycling? Why?

What can be done to encourage people -to recycle more? Now, let’s talk about consumerism.

Some people think that owning the latest products and goods is extremely important. What's your opinion?

Are there any disadvantages to having a wide array of choice of similar items?

Do you think people will buy more.or less in the future?

TEST 3 LISTENING SECTION 1 Questions 1-8 Complete the form below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer. DENHAM'S SHIPPING AGENCY Customer quotation form Example: Country of destination: Ireland Name: Tim 1.............................. Address to be collected from: 2........................................ University Town: Brighton Postcode: 3..........................................

Contents: books 6........................ 7........................ Total estimated value: 8.................................. Questions 9 - 10 Choose the correct letter, A, B, or C. 9 What is the minimum recommended cover by 10 the agency? A. premium B. standard C. economy 10 Where docs the customer want the goods delivered? A. port B. home C. business SECTION 2 Questions 11 - 15 Label the plan below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Questions 16 - 20 What does the tour guide tell her tour group about each of the following places on the day’s itinerary? Write the correct letter A, B, or C next to questions 16 - 20 below. NB You may choose any letter more than once. 16 The Aquarium 17 Solheim Country Gub 18 Milltown Winery 19 The Zoological Gardens 20 the Stout Brewery 20 The Stout Brewery A. They'll definitely go there

B. They might to go there it time allows C. They certainly won't go there

SECTION 3 Questions 21 - 25 Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. Gyroscopes are used in laser devices and are found in many consumer 21.............................. The purpose of the project is to design a functional, 22.................................... and beneficial consumer product. The gyroscopic exercise ball can be set in motion by movements of the 23........................ and wrist together in synch. The gyroscopic ball could help people in 24................................... who have lower-arm injuries. The product could also be aimed at 25.......................................... for whom lower-arm strength is very important. Questions 26 - 30 Complete the table below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Estimated Cost:





Numbers of Weeks



Numbers of test subjects:


Breakdown of test subjects:

5 professional athletes 29.................................. 5 30...............................

SECTION 4: Questions 31 - 35 Choose the correct letter, A, B or C. 31 Speakers have to know A. their material. B. their audience. C. their limitations. 32 Experienced speakers A. always try to wing it. B. never arrive unprepared. C. give the best presentations. 33 You should always rehearse A. with friends who can advise you.

B. with all the equipment you plan on using. C. more than once. 34 It is a good idea to A. be discreet with your audience. B. meet your fans. C. meet and welcome your audience. 35 Taking a few deep breaths before you begin A. will stop you having a panic attack. B. will guarantee that you feel more relaxed. C. will help turn your tension into enthusiasm. Questions 36 - 40 Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer. Useful Tips for a Successful Presentation 

Try to 36........................................ yourself making a speech and imagine your voice loud and confident.

Even if you make mistakes avoid making 37..................................

Pay attention to your 38........................................... - your words carry less meaning than your delivery.

People usually remember less than 39.......................................... of what they hear.

Be 40.................................. about yourself; you don’t become a perfect speaker overnight.

READING READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Nature on display in American zoos by Elizabeth Hanson The first zoo in the United States opened in Philadelphia in 1874, followed by the Cincinnati Zoo the next year. By 1940 there were zoos. In more than one hundred American cities. The Philadelphia Zoo was more thoroughly planned and better financed than most of the hundreds of zoos that would open later but in its landscape and its mission – to both educate and entertain it embodied ideas about how to build a zoo that stayed consistent for decades. Hie zoos came into existence in the late nineteenth century during the transition of the United States from a rural and agricultural nation to an industrial one. The population more than doubled between 1860 and 190U. As more middle class people lived in cities, they began seeking new relationships with the natural world as a place for recreation, selfimprovement, and Spiritual renewal. Cities established systems of public parks, and nature tourism – already popular – became even more fashionable with the establishment of national parks. Nature was thought to be good for people of all ages and classes. Nature study was incorporated into school curricula, and natural history collecting became an increasingly popular pastime. At the same time, the fields of study which were previously thought of as’ natural history’ grew into separate areas such as taxonomy, experimental embryology and genetics, each with its own experts and structures. As laboratory research gained prestige in the zoology departments of American universities, the gap between professional and amateur scientific activities widened. Previously, natural history had been open to amateurs and was easily popularized, but research required access to microscopes and other equipment in laboratories, as well as advanced education.

The new zoos set themselves apart from traveling animal shows by stating their mission as education and the advancement of science, In addition to recreation. Zoos presented zoology for the non-specialist, at a time when the intellectual distance between amateur naturalists and laboratory oriented zoologists was increasing. They attracted wide audiences and quickly became a feature of every growing and forward thinking city. They were emblems of civic pride on a level of importance with art museums, natural history museums and botanical gardens. Most American zoos were founded and operated as part of the public parks administration. They were dependent on municipal funds, and they charged no admission fee. They tended to assemble as many different mammal and bird species as possible, along with a few reptiles, exhibiting one or two specimens of each, and they competed with each other to become the first to display a rarity, like a rhinoceros. In the constant effort to attract the public to make return visits, certain types of display came in and out of fashion; for example, dozens of zoos built special Islands for their large populations of monkeys. In the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration funded millions of dollars of construction at dozens of zoos, for the most part, the collections of animals were organized by species in a combination of enclosures according to a fairly loose classification scheme. Although many histories of individual zoos describe the 1940s through the 1960s as a period of stagnation, and in some cases there was neglect, new zoos continued to be set up all over the country. In the 1940s and 1950s, the first zoos designed specifically for children were built, some with the appeal of farm animals. An increasing number of zoos tried new ways of organizing their displays. In addition to the traditional approach of exhibiting like kinds together, zoo planners had a new approach of putting animals in groups according to their continent of origin and designing exhibits showing animals of particular habitats, for example, polar, desert, or forest. During the 1960s, a few zoos arranged some displays according to animal behavior; the Bronx Zoo. for instance, opened its World of Darkness exhibit of nocturnal animals. Paradoxically, at the same time as zoo displays began incorporating ideas about the ecological relationships between animals, big cats and primates continued to be displayed in bathroom like cages lined with tiles. By the 1970s, a new wave of reform was stirring. Popular movements for environmentalism and animal welfare called attention to endangered species and to zoos that did not provide adequate

care for their animals. More projects were undertaken by research scientists and zoos began hiring full-time vets as they stepped up captive breeding programs. Many zoos that had been supported entirely by municipal budgets began recruiting private financial support and charging admission fees. In the prosperous 1980s and 1990s, zoos built realistic ‘landscape immersion’ exhibits, many of them around the theme of the tropical rainforest and. increasingly, conservation moved to the forefront of zoo agendas. Although zoos were popular and proliferating institutions in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century, historians have paid little attention to them. Perhaps zoos have been ignored because they were, and remain still, multi-purpose institutions, and as such they fall between the categories of analysis that historians often use. In addition, their stated goals of recreation, education, the advancement of science, and protection of endangered species have often conflicted. Zoos occupy a difficult middle ground between science and showmanship, high culture and low, remote forests and the cement cityscape, and wild animals and urban people. Questions 1-7: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts the information


if there is no information on this

1. The concepts on which the Philadelphia zoo was based soon became unfashionable. 2. The opening of zoos coincided with a trend for people to live in urban areas. 3. During the period when many zoos were opened, the study of natural history became more popular in universities than other scientific subjects. 4. Cities recognized that the new zoos were as significant an amenity as museums.

5. Between 1940 and 1960 some older zoos had to move to new sites in order to expand. 6. In the 1970s new ways of funding zoos were developed. 7. There has been serious disagreement amongst historians about the role of the first zoos. Questions 8-13: Complete the notes below. Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet. • Up to 1940

More mammals and birds exhibited than 8 ………………….. 9 ………………………were very popular animals in many zoos

at one time. • 1940s and 1950s

Zoos started exhibiting animals according to their 10

…………………………. and where they came from. • 1960s

Some zoos categorized animals by 11 ……………………….

• 1970s

12 ………………………. were employed following protests

about animal care. • 1980s onwards

The importance of 13 ……………………… became greater.

READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Can we prevent the poles from melting?

A growing number of scientists are looking to increasingly ambitious technological fixes to halt the tide of global warming” Mark Rowe reports. A. Such is our dependence on fossil fuels, and such is the volume of carbon dioxide we have already released into the atmosphere, that most climate scientists agree that significant global warming is now inevitable – the best we can hope to do is keep it at a reasonable level, and even that is going to be an uphill task. At present, the only serious option on the table for doing this is cutting back on our carbon emissions, but while a few countries are making major strides in this regard, the majority are having great difficulty even stemming the rate of increase, let alone reversing it. Consequently, an increasing number of scientists are beginning to explore the alternatives. They oil fall under the banner of geoengineering – generally defined as the intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment. B. Geoengineering has been shown to work, at least on a small, localized scale, for decades. May Day parades in Moscow have taken place under clear blue skies, aircraft having deposited dry ice, silver iodide and cement powder to disperse clouds. Many of the schemes now suggested look to do the opposite, and reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the planet. One scheme focuses on achieving a general cooling of the Earth and involves the concept of releasing aerosol sprays into the stratosphere above the Arctic to create clouds of sulphur dioxide, which would, in turn, lead to a global dimming. The idea is modelled on historical volcanic explosions, such as that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991, which led to a short term cooling of global temperatures by 0.5“C. The aerosols could be delivered by artillery, highflying aircraft or balloons. C. Instead of concentrating on global cooling, other schemes look specifically at reversing the melting at the poles. One idea is to bolster an ice cap by spraying it with water. Using pumps to carry water from below the sea ice, the spray would come out as snow or ice particles, producing thicker sea ice with a higher albedo (the ratio of sunlight reflected from a surface) to reflect summer radiation. Scientists have also scrutinized whether it is possible to block ice fjords in Greenland with cables which have been reinforced, preventing icebergs from moving into the sea. Veli Albert Kallio, a Finnish scientist, says that such an idea is impractical, because the force of the ice would ultimately snap the cables and rapidly release a large quantity of frozen ice into the sea. However, Kallio believes that the sort of cables used in suspension bridges could potentially be used to divert,

rather than halt, the southward movement of ice from Spitsbergen. ‘It would stop the ice moving south, and local currents would see them float northwards,’ he says. D. A number of geoengineering ideas are currently being examined in the Russian Arctic. These include planting millions of birch trees: the thinking, according to Kallio, is that their white bark would increase the amount of reflected sunlight. The loss of their leaves in winter would also enable the snow to reflect radiation. In contrast, the native evergreen pines tend to shade the snow and absorb radiation. Using ice-breaking vessels to deliberately break up and scatter coastal sea ice in both Arctic and Antarctic waters in their respective autumns, and diverting Russian rivers to increase cold-water (low to ice-forming areas, could also be used to slow down warming, Kallio says. ‘You would need the wind to blow the right way, but in the right conditions, by letting ice float free and head north, you would enhance ice growth.’ E. But will such ideas ever be implemented? The major counterarguments to geoengineering schemes are, first, that they are a ‘cop-out’ that allow us to continue living the way we do, rather than reducing carbon emissions; and, second, even if they do work, would the side- effects outweigh the advantages? Then there’s the daunting prospect of upkeep and repair of any scheme as well as the consequences of a technical failure. ’I think all of us agree that if we were to ond geoengineering on o given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly, and probably within 10 to 20 years,’ says Dr Phil Rasch, chief scientist for climate change at the US-based Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. ‘That’s certainly something to worry about. I would consider geoengineering as a strategy to employ only while we manage the conversion to a non-fossil- fuel economy.’ ‘The risk with geoengineering projects is that you con “overshoot”,’ says Dr Dan Lunt, from the University of Bristol. ‘You may bring global temperatures back to pre-industrial levels, but the risk is that the poles will still be warmer than they should be and the tropics will be cooler than before industrialization.’ F. The main reason why geoengineering is countenanced by the mainstream scientific community is that most researchers hove little faith in the ability of politicians to agree – and then bring in – the necessary carbon cuts. Even leading conservation organisations believe the subject is worth exploring. As Dr Mortin Sommerkorn, a climate change advisor says. ‘But human-induced climate change has brought humanity to a position where it is important not to exclude thinking thoroughly

about this topic and its possibilities despite the potential drawbacks. If, over the coming years, the science tells us about an ever-increased climate sensitivity of the planet – and this isn’t unrealistic – then v/e may be best served by not having to start our thinking from scratch.’ Questions 14-18: Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A-F in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once. 14. the existence of geoengineering projects distracting from the real task of changing the way we live 15. circumstances in which geoengineering has demonstrated success 16. maintenance problems associated with geoengineering projects 17. support for geoengineering being due to a lack of confidence in governments 18. more success in fighting climate change in some parts of the world than others Questions 19-23: Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS thfrom the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet.

Geoengineering projects A range of geoengineering ideas has been put forward, which aim either to prevent the melting of the ice caps or to stop the general rise in global temperatures. One scheme to discourage the melting of ice and snow involves introducing 19 to the Arctic because of their colour. The build-up of ice could be encouraged by dispersing ice along the coasts using special ships and changing the direction of some 20 …………………………. but this scheme is dependent on certain weather conditions. Another way of increasing the amount of ice involves using 21

…………………………… to bring water to the surface. A scheme to stop ice moving would use 22 ………………………. but this method is more likely to be successful in preventing the ice from travelling in one direction rather than stopping it altogether. A suggestion for cooling global temperatures is based on what has happened in the past after 23 ……………………….. and it involves creating clouds of gas. Questions 24-26: Look at the following people and the list of opinions below. Match each person with the correct opinion A-E. Write the correct letter, A-E in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet. 24. Phil Rasch 25. Dan Lunt 26. Martin Sommerkorn List of opinions A. The problems of geoengineering shouldn’t mean that ideas are not seriously considered. B. Some geoengineering projects are more likely to succeed than others. C. Geoengineering only offers a short-term solution. D. A positive outcome of geoengineering may have a negative consequence elsewhere. E. Most geoengineering projects aren’t clear in what they are aiming at.

READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

America’s oldest art? Set within treacherously steep cliffs, and hidden away valleys of northeast Brazil, is some of Southeast America’s most significant and spectacular rock-art. Most of the art so far discovered from the ongoing excavations comes from the archaeologically – important National Park o’ the Serra da Capivara in the state of Piaui, and it is causing quite a controversy. The reason for the uproar? The art is being dated to around 25.CC0 or perhaps. According to some archaeologists, even 36,000 years ago. If correct, this is set to challenge die widely field view that the America were first colonized from the north, via the Bering Straits from eastern Siberia at around 10.000 BC, only moving down into Central and South America in the millennia thereafter. Prior to the designation of 130,000 hectares as a National Park, the rock-art sites were difficult to get to, and often dangerous to enter. In ancient times, this inaccessibility must have heightened the importance of the sites, and indeed of the people who painted on the rocks. Wild animals and human figures dominate the an. and are incorporated into often-complex scenes involving hunting, supernatural beings, fighting and dancing. The artists depicted the animals that roamed the local ancient brushwood forest. The largo mamma s are usually panted in groups and tend to he shown a running stance, as though trying to escape from hunting parties. Processions – lines of human and animal figures – also appear of great impotence to these ancient artists. Might such lines represent family units or groups of warriors? On a number of panels, rows of stylized figures, some numbering up to 30 individual figures, were painted using the natural undulating contours of the rock surface, so evoking the contours of the seconding landscape Other interesting, but very rare, occurrences are scenes that show small human figures holding on to and dancing around a tree, possibly involved in some tom of a ritual dance. Due to the favorable climatic conditions, the imagery on many panels is in a remarkable state of preservation. Despite this, however, there are serious conservation issues that affect their long term survival. The chemical and mineral quantities of the rock on which the imagery is panted is fragile and on several panels it is unstable. As well as the secretion of sodium carbonate on the rock surface, complete panel sections have, over the ancient and recent past, broken away from the main rock surface. These have then become buried and sealed into sometimes-ancient floor deposits. Perversely, this form of natural erosion and subsequent deposition has assisted archaeologists in

dating several major rock-art sites. Of course, dating the art is extremely difficult oven the nonexistence of plant and animal remains that might be scientifically dated. However, there am a small number of sites in the Serra da Capivara that are giving up their secrets through good systematic excavation. Thus, at Toca do Roqi.omo da Pedra Furada, rock-art researcher Ni6de Guidon managed to obtain a number of dates. At different levels of excavation, she located fallen painted rock fragments, which she was able to dale to at least 36.C03 years ago. Along with toe painted fragments, crude stone tools were found. Also discovered wore a series of scientifically datable sites of fireplaces, or hearths, the earliest dated to 46,000 BC, arguably the oldest dates for human habitation in the America. However, these conclusions are net without controversy. Critics, mainly from North America, have suggested that the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon, the result of seasonal brushwood fires. Several North American researchers have gone further and suggested that the rock art from this site dates from no earlier than about 3,730 years age, based on the results of limited radiocarbon dating. Adding further fool to the general debate is the fact that the artists in the area of the National Hark tended not to draw over old motifs (as often occurs with rock-art), which makes it hard to work out the relative chronology of the images or styles. However, the diversity of imagery and the narrative the paintings create from each of the many sites within the National Park suggests different artists were probably making their art at efferent times, and potentially using each site over many thousands of years. With fierce debates thus raging over the dating, where these artists originate from is also still very much open to speculation. The traditional view ignores the early dating evidence from the South American rock-art sites. In a revised scenario, some palaeo – anthropologists are now suggesting that modern humans may’ have migrated from Africa using the strong currents of the Atlantic Ocean some 63.000 years or more ago, while others suggest a more improbable colonization coming from the Pacific Ocean. Yet, while ether hypothesis is plausible, there is still no supporting archaeological evidence between the South American coastline and the interior. Rather, it seems possible that there were a number of waves of human colonization of the Americas occurring possibly over a 60,000-100,000 year period, probably using the Bering Straits as a land bridge to cross into the Americas.

Despite the compelling evidence from South America, it stands alone: the earliest secure human evidence yet found in die state of Oregon in North America only dates to 12,300 years BC. So this is a fierce debate that is likely to go on for many more years. However, the splendid rock art and its allied anthropology of northeast of Brazil, described here, is playing a huge and significant role in the discussion. Questions 27-29: Choose the correct fetter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 27-29 on your answer sheet. 27. According to the first paragraph, the rock-art in Serra da Capivara may revolutionize accepted ideas about ……………………. A. the way primitive people lived in North America. B. the date when the earliest people arrived in South America. C. the origin of the people who crossed the Bering Straits. D. the variety of cultures which developed in South America. 28. How did the ancient artists use the form of the rock where they painted? A. to mimic the shape of the countryside nearby B. to emphasize the shape of different animals C. to give added light and shade to their paintings D. to give the impression of distance in complex works 29. In the fourth paragraph, what does the winter say is unusual about the rock-artists of Serra da Capivara? A. They had a very wide range of subject-matter.

B. Their work often appears to be illustrating a story. C. They tended to use a variety of styles in one painting, D. They rarely made new paintings on top of old ones. Questions 30-36: In boxes 30-36 on your answer sheet, write YES

if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer


if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer


if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

30. Archaeologists have completed their survey of the rock-art in Piaui. 31. The location of the rock-art suggests that the artists had a significant role in their society. 32. The paintings of animals show they were regarded as sacred by the ancient humans. 33. Some damage to paintings is most likely due to changes in the weather of the region. 34.. The fact that some paintings wore buried is useful to archaeologists. 35. The tools found near some paintings were probably used for hunting animals. 36. The North American researchers have confirmed Niede Guidons dating of the paintings. Questions 37-40: Complete each sentence with the correct ending. A-F below. Write the correct letter A-F on your answer sheet. 37. Materials derived from plants or animals ………………… 38. The discussions about the ancient hearths ………………. 39. Theories about where the first South Americans originated from ………………..

40. The finds of archaeologists in Oregon ……………………. A. are giving rise to a great deal of debate among palaeo-anthropologists. B. do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America. C. are absent from rock-art sites In the Serra da Capivara. D. have not been accepted by academics outside America. E. centre on whether or not they are actually man-made. F. reflect the advances in scientific dating methods.

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The bar chart gives information about the number of library books borrowed from Lammertown Public Library in 1991 and 2001, and the pie chart gives information about the library’s membership in 2010. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this topic. Write about the following topic: With the increasing use and development of new technology, many machines are now able to do the work which people used to perform. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this trend? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory) 

Good morning/afternoon. My name is………. Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please? Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself.

Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live. •

Do you live in a house or an apartment?

How many other people do you live with?

Do you enjoy living in this type of accommodation? Why? Why not?

What type of accommodation is common in your town? Why?

Let’s talk about what you do. •

What are you studying currently?

Are there any subjects which you do not enjoy as much as others? Why?

Do you have to complete a lot of homework?

What do you plan to do after you finish your studies?

Interview (choose 2) Now let's talk about keeping in touch with friends. •

How do you normally keep in contact with friends? Why?

What do you enjoy about the way of keeping in touch?

Is there anything you don't like about this method of keeping in touch? Why?

Do you ever find it difficult to keep in touch with friends using this method? Why, Why

not? Let's talk about art. •

Do you enjoy looking at art? Why? Why not?

What type of art do you like best? Why?

Have you ever been taught to do any type of art?

Do you know any artists?

Now, let's talk about colours. •

Which colours do you like the most? Why?

Have you always liked these colours? Why?

Do most of your friends like similar colours?

Do certain colours have any spccial significance in your culture? Why?

PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, I’m going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to describe an important decision you have made. Describe an important decision you have made You should say: what the decision was and why it was important how you made your decision how u had an effect on your life and say whether or not you think you made the right decision. Rounding-off questions: • Do you often make decisions in this way? • Do you find it difficult to make big decisions? PART 3

Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about an important decision you made and now I'd like ro discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let's consider first the topic of important personal decisions. •

Describe some of the important life decisions people need to make at various points in their

lives. •

Some people think that an important decision should be made quickly and based on

intuition, while others believe an informed choice is better. What's your view? •

Do you think that individuals nowadays have more or fewer important choices to make

than those in the past? Why? Now, let's talk about decision-making in general. •

What kinds of decisions are more difficult: those which solely affect you or those which

also have an impact on other people? •

In your opinion, is there such a thing as too much choice?

How effective do you believe it is to make decisions based on discussions with other


TEST 4 LISTENING SECTION 1 Questions 1 - 5 Complete the form below. Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Oakham Surgery New Patient Form Example NEW PATIENT'S ROAD

Answer Dawson Road


Mike (1)...................................




1st (2)...................................

2nd 3rd 4th ADDRESS

52 Dawson Road

(3)....................................... Melbourne HEALTH CARD NUMBER



will give later



Questions 6 - 10 Circle the correct letters A - C. 6 When is Mike’s wife's first appointment? A. Friday 21st at 2.00pm. B. Friday 21st at 2.30pm. C. Friday 21st at 3.30pm. 7 What is the surgery's phone number? A. 7253 9819 B. 7253 9829 C. 7523 9829 8 What is the name of the girl with whom Mike is speaking at the surgery? A. Rachel B. Elizabeth C. Angela 9 What’s the night doctor’s mobile number? A. 0506 759 3856 B. 0506 759 3857 C. 0506 758 3856

10 Which of the following does the surgery NOT make a charge for? A. Travel vaccinations B. Consultations C.



SECTION 2 Questions 11-16 Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer. Notes on Library Joining Library

You will need: A completed application form.

(11) (12) Two passport photos. Opening Hours

Library Reception

8am - 10om

(13).................................... 9am - 5pm (- 6.30 on (14)............................................ ) (Mon-Sat: closed on Sundays) Borrowing Postgraduates


4 books

(15) ...........................................

Borrowing for 2 weeks + (16)......................................... books renewals (in person) No renewals over phone Late return penalty: £2 per week

Questions 17 - 20 Label the library layout below. Ground Floor

reception; (17)..............................................

bathrooms; (18)........................................... First Floor

(19).......................................... section

Second Floor

Science Section


Stack System

SECTION 3 Questions 21 - 24 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer. 21 When will Simon begin writing his essay? _______________________________ 22 According to Simon, what kind of problems did Jaguar have in the 1970s and 80s? _______________________________ 23 What is the word limit for the essay? _______________________________ 24 What is the preferable method for handing in the essay? _______________________________

Questions 25 - 27 Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN 3 WORDS for each answer. 25 Jennifer wants to write about how......................................are used by supermarkets. 26 Jennifer found some publications in the library .................................... to help her analysis. 27 The TUTOR: warned Jennifer about ............................................. in her work. Questions 28 - 30 Complete the TUTOR:’s summary notes on Melanie below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Notes on Student Essays Student Melanie needs an (28)........................................ as she has been unwell with the flu. She will get a (29)................................. from the doctor. She’s going to write about (30).................................. in the UK and their effect on housing trends. She should be on track with the essay by the end of the weekend.

SECTION 4 Questions 31 - 33 Choose the correct letters A - C. 31 The Pacific is more prone to tsunami because... A. it has many faults.

B. its faults undergo subduction. C. its tectonic plates are bigger than elsewhere. 32 The biggest tsunami are usually created by... A. undersea volcanic eruptions. B. undersea earthquakes. C. undersea landslides. 33 Tsunami are difficult to detect in deep water because of... A. their wavelength. B. their high speed. C. their wave rate. Questions 34 and 35 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. List the two ways which the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has set up to detect tsunami. 34 _____________________________ 35 _____________________________ Questions 36 - 40 When Happened


Deaths Caused

Wave Height




3 feet

1992 1998 1998


8000 years ago

Underwater earthquake (38)............................ Underwater volcanic eruption Underwater earthquake Underwater landslide




23 feet


40 feet


35 feet


30 feet

READING You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1 -13. which are based on Reading Passage I below. Questions 1-5 Reading Passage 1 has five sections, A-E. Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet. 1. Section A 2. Section B 3. Section C 4. Section D 5. Section E

i. Financial costs ii. Decline and disuse iii. Birth and development iv. Political uses of Nushu v. The social role of Nushu vi. Last of the Nushu speakers vii. Characteristics of written Nushu viii. Revival and contemporary interest

Nushu — A Secret Language — A. It is sometimes said that men and women communicate in different languages. For hundreds of years in the Jiangyong County of Hunan Province, China, this was quite literally the case. Sometime between 400 and 1,000 years ago, women defied the patriarchal norms of the time that forbade them to read or write and conceived of Nushu — literally, ‘ women’s language ’ — a secretive script and language of their own. Through building informal networks of ‘sworn sisters’ who committed themselves to teaching the language only to other women, and by using it artistically in ways that could be passed off as artwork (such as writing characters on a decorative fan), Nushu was able to grow and spread without attracting too much suspicion. B. Nushu has many orthographical distinctions from the standard Chinese script. Whereas standard Chinese has large, bold strokes that look as if they might have been shaped with a thick permanent marker pen, Nushu characters are thin, slanted and have a slightly ‘scratchy’ appearance that bears more similarity to calligraphy. Whereas standard Chinese is logographic, with characters that represent words and meanings, Nushu is completely phonetic — each character represents a sound;

the meaning must be acquired from the context of what is being said. Users of Nushu developed coded meanings for various words and phrases, but it is likely that only a tiny fraction of these will ever be known. Many secrets of Nushu have gone to the grave. C. Nushu was developed as a way to allow women to communicate with one another in confidence. To some extent, this demand came from a desire for privacy, and Nushu allowed women a forum for personal written communication in a society that was dominated by a male-orientated social culture. There was also a practical element to the rise of Nushu, however: until the mid 20th century, women were rarely encouraged to become literate in the standard Chinese script. Nushu provided a practical and easy-to-learn alternative. Women who were separated from their families and friends by marriage could, therefore, send ‘letters’ to each other. Unlike traditional correspondence, however, Nushu characters were painted or embroidered onto everyday items like fans, pillowcases, and handkerchiefs and embodied in ‘artwork’ in order to avoid making men suspicious. D. After the Chinese Revolution, more women were encouraged to become literate in the standard Chinese script, and much of the need for a special form of women’s communication was dampened. When the Red Guard discovered the script in the 1960s, they thought it to be a code used for espionage. Upon learning that it was a secret women’s language, they were suspicious and fearful. Numerous letters, weavings, embroideries, and other artefacts were destroyed, and women were forbidden to practise Nushu customs. As a consequence, the generational chains of linguistic transmission were broken up, and the language ceased being passed down through sworn sisters. There is no longer anyone alive who has learnt Nushu in this traditional manner; Yang Huanyi, the last proficient user of the language, died on September 20, 2004, in her late 90s. E. In recent years, however, popular and scholarly interest in Nushu has blossomed. The Ford Foundation granted US$209,000 to build a Nushu Museum that houses artefacts such as audio recordings, manuscripts, and articles, some of which date back over 100 years. The investment from Hong Kong SAR is also being used to build infrastructure at potential tourist sites in Hunan, and some schools in the area have begun instruction in the language. Incidentally, the use of Nushu is also a theme in Lisa See’s historical novel. Snow Flower and the Secret Fan,which has since been adapted for film.

Questions 6 and 7: Choose TWO letters, A-E. Write your answers in boxes 6 and 7 on your answer sheet. Why was there a need for Nushu? Which TWO reasons are given in the text? A. It provided new artistic opportunities for female artisans. B. It was a way for uneducated women to read and write. C. Not enough women were taking an interest in literature. D. It was a way for women to correspond without men knowing. E. It helped women believe in themselves and their abilities. Questions 8-13: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts with the information


if there is no information on this

8. The post-Revolution government did not want women to read or write in any language. 9. At first, the Red Guard thought Nushu might be a tool for spies. 10. Women could be punished with the death penalty for using Nushu. 11. The customary way of learning Nu shu has died out 12. There is a lot of money to be made out of public interest in Nushu. 13. Nushu is now being openly taught

READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. A. Prom indigenous myths to John Wyndham’s Day of the Triffids and the off-Broadway musical Little Shop of Horrors, the idea of cerebral, carnivorous flora has spooked audiences and readers for centuries. While shrubs and shoots have yet to uproot themselves or show any interest in human beings, however, for some of earth’s smaller inhabitants – arachnids and insects – the risk of being trapped and ingested by a plant can be a threat to their daily existence. Easily, the most famous of these predators is the Venus Flytrap, one of only two types of ‘snap traps’ in die world. Though rarely found growing wild, die Flytrap has captured popular imagination and can be purchased in florists and plant retailers around the world. B. Fart of the Venus Flytrap’s mysterious aura begins with the tide itself. While it is fairly clear that the second half of the epithet has been given for its insect-trapping ability, the origin of ‘Venus’ is somewhat more ambiguous. According to the International Carnivorous Plant Society, the plant was first studied in the 17th and 18th centuries, when puritanical mores ruled Western societies and obsession was rife with forbidden human impulses and urges. Women were often portrayed in these times as seductresses and temptresses, and botanists are believed to have seen a parallel between the behaviour of the plant in luring and devouring insects and the imagined behaviour of women in luring and ‘trapping’ witless men. The plant was thus named after die pagan goddess of love and money – Venus. C. The Venus Flytrap is a small plant with six to seven leaves growing out of a bulb-like stem. At the end of each leaf is a trap, which is an opened pod with cilia around the edges like stiff eyelashes. The pod is lined with anthocyanin pigments and sweet-smelling sap to attract flies and other insects. When they fly in, trigger hairs inside the pod sense the intruder’s movement, and the pod snaps shut. The trigger mechanism is so sophisticated that the plant can differentiate between living creatures and non-edible debris by requiring two trigger hairs to be touched within twenty seconds of each other, or one hair to be touched in quick succession. The plant has no nervous system, and

researchers can only hypothesise as to how the rapid shutting movement works. This uncertainty adds to the Venus Flytrap’s allure. D. The pod shuts quickly but does not seal entirely at first; scientists have found that tins mechanism allows miniscule insects to escape, as they will not be a source of useful nourishment for the plant. If the creature is large enough, however, the plant’s flaps will eventually meet to form an airtight compress, and at this point, the digestive process begins. A Venus Flytrap’s digestive system is remarkably similar to how a human stomach works. For somewhere between five and twelve days, the trap secretes acidic digestive juices that dissolve the soft tissue and cell membranes of the insect. These juices also kill any bacteria that have entered with the food, ensuring the plant maintains its hygiene so dial it does not begin to rot. Enzymes in the acid help with the digestion of DNA, amino acids, and cell molecules so that every fleshy part of the animal can be consumed. Once die plant has reabsorbed the digestive fluid – this time with the added nourishment, the trap reopens and the exoskeleton blows away in the wind. E. Although transplanted to other locations around the world, the Venus Flytrap is only found natively in an area around Wilmington, North Carolina in the United States. It thrives in bogs, marshes, and wetlands and grows in wet sand and peaty soils. Because these environments are so depleted in nitrogen, they asphyxiate other flora, but the Flytrap overcomes this nutritional poverty by sourcing protein from its insect prey. One of the plant’s curious features is resilience to flame. It is speculated that the Flytrap evolved this to endure through periodic blazes and to act as a means of survival that its competition lacks. F. While the Venus Flytrap will not become extinct any time soon (an estimated 3-6 million plants are presently in cultivation), its natural existence is uncertain. In the last survey, only 35,800 Flytraps were found remaining in the wild, and some prominent conservationists have suggested the plant be given the status of ‘vulnerable’. Since this research is considerably dated, having taken place in 1992, the present number is considerably lower. The draining and destruction of natural wetlands where the Flytrap lives is considered to be die biggest threat to its existence, as well as people removing the plants from their natural habitat Punitive measures have been introduced to prevent people from doing this. Ironically, while cultural depictions of perennial killers may persist the bigger threat is not what meat-eating plants might do to us. but what we may do to them.

Questions 14-19: Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet. 14. An overview of how the Flytrap eats its prey 15. A comparison between human and plant behaviour 16. A measure designed to preserve Flytraps in their native environment 17. An example of a cultural and artistic portrayal of meat-eating plants 18. A characteristic of the Venus Flytrap that is exceptional in the botanical world 19. A reference to an aspect of the Venus Flytrap’s biology that is not fully understood Questions 20-22: Complete the sentences below with words taken from Reading Passage 2. Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 20-22 on your answer sheet 20. If they are too small to provide …………………. , the closing pod allows insects to get out. 21. Only the …………………. is left after the Flytrap has finished digesting an insect. 22. Many plants cannot survive in bogs and wetlands owing to the lack of …………………… Questions 23-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 23—26 on your answer sheet write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts with the information


if there is no information on this

23. The Venus Flytrap can withstand some exposure to fire. 24. Many botanists would like the Venus Flytrap to be officially recognised as an endangered plant species. 25. Only 35,800 Venus Flytraps now survive in their natural habitats. 26. Human interference is a major factor in the decline of wild Venus Flytraps.

READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. Shortly after World War II, ‘development’ as we now understand it was set in motion. Western governments and donors poured money into new agencies that set about trying to stimulate the economies of underdeveloped countries. Because of this emphasis, it is now widely regarded as the Growth Model. Although we might expect poverty reduction to be the central objective, planners at this stage were primarily concerned with industrial development. It was hoped that the benefits of this would trickle down to poor people through raising incomes and providing employment opportunities, thereby indirectly lifting them above the ascribed poverty threshold of a dollar a day. The weaknesses of these assumptions were revealed, however, when poverty rates and economic growth were found to rise simultaneously in many countries. During the 1970s, a new trend took over – trickle-up development. Instead of focusing on macroeconomic policy and large-scale industrial projects, planners shifted attention to the core living requirements of individuals and communities. This became known as the Basic Needs Approach to development. It was hoped that through the provision of services such as community sanitation and literacy programmes, poverty could be eliminated from below. Economic growth was desirable but superfluous – Basic Needs redefined poverty from involving a lack of money to

lacking the capability to attain full human potential. The trouble with Basic Needs programmes, however; was their expensive, resource-intensive nature that entailed continuous management and funding Since the 1980s, development planners have moved towards the Sustainable livelihoods Approach, which emphasises good livelihoods (materially and socially) that, most importantly, are independent and sustainable. ‘Sustainable’ in this sense means that people are able to recover from the shocks and stresses of daily life, absolving agencies of the need to persistently monitor their lives. This approach emphasises a view of poverty that comes not from the rich but from the impoverished themselves, who are considered to be most suitably positioned to determine the poverty indicators that contribute to the multiple facets of their own deprivation. Although the Sustainable livelihoods Approach has been criticised for lacking an environmental platform strong enough to respond to climate change, and for disassociating aspects of power and societal status from being a contestable part of development, it is currently the preferred model for development projects. Though there is some linearity to die trajectory of development practice, with paradigms shifting in and out of fashion, vigorous scholarly debate persists around all approaches. The Growdi Model, for example, is still defended by many theorists, particularly economists. Those who believe in the Growth Model insist that nothing trumps economic development as a tool for poverty alleviation for the developing countries (although there is often less enthusiasm for its applicability to the postindustrial West). Many countries that have focused explicitly on growth have managed to make considerable inroads into reducing poverty, even in die absence of a development programme; Japan and Germany followed this route after World War II, as has China from the 1970s. On the other hand, some countries with massive inflows of funding for aid-based ‘development projects’ – particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa – have struggled to progress with meeting poverty reduction targets. There is a good reason to be sceptical about the Growth Model, however, as is evidenced by the numerous societies that have partly imploded as a consequence of prioritising economic growth above the work of human development. The experiences of many eastern European countries with health and employment crises in the early 1990s arc particularly traumatic examples of this. ‘The

Growth Model also suffers from an undemocratic, and ‘technocratic’, if not autocratic, method underdeveloped countries frequently make policy decisions based on consultation with Western economists and institutions on how to generate growth. This dissolves the autonomy of communities to make their own decisions about what matters to them, and what kind of society they would like to build. The move to the Sustainable livelihoods Approach is a positive move in tills regard, because by operating on a principle that decisions should be made by those who are affected by them, it introduces a role for localised decision-making. It will be difficult, if not impossible, for any country in the near future to ignore economic growth as a development indicator while continuing to meet development targets. It is important, however, that we move away from seeing this type of growth as the prime objective for development. Development is ultimately about people, and human development must be placed at the forefront; economic growth is simply one tool out of many that can help us along the way. We also need to recognise that foreign advisers, whatever qualifications and knowledge they may possess, can sometimes be a hindrance; local autonomy must be respected for real development to occur. The Growth Model may have failed, but this does not render economic growth irrelevant. The Sustainable livelihoods Approach offers helpful and realistic alternatives. But it is folly to commit ourselves to a strictly defined, systematic programme – less constrictive mindsets will help us break the development fashion cycle. Questions 27-33: Complete the table below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet. Growth Model

Basic Needs Approach

Sustainable Livelihoods Approach

27………..was the

Typified by small-scale aid

Tries to encourage ways of living that

main goal




29……………. Projects

and are more self-sufficient

Poverty described as

Poverty seen as an inability to Poor

living on less than a

reach 30……………






dollar a day Projects


and The problem of 33……………. Not

It was discovered that


adequately addressed; ignores issues of

poverty could increase

ongoing involvement

social dominance and authority

in step with 28……… . Questions 34-38: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 34-38 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts with the information


if there is no information on this

34. The most favoured method of development is the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach. 35. While institutions often follow development trends, academic disputes are more timeless. 36. The Growth Model is more popular with Third World scholars than Western scholars. 37. It is not possible to reduce poverty without an explicit development policy. 38. The Growth Model takes some authority away from local forms of organisation. Questions 39 and 40: Choose TWO letters, A—E. Write your answers in boxes 39 and 40 on your answer sheet. Which TWO of the following statements form part of the author’s conclusion? A. Economic growth is the primary development goal, but there are other factors to consider.

B. It is preferable not to think about development in rigid, structured terms. C. Development projects arc likely to fail in the absence of highly educated experts. D. The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach is more effective than the Growth Model. E. Economic growth should only be considered as a means for development, not an end point.

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The diagram below shows the life cycle of the salmon. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this topic. Write about the following topic: Nowadays, celebrities increasingly have the status of role models, in particular for younger people. Do you see this as a positive or negative development? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory). •

Good morning /afternoon. My name is______. Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please?

Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself. Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live. •

Can you describe the area which you live in’?

Are there any disadvantages to living in this area?

How long have you lived in this area?

Would you recommend living in this area to others? Why Why not?

Let's talk about your studies. •

Which university or school are you studying at?

Which course are you studying? What is your major?

Why did you select this course major?

Do you have to travel far to university school each day?

Interview (choose 2) Now, Let’s talk about cooking. •

Who normally does the cooking in your household?

Do you think it's important to share the cooking duties? Why?

Do you enjoy cooking?

Do you think you will cook more often in the future? Why?

Let's talk about noises and sounds. •

What kinds of sounds or noises do you commonly hear?

Which types of sounds or noises do you enjoy most? Why?

Are there some sounds or noises which you dislike? Why?

Which noises or sounds do you recall from when you were a child?

Now Let’s talk about messages. •

How do you usually send messages to people?

Have you always used this method?

What do you like about sending messages in this way?

How much time do you spend sending messages?

PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, I’m going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to describe a newspaper or magazine which you read. Describe a newspaper or magazine which you read. You should say: which newspaper or magazine it is and what it is about how often you read it where you read it and say whether or not you enjoy reading this newspaper or magazine, and why. Rounding-off questions: •

Would you recommend this newspaper/magazine to others?

Do you have much time to read?

PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about a newspaper magazine which you read and now I’d like to discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let's consider first the topic of media. •

How have the ways people across the media changed in your country over the last decade?

I he issue of Internet-based music and video piracy has become critical. What do you think

can be done about this problem?

As electronic media becomes more and more accessible, many forms of print media are

disappearing. Do you consider tins to be a positive or negative trend? Now, let's talk about the role of the media in your country. •

What type of responsibility, if any do you believe the media has to the general public?

Some people think the media is highly influential in spreading new ideas and trends. What's

your opinion? •

How do you think the role of the media might change in the future? Why?

TEST 5 LISTENING SECTION 1 Questions 1 - 5 Complete the Travel agent’s notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer. SUN TOURS TRAVEL AGENTS Example


Number of people


Customer’s Name

Mr. George Collins

Other travellers

Mrs. Jane Collins

(+ ages of children)




7 years old

Require: 4 star quality hotel + breakfast; safe, warm, quietish, beach; pref. pool; lots of restaurants near hotel:

no (3)......................... needed

Dates of Holiday

Friday July 8th TO (4)................. Sunday

Pref. Flight Time

Less than (5)....................................

Questions 6 - 10 Complete George's notes below

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer Possible Holiday Ideas Top End Prices

Italy and France

Bottom End Prices

(6)....................................., Greece and Turkey (Turkey

+ Cyprus too far) Crete

Hotel Tropicana

1 mile safe walk on (7)...........................to beach.

Nice pool; only a few beach bars and restaurants.

Really quiet; not near other tourist destinations. Palm Hotel

2 miles from beach but has (8).....................................service.

Hotel in quite a busy tourist town: lots of bars, restaurants and discos. Rhodes

Ocean Hotel

Right on beach; less than (9)...................................from the rooms.

4 star hotel quite far from main town; eat in hotel; good meals. Hotel Spiros

(10)..................................hotel quite dose to beach (5/10 mins walk) in small village with small swimming pool.

A few restaurants in small, quiet village; not much to do. SECTION 2 Questions 11 - 15 Complete the food options information sheet below.

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Solaris Hotel and Holiday Village - Food Options Meal Times Breakfast:

6.30am and 9.30am every day (Only in Harvest restaurant;

English, American an (11)..................................breakfasts on offer Lunch

12.00 noon to 2.30pm


7.00pm to 10.30pm

Menus same for lunch + dinner: see (12)........................................ for specials Food Styles The Harvest Restaurant

Traditional English + popular UK foreign dishes (eg: curry and

spaghetti) The Dene Restaurant


The Mekong Restaurant

Far Eastern Cuisine

Payment * All restaurants free; (14)......................................needed for some specials * All soft drinks free; pay for alcoholic drinks * Pay any bill at end of meals or put on main bill - pay at end of holiday Extras 

Bar menu available in (15)................................for pub food

Fast Food available until 2.30am at take away

Questions 16 - 20 Complete the activities information sheet below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Solaris Hotel and Holiday Village - Activities Beaches Main beach Adult beach (17s or over) (16)..................................................on duty from 9.00am to 6.00pm on main beach (none on adult beach) Decked area with sun loungers in front of Harvest Restaurant with our 25 metre swimming pool Steps from pool area to beach - wash feet in foot pool to remove sand (17).............................................on beach + in pool area. Sports 8 tennis courts + 3 squash courts Fully equipped gym (No under 18s) 6 full sized snooker tables + 5 pool tables in games room adjoining the bar. (only charge for hiring any equipment) Water Sports Water skiing + jet skis available (extra charge)

Snorkeling, inflatables and pedallos (free) (details from (18)..............................................) Library & Cinemas Library contains books, magazines + newspapers. See (19)............................................for terms + conditions 2 cinemas show 3 different films each every day. Shows at 2.00pm, 5.30pm + 8.30pm (First 2 shows always have a film for kids) (20)........................................not allowed to attend 8.30 shows SECTION 3 Questions 21 - 26 Complete the three tables below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. World's Most Spoken Languages By Number of Individual Speakers Rank


No of Speakers


Mandarin Chinese

836 million



333 million



332 million




World’s Most Spoken Languages By Number of User Countries



No. of Countries













World’s Most Influential Languages - 6 weighing factors 1 Number of primary speakers 2 Number of (25)................................... 3 Number and population of countries where languages are used 4 Number of major fields using the language internationally 5 (26).......................................of countries using the language 6 Socio-literary prestige of the language Questions 27 - 30 Complete the notes below of the second half of Jamie and Rebecca’s presentation. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Jamie and Rebecca's Presentation Large countries currently shifting world economic balance of power: China Russia

India (27).................................. Reasons for shift size of the populations cheap labour prices of (28)................................ 

Big growing demand for people knowing languages of above countries + for teachers and English language training

China could be less important than possibly India or (29)....................................due to their population increase. English will probably remain important though

Number of spoken languages between approx. (30).............................. .Hardly any of these studied by non native speakers.

English taught in most countries with structured education program. This trend is getting stronger.

SECTION 4 Questions 31 - 35 Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. 31 Mad cow disease attacks the .............................. of the affected cows' brains. 32 BSE is thought to be caused by infectious forms of ....................................... known as prions. 33 Abnormal prions in BSE infected cattle are found in the small intestines, .......................... and the central nervous tissues. 34 Humans can take in the abnormal prions when they eat infected beef as the prions are resistant to the usual......................................... such as heat. 35 The one American case of CJD was a woman who caught it in.................................before going to the US.

Questions 36 - 40 Complete the summary below of the second half of the humanities lecture on BSE. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. SUMMARY CJD causes gradual loss of mental function and movement due to brain damage from abnormal prions or it can be possibly (36)................................... CJD usually affects younger people (between ages 20 to 70) usually showing symptoms In patients' (37)....................................... Symptoms include personality changes and problems with (38)................................. Once symptoms appear, the disorder progresses quickly to disability and death. The exact causes of 8SE are unknown but the first UK cases have indicated that it could come from a prion disease in (39)..................................... called scrapie that was fed to cattle. Dead cattle with scrapie were then fed to (40)....................................... making them cannibals. So, we are in turn infected by the disease that we created when we eat infected beef.

READING READING PASSAGE 1: You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Andrea Palladio: Italian Architect A new exhibition celebrates Palladio’s architecture 500 years on Vicenza is a pleasant, prosperous city in the Veneto, 60 km west of Venice. Its grand families settled and farmed the area from the 16th century. But its principal claim to fame is Andrea Palladio, who is such an influential architect that a neoclassical style is known as Palladian. The

city is a permanent exhibition of some of his finest buildings, and as he was born — in Padua, to be precise — 500 years ago, the International Centre for the Study of Palladio’s Architecture has an excellent excuse for mounting la grande mostra, the big show. The exhibition has the special advantage of being held in one of Palladio’s buildings, Palazzo Barbaran da Porto. Its bold facade is a mixture of rustication and decoration set between two rows of elegant columns. On the second floor the pediments arc alternately curved or pointed, a Palladian trademark. The harmonious proportions of the atrium at the entrance lead through to a dramatic interior of fine fireplaces and painted ceilings. Palladio's design is simple, clear and not over-crowded. The show has been organised on the same principles, according to Howard Bums, the architectural historian who co-curated it. Palladio’s father was a miller who settled in Vicenza, where the young Andrea was apprenticed to a skilled stonemason. How did a humble miller’s son become a world renowned architect? The answer in the exhibition is that, as a young man, Palladio excelled at carving decorative stonework on columns, doorways and fireplaces. He was plainly intelligent, and lucky enough to come across a rich patron, Gian Giorgio Trissino, a landowner and scholar, who organised his education, taking him to Rome in the 1540s, where he studied the masterpieces of classical Roman and Greek architecture and the work of other influential architects of the time, such as Donato Bramante and Raphael. Burns argues that social mobility was also important. Entrepreneurs, prosperous from agriculture in the Veneto, commissioned the promising local architect to design their country villas and their urban mansions. In Venice the aristocracy were anxious to co-opt talented artists, and Palladio was given the chance to design the buildings that have made him famous - the churches of San Giorgio Maggiore and the Redentore, both easy to admire because the can be seen from the city's historical centre across a stretch of water. He tried his hand at bridges — his unbuilt version of the Rialto Bridge was decorated with the large pediment and columns of a temple — and, after a fire at the Ducal Palace, he offered an alternative design which bears an uncanny resemblance to the Banqueting House in Whitehall in

London. Since it was designed by Inigo Jones, Palladio’s first foreign disciple, this is not as surprising as it sounds. Jones, who visited Italy in 1614, bought a trunk full of the master’s architectural drawings; they passed through the hands of the Dukes of Burlington and Devonshire before settling at the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1894. Many are now on display at Palazzo Barbaran. What they show is how Palladio drew on the buildings of ancient Rome as models. The major theme of both his rural and urban building was temple architecture, with a strong pointed pediment supported by columns and approached by wide steps. Palladio s work for rich landowner alienates unreconstructed critics on the Italian left but among the papers in the show are designs for cheap housing in Venice. In the wider world, Palladio's reputation has been nurtured by a text he wrote and illustrated, "Quattro Libri dell' Architettura". His influence spread to St Petersburg and to Charlottesville in Virginia, where Thomas Jefferson commissioned a Palladian villa he called Monticello. Vicenza's show contains detailed models of the major buildings and is leavened by portraits of Palladio's teachers and clients by Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto; the paintings of his Venetia buildings are all by Canaletto, no less. This is an uncompromising exhibition; many of the drawings are small and faint, and there are no sideshows for children, but the impact of harmonious lines and satisfying proportions is to impart in a viewer a feeling of benevolent calm. Palladio is history's most therapeutic architect. "Palladio, 500 Anni: La Grande Mostra" is at Palazzo Barbaran da Porto, Vicenza, until January 6th 2009. The exhibition continues at the Royal Academy of Arts, London, from January 31st to April 13th, and travels afterwards to Barcelona and Madrid. Question 1 - 7 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts the information


if there is no information on this

1. The building where the exhibition is staged has been newly renovated. 2. Palazzo Barbaran da Porto typically represents the Palladio’s design. 3. Palladio’s father worked as an architect. 4. Palladio’s family refused to pay for his architectural studies. 5. Palladio’s alternative design for the Ducal Palace in Venice was based on an English building. 6. Palladio designed for both wealthy and poor people. 7. The exhibition includes paintings of people by famous artists. Questions 8-13 Complete the sentences below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet. 8. What job was Palladio training for before he became an architect? 9. Who arranged Palladio’s architectural studies? 10. Who was the first non-Italian architect influenced by Palladio? 11. What type of Ancient Roman buildings most heavily influenced Palladio’s work? 12. What did Palladio write that strengthened his reputation? 13. In the writer’s opinion, what feeling will visitors to the exhibition experience? READING PASSAGE 2: You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Question 14 - 20 Reading passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A - G Choose the correct heading for each parahraph from the list of heading below. Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet. List of Headings i

How CSR may help one business to expand


CSR in many aspects of a company’s business


A CSR initiative without a financial gain


Lack of action by the state of social issues


Drives or pressures motivate companies to address CSR


The past illustrates business are responsible for future outcomes


Companies applying CSR should be selective


Reasons that business and society benefit each other

14. Paragraph A 15. Paragraph B 16. Paragraph C 17. Paragraph D 18. Paragraph E 19. Paragraph F 20. Paragraph G

Corporate Social Responsibility Broadly speaking, proponents of CSR have used four arguments to make their case: moral obligation, sustainability, license to operate, and reputation. The moral appeal - arguing that companies have a duty to be good citizens and to "do the right thing" - is prominent in the goal of Business for Social Responsibility, the leading nonprofit CSR business association in the United States. It asks that its members "achieve commercial success in ways that honour ethical values and respect people, communities, and the natural environment. "Sustainability emphasises environmental and community stewardship. A. An excellent definition was developed in the 1980s by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlen Brundtland and used by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development: "Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Nowadays, governments and companies need to account for the social consequences of their actions. As a result, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a priority for business leaders around the world. When a well-run business applies its vast resources and expertise to social problems that it understands and in which it has a stake, it can have a greater impact than any other organization. The notion of license to operate derives from the fact that every company needs tacit or explicit permission from governments, communities, and numerous other stakeholders to justify CSR initiatives to improve a company's image, strengthen its brand, enliven morale and even raise the value of its stock. B. To advance CSR. we must root it in a broad understanding of the interrelationship between a corporation and society. Successful corporations need a healthy society. Education, health care, and equal opportunity are essential lo a productive workforce. Safe products and working conditions not only attract customers but lower the internal costs of accidents. Efficient utilization of land, water, energy, and other natural resources makes business more productive. Good government, the rule of law, and property rights are essential for efficiency and innovation. Strong regulatory standards protect both consumers and competitive companies from exploitation. Ultimately, a healthy society creates expanding demand for business, as more human needs are met and aspirations grow. Any business that pursues its ends at the expense of the society in which it operates will find its success to be illusory and ultimately temporary. At the same time, a healthy

society needs successful companies. No social program can rival the business sector when it comes lo creating the jobs, wealth, and innovation that improve standards of living and social conditions over time. C. A company's impact on society also changes over time, as social standards evolve and science progresses. Asbestos, now understood as a serious health risk was thought to be safe in the early 1900s, given the scientific knowledge then available. Evidence of its risks gradually mounted for more than 50 years before any company was held liable for the harms it can cause. Many firms that failed to anticipated the consequences of this evolving body of research have been bankrupted by the results. No longer can companies be content to monitor only the obvious social impacts of today. Without a careful process for identifying evolving social effects of tomorrow, firms may risk their very survival. D. No business can solve all of society's problems or bear the cost of doing so. Instead, each company must select issues that intersect with its particular business. Other social agendas are best left to those companies in other industries, NGOs, or government institutions that are better positioned to address them. The essential test that should guide CSR is not whether a cause is worthy but whether it presents an opportunity to create shared value - that is, a meaningful benefit for society that is also valuable to the business. Each company can identify the particular set of societal problems that it is best equipped to help resolve and from which it can gain the greatest competitive benefit. E. The best corporate citizenship initiatives involve far more than writing a check: They specify clear, measurable goals and track results over time. A good example is General Electronics's program to adopt underperforming public high schools near several of its major U.S. facilities. The company contributes between $250,000 and $1 million over a five-year period to each school and makes in-kind donations as well. GE managers and employees take an active role by working with school administrators to assess needs and mentor or tutor students. In an independent study of Ion schools in the program between 1989 and 1999, nearly all showed significant improvement, while the graduation rate in four of the five worst performing schools doubled from an average of 30% to 60%. Effective corporate citizenship initiatives such as this one create goodwill and improve relations with local governments and other important constituencies. What's more, GE's employees

feel great pride in their participation. Their effect is inherently limited, however. No matter how beneficial (he program is, it remains incidental to the company's business, and the direct effect on GE's recruiting and retention is modest. F. Microsoft s Working Connections partnership with the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is a good example of a shared-value opportunity arising from investments in context. The shortage of information technology workers is a significant constraint on Microsoft’s growth; currently, there are more than 450,000 unfilled IT positions in the United States alone. Community colleges, with an enrollment of 11.6 million students, representing 45% of all U.S. undergraduates, could be a major solution. Microsoft recognizes, however, that community colleges face special challenges: IT curricula are not standardized, technology used in classrooms is often outdated, and there are no systematic professional development programs to keep faculty up to date. Microsoft's $50 million five-year initiative was aimed at all three problems. In addition to contributing money and products, Microsoft sent employee volunteers to colleges to assess needs, contribute to curriculum development, and create faculty development institutes. Microsoft has achieved results that have benefited many communities while having a direct-and potentially significant-impact on the company. G. At the heart of any strategy is a unique value proposition: a set of needs a company can meet for its chosen customers that others cannot. The most strategic CSR occurs when a company adds a social dimension to its value proposition, making social impact integral to the overall strategy. Consider Whole Foods Market, whose value proposition is to sell organic, natural, and healthy food products to customers who are passionate about food and the environment. The company’s sourcing emphasises purchases from local farmers through each store’s procurement process. Buyers screen out foods containing any of nearly 100 common ingredients that the company considers unhealthy or environmentally damaging. The same standards apply to products made internally. Whole Foods' commitment to natural and environmentally friendly operating practices extends well beyond sourcing. Stores are constructed using a minimum of virgin raw materials. Recently, the company purchased renewable wind energy credits equal to 100% of its electricity use in all of its stores and facilities, the only Fortune 500 company to offset its electricity consumption entirely. Spoiled produce and biodegradable waste are trucked to regional centers for composting. Whole Foods’ vehicles are being converted to run on biofuels. Even the cleaning

products used in its stores are environmentally friendly. And through its philanthropy, the company has created the Animal Compassion Foundation to develop more natural and humane ways of raising farm animals. In short, nearly every aspect of the company’s value chain reinforces the social dimensions of its value proposition, distinguishing Whole Foods from its competitors. Question 21-22 Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage of each answer. Write your answers in boxes 21-22 on your answer sheet. The implement of CSR, HOW? Promotion of CSR requires the understanding of interdependence between business and society. Corporations workers’ productivity generally needs health care, education, and given 21________ . Restrictions imposed by government and companies both protect consumers from being treated unfairly. Improvement of the safety standard can reduce the 22________ of accidents in the workplace. Similarly society becomes a pool of more human needs and aspirations. Question 23-26 Look at the following opinions or deeds (Questions 23-26) and the list of companies below. Match each opinion or deed with the correct company, A, B or C. Write the correct letter, A, B or C in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once 23. The disposable waste 24. The way company purchases as goods 25. Helping the undeveloped

26. Ensuring the people have the latest information List of Companies A. General Electronics B. Microsoft C. Whole Foods Market READING PASSAGE 3: You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

The Significant Role of Mother Tongue in Education One consequence of population mobility is an increasing diversity within schools. To illustrate, in the city of Toronto in Canada, 58% of kindergarten pupils come from homes where English is not the usual language of communication. Schools in Europe and North America have experienced this diversity for years, and educational policies and practices vary widely between countries and even within countries. Some political parties and groups search for ways to solve the problem of diverse communities and their integration in schools and society. However, they see few positive consequences for the host society and worry that this diversity threatens the identity of the host society. Consequently, they promote unfortunate educational policies that will make the "problem" disappear. If students retain their culture and language, they are viewed as less capable of identifying with the mainstream culture and learning the mainstream language of the society. The challenge for educator and policy-makers is to shape the evolution of national identity in such a way that rights of all citizens (including school children) are respected, and the cultural linguistic, and economic resources of the nation are maximised. To waste the resources of the nation by discouraging children from developing their mother tongues is quite simply unintelligent from the point of view of national self-interest. A first step in providing an appropriate education for culturally and linguistically diverse children is to examine what the existing research says about the role of children's mother tongues in their educational development.

In fact, the research is very clear. When children continue to develop their abilities in two or more languages throughout their primary school, they gain a deeper understanding of language and how to use it effectively. They have more practice in processing language, especially when they develop literacy in both. More than 150 research studies conducted during the past 25 years strongly support what Goethe, the famous eighteenth-century German philosopher, once said: the person who knows only one language dose not truly know that language. Research suggests that bilingual children may also develop more flexibility in their thinking as a result of processing information through two different languages. The level of development of children’s mother tongue is a strong predictor of their second language development. Children who come to school with a solid foundation in their mother tongue develop stronger literacy abilities in the school language. When parents and other caregivers (e.g. grandparents) are able to spend time with their children and tell stories or discuss issues with them in a way that develops their mother tongue, children come to school well-prepared to learn the school language and succeed educationally. Children's knowledge and skills transfer across languages from the mother tongue to the school language. Transfer across languages can be twoway: both languages nurture each other when the educational environment permits children access to both languages. Some educators and parents are suspicious of mother tongue-based teaching programs because they worry that they take time away from the majority language. For example, in a bilingual program when 50% of the time is spent teaching through children's home language and 50% through the majority language, surely children won’t progress as far in the latter? One of the most strongly established findings of educational research, however, is that well-implemented bilingual programs can promote literacy and subject-matter knowledge in a minority language without any negative effects on children’s development in the majority language. Within Europe, the Foyer program in Belgium, which develops children’s speaking and literacy abilities in three languages (their mother tongue, Dutch and French), most clearly illustrates the benefits of bilingual and trilingual education (see Cummins, 2000). It is easy to understand how this happens. When children are learning through a minority language, they are learning concepts and intellectual skills too. Pupils who know how to tell the time in their

mother tongue understand the concept of telling time. In order to tell time in the majority language, they do not need to re-learn the concept. Similarly, at more advanced stages, there, is transfer across languages in other skills such as knowing how to distinguish the main idea from the supporting details of a written passage or story, and distinguishing fact from opinion. Studies of secondary school pupils are providing interesting findings in this area, and it would be worth extending this research. Many people marvel at how quickly bilingual children seem to “pick up” conversational skills in the majority language at school (although it takes much longer for them to catch up with native speakers in academic language skills). However, educators are often much less aware of how quickly children can lose their ability to use their mother tongue, even in the home context. The extent and rapidity of language loss will vary according to the concentration of families from a particular linguistic group in the neighborhood. Where the mother tongue is used extensively in the community, then language loss among young children will be less. However, where language communities are not concentrated in particular neighborhoods, children can lose their ability to communicate in their mother tongue within 2-3 years of starting school. They may retain receptive skills in the language but they will use the majority language, in speaking with their peers and siblings and in responding to their parents. By the time children become adolescents, the linguistic division between parents and children has become an emotional chasm. Pupils frequently become alienated from the cultures of both home and school with predictable results. Question 27-30 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet. 27 What point did the writer make in the second paragraph? A. Some present studies on children's mother tongues are misleading/ B. A culturally rich education programme benefits some children more than others. C. Bilingual children can make a valuable contribution to the wealth of a country.

D. The law on mother toungue use at school should be strengthened. 28 Why does the writer refer to something that Goethe said? A. to lend weight to his argument B. to contradict some research C. to introduce a new concept D. to update current thinking 29 The writer believes that when young children have a firm grasp of their mother tongue A. they can teach older family members what they learnt at school B they go on to do much better throughout their time at school. C they can read stories about their cultural background. D they develop stronger relationships with their family than with their peers. 30 Why are some people suspicious about mother tongue-based teaching programmes? A They worry that children will be slow to learn to read in either language. B They think that children will confuse words in the two languages. C They believe that the programmes will make children less interested in their lessons. D They fear that the programmes will use up valuable time in the school day. Question 31-35 Complete the summary using the list of word, A-J, below Write the correct letter, A-J, in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet.

Bilingual Children It was often recorded that bilingual children acquire the 31________ to converse in the majority language remarkable quickly. The fact that the mother tongue can disappear at a similar 32__________ is less well understood. This phenomenon depends, to a certain extent, on the proposition of people with the same linguistic background that have settled in a particular 33________ . If this is limited, children are likely to lose the active use of their mother tongue. And thus no longer employ it even with 34__________, although they may still understand it. It follows that teenager children in these circumstances experience a sense of 35_________ in relation to all aspects of their lives. A teachers

B schools

C dislocation

D rate

E time

F family

G communication

H type

I ability

J area Questions 36-40 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write YES

if the statement agrees with the views of the writer


if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 36 Less than half of the children who attend kindergarten in Toronto have English as their mother tongue. 37 Research proves that learning the host country language at school can have an adverse effect on a child’s mother tongue.

38 The Foyer program is accepted by the French education system. 39 Bilingual children are taught to tell the time earlier than monolingual children. 40 Bilingual children can apply reading comprehension strategies acquired in one language when reading in the other.

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The pie charts below give information about the household expenditure of an average US family in different years. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic:

More and more prisons are being built to house the world's criminals, and many people believe long-term imprisonment is the answer to solving the crime problem. However, others feel that psychological assistance is what is required. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory) •

Good morning /afternoon. My name is_______. Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please?

Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself. Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live. •

Which region of the country are you originally from0

What do you like most about this region?

Would you recommend living in this region to others?

Let's talk about your studies. • What type of course are you studying at the moment?

• What type of job or career will this course lead to? • What do you enjoy most about being a student? Interview (choosc 2) Now, let's talk about advertisements. 

What kinds of adv ertisements do you like to watch or listen to? Why?

Have you ever bought something as a result of ah advertisement? Which do you prefer: advertisements on telev ision or on the radio? Why?

What changes would improve advertisements in your country? Why? Let's talk about seasons and the weather

Which season do you enjoy most? Why?

What type of activiiies do you do during this season?

Would you prefer to live in a cold climate or a warm climate? Why?

Are there any festivals associated with particular seasons in your country? Now, let's talk about learning languages. •

How long have you been learning English?

How much of your time do you spend learning English?

What do you enjoy most about learning a language? Why?

Do you find it easy or difficult to leam new languages? Why?

PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, I’m going to give you a topic and I'd like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to describe a break you took.

Describe a break you took recently to relax from work or study. You should say: why you needed a break what you did to relax how vou felt before and after takins the break and say whether or not you felt relaxed afterwards! Rounding-off questions: •

Do you often take breaks?

Do you generally find it easy or difficult to relax?

PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about taking breaks from work or Study and now I'd like to discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let's consider first the topic of relaxation. •

What do most people in your country do to relax?

Some people think that relaxation techniques such as meditation should workplace and

schools. What's your opinion'.’ •

Do you think that people will be more or less relaxed in the iuture? Why?

Now, let's talk about stress. •

What do you think are some of the reasons why people experience stress?

Do you think there are any advantages to stress?

What are some of the effects of stress on people in your country?

TEST 6 LISTENING SECTION 1 Questions 1-10 Choose the correct letter, A-C The radio station broadcasts .............................. A. national news and local news B. campus news only C. Portsmouth news Example: C Question 1-3 Choose the correct letters, A-C 1 The first part of the news will be .......................... A. entertainment B. academic C sports 2 Mike is most likely to be studying ......................... A. history B. animal psychology

C. physics 3 How many goals did Molly Mbeka score against Southampton? A. Three B. Four C. Five Question 4-5

Complete the following sentences with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer 4 Susie Smith’s nickname is .............................. 5 Molly Mbeka comes from the country of ........................... Question 6: Choose ONE letter, A-C How many goals did Molly Mbeka score in international matches last year? A. 25 B. A few more than 25 C. A lot more than 25 Question 7-10 Answer the following questions in NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer 7 Why didn’t Bristol University’s two best players play against Portsmouth University? ......................................

8 Where does the bad news come from? ................................. 9 What is Mike’s favourite beer? ................................. 10 What is the radio station’s telephone number? ................................

SECTION 2 Question 11-13 Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. Name three types of people in the audience. 11................................... 12................................... 13................................... Question 14-15 Choose TWO letters, A-E Why were sales of the company’s new mobile phones disappointing? A. The company didn't promote them. B. Poor market research C. Lack of experience D. Competitors were ready with new models. E. Not easy to break into the cell phone market

Question 16 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for your answer In addition to reliability, what quality will the company stress in its next mobile phone marketing campaign? ................................. Question 17-20 Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer 17 The company's professional digital cameras are selling well in the field of ................................ List two things that have reduced the company’s costs. 18..................................... 19..................................... 20 The company is not involved in the digital music because of fierce competition, high legal fees, and .................................

SECTION 3 Question 21-23 Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer 21 What does Mary want to talk about with Mr Hays? .................................. 22 Where are Mary’s parents? ..................................... 23 Name one of Mary’s favourite places in the city where she lives ..............................

Question 24-25 Choose TWO letters, A-E Which statements are correct? A. Mary lives close to the countryside. B. Mr Hays lives far from the sea. C. Mary is enthusiastic about her university studies. D. Mary used to like German. E. Mary was good at German. Question 26-29 Write ONE WORD for each answer 26 When did Mary last talk with her mother or father? 27 What industry do Mary’s parents work in? 28 What city are Mary and Mr Hays meeting in?. 29 What high school club was Mary the president of? Question 30 Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for your answer Where will Mary go as soon as she returns to university? ...................................

SECTION 4 Question 31-34 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer 31 Today, what stands on the site of Tenochtitlan? .............................. 32 The Aztecs prevented soil run-off by ............................. 33 To prepare for chinapas, the Aztecs first .......................... 34 The Aztecs used those floating gardens to plant vegetables like (name any 3 kinds of vegetables) ........................... Question 35-38 Complete the table below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer Data on the Aztec's Calendar Stone Number of years needed to make it

35 ...................................


Thickness: 3 feet Diameter. 36 ............................ feet Weight: approx 24 tons

Number of months in year

18 ..................................

Number of days in each month

37 ..................................

English meaning of "Nemontemi"

38 ..................................

Question 39-40 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer 39 Apart from angry gods, what did the Aztecs blame for disease? .................................. 40 What did Aztec doctors do to treat an illness? ......................................

READING READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend About 20 minutes on Questions 1-14, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. Day after day we hear about how anthropogenic development is causing global warming. According to an increasingly vocal minority, however, we should be asking ourselves how much of this is media hype cud how much is based on real evidence. It seems, as so often is the ease, that it depends on which expert you listen to, or which statistics you study. Yes, It is true that there is a mass of evidence to indicate that the world is getting warmer, with one of the world’s leading weather predictors stating that air temperatures have frown an increase of just under half a degree Celsius since the beginning of the twentieth century. And while this may not sound like anything worth losing sleep over, the international press would have us believe that the consequences could be devastating. Other experts, however, are of the opinion that what we are seeing is just part of a natural upward and downward swing flint has always been part of the cycle of global weather. An analysis of the views of major meteorologists in the United States showed that less than 20% of them believed that any change in temperature over the lust hundred years was our own fault - the rest attributed it to natural cyclical changes. There is, of course, no denying that we are still at a very early stage in understanding weather. The effects of such variables as rainfall, cloud formation, the seas and oceans, gases such as methane and ozone, or even solar energy are still not really understood, and therefore the predictions that

we make using them cannot always be relied on. Dr. James Hansen, in 19BH, was predicting that the likely effects of global warming would be a raising of world temperature which would have disastrous consequences for mankind: "a strong cause arid effect relationship between the current climate and human alteration of the atmosphere". He has now gone on record as stating that using artificial models of climate as a way of predicting change is all but impossible. In fact, he now believes that, rather than getting hotter, our planet is getting greener as a result of the carbon dioxide increase, with the prospect of increasing vegetation in areas which in recent history have been frozen wastelands. In fact, there is some evidence to suggest that as our computer-based weather models have become more sophisticated, the predicted rises in temperature have been cut back. In addition, if we look at the much reported rise in global temperature over the last century, a close analysis reveals that the lion's share of that increase, almost three quarters in total, occurred before man began to "poison" his world with industrial processes anti the accompanying greenhouse gas emissions in the second half of the twentieth century. So should we pay any attention to those stories that scream out at us from billboards and television news headlines, claiming that man, with his inexhaustible dependence on oil-based machinery and ever more sophisticated forms of transport is creating a nightmare level of greenhouse gas emissions, poisoning his environment and ripping open the ozone layer? Doubters point to scientific evidence, which can prove that, of all the greenhouse gases, only two percent come from man-made sources, the rest resulting from natural emissions. Who, then, to believe: the environmentalist exhorting us to leave the car at home, to buy re-usable products packaged in recycled paper and to plant trees in our back yard? Or the sceptics, including, of course, a lot of big businesses who have most to lose, when they tell us that we are making a mountain out of a molehill? And my own opinion? The jury's still out as for as I am concerned! Questions 1-5 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write theme in Boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet. 1. The author ...

A. believes that man is causing global warming B. believes that global warming is a natural process C. is sure what the causes of global warming are D. does not say whit he believes the causes of global warming are 2. As to the cause of global warming, the author believes that ... A. occasionally the fact depend on who you are talking to B.

the facts always depend on who you are talking to


often the fact depend on which expert you listen to


you should not speak to experts

3. More than 80% of the top meteorologists in the United States are of the opinion that.. . A. global warming should make us lose sleep B.

global warming is not the result oil natural cyclical changes, but man-made


the consequences of global warming will be deviating

D. global warming is not man-made, but the result of natural cyclical changes. 4. Our understanding of weather... A. leads to reliable predictions B. Is variable C. cannot be denied D. is not very developed yet 5. Currently, Dr. James Hansen's beliefs include the fact that ... A. It is nearly Impossible to predict weather change using artificial models B. the consequences of global warming would be disastrous for in mankind C. there Is a significant link between the climate now, mid man's changing of the atmosphere D. Earth is getting colder Questions 6-11 Do the statements below agree with the information in Reading Passage 1? In Boxes 6-11, write:


if the statement agrees with the information in the passage


if the statement contradicts the information in the passage

Not Given

if there is no information about the statement in the passage

Example: Computer-based weather models have become more sophisticated. Answer: Yes. 6. At the same time that computer-based weather models have become more sophisticated, weather forecasters have become more expert. 7. Most of the increase in global temperature happened in the second half of the twentieth century. 8. The media wants us to blame ourselves for global warming. 9. The media encourages the public to use environmentally friendly vehicles, such as electric cars to combat global warming. 10. Environmentalists are very effective at persuading people to be kind to the environment. 11. Many big businesses are on the side of the sceptics as regards the cause of global warming.

Questions 12 and 13 Complete the sentences below. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each blank space. Write your answers in Boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet. 12. As well as planting trees and not driving, the environmentalist would like us to choose products that are wrapped________________and can be used more than once. 13. Big businesses would have us believe that we are making too much fuss about global warming, because they have___________________ .

Question 14 Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in Box 14 on your answer sheet 14. Which of these is the best title for this text? A.

Global Warming is for real


Global warming - media hype or genuine threat?


Weather changes over the last 100 years


Global Warming - the greatest threat to mankind

READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-28, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. Questions 15-21 Reading Passage 2 has 8 paragraphs (A-H). Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph from the List of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers (l-xili) in Boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet. One of the headings has been done for you as an example. NB. There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use all of them. 15. Paragraph A 16. Paragraph B 17. Paragraph C 18. Paragraph D 19. Paragraph E 20. Paragraph F 21. Paragraph G Example: Paragraph H Answer: x

List of headings i.

165 million years


The body plan of archosaurs


Dinosaurs - terrible lizards


Classification according to pelvic anatomy


The suborders of Saurischia


Lizards and dinosaurs - two distinct supcrordcrs


Unique body plan helps identify dinosaurs from other animals


Herbivore dinosaurs




Prills and shelves


The origins of dinosaurs and lizards


Bird-hipped dinosaurs


Skull bones distinguish dinosaurs from other archosaurs

What is a dinosaur? A. Although the name dinosaur is derived from I he Crock for "terrible lizard" dinosaurs were not, in fact, lizards at all. Like lizards, dinosaurs are included in the class Reptilia, or reptiles, one of the five main classes of Vertebrata, animals with backbones. However, at the next level of classification, within reptiles, significant differences in the skeletal anatomy of lizards and dinosaurs have led scientists to place these groups of animals into two different superorders: Lepidosauria, or lepidosaurs, and Archosauria, or archosaurs. B. Classified as lepidosaurs are lizards and snakes and their prehistoric ancestors. Included among the archosaurs, or “ruling reptiles”, are prehistoric and modern crocodiles, and the now extinct

thecodonts, pterosaurs anti dinosaurs. Palaeontologists believe that both dinosaurs and crocodiles evolved, in the later years of the Triassic Period (c, 248-208 million years ago), front creatures tailed pseudosuchian thecodonts. Lizards, snakes and different types of thecodont are believed to have evolved earlier in the Triadic Period from reptiles known as eosuchians. C. The most important skeletal differences between dinosaurs and other anchosaurs are in the hones of the skull, pelvis and limbs. Dinosaur skulls are found in a great range of shapes and sixes, reflecting the different eating habits anti lifestyles of a large and varied group of animals that dominated life on Earth for an extraordinary 165 million years. However, unlike the skulls of any other known animals, the skulls of dinosaurs had two long bones known as vomers. These bones extended on either side of the head, from the front of the snout to the level of the holes in the skull known as the antorbital fenestra, situated in fro ill of the dinosaur's orbits or eyesockets. D. All dinosaurs, whether large or small, quadrupedal or bipedal, fleet -footed or s low-moving, shared a common body plan. Identification of this plan makes it possible to differentiate dinosaurs from any other types of animal, even other archosaurs. Most significantly, in dinosaurs, the pelvis and femur had evolved so that the hind limbs were held vertically beneath the body, rather than sprawling out to the sides like the limbs of a lizard. The femur of a dinosaur had a sharply inturned neck and a halt-shaped bead, which slotted into a fully open acetabulum or hip socket. A supra-ace tabular crest helped prevent dislocation of the femur. The position of the knee joint, aligned below the acetabulum, made it possible for the whole hind limb to swing backwards and forwards. This unique combination of features gave dinosaurs what is known as a "fully improved gait". Evolution of this highly efficient method of walking also developed in mammals, but among reptiles it occurred only in dinosaurs. E. For the purpose of further classification, dinosaurs are divided into two orders: &iurisehia, or saurischian dinosaurs, and Ornithischia, or ornithischian dinosaurs. This division is made on the basis of their pelvic anatomy. All dinosaurs bad el pelvic girdle with each side comprised of three hones: the pubis, ilium and ischium. However, the orientation of these bones follows one of two patterns In saurischian dinosaurs, also known as lizard-hipped dinosaurs, the pubis points forwards, as is usual In most types of reptile, By contrast, In oruithisehian, or bird-hipped, dinosaurs, the pubis points backwards towards the rear of the animal which is also true of birds.

F. Of the two orders of dinosaurs, the Saurischia was the larger mid the first to evolve. It is divided into two suborders: Therapoda, or therapods, and Sauropodomorpha, or sauropodomorphs. The therapods, or “beast feet", were bipedal, predatory carnivores. They ranged in size from the mighty Tyrannosaurus rex, 12m long, 5.6m tall and weighing an estimated 6.4 tonnes, to the smallest known dinosaur, Compsognathus, a mere 1,4m long and estimated 3kg in weight when fully grown. The sauropodomorphs, or "lizard feet forms"; included both bipedal and quadrupedal dinosaurs. Some sauropodomorphs were carnivorous or omnivorous but later species were typically herbivorous. They included some of the largest and best-known of all dinosaurs, such as Diplodocus, a huge quadruped with an elephant-like body, a long, thin tail and neck that gave it a total length of 27m, and a tiny head. G. Ornithischian dinosaurs were bipedal or quadrupedal herbivores. They are now usually divided into three suborders: Ornithipoda, Thyreophora and Marginocephalia. The ornithopods, or "bird feet1’, both large and small, could walk or run on their lung hind legs, balancing their body by holding their tails stiffly off the ground behind them. An example is Iguanodon, up to 9m long, 5m tall and weighing 4.5 tonnes. The thyreophorans, or “shield bearers", also known as armoured dinosaurs, were quadrupeds with rows of protective bony spikes, studs, or plates along their backs and tails. They included Stegosaurus, 9m long and weighing 2 tonnes. H. The marginocephalians, or "margined heads" were bipedal or quadrupedal omithischians with a deep bony frill or narrow shelf at the back of the skull. An example is Triceratops, a rhinoceroslike dinosaur, 9m long, weighing 5,4 tonnes and bearing a prominent neck frill and three large horns. Questions 22-24 Complete the sentences below. Use NO MORE THAN THREB WORDS from the passage for each blank space. Write your answers in Boxes 22-24 on your answer sheet. 22. Lizards and dinosaurs arc classified into two different superorders because of the difference in their__________ . 23. In the Triassic Period, ________________ evolved into thecodonts, for example, lizards and snakes.

24. Dinosaur skulls differed from those of any other known animals because of the presence of vomers:______________. Questions 25-28 Choose one phrase (A-H) from the List of features to match with the Dinosaurs listed below. Write the appropriate letters (A-H) In Boxes 25-28 on your answer sheet. The information in the completed sentences should be an accurate summary of the points made by the writer. NB. There are more phrases (A-H) than sentences, so you will not need to use them all. You may use each phrase once only. Dinosaurs 25. Dinosaurs differed from lizards, because… 26. Saurischian and ornithischian dinosaurs… 27. Unlike therapods, sauropodomorphs… 28. Some dinosaurs used their tails to balance, others…

List of features A

are both divided into two orders.


the former had a “fully improved gait”.


were not usually very heavy.


could walk or run on their back legs.


their hind limbs sprawled out to the side.


walked or ran on four legs, rather than two.


both had a pelvic girdle comprising six bones.


did not always eat meat.

READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 29-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Doesn’t that sound terribly yellow to you? "I can’t say. I’m colour blind", was my flatmate’s response. And that was that for another twenty odd years, when by chance I came across an article in a newspaper on research into synaesthesia at a London hospital. At last, I understood my interpretation of the world through colour. Synaesthesia is the subjective sensation of a sense other than the one being stimulated. For example, the sight of a word may evoke sensations of colour or the sound of music may also have a similar effect, as may taste. Or, to put it simply, synacsthctes, i.e. people with synaesthesia, have their senses hooked together, so that they experience several senses simultaneously. To those not already aware of it, synaesthesia seems a new phenomenon. Yet, it is far from new. In 1690, John Locke, the philosopher, wrote of a blind man with synaesthetic capabilities. The first reference in the medical field was in 1710, by Thomas Woodhousc, an English ophthalmologist. In his Theory of Colour, the German writer, Goethe, talked about colour and the senses. The poet, Arthur Rimbaud, wrote about synaesthesia in his 1871 poem Voyelles, as did another French poet Baudelaire, in Correspondance. So, synaesthesia has a respectable history. Synaesthesia is understandably met with a certain degree of scepticism, since it is something beyond the ken of the vast majority of people. Son et lumière shows in the 19,h century were an attempt at combining the senses in a public display, but such displays were not capable of conveying the sensations experienced by involuntary synaesthesia, as the ability which a synaesthete’s experience is called. There has been a number of well-documented synacsthctes. Alexander Scriabin, the Russian composer, (1871-1915) tried to express his own synaesthetic abilities in his symphony Prometheus, the Poem of Fire (1922). And another Russian, Rlmsky-Korsakov, noted the colour associations musical keys possessed. For example, Scriabin saw C major as red, while to RimskyKorsakov it was white. Arthur Bliss, an English composer, based his 1922 Colour Symphony on the concept of synaesthesia. He did not claim to be a synaesthete; his colour choices were arbitrary and the project an intellectual exercise.

In the field of the visual arts, probably the best known artist with synaesthetic capabilities is the Russian artist, Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), credited with being the founder of abstract painting. It is said he experienced “sensory fusion” at a performance of Wagner’s Lohengrin, with the music producing colours before his eyes. He did not see colours solely in terms of objects, but associated them with sounds. He even composed an opera, Der GelbeKlang (The Yellow Sound), which was a mixture of colour, light, dance and sound. For many people with synaesthesia, knowing that what they have been experiencing has both a name and a history and that they are among a number of notable sufferers is a reve* lation, Initially, they often feel that these is something wrong psycho logic ally or mentally, or that everyone feds that way. Then they realise with a thud that other people do not. Suppression is an option, but unwittingly some people have managed to make use of the ability to their advantage. While the condition of synaesthesia may hamper many people because of its disorienting effects, It can also open up a range of new skills, It is not unusual for people who have synaesthesia to be creative and imaginative, As many studies have shown, memory is based to some extent on association. Synaesthetes find they are able to remember certain things with great ease. The person who associates the shape of a word with colour is quite often able to remember a longer sequence of words; and the same goes for other areas where memory needs to be used. Cut this condition like all gifts, has its drawbacks, Some people see words as colours; others even individual letters and syllables, so that a word becomes a kaleidoscope of colour. Beautiful though such a reading experience may be, synaesthesia can cause problems with both reading and writing, Reading can take longer, because one has to wade through all the colours, as well as the words! And, because the colour sequences as well as the words have to fit together^ writing is then equally difficult. Questions 29-32 Do the statements below agree with the information in Reading Passage 3? In Boxes 29-32, write: Yes

if the statement agrees with the Information in the passage


if the statement contradicts the information in the passage

Not Given if there is no information about the statement in the passage 29. Synacsthctes experience several senses at the same time. 30. Newspaper articles and TV news reports about synaesthesia are appearing with monotonous regularity nowadays. 31. Mention of synaesthesia can be traced back to the 17th century. 32. It is strange that many people are sceptical about synaesthesia. Question 33-36 Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write theme in Boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet. 33. Son et lumiere shows ... A. attempted to combine public senses B. were frequent in the 19'" century C. were both public and involuntary D. did not reproduce the experiences of synaesthetes 34. Both Alexander Scriabin and Rimsky-Korsakov ... A. wanted to have synaesthetic abilities B. created a lot of documents C. linked music to colour D. agreed with Bliss in 1922 35. The Russian artist, Wassily Kandinsky, ... A. performed Wagner’s Lohengrin B. found abstract painting

C. also composed music D. saw objects 36. At first, "sufferers” of synaesthesia believe that ... A. other people have similar experiences or there is something wrong with them B. they are a revelation C. they are psychologically or mentally superior D. they are unique Questions 37-40 According to the reading passage, which of the following statements are true about synaesthetes? Write the appropriate letters in Boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet. A. Some synaesthetes are disoriented by their abilities. B. Unusually, some synaesthetes hove great creativity. C. Memory is heightened by synaesthesia. D. Synaesthetes have gilts and drawbacks. E. Some synaesthetes use their ability to help themselves. F. Their ability can be an obstacle to them. G. Some synaesthetes write in colour.

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The bar graph below shows the amount of carbon emissions in different countries during three different years. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: A number of tertiary courses require students to undertake a period of unpaid work at art institution or organisation as part of their programme. What are the advantages and disadvantages of thừ type of course requữement? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory) •

Good morning /afternoon. My name is______. Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please?

Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself. Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live •

What type of house do you live in?

How many rooms are there?

Which is your favourite room in the house? Why?

Let’s talk about your studies. 

How many hours do you spend studying each day?

Are there any subjects which you like studying more than others?

Which subjects are you interested in studying further? Interview (choose 2) Now, let's talk about the Internet. •

How do you typically use the Internet? Why?

Do you find it easy to use the Internet? Why?

What do you like most about using the Internet? Why?

How much of your time do you spend using the Internet? Why?

Let’s talk about animals. •

Do you like animals? Why Why not?

Are there any animals that you are afraid of or particularly dislike? Why?

Are people in your country generally fond of animals? Why/ Why not?

Do particular animals have any special meaning in your culture?

Now. let's talk about what you do in your free time. • How do you usually spend your free time? • Do you prefer to spend your free time with friends or with family? Why? • How often do you have free time? • What changes would improve the way you spend your free time? Why? PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, Tm going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to describe a picture or a photograph that you have seen which you remember clearly. Describe a picture or photograph that you have seen which you remember clearly. You should say: what the image was where and when you saw it what type of feelings you had when you saw it

and say why you remember it. Rounding-off questions: • Do you enjoy photographic images/pictures? • Would you recommend this to others? PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about images and now I'd like to discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let's consider first the topic of visual aits. •

What kind of visual art forms is popular in your country?

Many people argue that art should be freely accessible to the public to enjoy. What's your

view? •

What do you think of investing monev in the arts?

Now, let's talk about creativity. •

It is often said that creative genius is bom, not made. What's your opinion?

How have the ways people express their creativity in your culture changed in the last fifty

years? •

Many artists make valuable contributions to society' through their art, yet struggle to

succeed financially. What are the reasons for this0 Wliat are the implications of this?


SECTION 1 Answer the following question in NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS. Where has Jane decided to go for her holiday? Example: Southeast Asia Question 1-4 Answer the following questions. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. 1 What does Jane have to be back in time for? ......................... 2 What project will Jane do while on her vacation? ............................ 3 What helped Jane make enough money for her trip? ............................. 4 What award does Jane’s father have? .......................... Question 5 Complete the following sentence with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS. Sally says free air tickets can normally only be used on flights with ........................... Question 6 and 7 Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

What two tropical illnesses does Sally mention? 6.......................... 7.......................... Question 8 and 9 Choose ONE letter, A-C 8 Jane is sure she will visit ............................. A. West and East Malaysia B. Singapore and Vietnam C. Singapore and Indonesia 9 How does Jane intend to travel around? A. Bus and train in the cities B. Rental boat C. Bicycle Question 10 Answer the question in ONE WORD. What is the name of Jane’s brother? ...........................

SECTION 2 Question 11-13

Complete the following sentences. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. The speaker says university residences are expensive but 11............................. He also says it is usually best to try to live in a 12......................... with at least one 13............................. Question 14-16 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. List three things that new students looking for accommodation should do. 14........................ 15........................ 16........................ Question 17 and 18 Choose TWO letters, A-F The speaker says ......................... A. some studio flats have kitchens B. a few estate agents act as rental agents for landlords C. a current account is best for paying utility bills D. standing orders cannot be used to pay the rent E. car insurance is not optional in the UK F. student unions are allowed to recommend insurance companies Question 19 and 20

Answer each question in NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS 19. What branch of the British government issues work permits to foreign students? ............................. 20. What types of work can foreign students sponsored by a long-term UK resident do? .............................

SECTION 3 Question 21 and 22 Choose TWO letters, A-R A. Rick says most students don't take notes. B. Rita says most students don’t use notes properly. C. Rick asks if listening closely is more important than note-taking. D. Rita says different things work better for different people. E. Rick says the research began in 1920s. Question 23 and 24 Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. 23 What is the key to the usefulness of notes? ........................... 24 What does Prof. Howe say contributes to remembering information? ............................ Question 25 Complete the following sentence with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS.

Rita reads a sentence that says using information is improved if note-taking is combined with ........................... Question 26-30 Compute the table below. Write the appropriate Utters, A-F against Questions 26-30. Activity Putting information in different geometric figures Thinking about relationships between facts

Effect 26........................................ 27........................................

High-level information processing


Reorganizing notes while reviewing


Taking notes word for word


A. improves comprehension B. inhibits high level information processing C. changes organization of notes D. has no effect on the most successful student E. improves test scores F. enhances reorganization of notes SECTION 4 Question 31-33

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. What three physical qualities is the therapist looking at in the child in the swimming pool? 31............................. 32............................ 33............................ Question 34 Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for your answer. Name a medical establishment that is not far from Dr Roberts’ hospital............................. Question 35 and 36 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer In addition to a degree, in what other activities must a candidate particiPAT:e to become a certified recreational therapist? 35........................... 36........................... Question 37 and 38 Complete the table below. Write the appropriate letters, A-E against Questions 37 and 38. Therapeutic activity

Target problems

Sibling play


Physical play


A. Lack of physical skills B. Fear of surgery C. Aggression D. Understanding upcoming surgery E. Poor functioning Question 39-40 Complete the following sentences. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. 39 Problem-solving is part of functioning ............................... 40 Disabled children are being treated by more and more ................................. nowadays.

READING READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14, which Arc based on Rending Passage 1 below. PROPAGANDA - THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY Imagine for a moment that you arc an impoverished citizen of ancient Egypt, hopefully hoeing the desert and wondering when it will bloom. Suddenly, a cloud of dust appears on the horizon which eventually resolves itself into a gallop of horses and chariots commanded by heavily armed soldiers followed, eventually, by a crocodile of exhausted slaves lugging building materials. They all come to a halt outside your home and you make a strategic withdrawal indoors, from where you watch them through a slit in the wall. In an amazingly short lime, the slaves build a 40-

foot high obelisk which is then surrounded by it swarm of stonemasons. Then, when the work, whatever it is, has been completed, the entire company withdraws as quickly as it came. Once the coast is clear, you creep outside to examine their handiwork. The obelisk is covered with carvings of soldiers, looking remarkably like those who have just left, engaged in countless victorious battles, decimating the countryside and gruesomely killing people who look remarkably like you. Prominently portrayed, surveying sphinx-like the carnage committed in his same, is the Pharaoh. You can’t read, but you get the picture. You, in consort with your disaffected neigh hours, had been contemplating, in rather desultory fashion, a small uprising. You change your mind in what is one of the easiest examples of the power of propaganda. Of course as is often the case with big ideas when they tire in their infancy, the methods employed. In ancient Egypt were far from subtle, But over subsequent centuries, the use of propaganda was conscientiously honed. It was not until the First World War that propaganda made the quantum leap from the gentler arts of persuasion to become the tool of coercion. As Philip Taylor says in War and the Media: "Before 1914, it simply meant the means by which the proponent of a particular doctrine... propagated his beliefs among his audience ... propaganda is simply a process of persuasion. As a concept, it is neutral and should be devoid of value judgments”. It is unlikely, at least in the West, that propaganda will ever be rehabilitated as a neutral concept. The very word is now so loaded with sinister connotations that it evokes an immediate and visceral sense of outrage. For the use of propaganda reached its apogee in the machinery of the Third Reich. Hitler and Goebbels between them elevated it to a black art of such diabolical power that it has been permanently discredited among those who witnessed its expression. Indeed in 1936 at Nuremberg, Hitler attributed his entire success to the workings of propaganda. He said: “Propaganda brought us to power, propaganda has since enabled us to remain in power, and propaganda will give us the means of conquering the world". It is therefore unsurprising that Western governments and politicians are liable to perform the most extreme presentational acrobatics in their efforts to avoid the dreaded “p" word being applied to

any of their activities. They have developed impressive lexicons of euphemisms and doublespeak to distance themselves from any taint of it, real or imagined. Inevitably, the media is alive to this hypersensitivity and the "p" word has become a potent weapon in its arsenal. It is used pejoratively, with intent to discredit and wound, as governments are painfully aware. For propaganda is the spectre that haunts many a government- inspired media fest. It is the uninvited guest, the empty chair which serves to remind the hosts precisely why the gathering has been convened and forces them to run quality tests on the fare on offer -- is it factually nutritious, is it presented in a balanced and truthful way, is its integrity intact? In this one respect, at least, the negative connotations attached to propaganda actually perform a positive function. They offer a salutary reminder of ail that government information is supposed not to be, and act as a ferocious curb on any runaway tendency to excess. Most importantly, the public is alive to the dangers of propaganda and alert to its manifestations whether overt or covert. They know that propaganda is the serpent lurking In the tree of knowledge; that it is subtle, it beguiles, it seduces, it obfuscates, it holds out simple dreams and turns them into nightmare realities, it subverts, it pretends to be other than it is. They know that it is the poisoned fruit of the goblin market, not the plain bread of truth that is the staple diet of information. And they will not tolerate it. They succumb instead to the more blatant blandishments of advertising, which might be regarded as the wolf of propaganda, tamed and turned to domestic use. Safe in the knowledge that the wolf has been securely trussed by the rules and regulations of the Advertising Standards Authority, they knowingly consent to being had, Questions 1-10 Complete the text below, which is a summary of paragraphs M. Choose a suitable word from the text for each blank. Write your answers in Boxes 1-10 on your answer sheet. You may use any word more than once. Example: propaganda - the good, the bad and the____________. Answer: ugly.

_____ 1______ that you are a poor__________ 2______ living in ancient Egypt, when a band of soldiers accompanied by a_________ 3_____ of slaves carrying building materials appears on the scene. While you are inside your house, the slaves erect an __________4_____ and the whole company disappears. The__________ 5______ features figures like those soldiers who have just left engaged in victorious battles and, in a prominent position, the figure of the sphinx-like______6________. After briefly considering an_________ 7_____ , you and the other inhabitants change your____________ 8______ In what is one of the earliest Instances of the power of______ 9_______ , albeit a not very _______ 10_____ one. Questions 11-14 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in Boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet. 11. According to Philip Taylor, propaganda ... A is needed to propagate people’s beliefs B was a tool of coercion before 1914 C hus always been a neutral force D was merely a process of persuading people to do things prior to 1914 12. According to Philip Taylor, propaganda ... A is not a neutral concept B is value loaded up until 1914 C

is ti neutral concept

D was a neutral concept up until 1914 13. Politicians in the West ... A will do anything to avoid using the word propaganda B like using the word propaganda in the media C do not dread the "p” word D are consummate acrobats 14. The public ... A are happy to be deceived by advertisers B are deceived by advertisers C are not deceived by advertisers

D respect the advertisers READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-28, which are based on Rending PASSAGE 2 below.

The pursuit of knowledge According to the great English lexicographer Samuel Johnson, knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves or we know where we can find information upon it (Boswell Life vol. 2 p, 383 18 April 1775). In the information-driven world we now inhabit, the latter has assumed a much greater level of importance. At the time of the European Renaissance, which spanned the fourteenth, fifteenth and six-teenth centuries, it was considered possible far the educated, well-read man, the so-called Renaissance man, to possess the sum total of human knowledge. Admittedly, the body of knowledge then available was restricted, being held firmly in check by several important factors; the paucity of books in circulation at that time; the difficulty of acquiring copies of the texts; the need to copy texts by hand; and the cost of doing so. The example of Lupus of Ferrieres’ search for the Ars rhetorica of Fortunatus in the ninth century was repeated again and again throughout the Latin West until the momentous advent of printing in the middle of the fifteenth century. Printed books saw the end of some of the practical limitations placed on the spread of human knowledge. The first revolution in Information technology had begun. Renaissance man was rapidly left behind by this development; and, henceforth, it would be increasingly difficult for the educated man to cope with the expansion of knowledge that flowed through Europe via the medium of movable type. In today’s world, the scenario could hardly be more different. The most well-read individual, whom we could legitimately call information man, or homo sciens, would certainly be considerably more knowledgeable than Renaissance man, Yet, because of the ever-expanding increase in the sum total of human knowledge over the latter half of the last millennium, and the

changes in the world of technology, easy access to information has reduced the stature of the educated individual. All that he can hope to be now is an expert in a narrow field, not the allknowing polymath of yesteryear. It is not surprising to see people overwhelmed by the unlimited stream of Information. There is simply too much of it to assimilate, and it is difficult to know what to do with the data once it is received; which brings us back to Johnson's words. But we need to add another dimension to his dictum, one which was probably true in his time, but is oven more pertinent today: people need to be able to life the knowledge they acquire and not just know it or know where to find it. Our deficiency in this regard is, perhaps, the most singular failure of the modern information age. Acquisitiveness is a natural human Instinct. Children collect cards of footballers, or whatever is the latest fad, Stamps, coins and books are targets for children and adult collectors (dike, as their basic instincts are played upon and nurtured by market forces. The desire to gather knowledge is nothing new. What is astonishing, however, is the way in which people treat the knowledge ones it has been collected. It is as if the collection were an end in Itself; and herein lies the great deception, We have turned the world into a large machine of information, a veritable vortex into which we are ail being Inexorably sucked, People beaver away amassing raw data, labouring under the misapprehension that they are doing something worthwhile, when all that is really happening is the movement of information from one place to another, We should hardly be surprised that, as this becomes apparent, disillusionment and stress in the workplace arc becoming sadly the all too common consequences. The world is not really the richer for having the current wealth of knowledge at its fingertips. It is like standing amongst the wealth of the British Library, the Bibliothèque Nationals in Paris or other great libraries and not being able to read. So what is to be done? Training in collecting and processing relevant information, followed by learning to collate, analyse and select or discard is the obvious solution, But there is such a dearth of people who know what to do that one remains pessimistic. The pursuit of knowledge is sadly not all it is cracked up to be.

Questions 15-21 Complete the sentences below. Use NO MORE THAN FOUR WORDS from the passage to complete each blank space. Write your answers in Boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet. 15. Samuel Johnson was an___________________ . 16. Renaissance man supposedly possessed all__________________. 17. The spread of knowledge changed with the all important___________________ . 18. According to the writer, today's information man knows more than_______________ . 19. The standing of the modern educated man has been diminished by _________________. 20. The polymath of the Renaissance is described as_______________________ . 21. In today's world, people arc weighed down by the endless__________________. Questions 22-25 Answer the questions below, Use NO MORE THAN FOUR WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in Boxes 22-25 on your answer sheet. 22. How does the writer describe people’s inability in the modern world to use the knowledge that they obtain? 23. What is the desire to collect things described as? 24. According to the author, what has the world turned into? 25. What arc the conséquences in the workplace of moving large amounts of raw data around?

Questions 26-28 Do the statements below agree with the information in Reading Passage 1? In Boxes 26-28, write: Yes if the statement agrees with the information in the passage No

if the statement contradicts the information in the passage

Not Given if there is no information about the statement in the passage Example: The European Renaissance spanned the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. Answer: Yes. 26. As the world has a wealth of knowledge within easy reach, it is now richer, 27. Knowledge processing courses will soon be obligatory for all library workers. 28. The author believes that the pursuit of knowledge is worthwhile.

READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Quastions 29-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. Between the Inishowen peninsula, north west of Derry, and the Glens of Antrim, in the cast beyond the Sperrin Mountains, is found some of Western Europe's most captivating and alluring landscape. The Roe Valley Park, some 15 miles east of Deny is a prime example. The Park, like so many Celtic places, is steeped in history and legend. As the Roe trickles down through heather bogs in the Sperrin Mountains to the South, it is a river by the time it cuts through what was once called the “garden of the soul" - in Celtic "Gortenanima". The castle of O'Cahan once stood here and a number of houses which made up the town of Limavady. The town takes its name from the legend of a dog leaping into the river Roe carrying a

message, or perhaps chasing a stag. This is a magical place, where the water traces its way through rock and woodland; at times, lingering in brooding pools of dark cool water under the shade of summer trees, and, at others, forming weirs and leads for water mills now long gone. The Roe, like all rivers, is witness to history and change. To Mullagh Hill, on the west bank of the River Roe just outside the present day town of Limavady, St, Columba came in 575 AD for the Convention of Drumceatt. The world is probably unaware that it knows something of Limavady; but the town is, in fact, renowned for Jane Ross’s song Danny Boy, written to a tune once played by a tramp in the street. Some 30 miles along the coast road from Limavady, one comes upon the forlorn but imposing ruin of Dunluce Castle, which stands on a soft basalt outcrop, in defiance of the turbulent Atlantic lashing it on all sides. The jagged - toothed ruins sit proud on their rock top commanding the coastline to cast and west. The only connection to the mainland is by a narrow bridge. Until the kitchen court fell into the sea in 1639 killing several servants, the castle was fully inhabited, In the next hundred years or so, the structure gradually fell into Its present dramatic state of disrepair, stripped of its roofs by wind and weather and robbed by man of its carved stonework. Ruined and forlorn its aspect may be, yet, in the haunting Celtic twilight of the long summer evenings, it is redolent of another age, another dream. A mile or so to the cast of the castle lies Port na Spaniagh, where the Neapolitan Gaileas, Girona, from the Spanish Armada went down one dark October night in 1588 on its way to Scotland. Of the 1500'Odd men on board, nine survived. Even further to the east, is the Giant's Causeway, a stunning coastline with strangely symmetrical columns of dark basalt - a beautiful geological wonder. Someone once said of the Causeway that it was worth seeing, but not worth going to see, That was in the days of horses and carriages, when travelling was difficult. But it is certainly well worth a visit. The last lingering moments of the twilight hours are the best time to savour the full power of the coastline’s magic; the time when the place comes into its own. The tourists are gone and if you are very lucky you will be alone, It is not frightening, but there is a power in the place; tangible, yet inexplicable. The feeling is one of eeriness and longing, and of something missing, something not quite fulfilled; the loss of light

and the promise of darkness; a time between two worlds, Once experienced, this feeling never leaves you: the longing haunts and pulls at you for the rest of your days. Deyond the Causeway, connecting the mainland with an outcrop of rock jutting out of the turbulent Atlantic, is the Cairick-a-Hedc Hope Bridge- Not a crossing for the faint-hearted. The Bridge swings above a chasm of rushing, foaming water that seeks to drag the unwary down, and away. Questions 29-33 Choose one phrase (A-E) from the List of places to label the map below, Write the appropriate letters (A-li) in Boxes 29-33 on youi answer sheet, List of places A The Sperrin Mountains B Dunluce Casctle C Inlshowen D The Glens of Antrim E Limavady

Questions 34-37 Do the statements below agree with the Information in Reading Passage 3? In Boxes 34-37, write: Yes

if the statement agrees with the information in the passage


if the statement contradicts the information in the passage

Not Given if there is no information about the statement in the passage Example: Inishowen is in the north-west of Ireland. Answer: Yes. After 1639 the castle of Dunluce was not completely uninhabited. 34. For the author Dunluce castle evokes another period of history. 35. There were more than 1500 men on the Girona when it went down. 36. The writer disagrees with the viewpoint that the Giant’s Causeway is not worth going to Questions 38-40 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in Boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet. 38. The writer feels that the Giant’s Causeway is ... A un unsettling place B relaxing place C a boring place D a place that helps one unwind 39. Where was this passage taken from? A the news section of a newspuper B A travel section in a newspaper C a biography D an academic journal on geography

40. Which of the following would be a good title for the passage? A The Roe Valley Park B The Giant's Causeway C Going Hast to West D A leap into history

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The line graph below gives information about the rates of unemployment between 1991 and 2005 in three different countries in Europe. The table shows the percentage of men and women in the workforce in these three countries. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

Employment rates of men and women in three countries in Europe in 1991













WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Many of the world’s cities are currently facing a serious housing shortage. What are some of the reasons for this shortage and what solutions can you suggest? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory) 

Good morning/afternoon. My name is_____. Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please? Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself. Interview (choose 1)

Let's talk about your studies. • Tell me about your studies. • Are you a full-time student or part-time student? • What are yonr goals after completing your studies? Interview (choosc 2) Now, let's talk about news. •

How do you find out about news?

Do you always use the same method of accessing news? Why?

Which type of news do you enjoy reading the most? W hy?

Which type of news do you enjoy (reading) the least? Why?

Let's talk about things which make you feel happy. •

What kinds of things make you feel happy? Why?

What do you tend to do when you feel this way? Why?

Have similar things always made you happy?

Do you feel it's important to feel happy every day? Why?

Now, let's talk about holidays. •

Where do you typically good holiday?

What kinds of things do you enjoy doing ou holiday? Why?

What form of transport do you usually use to get to your holiday destinations? Why?

Do you prefer to travel in a large group or a small group? Why?

PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes)

Now, Tm going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to describe a famous person who you would like to meet. Describe a famous person whom you would like to meet. You should say: who the person is and why he she is famous why you would like to meet him her what type of questions you w ould ask and say whether it is likely that you would ever meet this person. Rounding-off questions: • Have you ever met a famous person? • Do you like to read about famous people? PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about a famous person whom you would like to meet and now I'd like to discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let’s consider first the topic of fame. •

What do you think motivates people who seek fame?

Some people argue that celebrities and famous people have no right to expect privacy

because they are in the public eye. What's your opinion? •

Many celebrities have begun using their fame to raise awareness of social issues. Do you

think this is a good trend or a bad trend? Now. let’s talk about social interaction and meeting people.

How important is it to spend time with family members in your culture'? Why?

How have the ways people socialise in y our country changed over time? Why do y ou

think these changes have occurred? •

Some members of society feel isolated and alone. What measures can be taken to combat

this issue?

TEST 8 LISTENING SECTION 1 Question 1-4 Select the correct answer from the choices given. Write A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet. 1 Where is Mr. Garcia living? A. Private accommodation

C. Self-catering university accommodation

B. With friends

D. Catered university accommodation

2 Why doesn’t he like his accommodation? A. The food is not good.

C. He doesn’t like his cohabitants.

B. The meals are at inconvenient times.

D. It’s on the university campus.

3 Where are Mr. Garcia and his friends from? A. Costa Rica, Spain, Bolivia

C. Mexico, Columbia, Spain

B. Ecuador, Spain, Mexico

D. Spain, Brazil, Argentina

4 What kind of place are they hoping to find? A. A house with a garden next to the university B. A flat or a house next to the university

C. A house not too near to the university D. A flat or a house not too near to the university Question 5-7 Complete the details below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS for each gap. Name

Manuel Garcia

Current address

5 ......................

Telephone number

0453 672 348

E-mail address

6 ......................







Budgeted monthly rent

7 ...................... £

Question 8-10 Select the correct answer from the choices given. Write A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet. 8 Why can Mr. Garcia expect a small reduction in rent? A. The salesman like him.

C. July is a good month to move in.

B. There is no contract.

D. He and his friends will stay all year.

9 How much is the accommodation agency’s fee for Mr. Garcia?

A. 1/2 month’s rent

C. 3/2 month’s rent

B. 1 month’s rent

D. There’s no fee.

10 Which items does Mr. Garcia consider necessary? A. Kitchen utensils, washing machine. Internet connection B. Washing machine, Internet connection, TV C. DVD player, TV, Internet connection D. Shower, TV, washing machine

SECTION 2 Question 11-13 Choose the correct answers to the following questions. Only ONE answer is possible for each question. 11 Which member or members of the speaker’s family have health problems? A. The speaker

C. The speaker’s father and youngersister

B. The speaker’s parents

D. None of the speaker’s family does.

12 Why didn’t the family go to Rotorua? A. They couldn’t afford it

C. Because of health problems

B. They wanted to go somewhere with friends

D. Because they wanted to go somewhere new

13 How did the speaker’s family first find out about the Waiwera spa?

A. From people they met in their home town B. From the Internet

C. From people they met in Rotorua D. From a travel agent

Question 14-16 Complete the sentences using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS OR NUMBERS for each gap. 14 Altogether, the number of people in the speaker’s holiday group was ........................... 15 One of the children from the other family was a than the speaker ................................. 16 Before leaving, the speaker and his family got information from the Internet and a ............................. Question 17-20 Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. 17 What did the speaker especially like about the holiday? ........................ 18 Where were the children most of the time? ........................... 19 How does the speaker describe the people at the resort? ........................ 20 Which activities didn’t the speaker particiPAT:e in, even though those activities were available? .......................

SECTION 3 Question 21-23 Complete the notes on what Mika says at the beginning of the discussion.

Mika says that if you miss what other people in a seminar say, it makes it hard to 21 ........................ the discussion. She might have a 22 .......................... if she didn’t understand what a tutor was asking her, but if she was wrong, it was 23 ....................... Question 24-27 Complete the sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap. 24 Martina says that native speaker students often continue talking even if non-native speaker students, like her, ................... 25 However, Martina points out that native speaker students will usually stop talking if you ..................... 26 Martina says that non-native speaker students need to anticipate and ....................... in order to get involved in seminar discussions. 27 Michael points out that non-native speaker students can use ....................... and body language to indicate when they are ready to add to a discussion. Question 28-30 Choose the correct answer or answers to complete each sentence. 28 Martina thinks that non-native speaker students can improve the situation by being .................... A. aggressive. B. argumentative.

C. well prepared. D. polite.

29 Mika thinks that non-native speakers can improve ......................... A. both their English and their subject knowledge quickly. B. their English quickly, but not their subject knowledge.

C their subject knowledge quickly, but not their English. D. neither their English nor their subject knowledge quickly. 30 Mika says that ...................... A. English students know a lot of technical terminology. B. English students like making friends with her outside seminars. C. English students are interested in learning about situations in foreign countries. D. non-native speaker students shouldn’t take much time to state their views.

SECTION 4 Question 31 and 32 Complete the following summary of the lecturer’s introduction by using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap. The lecturer says that he will first look at how some cultural values influence 31 ......................... and that then he will 32 ........................ demonstrating that approaches to learning in one culture may not be considered suitable in others. Question 33 and 36 Complete the notes on the way students learn in different cultures. Use only ONE word for each gap. 33.________

Arab culture

34. __________ of the Koran influences how other subjects are learnt

Chinese culture

Little or no talking or 35.___________ with other students or teachers



Focus on developing 36.____________ skills through


questioning, for example.

Question 37-40 Complete the notes on three Asian students and their experiences. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap. Country of origin

Level of study

Experience of own education system


37 .................

Students contribute little to discussions.

Students 38 ....................... to ask lecturers questions. Japan


Less focus on constructing 39 .....................



40 ........................ is responsible for providing


about facilities and requirements

READING READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage I below. The way in which information is taught can vary greatly across cultures and time periods. Entering a British primary school classroom from the early 1900s, for example, one gains a sense of austerity, discipline, and a rigid way of teaching. Desks are typically seated apart from one another,

with straight-backed wooden chairs that face directly to the teacher and the chalkboard. In the present day, British classrooms look very different. Desks are often grouped together so that students face each other rather than the teacher, and a large floor area is typically set aside for the class to come together for group discussion and learning. Traditionally, it was felt that teachers should be in firm control of the learning process, and that the teacher’s task was to prepare and present material for students to understand. Within this approach, the relationship students have with their teachers is not considered important, nor is the relationship students have with each other in the classroom. A student’s participation in class is likely to be minimal, aside from asking questions directed at the teacher, or responding to questions that the teacher has directed at the student. This style encourages students to develop respect for positions of power as a source of control and discipline. It is frequently described as the “formal authority” model of teaching. A less rigid form of teacher-centred education is the “demonstrator" model. This maintains the formal authority model’s notion of the teacher as a “flashlight” who illuminates the material for his or her class to learn, but emphasises a more individualized approach to form. The demonstrator acts as both a role model and a guide, demonstrating skills and processes and then helping students develop and apply these independently. Instructors who are drawn to the demonstrator style are generally confident that their own way of performing a task represents a good base model, but they are sensitive to differing learning styles and expect to provide students with help on an individual basis. Many education researchers argue for student-centred learning instead, and suggest that the learning process is more successful when students are in control. Within the student-centred paradigm, the “delegator" style is popular. The delegator teacher maintains general authority, but they delegate much of the responsibility for learning to the class as a way for students to become independent thinkers who take pride in their own work. Students are often encouraged to work on their own or in groups, and if the delegator style is implemented successfully, they will build not only a working knowledge of course specific topics, but also self-discipline and the ability to coordinate group work and interpersonal roles.

Another style that emphasises student-centred education is the “facilitator” mode of learning. Here, while a set of specific curriculum demands is already in place, students are encouraged to take the initiative for creating ways to meet these learning requirements together. The teacher typically designs activities that encourage active learning, group collaboration, and problem solving, and students are encouraged to process and apply the course content in creative and original ways. Whereas the delegator style emphasises content and the responsibility students can have for generating and directing their own knowledge base, the facilitator style emphasises form and the fluid and diverse possibilities that are available in the process of learning. Until the 1960s, formal authority was common in almost all Western schools and universities. As a professor would enter a university lecture theatre, a student would be expected to rush up, take his bag to the desk, and pull out the chair for the professor to sit down on. This style has become outmoded over time. Now at university, students and professors typically have more relaxed, collegiate relationships, address each other on a first name basis, and acknowledge that students have much to contribute in class. Teacher-centred education has a lingering appeal in the form of the demonstrator style, however, which remains useful in subjects where skills must be demonstrated to an external standard and the learning process remains fixed in the earlier years of education. A student of mathematics, sewing or metalwork will likely be familiar with the demonstrator style. At the highest levels of education, however, the demonstrator approach must be abandoned in all fields as students are required to produce innovative work that makes unique contributions to knowledge. Thesis and doctoral students lead their own research in facilitation with supervisors. The delegator style is valuable when the course is likely to lead students to careers that require group projects. Often, someone who has a high level of expertise in a particular field does not make for the best employee because they have not learnt to apply their abilities in a co-ordinated manner. The delegator style confronts this problem by recognizing that interpersonal communication is not just a means to learning but an important skill set in itself. The facilitator model is probably the most creative model, and is, therefore, not suited to subjects where the practical component necessitates a careful and highly disciplined manner, such as training to be a medical practitioner. It may, however, suit more experimental and theoretical fields ranging from English, music, and the social sciences to science and medical research that takes place in research

labs. In these areas, “mistakes” in form are important and valuable aspects of the learning and development process. Overall, a clear evolution has taken place in the West from a rigid, dogmatic, and teacherdominated way of learning to a flexible, creative, and student-centred approach. Nevertheless, different subjects, ages, and skill levels suit different styles of teaching, and it is unlikely that there will ever be one recommended approach for everyone. Questions 1-8: Look at the following statements (Questions 1-8) and the styles of teaching below. Match each statement with the correct teaching style, A -D. Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once. 1. The emphasis is on students directing the learning process. 2. The teacher shows the class how to do something, then students try it on their own. 3. Student-teacher interaction and student student interaction is limited. 4. The emphasis is on the process of solving problems together. 5. Students arc expected to adjust to the teacher’s way of presenting information. 6. The teacher designs group activities that encourage constructive interaction. 7. Time is set aside for one-on-one instruction between teacher and student 8. Group and individual work is encouraged independently of the teacher. List of Teaching Styles A. Formal authority B. Demonstrator

C. Delegator D. Facilitator Questions 9-12: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 9-12 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts with the information


if there is no information on this

9. The formal authority model remains popular in educational institutions of the West 10. The demonstrator model is never used at tertiary level. 11. Graduates of delegator style teaching are good communicators. 12. The facilitator style is not appropriate in the field of medicine. Question 13: Choose the correct letter. A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in box 13 on your answer sheet. 13. What is the best title for Reading Passage 1 ? A Teaching styles and their application B. Teaching: then and now C. When students become teachers D. Why student-centred learning is best

READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. THE FLAVOUR INDUSTRY A. Read through the nutritional information on the food in your freezer, refrigerator or kitchen pantry, and you are likely to find a simple, innocuous-looking ingredient recurring on a number of products: “natural flavour”. The story of what natural flavour is, how it got into your food, and where it came from is the result of more complex processes than you might imagine. B. During the 1980s, health watchdogs and nutritionists began turning their attention to cholesterol, a waxy steroid metabolite that we mainly consume from animal-sourced products such as cheese, egg yolks, beef, poultry, shrimp, and pork. Nutritionists blamed cholesterol for contributing to the growing rates of obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and several cancers in Western societies. As extensive recognition of the matter grew amongst the common people, McDonalds stopped cooking their french fries in a mixture of cottonseed oil and beef tallow, and in 1990, the restaurant chain began using 100% vegetable oil instead. C. This substantially lowered the amount of cholesterol in McDonalds’ fries, but it created a new dilemma The beef tallow and cottonseed oil mixture gave the French fries high cholesterol content, but it also gifted them with a rich aroma and “mouth-feel" that even James Beard, an American food critic, admitted he enjoyed. Pure vegetable oil is bland in comparison. Looking at the current ingredients’ list of McDonalds’ French fries, however, it is easy to see how they overcame this predicament Aside from a few preservatives, there are essentially three main ingredients: potato, soybean oil, and the mysterious component of “natural flavour”. D. Natural flavour also entered our diet through the rise in processed foods, which now make up over 90% (and growing) of the American diet, as well as representing a burgeoning industry in developing countries such as China and India Processed foods are essentially any foods that have been boxed, bagged, canned or packaged, and have a list of ingredients on the label. Sometimes, the processing involves adding a little sodium or sugar, and a few preservatives. Often, however,

it is coloured, bleached, stabilized, emulsified, dehydrated, odour-concealed, and sweetened. This process typically saps any original flavour out of the product, and so, of course, flavour must be added back in as well. E. Often this is “natural flavour”, but while the term may bring to mind images of fresh barley, hand-ground spices, and dried herbs being traded in a bustling street market, most of these natural sources are, in fact, engineered to culinary perfection in a set of factories and plants off the New Jersey Turnpike outside of New York. Here, firms such as International Flavors & Fragrances, Harmen & Keimer, Flavor Dynamics, Frutarom and Elan Chemical isolate and manufacture the tastes that are incorporated in much of what we eat and drink. The sweet, summery burst of naturally squeezed orange juice, the wood-smoked aroma in barbeque sauces, and the creamy, buttery, fresh taste in many dairy products do not come from sundrenched meadows or backyard grills but are formed in the labs and test tubes of these flavour industry giants. F. The scientists - dubbed “flavourists” who create the potent chemicals that set our olfactory senses to overdrive use a mix of techniques that have been refined over many years. Part of it is dense, intricate chemistry: spectrometers, gas chromatographs, and headspace-vapour analysers can break down components of a flavour in amounts as minute as one part per billion. Not to be outdone, however, the human nose can isolate aromas down to three parts per trillion. Flavourists, therefore, consider their work as much an art as a science, and flavourism requires a nose “trained” with a delicate and poetic sense of balance. G. Should we be wary of the industrialisation of natural flavour? On its own, the trend may not present any clear reason for alarm. Nutritionists widely agree that the real assault on health in the last few decades stems from an “unholy trinity” of sugar, fat, and sodium in processed foods. Natural flavour on its own is not a health risk. It does play a role, however, in helping these processed foods to taste fresh and nutritious, even when they are not. So, while the natural flavour industry should not be considered the culprit, we might think of it as a willing accomplice. Questions 14-21: Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G. Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter. A-G, in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet NB You may use any letter more than once. 14. examples of companies that create natural flavours 15. an instance of a multinational franchise responding to public pressure 16. a statement on the health effects of natural flavours 17. an instance where a solution turns into a problem 18. a place in the home where one may encounter the term “natural flavour” 19. details about die transformation that takes place in processed grocery items 20. a comparison of personal and technological abilities in flavour detection 21. examples of diet-related health conditions Questions 22-25: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 22-25 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts with the information


if there is no information on this

22. On their own, vegetable oils do not have a strong flavour. 23. Soybean oil is lower in cholesterol than cottonseed oil. 24. Processed foods are becoming more popular in some Asian countries.

25. All food processing involves the use of natural flavours. Question 26: Choose the correct letter. A, B.C, or D. Write the correct letter in box 26 on your answer sheet 26. The writer of Reading Passage 2 concludes that natural flavours ....................... A. are the major cause of dietary health problems. B. are unhealthy, but not as had as sugar, fat, and sodium. C. have health benefits that other ingredients tend to cancel out. D help make unhealthy foods taste better. READING PASSGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Austerity Measures Austerity measures are actions that a state undertakes in order to pay back its creditors. Those measures typically involve slashing government expenditure and hiking taxes, and most of the time, these are imposed on a country when its national deficit is believed to have become unsustainable. In this situation, banks may lose trust in the government’s ability or willingness to repay existing debts, and in return can refuse to roll over current loans and demand cripplingly excessive interest rates on new lending. Governments frequently then turn to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), an intergovernmental organization that functions as a lender of last resort. In return, the IMF typically demands austerity measures so that the indebted country is able to curtail its budget deficit and fulfill their loan obligations. A wave of austerity measures across Europe in 2010 has seen cuts and freezes to pensions, welfare and public sector salaries as well as hikes to some taxes and excises. The Greek programme

attempts to narrow its budget shortfall from 8.1 per cent of GDP in 2010 to 2.6 per cent of GDP in 2014 primarily by freezing public sector incomes during that period and reducing public sector allowances by 8 per cent. Additionally. VAT - the Greek sales tax - will be elevated to 23 per cent, and excises on fuel, tobacco, and alcohol arc also subject to an increase. The statutory retirement age for women will be raised to 65, matching it with the current retirement age for men. These reforms have been deeply unpopular in Greece, prompting a succession of general strikes that have further dented the economy. IMF-imposed austerity measures have been indicted for encouraging the deep recession following the Asian financial crisis of 1997. Starting from the early 1990s, international investors from wealthier countries such as Japan and the United States began pouring money into Southeast Asia, looking to make some quick returns, and the soaring economies of Thailand. Philippines, Malaysia and others earned themselves the title “the Asian tigers". When things started to turn sour, however, the foreign investors panicked and retracted their investments en masse decimating Asian currencies and turning millions of employees out of work. The IMF's role in the recovery was to impose austerity measures that kept interest rates high while driving down wages and labour standards at a time when workers were already suffering. According to one former IMF economist, these interventions on a global scale have caused the deaths of 6 million children every year. Many economists consequently view austerity measures as a terrible blunder. John Maynard Keynes was the first to propose an alternative method, long before the Asian financial crisis. Governments, he attempted to demonstrate, could conceivably spend their national economy out of debt. Although logically implausible at first blush, this argument is based on the notion that recessions deepen from a persistent cycle of low incomes, low consumer spending, and low business growth. A government can theoretically reverse this downward spiral by injecting the economy with much needed (albeit borrowed) capital. This is not equivalent to an indebted consumer spending further into the red, Keynes argued, because while the consumer gains no further income on that expenditure, the government’s dollar goes into the economy and then partially boomerangs later on in the form of taxation. Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz follows up on this approach by noting that households across the world are currently burdened with debt. For businesses to grow, he argues,

government and consumer expenditure must kick in first. Austerity measures lower the spending capacity of households, and are, therefore, considered under-productive. Another recipient of the Nobel Prize. Paul Krugman, points to the recent experiences of countries such as Ireland, Latvia and Estonia. Countries that implement austerity are the “good soldiers" of the crisis, he notes, implementing savage spending cuts. “But their reward has been a slump, and financial markets continue to treat them as a serious default risk.” In the United Kingdom, Prime Minister David Cameron defended the necessity of austerity measures for his country by denouncing the frivolity of governments that ratchet up spending at a time the economy is contracting. This is in line with the counter-Keynesian viewpoint, known broadly as the neoclassical position. Neoclassical economists argue that business is “inspired” by fiscally conservative governments, and this “confidence" helps re-ignite the economy. A British think-tank economist, Marshall Auerback, questions this line of thinking, wondering if Cameron suggests governments should only “ratchet up spending when the economy is growing". This Auerback warns, should be avoided because it presents genuine inflationary dangers. Questions 27-31: Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 27- 31 on your answer sheet. A government can undergo austerity measures by cutting spending and/or raising 27 .......................... If banks do not believe that a government will settle its debts, they may ask for 28 .................. that are too high to pay back. In these cases, the IMF is sometimes prepared to lend money to these governments. One of the conditions of IMF loans is that recipient countries undergo austerity measures to reduce their 29 ..................... and repay any debts. The IMF has attracted criticism for its role in Asia after the 1997 financial crisis. The crisis was caused when international investors pulled their money out of the region at once, causing 30 to foil and unemployment to rise. The IMF’s austerity measures set conditions that lowered incomes and 31 ...................... These policies have caused great suffering internationally. Questions 32-35: Choose FOUR letters A—G. Write the correct letters in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet.

Which FOUR items are identified as features of the Greek government’s austerity measure programme in 2010? A. reducing public sector wages between 2010 and 2014 B. cutting allowances for public sector workers C. raising the sales tax D. making the compulsory retirement age the same for both genders E. multiple general strikes F. making cigarettes more expensive G. eliminating the budget deficit Questions 36-40: Look at the following people (Questions 36-40) and the list of statements below. Match each person with an appropriate statement, A—F. Write the correct letter A-F in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet. 36. John Maynard Keynes 37. David Cameron 38. Marshall Auerback 39. Joseph Stiglitz 40. Paul Kingman

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The pie charts below give information about the composition of household rubbish in the United Kingdom in two different years. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Some people believe that using animals to test the safety of human medicines is cruel and unwarranted, whereas others feel it is a medical necessity. Discuss both views and state vour own opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes)

Introduction (compulsory) • Good morning/afternoon. My name is______. Can you tell me your full name, please? • What should I call you? • Could you tell me where you’re from? • Can I see your identification, please? Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself. Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live. •

Have vou always lived in this area?

Which part of the area where you live do you find most interesting? Why?

Let's talk about your studies. •

Do you have a job or are you a full-time student at the moment?

What type of job will your studies lead you to?

For how many years will you need to study in order to bccome qualified?

Interview (choose 2) Now let’s talk about shopping. 

Which types of shops do you usually like to shop at? Why?

What types of things do you buy most often? Why?

Do you prefer shoping alone or with others? Why?

Would you describe shopping as a hobby or a chore? Why? Let's talk about reading.

What types of books do you enjoy reading? Why?

Do most of your friends enjoy reading similar types of books?

Winch do you generally prefer, a book or the movie version of that book? Why?

Is there anything that you don’t like about reading? Why? Now let's talk about relaxing. • •

What is your preferred way of relaxing? Why? What is the effect on you when you take time to relax?

Do you think you have more or less time to relax nowadays than you used to? Why?

Do other people you know have much time to relax? Why? Why not?

PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, I’m going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to talk about an interesting advertisement you have seen. Describe an interesting advertisement you have seen. You should say: where you saw the advertisement what it was advertising why you thought it was interesting and say whether or not this advertisement influenced you to buy the product or service it was promoting. Rounding-off questions: •

Do you often watch advertisements on television?

Do you generally find advertisements interesting?

PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about an advertisement you found interesting and now I'd like to discuss with you one I or two more general questions related to this. Let’s consider iirst the topic of the advertising industry as a whole. •

Why do you think that some people become annoyed with advertising? Would you agree

that advertising can be irritating? Why? •

How effective do you ihink the medium of advertising is? Why?

What changes have there been in the wav products are advertised and promoted over the

last Now, let's talk about advertising and social issues. •

Advertisements for social issues such as drink-dming often use graphic images to convey

their message. What in your opinion is the impact of these types of advertisements? •

Increasingly, a number of charities arc utilising advertising and marketing as a method of

promoting their causes. How effective do you think these types of campaigns are? •

Some people feel that using celebrities to back a particular cause or social issue is a very

effective way to encourage public support of that cause. What's your opinion?

TEST 9 LISTENING SECTION 1 Question 1-4 Complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS for each gap. 1 Martina Bila’s appointment with the accommodation officer is at .............................. 2 Martina’s current accommodation is ............................. from the university than she expected. 3 The landlady is a ........................... 4 The ........................... to the university isn’t good. Question 5-7 Choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D. 5 Martina is looking for......................... A. catered accommodation. B. self-catering accommodation. C. a place with a landlady. D. catered or self-catering university accommodation. 6 The accommodation officer received details of some accommodation.......................

A. the day before Martina made the appointment. B. the day Martina made the appointment. C. the day after Martina made the appointment. D. the day before he met Martina. 7 When does the accommodation officer think other accommodation will be available? A. In the next few days

C. Not for along while

B. In the next few weeks

D. He doesn't know.

Question 8-10 Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS for each answer. 8 How much do students pay for catered accommodation during term-time? ....................... 9 What nationality arc Martina's new flatmates? .......................... 10 What will Martina lose? ........................

SECTION 2 Question 11 and 12: Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. 11 What is the title of a series of presentations that David Price will make? .......................... 12 What item has David Price given each student? ......................... Question 13 and 14

Decide which TWO things David Price recommends doing one year before going abroad. You may write your answers in either order. Choose from the following list: A. apply for scholarships B. consult tutor about current course C. make a precise budget for your studies abroad D. think about how you will pay your fees E. book accommodation F. pay your fees to the foreign university Question 15 and 16 Decide which TWO things David Price recommends doing six months before going abroad. You may write your answers in either order. Choose from the following list: A. get a new passport B. revalidate your passport C. ensure your passport is valid for at least six months D. get a visa for the country you are going to E. ensure your passport is full F. make sure your passport has some empty pages D. check if flights arrive on time E. book accommodation

F. make sure you have a conditional university offer Question 19 and 20 Complete the following summary of what students should do about health issues, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap. One month before leaving, find out if you can get 19......................where you are going to. Two weeks before you leave, ask your doctor to 20..........................giving reasons for any medicines you are taking with you. SECTION 3 Question 21-23: Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. 21 What was the student surprised to discover he had a lot of? .......................... 22 What does the student need to learn the fundamentals of? ........................... 23 On what basis should the student prepare his schedules? ............................. Question 24-26 Complete the following notes using only ONE word for each gap. Professor’s suggestions: • make a plan for your studies • make a plan for your free time • 24.......................plans if necessary • see how much time you need for activities as you 25.......................with your studies •keep schedules balanced and 26.....................

Question 27-30 Choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D. 27 The professor points out that the university language centre......................... A. would certainly be useful for the student. B. is likely to be useful for the student. C. is available for students. D. has a wide range of materials. 28 The professor suggests that the student......................... A. join the support group for students on his course. B. join the support group for students from his country. C. identify problems that people from his country have in Britain. D. create a support group. 29 The student says that...................... A. he doesn’t know anyone on his course. B. he doesn’t know the overseas students on his course. C. there are no people from his country on his course. D. there are few overseas students on his course. 30 The International Student Advisor recommended a book....................... A. but didn’t say the title clearly.

B. but couldn’t remember the title. C. for all students. D. for overseas students.

SECTION 4 Question 31-34 Complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each gap. 31 Students whose previous educational experience was ...................... often find it hard to become independent learners. 32 A student or staff member might become a..........................to a student working independently. 33 Study trips provide opportunities for independent students to learn off.......................... 34 The ELC is used by students on a..........................basis. Question 35-37 Complete the notes concerning the example of Mary and Jim, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each gap. • talk to the English tutor at the ELC • 35 ..................... materials • decide which materials to use first and how • discuss problems, 36....................... , and evaluate each other • review using notes

• decide if 37 ........................ has been achieved • continue with topic or move to another Question 38 Decide which of the following can be used by independent learners. Write all the correct letters in any order. A. tapes B. computer programs C. letters D. discussions with native speakers E. newspapers and magazines Question 39-40 Decide which of the following places independent learners can learn at. Write both the correct letters in either order. A. libraries B. the International Student Affairs Office C. museums D. shops E. cafes

READING READING PASSAGE I You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions I - 13, which are based on Heading Passage 1 below.

DISORDERS: AN OVERVIEW Autistic Spectrum Disorder Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder have difficulty understanding what other people are saying, need help to play with other children, enjoy routines and find unfamiliar situations difficult. People with Autistic Spectrum Disorder can be good at creative activities like art, music and poetry. They can concentrate on one thing for a long time no they can become very good at something that they like doing. ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder People with ADHD have three types of problems. Overactive behaviour (hyperactivity), impulsive behaviour and difficulty pitying attention. Children with ADHD arc not just very active but have a wide range of problem behaviours which can make them very difficult to care for and control. Those who have ADHD often find it difficult to fit in at school. They may also have problems getting on with other children. Some children have significant problems with concentration and attention, but are not necessarily overactive or impulsive. These children arc sometimes described as having Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) rather than ADHD. ADD can easily be missed because the child is quiet and dreamy rather than disruptive. ADHD is not related to intelligence. Children with all levels of ability can have ADHD. Stress Stress can be defined as the way you feel when you’re under abnormal pressure. All sorts of situations can cause stress. The most common, however. involve work, money matters and relationships with partners, children or other family members. Stress may be caused either by major upheavals and life events such as divorce, unemployment, moving house and bereavement, or by a series of minor irritations such as feeling undervalued at work or dealing with difficult children. Some stress can be positive and research has suggested that a moderate level of stress makes us perform better. It also makes us more alert and can help us in challenging situations such as job interviews or public speaking. Stressful situations can also be exhilarating and some people actually thrive on the excitement that comes with dangerous sports or other ‘high-risk’ activities. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a diagnosis given to some people who have severely disrupted beliefs

and experiences. During an episode of schizophrenia, a person’s experience and interpretation of the outside world is disrupted - they may lose touch with reality, see or hear things that are not there and act in unusual ways in response to these ‘hallucinations'. An episode of schizophrenia can last for several weeks and can be very frightening. The causes arc unknown but episodes of schizophrenia appear to be associated with changes in some brain chemicals. Stressful experiences and some recreational drugs tire sometimes thought to trigger an episode. Depression Depression describes a range of moods, from the low spirits that we all experience, to a severe problem that interferes with everyday life. The latter type, sometimes referred to as "clinical depression", is defined its "a persistent exaggeration of the everyday feelings that accompany sadness". If you have severe depression you may experience low mood, loss of interest and pleasure as well as feelings of worthlessness and guilt. You may also experience tearfulness, poor concentration, reduced energy, reduced or increased appetite, changes in weight, sleep problems and anxiety. You may even feel that life is not worth living, and plan or attempt suicide. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults Imagine you are getting up in the morning. You know you will need to go to the bathroom, but the thought of accidentally touching the doorknob is frightening. There may be dangerous bacteria on it. Of course you cleaned the entire bathroom yesterday, including the usual series of spraying disinfectant, washing and rinsing. As usual it took a couple of hours to do it the right way. Even then you weren’t sure whether you had missed an area, so you had to re-wash the floor. Naturally the doorknob was sprayed and rubbed three times with a bactericidal spray. Now the thought that you could have missed a spot on the doorknob makes you very nervous. This description might give you some sense of the tormented and anxious world that people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) live in. It is a world filled with dangers from outside and from within. Often elaborate rituals and thoughts are used to ward off feared events, but no amount of mental or physical activity seems adequate, so doubt and anxiety are often present. People who do not have OCD may perform behaviours in a ritualistic way, repeating, checking, or washing things out of habit or concern. Generally this is done without much, if any, worry. What distinguishes OCD as a psychiatric disorder is that the experience of obsessions, and the performance of rituals, reaches such an intensity or frequency that it causes significant psychological distress and interferes in a significant way with psycho-social functioning. The guideline of at least one hour spent on symptoms per day is often used as a measure of ‘significant interference’. However, among patients who try to avoid situations that bring on anxiety and compulsions, the actual symptoms may not consume an hour. Yet the quantity of time lost from having to avoid objects or situations would dearly constitute interfering with functioning. Consider, for instance, a welfare mother who throws out more than $100 of groceries a week because of contamination fears. Although this behaviour has a major effect on her functioning, it might not consume one hour per day.

Patients with OCD describe their experience as having thoughts (obsessions) that they associate with some danger. The sufferer generally recognises that it is his or her own thoughts, rather than something imposed by someone else (as in some paranoid schizophrenic patients). However, the disturbing thoughts cannot be dismissed, and simply nag at the sufferer. Something must then be done to relieve the danger and mitigate the fear. This leads to actions and thoughts that are intended to neutralise the danger. These are the compulsions. Because these behaviours seem to give the otherwise ‘helplessly anxious’ person something to combat the danger, they are temporarily reassuring. However, since the 'danger' is typically irrational or imaginary, it simply returns, thereby triggering another cycle of the briefly reassuring compulsions. From the standpoint of classic conditioning, this pattern of painful obsession followed by temporarily reassuring compulsion eventually produces an intensely ingrained habit. It is rare to see obsessions without compulsions. The two most common obsessions are fears of contamination and fear of harming oneself or others, while the two most common compulsions are checking and cleaning. Questions 1-5 Look at the statements (Questions I - 5) and the list of disorders (A - G) below. Match each statement with the correct disorder A - G. Write the correct letter A - G next to questions I - 5 below. NB There are more disorders than descriptions, so you will not use them all. 1 can be positive in small doses but is generally associated with pressure 2 feeling that there is danger constantly present 3 has experiences that may or may not be part of the ‘real’ world 4 active to the point of losing concentration and becoming disruptive 5 good at art but not at communicating Types of Disorders A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Stress Autistic Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder Schizophrenia Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Depression Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Questions 6-9 Complete the table below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. Disorder

Personality Trait Exhibited by Sufferer

Autism Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder Schizophrenia Depression Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

My excel in activities of a 6.....................nature May appear 7............................ . May respond to experiencing episodes of the disease by behaving in very 8 ............................ . May experience feelings of futility that lead to thoughts of 9............................ . May frequently experience feelings of doubt and anxiety.

Questions 10 - 13 Choose the correct Utter, A, B, C or D. 10 Which disorder could causc visible physical changes? A Autistic Spectrum Disorder B Stress C Schizophrenia D Depression 11 Episodes of which disorder may last for a limited period of time? A ADHD B Autistic Spectrum Disorder C schizophrenia D depression 12 W'hich disorder can be triggered by the death of a loved one? A Autistic Spectrum Disorder B ADHD C Stress D OCD 13 What characterises sufferers of OCD? A the fear of going outside B the performance of rituals C the desire to hurt others D the feeling that they are helpless to ease their distress

READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 - 26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. THE DEVELOPING WORLD A THE DEVELOPING WORLD - the economically underdeveloped countries of Asia. Africa. Oceania and Latin America - is considered as an entity with common characteristics, such as poverty, high birth rates, and economic dependence on the advanced countries. Until recently, the developing world was known as ‘the third world'. The French demographer Alfred Sauvy coined the expression (in French) in 1952 by analogy with the 'third estate' - the commoners of France before and during the French Revolution - as opposed to priests and nobles, comprising the First and second estates respectively. ‘Like the third estate’, wrote Sauvy, 'the third world is nothing, and it wants to be something'. The term therefore implies that the third world is exploited, much as the third estate was exploited and that, like the third estate, its destiny is a revolutionary one. It conveys as well a second idea, also discussed by Sauvy - that of nonalignment, for the developing world belongs neither to the industrialised capitalist world nor to the industrialised former communist bloc. The expression 'third world’ was used at the 1955 conference of Afro-Asian countries held in Bandung. Indonesia. In 1956 a group of social scientists associated with Sauvy's National Institute of Demographic Studies, in Paris, published a book called ‘Le Tiers-Monde'. Three years later, the French economist Francois Perroux launched a new journal, on problems of underdevelopment, with the same title. By the end of the 1950s the term was frequently employed in the French media to refer to the underdeveloped countries of Asia. Africa, Oceania and Latin America. Present day politicians and social commentators, however, now use the term ‘developing world' in a politically correct effort to dispel the negative connotations of ‘third world'. B Countries in the developing world have a number of common traits: distorted and highly dependent economies devoted to producing primary products for the developed world; traditional, rural social structures; high population growth and widespread poverty. Nevertheless, the developing world is sharply differentiated, for it includes countries on various levels of economic development. And despite the poverty of the countryside and the urban shanty towns, the ruling elites of most third world countries are wealthy. C This combination of conditions in Asia, Africa, Oceania and Latin America is linked to the absorption of the developing world into the international capitalist economy, by way of conquest or indirect domination. The main economic consequence of Western domination was the creation, for the first time in history, of a world market. By setting up sub-economies linked to the West throughout the developing world, and by introducing other modern institutions, industrial capitalism disrupted traditional economies and, indeed, societies. This disruption led to underdevelopment.

D Because the economies of underdeveloped countries have been geared to the needs of industrialised countries, they often comprise only a few modem economic activities, such as mining or the cultivation of plantation crops. Control over these activities has often remained in the hands of large foreign firms. The prices of developing world products are usually determined by large buyers in the economically dominant countries of the West, and trade with the West provides almost all the developing world's income. Throughout the colonial period, outright exploitation severely limited the accumulation of capital within the foreign dominated countries. Even after decolonisation (in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s), the economies of the developing world grew slowly, or not at all, owing largely to the deterioration of the ‘terms of trade’ - the relationship between the cost of the goods a nation must import from abroad and its income from the exports it sends to foreign countries. Terms of trade are said to deteriorate when the cost of imports rises faster than income from exports. Since buyers in the industrialised countries determined the prices of most products involved in international trade, the worsening position of the developing world was scarcely surprising. Only the oil-producing countries - after 1973 - succeeded in escaping the effects of Western domination of the world economy. E No study of the developing world could hope to assess its future prospects without taking into account population growth. While the mortality rate from poverty-related diseases continues to cause international concern, the birth rate continues to rise at unprecedented levels. This population explosion in the developing world will surely prevent any substantial improvements in living standards, as well as threaten people in stagnant economies with worsening poverty and starvation levels. Questions 14 - 18 Reading Passage 2 has five paragraphs, A - E. Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate number i - viii in spaces 14-18 below.

List of Headings i The great divide between rich and poor. ii The status and destiny of the developing' world follows a European precedent. iii Economic progress in the developing world slowed down In political unrest. iv More people, less food. v Western countries refuse to acknowledge their history of colonisation. vi Open trade is the main reason these countries become impoverished. vii Rivalry in the developing world between capitalist and former communist bloc countries. vii Prices and conditions set by outsiders


Paragraph A ________


Paragraph B ________


Paragraph C ________


Paragraph D ________


Paragraph E ________

Questions 19-22 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In spaces 19-22 below, write YES

if the statement agrees with the views of the writer


if the statement contradicts with the view of the writer


if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

19 Agriculture still plays a role in the economy of developing countries. ________ 20 The population of the developing world increases at such a fast


rate because they constantly need to renew the labour force.


21 Countries that spend more on imports than they earn from exports can experience problems.


22 Like the developing world, oil-rich countries are also victims of dominance by Western powers.


Questions 23 - 26 Complete each sentence with the correct ending A - F below. Write the correct letter A - F in spaces 23 - 26 below. 23 Countries in the developing world


24 The term ‘the third world’ implies


25 One factor that is prevalent in the developing world is


26 One consequence of the terms of trade was


A economic dependence on developed countries. B that decolonisation took a long time to achieve. C dictate the needs of industrialised countries. D share common characteristics.. E that many economies stagnated. F a society that wants something it does not have.

READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27 - 40, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. BIOMETRICS A The term "biometrics’ is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). It refers to technologies for measuring and analysing a person’s physiological or behavioural characteristics, such as fingerprints, irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements, for identification and verification purposes. One of the earliest known examples of biometrics in practice was a form of fingerprinting used in China in the 14th century. Chinese merchants stamped children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another. This method of biometrics is still being practised today. B Until the late 1800s, identification largely relied upon 'photographic memory.' In the 1890s, an anthropologist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse Bertillon sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. He developed a method of multiple body measurements which was named after him - Bertillonage. Bertillon based his system on the claim that measurement of adult bones does not change after the age of 20. He also introduced a cataloguing system, which enabled the filing and checking of records quite quickly. His system was used by police authorities throughout the world, until 1903, when two identical measurements were obtained for two different persons at Fort Leavenworth prison. The prison switched to fingerprinting the following day and the rest of the world soon followed, abandoning Bertillonage forever. After the failure of Bertillonage, the police started using fingerprinting, which was developed by Richard Edward Henry of Scotland Yard, essentially reverting to the same methods used by the Chinese for years. C In the past three decades biometrics has moved from a single method (fingerprinting) to more than ten different methods. Hundreds of companies are involved with this development and continue to improve their methods as the technology available to them advances. As the industry grows,

however, so does the public concern over privacy issues. Laws and regulations continue to be drafted and standards are beginning to be developed. While no other biometric has yet reached the wide range of use of fingerprinting, some are beginning to be used in both legal and business areas. D Identification and verification have long been in practice by presenting a personal document, such as a licence, ID card or a passport. It may also require personal information such as passwords or PINs. For security reasons, often two, or all three, of these systems are combined but as times progress, we are in constant need for more secure and accurate measures. Authentication by biometric verification is becoming increasingly common in corporate and public security systems, consumer electronics and point of-sale applications. In addition to security, the driving force behind biometric verification has been convenience. Already, many European countries are introducing a biometric passport which will carry a paper-thin computer chip to store the facial image and at least one additional biometric identifier. This will help to counter fraudulent efforts to obtain duplicate passports and will verify the identity of the holder against the document. E Identification and verification are mainly used today in the fight against crime with the methods of fingerprint and DNA analysis. It is also used in security for granting access rights by voice pattern recognition. Additionally, it is used for personal comfort by identifying a person and changing personal settings accordingly, as in setting car seats by facial recognition. Starting in early 2000, the use of biometrics in schools has become widespread, particularly in the UK and USA. A number of justifications are given for such practices, including combatting truancy, and replacing library cards or meal cards with fingerprinting systems. Opponents of school biometrics have raised privacy concerns against the creation of databases that would progressively include the entire population. F Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device, software that converts the gathered information into digital form, and a database that stores the biometric data for comparison with previous records. When converting the biometric input, the software identifies specific points of data as match points. The match points are processed using an algorithm into a value that can be compared with biometric data in the database. There are two types of biometrics: behavioural and physical. Behavioural biometrics are generally used for verification while physical biometrics can be used for either identification or verification. G Iris-pattern and retina-pattern authentication methods are already employed in some bank automatic teller machines. Voice waveform recognition, a method of verification that has been used for many years with tape recordings in telephone wiretaps, is now being used for access to proprietary databanks in research facilities. Facial-recognition technology has been used by law enforcement to pick out individuals in large crowds with considerable reliability. Hand geometry is being used in industry to provide physical access to buildings. Earlobe geometry has been used to disprove the identity of individuals who claim to be someone they are not (identity theft). Signature comparison is not as reliable, all by itself, as other biometric verification methods

but offers an extra layer of verification when used in conjunction with one or more other methods. No matter what biometric methodology is used, the identification verification process remains the same. A record of a person's unique characteristic is captured and kept in a database. Later on, when identification verification is required, a new record is captured and compared with the previous record in the database. If the data in the new record matches that in the database record, the person’s identity is confirmed. H As technology advances, and time goes on, more and more private companies and public utilities will use biometrics for safe, accurate identification. However, these advances will raise many concerns throughout society, where many may not be educated on the methods. Some believe this technology can cause physical harm to an individual using it, or that instruments used are unsanitary. For example, there are concerns that retina scanners might not always be clean There are also concerns as to whether our personal information taken through biometric methods can be misused, tampered with, or sold, eg. by criminals stealing, rearranging or copying the biometric data Also, the data obtained using biometrics can be used in unauthorised ways without the individual's consent. Much still remains to be seen in the effectiveness of biometric verification before we can identify it as the safest system for identification. Questions 27 - 31 Reading Passage 3 has eight paragraphs, A - H. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A - H in spaces 27 - 31 below. 27 possible health hazards associated with the use of biometrics 28 convicted criminals were not the first to be identified by the use of biometrics 29 the application of mathematics in assessing biometric data 30 despite its limitations, biometries has bccomc a commercial field of activity 31 some biometric methods are useful only in conjunction with others Questions 32 - 34 Complete the sentences below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. 32 Members of the public are becoming increasingly worried about the that may accompany the use of biometrics. 33 Biometries can be used to improve the of drivers and passengers. 34 Regardless of the technology used, it has one common purpose: to find somebody’s and store it on computer.

Questions 35 - 40 Compute the summary unlh the list of words A - L below. Write the correct Utter A - Lin spaces 35 - 40 below. BIOMETRICS As long ago as the 14th century, the Chinese made use of biometrics in order to tell young children apart, but it was only in the 1890s when it was first used by the authorities as a means of 35 .............................. in criminal cases. The system developed by the Frenchman Bertillon that of measuring adult bones - was flawed, however, and so police adopted 36 .............................. as a more reliable way of identifying suspects. Governments, companies and even schools employ biometric technology to ensure, for example, that people do not enter a country illegally, gain access to certain buildings, or assume someone else's 37 .............................. . Apart from security, another important 38 behind biometric verification has been 39 .............................. .The use of biometrics, however, has its critics, who say that the data collected could be used for different purposes without our 40 .............................. . A identification

D scanning

G violation

J approval

B security

E fingerprinting

H measuring

K factor

C convenience

F identity

I justification

L apprehension

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The table below gives information about past and projected population figures in various countries for different years. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words. Population (milions)

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Some individuals feel that working from home, while of benefit to employees, is actually a drawback for employers. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory) •

Good morning/afternoon. My name is______.Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please?

Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself.

Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live. •

What is your town famous for?

Do many people visit your town?

What sights would you recommend to a visitor to your town? Why?

Let's talk about your studies. • Which subjects are you studying at the moment? • Why did you choose to study these subjects? • Are there any subjects which you are not studying but are interested in? Interview (choose 2) Now, let's talk about music. •

How do you usually find out about new music?

Where do you normally buy new music? Why?

Do you think listening to music can have an effect on your moods? Why?

What do you enjoy most about listening to music? Why?

Now, let’s talk about friends. •

How often do you spend time with your friends?

What type of things do s ou and your friends do together?

What kinds of things do you do to show you are a good friend?

Would you prefer to have a lot of acquaintances or a few good friends? Why?

Now, let's talk about emails. •

When was the last time you sent or received an email?

What purpose do you mainly use email for? Why?

Do you prefer to receive group or individual emails? Why?

Is there anything that you dislike about emails?

PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, I’m going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to talk about an activity which you enjoy doing outdoors. Describe an activity which you enjoy doing outdoors. You should say:


where and when you like to do it who you like to do it with how often you do it and say why you enjoy doing this activity. Rounding-off questions: •

Do you often do this outdoor activity?

Is the location for this activity close to home?

PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about an outdoor activity you enjoy and now I'd like to discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let's consider first the topic of conserving outdoor spaces.

Do you think that people nowadays are more or less aware of conserving public spaces for

parks and reserves in comparison to 20 years ago? Why? Why not? •

Some people argue- that urban development is more important than keeping public spaces

for recreation? What's your view? •

Who, tends to enjoy outdoor recreation spaces more: young people or old people? Why? I

Now, let's talk about working outdoors. • What types of jobs do people in your country do in the outdoors? • What are some of the advantages of working outdoors? Why? • Are there any draw backs to working outdoors? Why?


SECTION 1 Questions 1-5 Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Transport from Airport to Milton Example



147 miles

Options: 

Car hire


don’t want to drive

1 ……………… -


Greyhound bus -

$15 single, $27.50 return


direct to the 2 ……………….


long 3………………

Airport Shuttle


4……………… Service


every 2 hours


$35 single, $65 return


need to 5 ……………….. Questions 6-10

Complete the booking form below. Write ONE WORD AN DIOR A NUMBER for each answer. AIRPORT SHUTTLE BOOKING FORM To:


Date: 6 ……………….

No. of passengers: One

Bus Time: 7 ……………..pm

Type of ticket: Single

Name: Janet 8 ……………….. Flight No: 9 …………….

From: London Heathrow

Address in Milton: Vacation Motel , 24 Kitchener Street Fare:


Credit Card No: (Visa) 10 ……………..

SECTION 2 Questions 11-16 Choose the correct letter A, B or C. 11 PS Camping has been organising holidays for …………….. A. years. B. years. C. years. 12 The company has most camping sites in …………….. A. France. B. Italy. C. Switzerland.

13. Which organised activity can children do every day of the week? A. football B. drama C. model making 14. Some areas of the sites have a ‘no noise’ rule after ……………….. A. 9.30 p.m. B. 10.00 p.m. C. 10.30 p.m. 15 The holiday insurance that is offered by PS Camping ……………. A. can be charged on an annual basis. B. is included in the price of the holiday. C. must be taken out at the time of booking. 16 Customers who recommend PS Camping to friends will receive ……………… A. a free gift. B. an upgrade to a luxury tent. C. a discount . Questions 17-20 What does the speaker say about the following items? Write the correct letter A, B or C next to questions 17-20. A. They are provided in all tents. B. They are found in central areas of the campsite. C. They are available on request. 17 barbecues 18 toys 19 cool boxes 20 maps and buckets

SECTION 3 Questions 21-23

Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS IN THE WORKPLACE Individuals bring different: 


21 ……………….

learning experiences Work behaviour differences are due to:


22 ……………….. Effects of diversity on companies: Advantage: diversity develops 23 ………………. Disadvantage: diversity can cause conflict Questions 24-27 Choose the correct letter A, B or C. 24 Janice thinks that employers should encourage workers who are ……………… A. potential leaders. B. open to new ideas. C. good at teamwork. 25 Janice suggests that managers may find it difficult to ………………. A. form successful groups. B. balance conflicting needs. C. deal with uncooperative workers. 26 Janice believes employers should look for job applicants who ……………. A. can think independently.

B. will obey the system. C. can solve problems. 27 Janice believes managers should ………………. A. demonstrate good behaviour. B. encourage co-opcration early on. C. increase financial incentives. Questions 28-30 Complete the sentences below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer. 28 All managers need to understand their employees and recognise their company's ……………………… 29 When managing change, increasing the company’s …………….. may be more important than employee satisfaction. 30 During periods of change, managers may have to cope with increased amounts of ……………………..


Questions 31-35 Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

SEMINAR ON ROCK ART Preparation for fieldwork trip to Namibia in 31 ………………… Rock art in Namibia may be 



Earliest explanation of engravings of animal footprints They were used to help 32 ……………..learn about tracking But: 

Why are the tracks usually 33 ……………..?

Why are some engravings realistic and others unrealistic?

Why are the unrealistic animals sometimes half 34 ………………? More recent explanation: Wise men may have been trying to control wild animals with 35 ……………….. Comment: Earlier explanation was due to scholars over-generalising from their experience of a different culture.

Questions 36-40 Complete the sentences below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer. 36 If you look at a site from a …………… you reduce visitor pressure. 37 To camp on a site may be disrespectful to people from that ……………….. 38 Undiscovered material may be damaged by …………………. 39 You should avoid ……………… or tracing rock art as it is so fragile. 40 In general, your aim is to leave the site ………………….

READING READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1–13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Aphantasia: A life without mental images Close your eyes and imagine walking along a sandy beach and then gazing over the horizon as the Sun rises. How clear is the image that springs to mind? Most people can readily conjure images inside their head - known as their mind's eye. But this year scientists have described a condition, aphantasia, in which some people are unable to visualise mental images. Niel Kenmuir, from Lancaster, has always had a blind mind's eye. He knew he was different even in childhood. "My stepfather, when I couldn't sleep, told me to count sheep, and he explained what he meant, I tried to do it and I couldn't," he says. "I couldn't see any sheep jumping over fences, there was nothing to count." Our memories are often tied up in images, think back to a wedding or first day at school. As a result, Niel admits, some aspects of his memory are "terrible", but he is very good at remembering facts. And, like others with aphantasia, he struggles to recognise faces. Yet he does not see aphantasia as a disability, but simply a different way of experiencing life. Mind's eye blind Ironically, Niel now works in a bookshop, although he largely sticks to the non-fiction aisles. His condition begs the question what is going on inside his picture-less mind. I asked him what happens when he tries to picture his fiancee. "This is the hardest thing to describe, what happens in my head when I think about things," he says. "When I think about my fiancee there is no image, but I am definitely thinking about her, I know today she has her hair up at the back, she's brunette. But I'm not describing an image I am looking at, I'm remembering features about her, that's the strangest thing and maybe that is a source of some regret." The response from his mates is a very sympathetic: "You're weird." But while Niel is very relaxed about his inability to picture things, it is often a cause of distress for others. One person who took part in a study into aphantasia said he had started to feel "isolated" and "alone" after discovering that other people could see images in their heads. Being unable to reminisce about his mother years after her death led to him being "extremely distraught".

The super-visualiser At the other end of the spectrum is children's book illustrator, Lauren Beard, whose work on the Fairytale Hairdresser series will be familiar to many six-year-olds. Her career relies on the vivid images that leap into her mind's eye when she reads text from her author. When I met her in her box-room studio in Manchester, she was working on a dramatic scene in the next book. The text describes a baby perilously climbing onto a chandelier. "Straightaway I can visualise this grand glass chandelier in some sort of French kind of ballroom, and the little baby just swinging off it and really heavy thick curtains," she says. "I think I have a strong imagination, so I can create the world and then keep adding to it so it gets sort of bigger and bigger in my mind and the characters too they sort of evolve. I couldn't really imagine what it's like to not imagine, I think it must be a bit of a shame really." Not many people have mental imagery as vibrant as Lauren or as blank as Niel. They are the two extremes of visualisation. Adam Zeman, a professor of cognitive and behavioural neurology, wants to compare the lives and experiences of people with aphantasia and its polar-opposite hyperphantasia. His team, based at the University of Exeter, coined the term aphantasia this year in a study in the journal Cortex. Prof Zeman tells the BBC: "People who have contacted us say they are really delighted that this has been recognised and has been given a name, because they have been trying to explain to people for years that there is this oddity that they find hard to convey to others." How we imagine is clearly very subjective - one person's vivid scene could be another's grainy picture. But Prof Zeman is certain that aphantasia is real. People often report being able to dream in pictures, and there have been reported cases of people losing the ability to think in images after a brain injury. He is adamant that aphantasia is "not a disorder" and says it may affect up to one in 50 people. But he adds: "I think it makes quite an important difference to their experience of life because many of us spend our lives with imagery hovering somewhere in the mind's eye which we inspect from time to time, it's a variability of human experience." Questions 1–5 Do the following statements agree with the information in the IELTS reading text? In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts the information


if there is no information on this

1. Aphantasia is a condition, which describes people, for whom it is hard to visualise mental images. 2. Niel Kenmuir was unable to count sheep in his head. 3. People with aphantasia struggle to remember personal traits and clothes of different people. 4. Niel regrets that he cannot portray an image of his fiancee in his mind. 5. Inability to picture things in someone's head is often a cause of distress for a person. 6. All people with aphantasia start to feel 'isolated' or 'alone' at some point of their lives. 7. Lauren Beard's career depends on her imagination. 8. The author met Lauren Beard when she was working on a comedy scene in her next book.

Questions 9–13 Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.

9. Only a small fraction of people have imagination as_________ as Lauren does. 10. Hyperphantasia is __________ to aphantasia. 11.There are a lot of subjectivity in comparing people's imagination - somebody's vivid scene could be another person's __________ . 12. Prof Zeman is _________ that aphantasia is not an illness. 13. Many people spend their lives with _________ somewhere in the mind's eye.

READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14–26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. Life lessons from villains, crooks and gangsters (A) A notorious Mexican drug baron’s audacious escape from prison in July doesn’t, at first, appear to have much to teach corporate boards. But some in the business world suggest otherwise. Beyond the morally reprehensible side of criminals' work, some business gurus say organised crime syndicates, computer hackers, pirates and others operating outside the law could teach legitimate corporations a thing or two about how to hustle and respond to rapid change. (B) Far from encouraging illegality, these gurus argue that – in the same way big corporations sometimes emulate start-ups – business leaders could learn from the underworld about flexibility, innovation and the ability to pivot quickly. “There is a nimbleness to criminal organisations that legacy corporations [with large, complex layers of management] don’t have,” said Marc Goodman, head of the Future Crimes Institute and global cyber-crime advisor. While traditional businesses focus on rules they have to follow, criminals look to circumvent them. “For criminals, the sky is the limit and that creates the opportunity to think much, much bigger.”

(C) Joaquin Guzman, the head of the Mexican Sinaloa drug cartel, for instance, slipped out of his prison cell through a tiny hole in his shower that led to a mile-long tunnel fitted with lights and ventilation. Making a break for it required creative thinking, long-term planning and perseverance – essential skills similar to those needed to achieve success in big business.

(D) While Devin Liddell, who heads brand strategy for Seattle-based design consultancy, Teague, condemns the violence and other illegal activities he became curious as to how criminal groups endure. Some cartels stay in business despite multiple efforts by law enforcement on both sides of the US border and millions of dollars from international agencies to shut them down. Liddell genuinely believes there’s a lesson in longevity here. One strategy he underlined was how the bad guys respond to change. In order to bypass the border between Mexico and the US, for example, the Sinaloa cartel went to great lengths. It built a vast underground tunnel, hired family members as border agents and even used a catapult to circumvent a high-tech fence.

(E) By contrast, many legitimate businesses fail because they hesitate to adapt quickly to changing market winds. One high-profile example is movie and game rental company Blockbuster, which didn’t keep up with the market and lost business to mail order video rentals and streaming technologies. The brand has all but faded from view. Liddell argues the difference between the two groups is that criminal organisations often have improvisation encoded into their daily behaviour, while larger companies think of innovation as a set process. “This is a leadership challenge,” said Liddell. “How well companies innovate and organise is a reflection of leadership.”

Left-field thinking (F) Cash-strapped start-ups also use unorthodox strategies to problem solve and build their businesses up from scratch. This creativity and innovation is often borne out of necessity, such as tight budgets. Both criminals and start-up founders “question authority, act outside the system and see new and clever ways of doing things,” said Goodman. “Either they become Elon Musk or El Chapo.” And, some entrepreneurs aren’t even afraid to operate in legal grey areas in their effort to disrupt the marketplace. The co-founders of music streaming service Napster, for example, knowingly broke music copyright rules with their first online file sharing service, but their technology paved the way for legal innovation as regulators caught up. (G) Goodman and others believe thinking hard about problem solving before worrying about restrictions could prevent established companies falling victim to rivals less constrained by tradition. In their book The Misfit Economy, Alexa Clay and Kyra Maya Phillips examine how individuals can apply that mindset to become more innovative and entrepreneurial within corporate structures. They studied not just violent criminals like Somali pirates, but others who break the rules in order to find creative solutions to their business problems, such as people living in the slums of Mumbai or computer hackers. They picked out five common traits among this group: the ability to hustle, pivot, provoke, hack and copycat. (H) Clay gives a Saudi entrepreneur named Walid Abdul-Wahab as a prime example. AbdulWahab worked with Amish farmers to bring camel milk to American consumers even before US regulators approved it. Through perseverance, he eventually found a network of Amish camel milk farmers and started selling the product via social media. Now his company, Desert Farms, sells to giant mainstream retailers like Whole Foods Market. Those on the fringe don’t always have the option of traditional, corporate jobs and that forces them to think more creatively about how to make a living, Clay said. They must develop grit and resilience in order to last outside the cushy confines of cubicle life. “In many cases scarcity is the mother of invention,” Clay said.

Questions 14-21 Reading Passage 2 has eight paragraphs A-H. Match the headings below with the paragraphs. Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet. 14. Jailbreak with creative thinking ____________ 15. Five common traits among rule-breakers ____________ 16. Comparison between criminals and traditional businessmen ___________ 17. Can drug baron's espace teach legitimate corporations? ___________ 18. Great entrepreneur ___________ . 19. How criminal groups deceive the law ___________. 20. The difference between legal and illegal organizations ___________ . 21. Similarity between criminals and start-up founders __________ .

Questions 22–25 Complete the sentences below. Write ONLY ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 22–25 on your answer sheet. 22. To escape from a prison, Joaquin Guzman had to use such traits as creative thinking, long-term planning and __________. 23. The Sinaloa cartel built a grand underground tunnel and even used a __________ to avoid the fence. 24. The main difference between two groups is that criminals, unlike large corporations, often have _________ ncoded into their daily life. 25. Due to being persuasive, Walid Abdul-Wahab found a ________ of Amish camel milk farmers.

Question 26 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

26. The main goal of this article is to: A. Show different ways of illegal activity B. Give an overview of various criminals and their gangs C. Draw a comparison between legal and illegal business, providing examples D. Justify criminals with creative thinking

READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28–40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. As More Tech Start-Ups Stay Private, So Does the Money Not long ago, if you were a young, brash technologist with a world-conquering start-up idea, there was a good chance you spent much of your waking life working toward a single business milestone: taking your company public. Though luminaries of the tech industry have always expressed skepticism and even hostility toward the finance industry, tech’s dirty secret was that it looked to Wall Street and the ritual of a public offering for affirmation — not to mention wealth. But something strange has happened in the last couple of years: The initial public offering of stock has become déclassé. For start-up entrepreneurs and their employees across Silicon Valley, an initial public offering is no longer a main goal. Instead, many founders talk about going public as a necessary evil to be postponed as long as possible because it comes with more problems than benefits. “If you can get $200 million from private sources, then yeah, I don’t want my company under the scrutiny of the unwashed masses who don’t understand my business,” said Danielle Morrill, the chief executive of Mattermark, a start-up that organizes and sells information about the startup market. “That’s actually terrifying to me. Silicon Valley’s sudden distaste for the I.P.O. — rooted in part in Wall Street’s skepticism of new tech stocks — may be the single most important psychological shift underlying the current tech boom. Staying private affords start-up executives the luxury of not worrying what outsiders think and helps them avoid the quarterly earnings treadmill. It also means Wall Street is doing what it failed to do in the last tech boom: using traditional metrics like growth and profitability to price companies. Investors have been tough on Twitter, for example, because its user growth has slowed. They have been tough on Box, the cloud-storage

company that went public last year, because it remains unprofitable. And the e-commerce company Zulily, which went public last year, was likewise punished when it cut its guidance for future sales. Scott Kupor, the managing partner at the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, and his colleagues said in a recent report that despite all the attention start-ups have received in recent years, tech stocks are not seeing unusually high valuations. In fact, their share of the overall market has remained stable for 14 years, and far off the peak of the late 1990s. That unwillingness to cut much slack to young tech companies limits risk for regular investors. If the bubble pops, the unwashed masses, if that’s what we are, aren’t as likely to get washed out. Private investors, on the other hand, are making big bets on so-called unicorns — the Silicon Valley jargon for start-up companies valued at more than a billion dollars. If many of those unicorns flop, most Americans will escape unharmed, because losses will be confined to venture capitalists and hedge funds that have begun to buy into tech start-ups, as well as tech founders and their employees. The reluctance — and sometimes inability — to go public is spurring the unicorns. By relying on private investors for a longer period of time, start-ups get more runway to figure out sustainable business models. To delay their entrance into the public markets, firms like Airbnb, Dropbox, Palantir, Pinterest, Uber and several other large start-ups are raising hundreds of millions, and in some cases billions, that they would otherwise have gained through an initial public offering. “These companies are going public, just in the private market,” Dan Levitan, the managing partner of the venture capital firm Maveron, told me recently. He means that in many cases, hedge funds and other global investors that would have bought shares in these firms after an I.P.O. are deciding to go into late-stage private rounds. There is even an oxymoronic term for the act of obtaining private money in place of a public offering: It’s called a “private I.P.O.” The delay in I.P.O.s has altered how some venture capital firms do business. Rather than waiting for an initial offering, Maveron, for instance, says it now sells its stake in a start-up to other, larger private investors once it has made about 100 times its initial investment. It is the sort of return that once was only possible after an I.P.O. But there is also a downside to the new aversion to initial offerings. When the unicorns do eventually go public and begin to soar — or whatever it is that fantastical horned beasts tend to do when they’re healthy — the biggest winners will be the private investors that are now bearing most of the risk. It used to be that public investors who got in on the ground floor of an initial offering could earn historic gains. If you invested $1,000 in Amazon at its I.P.O. in 1997, you would now have nearly $250,000. If you had invested $1,000 in Microsoft in 1986, you would have close to half a million. Public investors today are unlikely to get anywhere near such gains from tech I.P.O.s. By the time tech companies come to the market, the biggest gains have already been extracted by private backers.

Just 53 technology companies went public in 2014, which is around the median since 1980, but far fewer than during the boom of the late 1990s and 2000, when hundreds of tech companies went public annually, according to statistics maintained by Jay Ritter, a professor of finance at the University of Florida. Today’s companies are also waiting longer. In 2014, the typical tech company hitting the markets was 11 years old, compared with a median age of seven years for tech I.P.O.s since 1980. Over the last few weeks, I’ve asked several founders and investors why they’re waiting; few were willing to speak on the record about their own companies, but their answers all amounted to “What’s the point?” Initial public offerings were also ways to compensate employees and founders who owned lots of stock, but there are now novel mechanisms — such as selling shares on a secondary market — for insiders to cash in on some of their shares in private companies. Still, some observers cautioned that the new trend may be a bad deal for employees who aren’t given much information about the company’s performance. “One thing employees may be confused about is when companies tell them, ‘We’re basically doing a private I.P.O.,’ it might make them feel like there’s less risk than there really is,” said Ms. Morrill of Mattermark. But she said it was hard to persuade people that their paper gains may never materialize. “The Kool-Aid is really strong,” she said. If the delay in I.P.O.s becomes a normal condition for Silicon Valley, some observers say tech companies may need to consider new forms of compensation for workers. “We probably need to fundamentally rethink how do private companies compensate employees, because that’s going to be an issue,” said Mr. Kupor, of Andreessen Horowitz. During a recent presentation for Andreessen Horowitz’s limited partners — the institutions that give money to the venture firm — Marc Andreessen, the firm’s co-founder, told the journalist Dan Primack that he had never seen a sharper divergence in how investors treat public- and privatecompany chief executives. “They tell the public C.E.O., ‘Give us the money back this quarter,’ and they tell the private C.E.O., ‘No problem, go for 10 years,’ ” Mr. Andreessen said. At some point this tension will be resolved. “Private valuations will not forever be higher than public valuations,” said Mr. Levitan, of Maveron. “So the question is, Will private markets capitulate and go down or will public markets go up?” If the private investors are wrong, employees, founders and a lot of hedge funds could be in for a reckoning. But if they’re right, it will be you and me wearing the frown — the public investors who missed out on the next big thing. Questions 28–31 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 28–31 on your answer sheet.

28. How much funds would you gain by now, if you had invested 1000$ in the Amazon in 1997? A. 250,000$ B. close to 500,000$ C. It is not stated in the text D. No funds 29. Nowadays founders talk about going public as a: A. necessity B. benefit C. possibility D. profit 30. In which time period was the biggest number of companies going public? A. early 1990s B. late 1900s and 2000s C. 1980s D. late 1990s 31. According to the text, which of the following is true? A. Private valuations may be forever higher than public ones. B. Public valuations eventually will become even less valuable. C. The main question is whether the public market increase or the private market decrease. D. The pressure might last for a long time. Questions 32–36 Complete the sentences below. Write ONLY ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 32–36 on your answer sheet.

32. Skepticism was always expected by the ___________of tech industry. 33. The new aversion to initial offerings has its ___________. 34. Selling shares on a secondary market is considered a ___________. mechanism. 35. Workers' compensation might be an ___________. 36. The public investors who failed to participate in the next big thing might be the ones wearing the ___________.

Questions 37–40 Do the following statements agree with the information in the IELTS reading text? In boxes 37–40 on your answer sheet, write TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts the information


if there is no information on this

37. Private investors are bearing most of the risk. 38. Not many investors were willing to speak on the record. 39. The typical tech company hitting the markets in 1990s was 5 years old. 40. Marc Andreessen, the firm's co-founder, expressed amazement with divergency in how investors treat public.

WRITING WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The diagram below shows how potato chips are made. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.

WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: The use of mobile phones has increased dramatically in recent years. What are the positive and negative effects of this trend? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

SPEAKING PART 1 Introduction and Interview (4-5 minutes) Introduction (compulsory) •

Good morning /afternoon. My name is___. Can you tell me your full name, please?

What should I call you?

Could you tell me where you’re from?

Can I see your identification, please?

Thank you. Now in this first part, I’d like to ask you some questions about yourself. Interview (choose 1) Let's talk about where you live. • Tell me about the area where you live. • Wbat do you find most enjoyable about living there? Why? • What is the area w here you live famous or well known for? Let’s talk about your studies. • How long have you been studying English? • What do you like most aboui studying English? • Why are you sitting the IELTS test? Interview (choose 2) Now, let's talk about transport. •

What is your preferred mode of transport? Why?

Do most of ‘your friends use the method of transport to get around?

Are there any problems travelling around your city? Why?

In w hat way do these problems affect you?

Now, let's talk about a regular day for vou. •

Tell me about a typical day for you.

Which time of day do you prefer? Why?

Do you think you will always prefer this rime of day? Why? Why not?

Are there any times of day that you don't like? Why?

Now, let's talk about collecting thiings. •

Do you or anyone you know collect tilings? Why? Why not?

How docs she go about collecting these items?

How long has she been collecting these items?

What is the value in collecting things, do you think?

PART 2 Individual Long Turn (3-4 minutes) Now, I’m going to give you a topic and I’d like you to talk about it for one to two minutes. Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish. Do you understand? Here’s some paper and a pencil for making notes and here’s your topic: I’d like you to talk about something naughty that you did when you were a child. Describe something naughty- you did when you were a child. You should say: why you did it? who else was involved? what happened afterwards?

and say what impact this incident had on you. Rounding-off questions: •

Did you ever do the same thing again?

Did you often get into trouble as a child?

PART 3 Two-way Discussion (4-5 minutes) We've been talking about something naughty you did as a child and now, I'd like to discuss with you one or two more general questions related to this. Let's consider first the topic of parental discipline. •

Some people believe that smacking or using any type of physical violence as punishment

against a child is wrong. Wear's your view? •

Why do you think some people have difficulty disciplining and controlling their children?

What are some of the disadvantages of having a strict upbringing?

Now, let's talk about children misbehaving. •

What do you think are some of the reasons wbv children misbehave?

Do you think it is a good idea to ignore bad behaviour or punish it? Why?

Do you think that children nowadays misbehave more or less than those in the past? Why

might this be so?

AUDIOSCRIPTS TEST 1 SECTION 1 TERRY: Expats Helpline; Terry Davies here. What can I do for you? SAM: Hello Terry, I’ve been in this country for a while and I’ve just been offered a job in the city, so I think I’m going to need to open a bank account. I haven’t had one before, so I’m wondering what papers I need. TERRY: Well basically you’ll need to be able to prove to the bank that you’re who you say you are and that you live where you say you do, OK? SAM: Uh-huh. TERRY: And for some banks, at least, that means you’ll have to show them two separate pieces of identity, so I’ll run through the list if you like. SAM: Yes, please. TERRY: OK, I’ll bring it up on the screen. Let’s see ... here it is ... right, the first thing it says is ‘a valid passport’. SAM: Mine’s Australian. TERRY: Yes, that would be fine of course. The next one is ‘a driving licence’, and again one from your country would be OK. Then that’s followed by ‘birth certificate’... oh hang on, that’s only if you’re under 18. SAM: Which I’m not. TERRY: Right, so not that then. But you can also show them a ‘benefit book’, for instance if you’re in ill- health or unemployed or getting income support. SAM: Yes, I could bring that. Or a letter from my employer, maybe? TERRY: Well that’s not actually on the list; so we’ll have to assume you can’t. SAM: OK. And to prove where I live?

TERRY: Again, there are several possible things listed here. For instance you could use a bill for council tax, or something else for where you live, such as an insurance certificate. SAM: I've got one of those. Somewhere among all my papers. But what about bills? Things like phone bills, I mean. TERRY: As long as it has your address on it, yes, fine. SAM: So a bill for my mobile would do, would it? TERRY: Ah - I'm afraid it would have to be for a fixed line phone. You could use other types of household bill, though. As long as you get them through the post. SAM: How about an electricity bill? That’ll say where I live, won’t it? TERRY: If it’s in your name, and not that of a er... landlord, yes. SAM: It is, so I'll probably take that then. TERRY: There’s one other you might want to use: a ‘vehicle registration document’. If you have a car or motorbike or something, of course. SAM: No I haven't, actually. SAM: Now I believe there’s a bank actually inside the Commercial Centre, and I might open an account there, seeing as how that's where I’ll be every day. TERRY: Yes, that would seem to make sense. I know people who bank there. SAM: I actually read about it in a city guide - my cousin picked it up when he was here a couple of years ago - and hmadc a few notes. Do you mind if I run through them with you now, just to make sure the details haven't changed? TERRY: Fine - go ahead. SAM: OK, first question: it’s still a branch of the Popular Bank, is it, the one with links to Australian banks? TERRY: No, it’s actually been taken over by another big banking group: the Savings Bank. It still seems quite popular, though, especially with people doing business in the Asia/Pacific area.

SAM: And when is it open? Monday to Saturday? TERRY: I'll have to check their website for that. Give me a second or two, will you. SAM: Sure. TERRY: Right, I’ve got it ... ‘customer service’... and it's ... just weekdays. I’m afraid. SAM: Does it say what their business hours are? TERRY: I’m just looking for that, it's on a different page for some reason ... I think there's been a change at some banks in the last year or so ... yes here it is ... it’s open from nine thirty in the morning till half past three in the afternoon. SAM: And it’s on the top floor of the main Centre building is it, next to the Travel Agency? TERRY: That’s where it used to be, but they’ve since moved it to a slightly bigger place. It’s on the ground floor now. SAM: And one last thing on this: I know most banks give incentives to young people to open accounts with them, but apparently this one didn’t. Do you know if they are offering anything these days? TERRY: I’ll just check ... I’m sure they’d say so on their ‘new clients’ page if they were ... no, there’s nothing mentioned there. SAM: That’s a pity. I was quite looking forward to getting my free gift! TERRY: There are plenty of other banks within walking distance you know. It may be worth shopping around to see what they’ve got to offer: longer opening hours, including Saturdays, perhaps less crowded SAM: Can you tell me how to get to a couple of them? I know where the Commercial Centre is, so that’s probably my best starting place. TERRY: Sure. For the Royal Bank you need to turn left when you leave the Centre, go along Market Street past the Post Office, and turn left up Bridge Street, past the Shaw Theatre. Then you take the first right. You’ll see an Internet café on the other side and the Royal is just a bit further along on the right, directly opposite the Park Hotel.

SAM: OK, I’ve got that. What about the Northern Bank? TERRY: For that one you turn right as you come out of the Centre, and go along Market Street until you come to the junction with West Street. There^you turn right again, and carry on up as far as the next junction, where you take a left. You’ll see the bank from there: it’s the third building on the right. SAM: Fine. And the last one, the National Bank? TERRY: You can go either way from the Centre, really: up West Street or Bridge Street and then along past City Hall. The bank is on the other side of the road, right next to the Tourist Office. You can’t miss it. SAM: Great. Thanks a lot for you help. TERRY: Any time. Bye. SAM: Bye SECTION 2 PRESENTER: Today I have with me Sandy Richardson of the local Workforce Center, and she'll be talking about that critical step towards the goal of employment: the interview. Sandy, what is an interview for, and what’s the best way to approach it? SANDY: A job interview is simply a meeting between you and a potential employer to discuss your qualifications and see if there is a ‘fit’. The employer wants to verify what they know about you and talk about your qualifications. If you have been called for an interview, you can assume that the employer is interested in you. The employer has a need that you may be able to meet, so it’s your goal to identify that need and convince the employer that you’re the one for the job. As everyone knows, interviews can be stressful, but when you’re well prepared there’s no reason to panic. Preparation is the key to success in a job search, and you can begin by collecting together all the documents you may need for the interview, such as extra copies of your resume, lists of references, and letters of recommendation. You could also take some work samples, selecting from what you have designed, drawn or written, for instance. And make sure you have a pen and pad of paper for taking notes. The next step is to find out about the post. The more you know about the job, the employer and the industry, the better prepared you will be to target your qualifications.

Always request a job description from the employer, and research employer profiles at the Chamber of Commence or local library. You could also try to network with people who work for the company, or with employees of companies associated with it. The next step is to match your qualifications to the requirements of the job. A good approach is to write out your qualifications along with the job requirements. Think about some standard interview questions and how you might respond. Most questions are designed to find out more about you, your qualifications or to test your reactions in a given situation. If you don’t have any experience or skills in a required area, think about how you might compensate for those deficiencies. Sandy: During an interview it’s important that you be yourself. Get a good night’s sleep and plan your travel to be there in plenty of time, so that you’re not arriving out of breath with 30 seconds to spare. Don’t, though, present yourself for the interview too early: ten minutes at most. In the interview, listen carefully to each question asked. Take your time in responding and make sure your answers are positive. It’s important to express a good attitude and show that you are willing to work, eager to learn and are flexible. If you are unsure of a question, don’t be afraid to ask for clarification. In fact, it’s sometimes a good strategy is to close a response with a question for the interviewer. In general, focus on your qualifications and look for opportunities to personalize the interview. Briefly answer questions with examples of how you responded in comparable situations, from either your life or previous job experiences. Something you should avoid are ‘yes’ or ‘no’ responses to questions, but don't dwell too long on non-job related topics. Use caution if you are questioned about your salary requirements. The best strategy is to avoid the question until you have been offered a job. Questions about salary asked before there is a job offer are usually screening questions that may eliminate you from consideration, so be warned. On the other hand, it isn’t inappropriate to show your enthusiasm if your first impressions of the interview and of the employer are good ones, so, if the job sounds like what you are looking for - say so. Keep in mind that the interview is not over when you are asked if you have any questions. Come prepared to ask a couple of specific questions that again show your knowledge and interest in the job. Close the interview in the same friendly, positive manner in which you started. When the interview is over, leave promptly. Don’t overstay your time. Think about the interview and learn from the experience. Evaluate the success and failures. The more you learn from the interview, the easier the next one will become. You’ll become much more confident. To close, here are a few more tips. First, maintain good eye contact throughout the interview, and be aware of nonverbal body

language. Second, dress a step above what you would wear on the job, go to the hairdresser’s, have a shave, et cetera. Remember that your appearance is a key indicator of whether you have the right attitude, so it can pay to give some thought to how you look. And, finally, don’t be a clock watcher!

SECTION 3 TUTOR: As you know, this week you choose your modules for the first year of study, so this introductory meeting is aimed at helping you make informed choices. I think the best way to do this is on a question-and-answer basis, so who’d like to start? PAT:? PAT: Yes, there’s something I've been wondering about: will my choice affect my career opportunities? TUTOR: Well, for most students the choice of Level One modules won t be crucial in terms of a later career. In fact, many graduate level jobs will accept graduates from a range of degree courses. Employers will often be at least as interested in how well a student has performed academically, and how the whole experience of university has developed the student as a person, as in the detail of the course options chosen. Selecting modules that will interest you and in which you think you will be particularly successful is therefore also likely to make good sense in career terms. On certain degree courses, though, module choice can be important. This applies mainly to vocational courses where the degree confers an accredited professional training as well as university education. Usually the modules students are required to take will include all those needed to meet those professional requirements. Your academic department, in this case Chemical and Process Engineering, and the university’s Careers Service will be able to advise you, and will be pleased to help you sort out anything you're not certain about PAT: Right. RAJAV: I’d like to ask a few things about the Applied Chemical Engineering module. TUTOR: Fine. What would you like to know? RAJAV: Well, apart from the work on practical engineering, what other topics are covered? TUTOR: Some that might surprise you. One that students always seem to like includes interviewing techniques, presentation skills and producing written reports.

RAJAV: Hmm ... they sound interesting. How are they taught? TUTOR: Through lectures, practical classes and personal TUTOR: Jals. Applied Chemical Engineering lasts all year of course, so there’s plenty of time. RAJAV: And what about assessment? TUTOR: Through project work, usually, or dissertation. Not exams as such. RAJAV: Is that the same for the Information Technology part of the module? TUTOR: Yes, things like word processing and learning to create spreadsheets are tested in a similar way on this module. SONIA: That’s not the case in some other modules, is it? TUTOR: No, it isn’t. Are you thinking of any in particular? SONIA: Yes, I’m considering doing Fluid Mechanics. The work on flow analysis looks interesting and I like the look of some of the other topics, too. So how is that module tested? TUTOR: That’s one of those which still uses written exams. The sit-down, formal type I’m afraid! SONIA: Oh that doesn’t matter. 1 quite like that kind as it happens. TUTOR: PAT: you’ve got a question. PAT: Yes, I was wondering about Science I in Chemical Engineering. How is that organized? It’s a bit different from other modules isn’t it? TUTOR: Yes, it aims to give the necessary basis of physics and biology for those students who haven’t studied the relevant subject at A level or equivalent. In practice it means that students who have already studied physics are excused the physics lectures, while those who’ve done biology are exempt from attending the biology lectures. In the second part of the module you’re assessed on your project work in one of those subjects. PAT: And does the teaching approach differ, too?

TUTOR: Yes, particularly in one respect: you are encouraged to learn by working out the solutions to problems for yourself. PAT: I like the sound of that. TUTOR: OK, anything else? SONIA: Yes, I believe it’s possible to do a modern language as part of the course. Can you tell me a bit about the Spanish 1A module? TUTOR: Certainly. The main emphasis in 1A is on understanding and speaking, but students also learn to carry out some straightforward reading and writing tasks. Basic aspects of grammar are also introduced and practised. The module comprises thirty-six hours of class contact, mainly in TUTOR:ial groups of sixteen to twenty, and students are expected to do approximately sixty-four hours of private study. SONIA: It sounds interesting. I did some Spanish at the Cervantes Institute last year. Passed an exam, in fact. TUTOR: Ah, I’m afraid that means you can’t do 1 A. The regulations say‘this module may NOT be taken by students with a qualification in Spanish’. Though you could do IB ...

SECTION 4 LECTURER: Lake Acraman in South Australia is Armageddon for the purist. No other meteorite impact on Earth has stamped the surrounding rocks with such an abiding, unequivocal geological record of collision, earthquake, wind, fire and tsunami - the giant waves formed by major earth movements. The story it tells is elemental, without dying dinosaurs or even Bruce Willis to complicate its simple message of destruction. First, the numbers: about 590 million years ago, a rocky meteorite more than 4 kilometres across and travelling at around 90 000 kilometres an hour slammed into an area of red volcanic rock about 430 kilometres northwest of Adelaide. Within seconds the meteorite vaporized in a ball of fire, carving out a crater about 4 kilometres deep and

40 kilometres in diameter and spawning earthquakes fierce enough to raise 100-metre-high tsunamis in a shallow sea 300 kilometres away. Ancient, stable and unglaciated, the bedrock of Australia preserves some of the most photogenic impact craters in the world. Acraman is not one of them. Half a billion years of erosion has taken its toll. A salt pan surrounded by low hills is all that remains to mark the site of the cataclysm. The true nature of the place dawned on geologist George Williams of Adelaide University in 1979. Gazing at a sheaf of newly acquired satellite images, he saw the small, circular shape of Lake Acraman surrounded by a ring of faults and low scarps 40 km across, and an outer ring twice this size. A year later he made it to the site. On islands near the centre of the lake, Williams found bedrock shattered in a conical PAT:tern that experts consider a sure sign of a meteorite impact. Except for a crater, which had long since eroded, the area was a textbook example of an impact site. In 1985 further intriguing evidence turned up. Vic Gostin, another Adelaide geologist, had been studying a thin band of fragmented red volcanic rock in 600-million-year- old shale in the Flinders Ranges, more than 300 kilometres east of Acraman. To his bewilderment, the volcanic chunks turned out to be a billion years older than the shale. Where had they come from? Comparing samples, Gostin and Williams found that their rocks were identical: the red rock in the Flinders Ranges had been blasted there from Acraman. Later, the same material turned up at sites 500 km from Acraman. LECTURER: Everywhere, the bands of fragments showed the same structure: coarse pebbles at the bottom, then a cocktail of silt and sand, then layers of increasingly fine sand distorted on top into a wavy, scalloped partern. These layers also show, step by step, how the meteorite transformed the floor of an ancient sea hundreds of kilometres away, according to Malcolm Wallace of Melbourne University. First came the earthquake. Travelling at about 3 kilometres a second, shock waves arrived offshore within a minute or two of the collision, stirring up the water with clouds of silt as the seabed shook. Then shattered rock from the explosion arrived by air. Pebbles and boulders crashed into the water, reaching a depth of about 200 metres within a minute. One day they would become the lower band of the Flinders rock. Sand took up to an hour to come to rest, finally bedding down with the silt that was also now settling on the sea floor as the effects of the earthquake died away. This mixture would eventually form the next layer. About an hour after the meteorite’s impact, huge waves rolled in, leaving the ripples on the surface that later hardened into rock. ’Clear as mud' is not an oxymoron. In Acraman, the arid timeless Australian Outback has preserved the closest thing the Earth can boast to a perfect pockmark - the pinnacle of imperfection.

TEST 2 SECTION 1 M = computer technician F = woman whose computer has crashed. M: Hello. Tom's computer maintenance; how may I help you? F: Hello. Lum„ seem to have a problem with my computer. It's really inconvenient too, because I've a deadline tomorrow I'm rushing to meet F: Suddenly the screen went blank. Blue. A blank, blue screen. I don’t know if you can do something about it? M: Ah, the dreaded blue screen. I think I can do something about it - it's my job after all. There are a few different scenarios, though, that could be going on with yotr computer. You've tried restarting it, right? F: Oh, yes. Nothing. M: And it's plugged in. not running on battery? F: Yes. M: Are you sure? Can you check again? F: Ok. Yes, it's plugged in. M: Ok. Can you give me a bit more information about what happened? F: The screen went blank. M: No, I mean, what activity were you doing when the problem occurred? Your computer was on, I presume; you were working, right? What did you do immediately before the blank screen appeared? Were you using the internet?

F: Yes. I was. Is it a virus? M: That seems likely. What anti-virus software are you using? F: Uh. I'm not sure. How embarrassing! M: Never mind I'll have to come and have a look at your computer. F: Ok, that's great. M: Alright, let's see. What about tomorrow morning about 10? F: Oh, no. That wont do I'm afraid. I've got a very important project on the computer that absolutely must be finished and handed in by 9 a.m. tomorrow. By ten it's too late, I'm afraid. Can't you come now? M: Well, I'm at a job at the moment, and my wife and kids are expecting me home by 8 for dinner. F: Can you at least suggest someone else who can work? I know it's Sunday evening, but surely there's somebody, I mean, people have emergencies! (beginning to sound stressed) I’ve been calling numbers in the phone book, and you're the only one out of about twelve that even answered M: Just a moment, don't panic. Where are you located? F: I'm in the Morningside area M: Well, you're in luck. I have to pass your area on my way home anyway. Now I should be finished here by half past seven, so what about around seven forty-five? Is that ok? F: That's great, thank you. M: What's your address? F: 14 Branston Crescent 2F3 M: That's b-r-a-n-i-s-t F: No. sorry, b r a n s t o n crescent M: Oh, alright, and your name? F: Sandra Sarrencen. That's [s a double r e n c e n].

M: And the name on the buzzer? F: The same. M: Alright, I’ll be there shortly. F: Thanks. Ah, can I ask you how much it's going to cost? M: Certainly. My call-out fee is 60 pounds, and that covers the first hour's work, and after that the fee is 40 pounds an hour. F: Oh, gosh. That's rather expensive. How long do you think it will take? M: If we're lucky it will be fairly quick. Honestly, though, if it takes much more than half an hour I'll have to finish it tomorrow morning. But I doubt that will happen. F: I hope not! Will you take a cheque, or do you prefer cash? M: A cheque is fine. F: OK, so, I'll be waiting… M: OK, bye.

SECTION 2 As Charity-Water's Water Project Manager, I travel to some of the most desperate places on earth in search of clean water. And while the landscape changes, there's always one thing that remains the same: the women are always walking. Whether I'm in the mountains of Haiti, in rural Liberia, or the jungles of the Central African Republic, the women are always carrying water. To give you an idea of the work that Charity-Water does, I’ll tell you the story of one of these women. Driving down a bumpy road in the middle of Northern Uganda, our truck suddenly swerves off the road and up over an embankment. We usually prefer to surprise communities by otr arrival because it makes it easier to monitor how our water points are functioning without hundreds of people watching. But once you visit a few communities in the neighbourhood, rumours of your presence spread like wildfire.

We jump out of the truck and walk into a party. This is when I met Helen Apis. She told me about the new freshwater well in her village. "I am happy now," Helen beamed. "I have time to eat, my children can go to school. And I can even work in my garden, take a shower and then come back for more water if I want! I am bathing so well" A few of the men chuckled to hear a woman talk about bathing. But all I noticed was Helen's glowing face, the fresh flowers in her hair, and the lovely green dress she wore for special occasions. Touching her forearm, I replied, "Well, you look great" "Yes," she paused. Placing both hands on my shoulders and smiling, she said, "Now, I am beautiful." That really hit me. My job is to focus on sustainable development, health, hygiene and sanitation; to make sure Charity-Wateris projects are work¬ing in 20 years. But nowhere on any of my surveys or evaluations was a place to write. Today we made someone feel beautiful." Before she had clean water, Helen would wake up before dawn, take her only two 5-gallon Jerry Cans, and walk almost a mile and a half to the nearest water point, which happens to be at a school. Because there simply wasn't enough water for the area's population, she'd wait in line with hundreds of other women who also valued clean water. Helen's only other option was to skip the wait and collect contaminated water from a pond. Helen spent most of her day walking and waiting. She told me each day she'd say to herself, "How should I use this water today? Should I water my garden so we can grow food? Should I wash my children's uniforms? Should I use it to cook a meal? Should we drink this water?" With two children, one husband and 10 gallons, Helen had to make choices. I saw the shame in her eyes when she described how she would return from her long trek to find her two young chil¬dren waiting for her. They were often sent home from school because their uniforms were dirty. With the new well in her village, her life was transformed. She now had choices: free time: options. Also, Helen had been chosen to be the Water Committee Treasurer, collecting nominal fees from 51 households to use for the maintenance of their well. Water Committees are often the first time women ever get elected to leadership positions in

villages. Last month, Helen was standing in line waiting for water. This month, she's standing up for her community. And now, she is beautiful.

SECTION 3 J = Jessica K = Dr. Kitching J: Hello Dr. Kitching, my name's Jessica. I work for the student news-paper. I called you last week to ask if I could interview you for an article about how to ask for references. K: Oh, yes; I remember! Come in. Have a seat. J: Thank you. Do you have a few minutes now to do the interview? K: Yes, that's fine. J: Great! I got the idea to do this article because, well, everyone I know is rather puzzled about how to get references from professors when they need them for applications for jobs or postgraduate studies. And I thought, since you're a professor, and you've been working as a student advisor for many years also, what better person to ask. K: Yes, I have got some advice I can share on this topic. Where shall we begin? J: First of all, do you mind if j record our conversation? K: No. I dont mind. J: Thanks. Do you write many references yourself? K: Oh yes, I certainly do! Let's see, it's variable of course, but I'd say I average at least 50 per year. J: My goodness! That's nearly five per month! It's more than one per week! K: Yes, it's a lot. And of course, most of the requests are made in the spring or early summer, when students are starting to think seriously about where they will be heading after they graduate in June. J: Do most professors do so many?

K: Yes, it's part of the job. Of course, because I'm an advisor, students probably feel like I know them rather better than some pro¬fessors, so I probably get a few more than I would otherwise. J: Alright, so what do we students need to know in terms of asking for references or letters of recommendation? It's incredibly daunting, actually, particularly since we have such large classes. I'm not sure if my professors even know who I am! K: Yes, that's probably the biggest issue students face in getting references. You will invariably have to contact former Professors even if you have never spoken to them outside of class. Following on this, if I were giving a first-year student advice, I would say to make sure you've had contact with several Professors outside of class so you won’t be a stranger. All it takes is visiting during office hours, even if it's just to say "Hello, I'm enjoying your lectures". J: But what if we didn't do that? K: Then you'll just have to contact your professor anyway. Make a telephone call; tell him or her who you are, and what classes you attended, this sort of thing. Remember, for your professor, recalling an average student out of hundreds and hundreds isn’t easy. So tell him or her what course you took, and what semester and year it was. Include what grade you got and anything memorable. Perhaps you spilled your coffee. Though at the time it wasnt funny it might be enough for Professor Brown to remember you and it won't shed any negative light on you; it was an accident. Or perhaps, although you never spoke outside of class, you went up and asked a question that was a great one. Any information you can give to identify yourself is going to help you out J: Should I visit Professor Brown in person? K: Yes, that would be ideal. I would suggest giving the information first over the phone, then follow up by e-mailing it to your professor. During the phone conversation, ask if you could meet briefly. This will be both a physical reminder of who you are and also another chance to make a good impression. J: Isnt it very difficult to write references for all these students you've never spoken to or really even met? K: Yes; for example, I was recently called by a student from 20 years ago! He lived in another country. I really didn't recall him.

He told me a little about himself and I looked back at his records. I told him that all I could do was verify that he was in my class, that he showed up for all the classes and that he received a 3.4 in my class. Sometimes Pm very surprised that students who did very poorly in my class ask me for a reference. J: What do you do in that case? Give a poor reference? K: I like most Professors I know, never say anything negative about the student; however it is what is unsaid that can say it all. So you really want to make sure you're remembered in a positive way and have left a good impression. J: Ok, thanks very much for all this information. The story should come out in our next printing, so if you're interested I'll drop one copy over to you. K: I'll be looking forward to seeing it.

SECTION 4 Good morning; today's lecture will be about primate behaviour. Up until now I’ve talked mostly about physical features: how they apply to living primates; how we use them for classification; how they apply to the fossil record. But human evolution isn't simply about how we've changed physically over the last 70 million years; it's also about how our behaviour has changed. Now, if I asked you to define what is meant by the term "human", you could probably, hopefully, give me a list of characteristics that physically define us. But at a philosophical level, I would hope that what you'd be really proud of is not that we normally walk on two legs, but that we can reason and imagine. Descartes put it succinctly: "I think, therefore I am" although, admittedly, not quite in this context. This lecture isn't about human behaviour per se, but about primate behaviour in general, and animal behaviour too, since just as we can use the physical characteristics of living primates to give us clues and insights into the physical characteristics of human ancestors, so we hope that the behaviours of non-human primates will be similarly enlightening for the behaviour of our ancestors.

To begin, let's talk a bit about primate cognitive abilities. I dont want to mention a lot of different behaviours without first mentioning cognitioa. Cognition is the amount of thought that goes into a behaviour. There is a world of difference between an animal hitting a nut with a rock and cracking it by accident, and an animal thinking to itself: "I can't bite into this nut. I know, I need something to use as a hammer to crack it." However, it can be very difficult coming up with experiments to differentiate these two. We can easily test mental skills, such as recall and discrimination, using methods such as the Wisconsin general test apparatus and vari¬ous training experiments. But it's much harder to work out the degree of thought required. This is still a big problem in evaluating the status of great apes. Just how nearly "sentient" are they? Sentient, for those of you who don't remember, means there is the presence of conscious thought There are various behaviours that could be seen to support the presence of conscious thought in primates. Various sorts of altruism, or helping others without directly benefiting, can be found in certain great apes. The animals team up to achieve various goals: for example, hunting, in chimps. This would seem to require a degree of cognition. Another feature that has come to light recently is "Machiavellian Intelligence". Work, especially with baboons, seems to indicate that there is a lot of deliberate social deception going one sneaky mating: passing the blame onto others; using infants for defence. At first glance, this seems very complicated behaviourally, but again, it can, just about, be explained in a fairly minimally cogni-tive way. Highly trained chimps, such as the signing chimp, Washoe, and the computer-aided communication of Kanzi also indicate a high level of intelligence. An interesting fact is that these language-trained chimps do much better in the standardised intelligence tests too, indi-cating that we probably underestimate primate intelligence in our tra-ditional experiments. It seems that primates are not all that interest¬ed in the colour of pencils; they want to know the latest gossip about their friends - sound familiar? And of course, cognition and intelligence in primates is a thorny problem, with deep moral and political ramifications.


SECTION 1 Jackie: Good afternoon Denham's Shipping. How can I be of service? Tim: Well, I wish to enquire about sending a container of personal items from the UK to Ireland Jackie: No problem, would you like me to give you an estimate of the cost? Tim: Yes, please. Jackie: Well, first of all, may I take your details? Tim: Of course. My name's Tim Lafferty. Jackie: Could you spell your surname for me, please, Tim? Tim: Yes, it's Laffertv; L-a-f-f-e-r-t-y Jackie: Thank you, Tim. Now, where would you like us to pick your container up from? Tim: My university, if possible. Jackie: Okay, let me make a note of the address. Tim: It's Abbeyfield University. Jackie: Is that A-B-B-E-Y-F4£-L-0? Tim: That's right. Park Street, Brighton. Jackie: Perfect. And may I take down your postcode, too? Tim: It's BR8 9P3. Jackie: Great Thank you, Tim. Have you the container's measurements? Tim: I do. It's approximately 25 metres long by 125 metres wide. Jackie: I see Quite a big one therf Tim: Indeed Jackie: And the height? Tim: I make it a metre and twenty centimetres deep.

Jackie: So that's 25 by L25 by 12. Tim: Right. Jackie: And what will actually be in the box, Tim? Tim: Oh, mostly old uni books. Jackie: Okay Tim: And some music albums. Jackie: Anything else? Tim: Yes, a little bit of stationery. Jackie: I see. And could you put an estimate on the value of the items? Tim: The books are quite valuable; they're worth around £1800. The music albums, maybe half that, say £900, and you can put the stationery down as £300. Jackie: Okay. And will you be purchasing contents cover from us also? Tim: Eh, I'm not sure what you mean. Jackie: Sorry, let me explain; because your items are worth more than £2,000, we recommend that you purchase insurance to cover yourself Tim: Makes sense. What are my options? Jackie: Well, we offer three insurance deals - the premium rate, standard rate and economy rate ones. Premium offers full cover in the event of loss, damage or theft, which means you would be provided with the full cost of replacing your belongings. Tim: What about standard and economy? Jackie: Standard will give you today's value — the second-hand value of your belongings - and economy provides you with a fixed payment of £1000 in the event of loss, damage or theft. Tim: Well, I can afford to live without those books to be honest so just give me the cheapest option.

Jackie: We recommend standard cover for all our customers. Tim: No, thank you. That won't be necessary. The cheapest option will Jackie: No problem. And one last thing; will you be needing delivery at your office, at your house, or do you intend to pick up your container Tim: Home delivery would suit me best I think.

SECTION 2 Tour guide: Well, we certainly have a busy day ahead of us, so let's get started, shall we? You'll find a map of the museum with the itinerary. I've just handed out. The museum's our first port of call, so let's lave a look at the map now. The door on the right of the entrance toll leads into the Gift Shoo and Ticket Centre. Once we pick up our entrance tickets, I'd ask everyone to deposit their bags and coats in the cloakroom which is located towards the back of the Gift Shop and Ticket Centre. If you want to pick up an information leaflet, you can approach the Information Desk situated along the right-hand side. Now, once you come back into the entrance hall, the door on the opposite side to the Gift Shop leads into the Art Gallery. There is a special exhibition on there at the moment which is not to be missed If you continue on up the entrance hallway, that leads into the Main Exhibition Centre. At the back left-hand side there are some toilets. Beside the toilets, voull find the 3D Theatre. I strongly recommend that you make time for the 30minute presentation in the theatre. It is well worth a viewing. Running along the right-hand side of the Main Exhibition Centre is the Modern Art Studio. Here, not only can you view some of the most famous works of the 20th century, but you can also sit in on a workshop run by a local artist. So that's the art museum. Next on the itinerary is the Aquarium. Depending on how long we spend at the museum, we might have to give this one a miss. It's not what I'd call a highlight of the day, but it would be a shame if

we did¬n't get to see it, as it's on route to the Solheim Country Club, where we're booked in for lunch at 1 o'clock. Originally, we had planned to stop off at the Milltown Winery afterwards, but we've had to scrap that plan, otherwise we'd never get to the Zoological Gardens before closing time. We have pre-booked the gardens and must be there by 230 so no dillydallying please after lunch - straight back onto the bus. The gardens close at 3:30, so we've an hour there which should give us sample time to look around. time abowing. well stop off at the famous Stout Brewery after that if traffic isnt too heavy and we're in Lincoln before 5. If not, we'll head straight for the National Concert Hall where you're in for a real treat of an evening with a performance from the worldrenowned cellist, Andres Borovski. We have to be in our seats by 630 sharp. After that, it's back to the hotel for the night where a buffet meal will be waiting for us at half eight - or whenever we get back.

SECTION 3 Tutor: So have you chosen a product yet? Jenny: I think so. We'd like to build a gyroscopic exercise aid. Tutor: Sounds interesting. Tell me more. Maeve: Well, we did some research and were amazed to discover the sheer range of applications for gyroscopic technology. Gyroscopes are used in laser and optical devices and can be found in many consumer appliances, too. Tutor: Right, tell me about this product specifically though. The aim of the assignment is to create something practical, functional and beneficial for consumers. Justify your decision. Jenny: Well, we believe we can design and build a cheap and effective muscle-strengthening aid by taking advantage of the inertial forces created by a gyroscope. Maeve: Yes, what we want to do is design a ball which can be held in the palm. Within the ball, there will be a simple gyroscope. This gyroscope can be set in motion by movements of the lower arm and wrist together in synch. The device will not require any external power source because it

will be sustained by the movements of the arm and wrist. This will create considerable resistance and an excellent lower arm strengthening aid. It will be simple to design and cheap to produce, yet extremely effective. Tutor: This all sounds very good. I’m impressed Jenny: Thanks Mark, we're glad you like it I think we're really onto something here. Our research has told us there's nothing comparable in the market and that a product like this would have multiple uses. Not only could it be used as an everyday toning and exercise device, it could also be beneficial to people in rehabilitation who have suffered serious lower-arm injuries. We see the product being marketed towards high-performance athletes, like tennis and golf players, for whom lower-arm strength is vital, too. Tuton: I've heard enough to give your project the go ahead. Now, let's talk costs. Maeve: Right, well we estimate that around £3,000 will be required for product development. Tutor: You mean to build the prototype? Maeve: Exactly. And we'll need half of that again to carry out some product testing. Tutor: And what's your timeline for the project? Jenny: The prototype should be ready a fortnight after work on the design starts and we'll need another 6 weeks for testing. Maeve: We want to enlist the help of 15 people to test the pro¬totype. Ideally, we want 5 professional athletes to try it out, 5 recovery patients and the remainder of the subjects will be gym members - our three target markets. Tutor: Okay. Well, you have a lot of work to do, but you've certainly made a good start. Let's meet again on Monday to get the ball rolling.

SECTION 4 It is only natural to feel somewhat nervous before giving a speech, and while a few nerves never did any harm — and can in fact prove beneficial - letting your nerves overcome you can be

detrimental. Today's presentation will focus on ways to control those butterflies and help you to give better presentations in future. First and foremost, you've got to know your material. I can’t stress that enough. If you fail to prepare, you might as well prepare to fail. Even the most experienced speakers never turn up unprepared and NEVER try to wing it. Personalise your subject and use humour, anecdotes and conversational language. This will make it easier for you to remember what you want to say. Secondly, practise, practise, practise! Rehearse well in advance and preferably out loud, and with all the equipment you plan on using. Practise you timing - when to pause and when to breathe and prepare for the unexpected. Something always goes wrong, especially when you are relying on technology. So always have a back-up plaa Get to know your audience before you have to stand up in front of them. Meet and greet them on the way in, perhaps. It is much easier to talk to a group of friends than a group of strangers. And, just as importantly, know your room as well. Arrive early, pace the speaking area and practice using the microphone and visual aids. The hardest part is trying to relax. Never rush straight into your speech. Begin slowly and address the audience first. In fact, even before you start, take a few deep breaths. You know - one onethousand, two one-thousand, three one-thousand - this will turn your nervous energy into enthusiasm. Visualisation can be a great confidence booster. Visualise your- setf making the speech in the wav that you intend. Imagine your voice loud and confident, and picture the audience clapping and rooting for you. Remember, people want you to succeed. The audience wants to hear an interesting and insightful speech. They aren't hoping you make a fool of yourself. Whatever you do avoid making unnecessary apologies. If you make a mistake or two, forget about it. Few will notice and it will all be forgotten before too long. People often forget the importance of body language. Don't underestimate this. Your words carry far less meaning than your delivery. Success is defined by your intonation and confidence. If you come across as a confident person, people will listen to you - you will command their attention. Stand tall and proud and deliver with conviction. Humans are very bad listeners. We remember less than 25 percent of what is said and place far more emphasis on how it is said

Last of all, be realistic and give yourself a chance. No one becomes the perfect speaker overnight. It takes time to hone your presentation skills.

TEST 4 SECTION 1. You will hear a conversation between a man and a receptionist on the subject of joining a surgery. Mike (man) Hello. I’ve just moved to Melbourne for a new job and I’ve been advised to register with a new doctor for my family and myself. I think that this surgery is the nearest one to where I live. Recept. What’s the name of the road that you live in sir? M Dawson Road. R Yes. That’s in our area. Would you like to register with us now? M Yes please. R Right. I’ll just have to take some details. First of all, could you give me your name? M It’s Mike Jacobs. J-A-C-O-B-S. R And your family? M My wife’s name is Janet and I have one little boy whose name is Rod. R



No, Rod. R-O-D.


Good, that’s fine. And what is your address here in Melbourne?


52 Dawson Road, Highfield. Melbourne.


Highfield. H-I-G-H-F-I-E-L-D. Good. And I’ll need to know your health card number.


It’s NH 87 18 12 C. What about my family?


Oh, only yours for now. Do you know the name of your old doctor?


It was Dr. Graham McKenzie in Perth.


Now, we’ve got 4 doctors here. There’s Dr. Susan Larkins, Dr. Kevin White, Dr. James

Nicholson and Dr. Linda Williams. Which one would you like to register with? M

Oh! I didn’t think of that. Well, I think I would like a man as my doctor. I’ll go for the last

one. Was that one a man? R

No, that was Dr. Linda. How about Dr. Kevin?


Yes, that will be fine.


Right. Dr. White it is. Will that be the same for your family?


Oh yes. My wife might not want a man as her doctor. Well, we’ll leave it as it is for now

and my wife can change if she wants to. M

I’d like to make an appointment now for my wife. She wants to come in at the end of the

week. R

How about this Friday morning? That’s Friday the 21st.


Mmm, I don’t think she can make the morning. Any openings in the afternoon?


There are appointments available at 2.00, 2.30 and 3.30. M We’ll take the first one please.

Ok. That’s done. M

Oh. And what shall my wife do if she wants to switch doctor?


She can just give us a call here. Do you want to take the number down?


Yes please.


It’s 7253 9829


Can you give me your name please?


My name’s Angela but there are two other girls who might be on duty as well. Their names

are Elizabeth and Rachel but it doesn’t matter who’s on duty. Anyone can take care of it. M

Now what do we do if we need to call out a doctor during the night?


We’ve got a rotation system with the doctors in the area. There’s a mobile number you can

call and that’ll get through to the doctor who’s on duty. M

What’s that number?


It’s 0506 759 3856.


Got that. I didn’t ask about any charges.


Like all Australia, prescriptions have to be paid for at the chemist at the prevailing rate.

Some things like vaccinations for travel and insurance reports we make a standard charge for and I can give you a price list for those. Consultations though are under the National Health Service so they’ll be free. M

Great. Well that’s all. Thanks and goodbye.



SECTION 2. You will hear a man giving a guide talk to new students at a university library. Good morning everyone. I’d like to welcome you all to Westley University Library. This is a 20 minute tour around the library to show you all the facilities and all you will need to know to start off your life here as a student at the University. What I’ll start by doing is telling you about what you need to do to join the library. Then I’ll briefly tell you about our facilities and then I’ll guide you quickly round and show you everything. So to join the Library you need to go to the reception between the hours of 9am and 5pm. After that the reception closes, though all the other facilities will stay open until 10pm. At the reception they’ll give you an application form. After you fill that in, you’ll have to give us the fee of 5 pounds, which you have to give us every year that you’re a member of the Library. We will also need to see your University Card to confirm that you’re a student of the University and finally we’ll need 2 passport photos - 1 for our records and the other for your Library card. You will need

to do all this as soon as possible so you’ll be able to use the facilities at once. I’m sure your workload will begin to build up soon! Now, let me tell you a bit about the facilities. The Library opens daily from 8am to 10pm though, as I told you earlier, the Reception operates only between the hours of 9am and 5pm, although this is extended to 6.30pm on Fridays to give students more time to organise their book requirements for the weekend. The reception is closed on Sundays. Undergraduate students are permitted to take out 4 books at any one time and each book may be borrowed for a period of two weeks. Postgraduates may borrow 6 books at a time. Borrowing time can be extended by a period of one week per book if the student comes into the Library in person with the book in question so it can be restamped. We do not renew book borrowing over the phone. If you are late in returning any book, then you will be charged a fine of 2 pounds for every week that you are late. You won’t be able to take out any other books until this fine is paid. This is not a method of earning money for the Library but merely what we have to do to ensure that all students have access to all the books that they will need. Ok then. Onto the layout of the library. We’re on the ground floor of the library at the moment. Here we have the reception, the computers, which you can use to search for books and their location, and the bathrooms, which are behind the reception. The rest of the ground floor is taken up by the non-lending section of the library. Here we keep all the books, which are either too valuable or are used too much to lend out. You can reserve time with these books at reception and use them during any time that the library is open but, of course, you may not remove them from the Library. On the first floor above us, we have the Arts section, which includes books that students will need for such subjects as languages, literature, art and history. On the second floor is the science section. We’ll see these in a minute. Of course, individual departments will usually have their specialist libraries in their buildings, though the computer catalogues here will list them so you know where to find everything, whether it’s here or in the specialist libraries. Finally, in the basement we have the stack system, which contains the University collection of magazines and journals that we have collected and to which we subscribe.

If there is anything that we do not have or that you can’t find, please go to reception and let them know the details. The University operates a swap system with other universities and we can arrange for volumes that we do not possess to be sent here on a limited loan. Well, those are the basic details about the University Library.

SECTION 3. You will hear tutor and 3 students discussing their work. Tutor: Good morning everyone. Well, in today’s tutorial we’re going to discuss the essays that you have to submit by the end of next week. Some of you will have already started them, which is good and if you haven’t, well that’s OK but you’ll have to get a move on. So, let’s begin with you Simon. What’s happening with you? Simon: Well, I’ve made a start on it. I’ve researched the background quite extensively last weekend and I should get to the writing stage tomorrow with a bit of luck and I’ll get it finished at the weekend. Tutor: What are you writing about? Simon: I decided to look at the car manufacturing company, Jaguar, examine the problems they had with reliability in the 1970s and 80s, how they dealt with it, and how it affected their marketing and sales strategy. Tutor: That sounds pretty interesting. Any problems with that? Simon: At the start I had problems getting information from that far back, but after rooting around in the library, I found some magazines which gave me information and also gave me references to find other stuff. It seems now the only problem is keeping to the 4000 word limit. It just seems that I have so much to write about. It seems I’ll need 5000 or even 6000 words to be able to cope. Tutor: Yes, your essay title seems to me to be very wide-ranging. Would you think about cutting out part of it? How about looking at their sales and marketing strategy but only mentioning the problems in the 70s and 80s and not going too far into it?

Simon: That’s a good idea. That will make it much easier to handle. By the way, how do you want us to hand in our work? Do you want us to drop in a hard copy to your office? Tutor: You could do that but I’d prefer it if you just e-mailed it to me as an attachment. You’ve all got my address. If not, give it to the secretary clearly marked that it’s for me. Right, Jennifer, how about you? Jennifer: I’ve not really got going on it yet but I’ve decided on a subject. I’ll try and do some research during the rest of this week and I should get writing this weekend. Tutor: OK, what are you writing about then? Jennifer: I want to look into how supermarkets use market surveys to develop their products. Tutor: Will you have enough time to find out what sort of things that the supermarkets do? You won’t have much time for that. Jennifer: I should be OK. I’ve had a look in the stack system in the library and I’ve found a magazine that surveyed all the UK major supermarkets and a trade publication that analysed the same things in Canadian supermarkets. Tutor: Be careful about using their conclusions too much. The university takes a tough stance on plagiarism. Make sure you properly list where you get your information from in a bibliography and try and do your own analysis. Get going too as that analysis will take a bit of time. Jennifer: OK, thanks. Tutor: And Melanie. How is your work going? Melanie: I’m a bit behind I’m afraid. I was sick all last week and weekend with flu. I’ve got a subject I think but I’ve not done any work on it yet. Is there any chance I can get an extension to the submittal date? Tutor: The policy of the department is not to give any extensions unless there are extenuating circumstances. Do you have a doctor’s certificate or anything? Melanie: I went to the doctor’s but I didn’t get a note as I didn’t realise I would need it. The doctor will have a record of me though as I got a prescription. I’ll go back and get one.

Tutor: Yes, do. If you get one, then there shouldn’t be a problem getting an extension. Without it though, you’ll be in trouble. What subject are you considering anyway? Melanie: I thought I’d do an overview of the UK mortgage interest rates and their effect on housing sales trends over the last 10 years. I thought it might be of interest because of the huge increases of house prices over the last decade. Tutor: Certainly an interesting subject and it should be no great problem getting information as this has been fairly well documented. It’s a lot of work again though and you’ll really need to get cracking on it even with the extension - if you get one. Melanie: Well, I’ve not got much on for the rest of the week and I’ve set aside the weekend to really get to grips with it. Tutor: Good. Now, is there anything else?

SECTION 4 You will hear part of an earth sciences lecture. Good afternoon and welcome to this Earth Sciences lecture. Today we’re going to look at tidal waves; or more correctly, tsunami. Deep below the ocean’s surface tectonic plates collide, and every once in a while, these forces produce an earthquake. The energy of such submarine earthquakes can produce tidal waves, which radiate out in all directions from the epicentre of the quake, moving at speeds of up to 500 miles per hour. When these waves reach shore, they can cause enormous destruction and loss of life. Tidal waves are actually misnamed. They are not caused by tides. A more accurate word for them is the Japanese name tsunami, which means, harbour wave. They are also sometimes called seismic sea waves, since they can be caused by seismic disturbances such as submarine quakes. However, that name is not really accurate either, since tsunami can also be caused by landslides, volcanic eruptions, nuclear explosions, and even impacts of objects from outer space, such as meteorites, asteroids, and comets.

Earthquakes though are the largest cause of tsunami. Tectonic plates cover the world’s surface and their movement can be detected anywhere in the world. Some areas of the world are more prone to greater movement, and it is in these places that the largest waves can occur. Large vertical movements of the earth’s crust occur at plate boundaries which are known as faults. The Pacific Ocean’s denser oceanic plates are often known to slip under continental plates in a process known as subduction, and subduction earthquakes are the most effective in generating tsunamis. A tsunami can be generated by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. In the case of earthquake-generated tsunamis, the water column is disturbed by the uplift or subsidence of the sea floor. Submarine landslides, which often accompany large earthquakes, as well as collapses of volcanic edifices, can also disturb the overlying water column as sediment and rock slump down, and are redistributed across the sea floor. Violent submarine volcanic eruptions can create an impulsive force that uplifts the water column and generates a tsunami. Conversely, super marine landslides and cosmic-body impacts disturb the water from above, as momentum from falling debris is transferred to the water into which the debris falls. Generally speaking, tsunamis generated from these mechanisms, unlike the devastating Pacificwide tsunamis caused by earthquakes, dissipate quickly and rarely affect coastlines distant from the source area. Tsunamis are very hard to detect, since they cannot be seen when they are in the deep ocean. The distance between two wave crests can be 500 km and, because of this, the wave height is only a few feet. Because the rate at which a wave loses its energy is inversely related to its wavelength, tsunamis not only propagate at high speeds, they can also travel great, transoceanic distances with limited energy losses. As the tsunami reaches shallow water however, its speed decreases, but the energy it contains remains about the same. Instead of travelling fast, the wave rises high. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has set up a seismic detection system to monitor earthquakes and predict the possible arrival of tidal waves for Pacific countries. Buoys at sea can also detect water-pressure changes that can indicate tsunamis moving through the ocean. But when tsunamis originate near the shore there is often little chance to warn people. Let’s look at some examples of tsunami and their causes and effects.

Some can be relatively harmless. In 1992 an offshore landslide caused a tidal wave of only about three feet high that struck at low tide, so Humboldt County, where it hit, got off easy with no casualties. On January 13th in 1992, a Pacific Ocean earthquake off the coast of San Salvador, registering 7.6 on the Richter scale, did not cause any ocean disturbance at all. However, a recent tidal wave, which struck Papua New Guinea on July 17, 1998, was 23 feet high, and killed at least 1200 people. This wave was caused by a magnitude 7.1 submarine earthquake. On July 17, 1998 a Papua New Guinea tsunami killed roughly 3,000 people. A huge underwater volcanic eruption 15 miles offshore was followed within 10 minutes by a wave some 40 feet tall. The villages of Arop and Warapu were destroyed. One of the worst tsunami disasters engulfed whole villages along Sanriku, Japan, in 1896. An underwater earthquake induced a wave of 35 feet drowning some 26,000 people. Finally, about 8,000 years ago, a massive undersea landslide off the coast of Norway sent a 30foot wall of water barrelling into the uninhabited northern coast of Europe. If this were to recur today, as scientists say it could, almost anywhere in the world, it would cost billions if not tens of billions of dollars to repair the damage to coastal cities and kill tens of thousands of people. Any questions so far?

TEST 5 SECTION 1 You will hear a conversation between a travel agent and a customer discussing a holiday. Travel Agent (TA): Customer:

Good morning sir. Can I help you?

Yes. I’m thinking of going away on holiday but I’m not sure where to go.

TA: Well sir. We have a range of destinations that we offer. Are you going alone sir or with a friend? Cust: With my family actually. TA: So, how many people is that sir? Cust: My wife and I and my young son and daughter. So, four. TA: Fine. Now with a young family can I assume that you’d like to go somewhere warm? Cust: Oh yes. A beach holiday. That’s what we are looking for. TA:

Right, I’ll just take some personal details sir. First of all, what’s your name?

Cust: George Collins. TA:

Collins? Is that C-O-L-L-I-N-S?

Cust: Yes, that’s right. TA:

Thank you. And what about your wife and children?

Cust: My wife’s name is Jane, my boy’s name is Mike and my little girl is Jennifer. TA:

How old are the children?

Cust: Mike’s 7 and Jennifer’s 4. TA:

Ah, they’re quite small then.

Cust: Oh yes, We just need a safe, little place. A warm climate, a quietish, safe beach, a pool preferably and lots of small restaurants and bars near the hotel. TA: Would you want any crèche facilities in the hotel so you and your wife can get away when you want? Cust: No. I work quite hard and I don’t see the kids as often as I want at home so I’m looking forward to spending all my time with them. TA: And what eating arrangements do you want?

Cust: Just half board please. We’ll have breakfast at the hotel but we’ll eat lunch and dinner at a beach café. We’d want about 4 star quality for the hotel by the way. TA: Right. And what time in the summer are you thinking of taking the holiday? Cust: I finish work on Friday night on July 8th and I’m off for two weeks. So, I’ll need to be back at work on the Monday 25th. I’ll need to finish the holiday then on the 24th. TA: And how long would you want to spend travelling? Cust: Oh, as little as possible of course with the little ones. Not more than a couple of hours in the car to get to an airport and then not more that 4 hours on a plane. TA: That’s fine. You can get to all of the nice resorts on the Mediterranean easily in less than 4 hours. Right then. Let’s show you some brochures. TA: As I said sir, most Mediterranean destinations are easily within your preferred flight time. You can choose really between Spain, France, Italy, the old Yugoslavia, Greece or Turkey as well as the Mediterranean islands. Cust: Wow, what a great choice. What are the different costs involved? TA: With you wanting a 4 star hotel and pool some countries will be definitely cheaper than others. Price wise, Italy and France will be at the top end, Spain, Greece and Turkey will be at the lower end. Cust: Greece and Turkey sound great actually. I’ve always wanted to go there and I’ve seen some beautiful photos. TA: I think that Greece would suit you better as the flight to Turkey is actually quite long. You’re getting towards 5 hours there. Cust: OK, well Greece is fine. TA: Of course with Greece you have the choice between the islands and the mainland. It’s the islands that are famous of course but you’ll have to get there by boat or take a short connecting flight. Some of the bigger islands are served directly though from UK airports.

Cust: Well, one of the larger islands sounds best then. What about Cyprus? I’ve heard that a lot of British people go there. TA: Yes, it’s very popular. The trouble for you with Cyprus though is that it’s down in the eastern Mediterranean near Turkey and the flight is quite long to get there. I was thinking more of Rhodes and Crete. Cust: Let’s have a look at those 2 then. TA: Here are some brochures. This is the Hotel Tropicana and this is the Palm Hotel. Both of them are in Crete. In Rhodes we have the Ocean Hotel and Hotel Spiros. Cust: Can you tell me a bit about them? TA: Of course. The Hotel Tropicana is about 1 mile from the beach and it’s a safe walk along a path through some fields to get there. They have a nice pool which you can see in the photo. There are only a few beach bars and restaurants though. It’s really quiet, away from all the bustle of other tourist destinations. The Palm Hotel is further from the beach, about 2 miles, but it has a minibus service that goes to and from the beach all day. The hotel itself is in quite a busy tourist town that has lots of bars, restaurants and discos. It’s great for going out. Cust: I don’t know if either of those suits us. We don’t want noisy and we don’t want a long way to the beach. TA: Let’s have a look at the Rhodes hotels then. The Ocean Hotel is right on the beach. It’s less than 5 minutes usually to get to the beach area from the rooms. The hotel is quite a long way from the main town and people usually take all their meals in the hotel. The hotel is 4 star though and we know the food is quite good as we’ve been told so by previous holidaymakers. Hotel Spiros is a family run hotel also quite close to the beach - about 5 or 10 minutes’ walk. It’s in a small village and has a small swimming pool as well. There are a few restaurants scattered around the village but again, it’s not a big tourist village so there’s not much to do. Cust: To be honest, both of those sound fine. We don’t want a night life as we won’t be able to leave the kids. Something close to the beach, somewhere to eat and sit in the evening is all we need. I’ve made some notes. Let me take the brochure with the details of these two hotels and I’ll

take them back and show my wife and see what she thinks. They both seem just what we want though. TA: OK sir. Come in again when you’ve decided or if you want to see some other places. Cust: I will. Thanks very much then. Goodbye. TA: Goodbye.

SECTION 2 You will hear a man giving an orientation talk to new holidaymakers at the Solaris Hotel and Holiday Village. Good morning everyone and welcome to your first morning here at the Solaris Hotel and Holiday Village. This little orientation talk this morning will just give you an idea of what to find and expect around the grounds. Let’s begin by looking at meals. We have three different restaurants and you are at liberty to eat at any of them. They are the Harvest Restaurant, the Dene Restaurant and the Mekong Restaurant. Let’s begin with breakfast. Breakfast is only served in the Harvest Restaurant. The other two restaurants are only open for lunch and dinner. Breakfast is served between 6.30am and 9.30am 7 days a week. There are English, American and continental style breakfasts on offer. For lunch and dinner all the restaurants have the same opening hours to make things easier for you. Lunch is served from 12.00 noon to 2.30pm and dinner is served from 7.00pm to 10.30pm. The menus are the same for lunch and dinner though look at the blackboards displayed in the restaurants for any specials that they are serving for any particular meal. The style of food is different in each of the restaurants. The Harvest serves traditional English food though with plenty of the foreign dishes which are popular in the UK such as curry and spaghetti. The Dene specialises in fish and seafood and the Mekong offers you a selection of dishes from the Far East; not just from Vietnam as the name suggests but Chinese, Thai, Malay and others. You don’t have to pay in any of the restaurants unless an extra supplement is needed for some of the specials. All soft drinks are also free though we charge for alcoholic drinks. You can choose

to pay any bill that you may incur at the end of the meal itself or you can put it on your main bill which you can pay when you leave at the end of your holiday. There is also a bar menu in the main bar which serves pretty good pub food and if you have any late night munchies, there is a take away open until 2.30am which sells fast food. Good for those of you who are returning in the early hours from a disco or club! Now let’s look at some of things that you can do here during your stay with us. Of course we have our main beach which is popular with everyone. There is also an adult beach which is prohibited to anyone less than 17 years of age. This allows those of you without children to get some peace and quiet on the beach. The main beach has two lifeguards on duty from 9.00am to 6.00pm. The adult beach has no lifeguards. If you don’t like sand and salt we have a decked area in front of the Harvest Restaurant with our 25 metre swimming pool. You can lie here on a sun lounger and swim in the pool with no sand to bother you. There are steps from the pool area to the beach so you can go between the two but, if you’re coming up from the beach, please walk though the foot pool so that the sand gets washed off and doesn’t lie around the pool area. There are also freshwater showers available on the beach and in the pool area. As for sports we have 8 tennis courts and 3 squash courts which can be booked at any time. There is a fully equipped gym with staff on duty to help you. No-one under 18 years of age may use the gym though. We also have 6 full sized snooker tables and 5 pool tables in the games room adjoining the bar. There is no charge for use of any of these facilities though there is a small charge if you need to hire any sports gear. Again you can pay immediately or put the charges on your main bill. There are also water skiing and jet skis available but there are charges for these. Go to the water sports office for details. All the water sports such as snorkelling, inflatables and pedallos are free. Ask for all details again at the water sports office. There is a library in the hotel which supplies books, magazines and newspapers. It has certain terms and conditions of use which you will be able to find on the notice board in the library. We also have 2 cinemas which show 3 different films every day. The showings are in the afternoons at 2.00pm, the early evening at 5.30pm and at night at 8.30pm. The afternoon and early

evening showings always have a film for kids. Children under the age of 16 are not permitted to attend the 8.30 presentations. Well, that’s all for now. Are there any questions?

SECTION 3 You will hear 2 students giving a presentation to a seminar group at their university. Dr. Reece: Good morning all. Glad to see you’re all on time today. This morning we’re going to hear Jamie and Rebecca give their presentation on some aspect of demographics. They’ve talked to me about it a bit before while researching it but I don’t want to give the game away so I’ll hand straight over to them Jamie: Hi everyone. As Dr. Reece said Rebecca and I are going to give our demographics presentation. Both Rebecca and I also study languages so we decided to look at the world’s different languages and the ones that are the most important, both now and in the future. Rebecca’s going to start off. Rebecca: OK everyone. Who knows what the world’s most spoken language is? Phil:

I thought it was English. Isn’t it?

Rebecca: Well, it’s an ambiguous question. If you just look at how many individual speakers there are around the world then the answer is Mandarin Chinese with 836 million speakers. English was second until a few years ago but it has since been overtaken by Hindi with 333 million speakers and Spanish with 332 million speakers. Now English is after Spanish with 322 million speakers. Phil:

Oh yes, South America. I didn’t think of that.

Jamie: Yes, it’s easy to forget. You can look at Rebecca’s question though in a different way if you look at the number of countries that use English. English is a massive 115, ahead of French, Arabic and Spanish with 35, 24 and 20 countries respectively.

Rebecca: English has different statuses around the world. Core countries are where English has a full official status like England, the US and Australia. In outer core countries English has some official status as in India and then there are fringe countries such as Japan and the UAE where it’s used a lot in business and tourism. Jamie: A more important list is the world’s most influential languages. This was compiled by weighing 6 factors which were the number of primary speakers, the number of secondary speakers, the number and population of the countries where the languages are used, the number of major fields using the language internationally, the economic power of countries using the languages and socio-literary prestige. Rebecca: And the list shows the following in order of most influential: English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese, German, Japanese, Portuguese and Hindi. Dr. Reece: How up to date are these figures? Jamie: Fairly. They came out just last year. But the picture is changing very rapidly in terms of influential languages. There are certain large countries which are about to emerge on the world stage and their economies are starting to influence the world balance of power. Rebecca: The largest countries that for various reasons are beginning to shift world economic power are China, Russia, India and Brazil. The sizes of the populations along with the cheap labour and raw material prices which are available in these countries are causing this shift. As a result, every year the demand for people knowing the languages of these countries is growing enormously. Jamie: In addition the demand for teachers and English language training is also enormously increasing. Western teachers are going to the countries and their nationals are coming over here. As well as business, the education sector is getting a huge boost from the opening up of these economies. Dr. Reece: So, will China be the major powerhouse as everyone says? Rebecca: Definitely but maybe not the biggest. Many experts predict that India’s population will soon surpass China’s. Bangladesh’s population could too. It all points to world economic power being held in Asia though.

Jamie: English will probably remain important though. Chinese is difficult to learn and English also has some official status in India. English is easy to learn and has the advantage, for better or worse, of being the language that everyone wants to learn. That won’t change in a hurry. Dr. Reece: How many people learn English then? Rebecca: The number of spoken languages nowadays is estimated between 2500 and 7000. Out of all these languages, the numbers of those actually studied by non native speakers is tiny. There are no official records of numbers studying English worldwide but today you can safely say that there are not many countries with a structured program of education where English is not taught. It will take a long time for this habit to be broken. At the moment it’s getting stronger.

SECTION 4 You will hear part of a humanities lecture on Mad Cow Disease. Good morning ladies and gentlemen and welcome to this humanities lecture. Today we are going to continue our look at the modern diseases that afflict society. Today we are looking at quite a famous but rare disease. The popular name for this disease is mad cow disease. It has been so named because it is most often found in the brains of cattle. It attacks the nervous functions of the brain and leads to unusual behaviour by the cattle. Thus we familiarly say that the cow is therefore mad and hence, mad cow disease. Mad cow disease is the commonly used name but its medical title is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or BSE. It is a slowly progressive, degenerative, fatal disease affecting the nervous system of adult cattle. The exact form of BSE is not known but it is generally accepted by the scientific community that the likely cause is an infectious form of a type of protein known as a prion. This protein develops abnormalities and apparently seems to encourage other proteins to become similarly misshapen, affecting their ability to function. In cattle with BSE, these abnormal prions initially occur in the small intestines, tonsils, and central nervous tissues. There is a similar disease to BSE called Creutzfeld Jacob Disease or CJD that is found in people. A variant form of CJD is believed to be caused by eating contaminated beef products from BSE affected cattle. The abnormal prions in infected cattle products are consumed by humans as they

are resistant to common food disinfection treatments such as heat. The disorder is rare occurring in about 1 out of 1,000,000 people. To date there have been 155 confirmed and probable cases of CJD worldwide among the hundreds and thousands of people that may have consumed BSE contaminated beef products. Most of the cases have occurred in the UK. The one US case was in a young woman who contracted the disease while residing in the UK and developed symptoms after moving to the US. CJD is a disorder involving rapid decrease of mental function and movement. As with BSE in cattle, these abnormalities are believed to be caused by damage done to the brain by prions, though it is has been proved that in rare cases it can be genetically inherited. CJD tends to affect younger people, beginning between the ages of 20 and 70, with average age at onset of symptoms in the late 50s. Early symptoms include personality changes and difficulty with coordination. Once symptoms appear, the disorder progresses rapidly and may be confused with other types of dementia such as Alzheimer’s Disease. CJD though is distinguished by extremely rapid progression from onset to symptoms to disability and death. So, how did BSE and CJD come about? We’ve not read about them in the history books. These appear to be new diseases. BSE was first reported in the United Kingdom. The exact origins of BSE remain uncertain, but it is thought that cattle initially may have become infected when given feed contaminated with scrapie infected sheep meat and bone meal. Scrapie is a sheep prion disease similar to BSE in cattle. The scientific evidence suggests that the UK BSE outbreak in cattle was then spread by feeding BSE contaminated cattle protein to calves. Thus, we have created the disease ourselves. Cattle naturally are grazers, feeding on grass. We have given cattle feed derived from sheep, an unnatural food for cattle. We have compounded our mistake by also feeding young cattle with feed derived from older cattle making them cannibals. There is a kind of horror associated with it when we look at it like this. There is also a kind of poetic justice that the disease is passed down to us as we consume the animals that we have infected. Moving on now, are there any questions with what I have said so far?

TEST 6 SECTION 1 Mike: And, it’s a bright sunny morning here at Portsmouth University Radio, the radio station that brings you all the news, and lots of the fun non-news from our wonderful campus and the city we live in. I'm your host Mike, and with me is... Rita: Rita. Hi, guys. Mike: So, Rita, what’s on the menu this morning? Rita: As usual, Mike, we'll start off with the most important, most exciting and interesting news for all those thousands of our highly intellectual, very serious listeners - sports. Mike: Right. Good news from the women's soccer team last night, I hear. Rita: Sure is. They thrashed Southampton by, would you believe, not four, not five, but six goals to nil, nothing, zero. So the team's looking good for the Southern England University League that starts this Saturday. Mike: Did you see the game, Rita? I wanted to, but was stuck in the lab playing with rats. Rita: See the game, against our closest rivals? Do you think I'd have missed it? Great game. Mike: So who scored? Rita: No surprises here. Molly Mbeka scored the first three, all in the first half. Susie Smith, last year’s top scorer, hit the net five minutes into the second half, followed two minutes later by Joan Michael. Then Molly finished off the massacre just before the final whistle. Mike: Fantastic players. Great team. All our listeners know Susie Smith, of course - the ‘Blond Dynamite’ - and Joan Michael from last year. But Molly is new on campus, a first-year postgraduate medical student all the way from Ghana, where she played for the national team. Top scorer, an amazing twenty-five goals in international matches last season. African Woman Player of the Year, Rita: Yeah, she's fantastic. She came very close to scoring more, but Southampton hemmed her in really tightly after they saw what she can do,

Mike: I heard she could turn professional tomorrow if she wanted to, but prefers to enjoy the game as an amateur and study to become a doctor. Rita: That’s true. OK, and how about the men’s soccer team, Mike? Mike: Do I have to speak about this, Rita? A disaster. Played away at Bristol. I won't be surprised if some of them are too embarrassed to come back. Lost 6-2, and Bristol had their best two players watching from the sidelines because of injury. Let’s change the subject. Rita: Good idea. No other sporting new today, but lots coming up this weekend. Now to the bad news from the Students' Union. Mike: Really bad news! Prices in the cafeteria and bar are going up by an average of 10 percent, as from next Monday, 75p for a cup of coffee, four pounds for a pint of Bitter, my favourite beer. Rita: So, complain. There’s a demonstration planned for outside the Students’ Union Building at noon tomorrow. See you there, and you can phone us now - 8759 765 - to tell us what you think. SECTION 2 Good morning, fellow members of the board, staff members, and our dear stockholders. Welcome to our 6th annual general meeting. It is my pleasure to give you an overview of how the Orange Computer Company has done in the past year. When I have finished, we will be very happy to answer any questions you might have. Most of what I have to say is very encouraging, but, to get it over with, I’ll start with the bad news. Actually, it’s not too bad. This time a year ago, we told you that we were about to launch our first mobile phone line - cell phone for our American friends. After a nuyor promotion, our four mobile phones hit the market exactly one week later, Given our excellent company reputation, very promising results from our market research, and what we thought were attractive winning features at very competitive prices, our competitors were ready and waiting, with new models at prices that we had to match. So, match them we did, but, given the difficulty of breaking into this market, sales have been disappointing both in Europe and especially in North America. Given the massive growth of China’s mobile phone production in recent years, and our lack of experience in that part of the world, we did not market the phones in Asia,

So our mobile phone subsidiary is still limping along, but sales are slowly growing - we believe the long battery life and reliability arc beginning to have a larger impact on consumers - so we have planned a new promotion and marketing campaign stressing these two strengths. Our research also shows that, after only a few weeks, most purchasers of the fanciest, most expensive mobile phones end up only using the basic functions - phone calls, messages, and chatting. So we will be appealing to the more conservative consumers, those who look for reliability, rather than those who feel they need to always have the very latest and most complicated models. We are confident that we will soon build a strong position in this target market. Now for the good news. As you can see in the Annual Report, total group income from sales increased to just over 1.83 billion Euros, a very healthy 9.5 percent, and net profit after taxes increased to 126 million Euros, or 18 percent. So you can look forward to a significant rise in share dividends, and an even bigger increase in the value of your stockholdings in Orange Computers. Let me briefly describe the main reasons for our even better-than-expected growth and profits this past year. One is the fruits of our merger four years ago with Ribbon Optical, Europe’s largest camera and CCD maker. Our decision to get into the high-end digital professional camera market has proven to be the right one. We have been particularly successful in the medical imaging field. Starting from nothing three years ago, our equipment is now being used by 12 percent of Europe’s hospitals, and we have already, after just 18 months, made a promis¬ing entry'into the North American market. In fact, just yesterday we signed a 1.2 million dollar contract with one of America’s best-known medical schools. Another major reason for a vety profitable year was the increased outsourcing of our programming to India and China. This has resulted in very significant cost reductions on our software side. And I am happy to tell you that we managed to increase the proportion of the programming we outsource without laying off any of our European programming staff, who we keep for those software and platform projects that we wish to keep most closely to ourselves. Efforts to increase energy efficiency have also reduced costs. We are also pleased that our decision, explained to you at our meeting a year ago, to stick to our core business and not to enter such areas as games, playstations, music, MP3 and the like - mobile phones were the one exception - is, in our opinion, proving correct. The competition is very fierce

in these fields, with minimum returns, and, in the case of the music side, extremely costly in legal fees. SECTION 3 Mary: Hi, Mr Hays, it's so great to see you again. Hays: Mary, one of my most favourite students. So how are you? Mary: Well, to be honest, Mr Hays, not so good. That's why I wanted to see you. It's about university. So different from high school. Hays: Oh dear. Well, why don’t we sit down over there and you can tell me all about it? Let's see if I can be of any help to you. Mary: Oh dear. I feel so stupid now. I shouldn’t have bothered you. Hays: Don’t be silly, Mary. We all need someone to speak to sometimes, and since your mother and father are in New Zealand, you probably feel a bit lost now and then. But before you say anything else, why don't you tell me all the things that you like about your new life at university? Mary: Gee, l don’t know. I guess I like the city. Canterbury Cathedral is one of my favourite places. I often go there just to sit and think. Or Just sit. Hays: Oh, I can quite understand that. And you've got the sea -1 love the sea - and you are never more than a short cycle ride from the lovely Kent countryside, And how are your teachers? Mary: Oh, the profs are great - not as good as you - but really interesting, and always ready to explain things after class. But, I don't know, they're really good. But I Just can’t seem to feel enthusiastic about studying any more. Hays: Mary? Not a keen student any more? My dear, that's so hard to believe. You were always so energetic and Interested in all vour subjects, except German, if I remember correctly. But you still did very well in it. And you always wanted to major in Biology, which is what you are doing now. Do you still enjoy Biology? Mary: I don’t know. I suppose so. But I kind of have to force myself to go to lectures and stuff. It all seems, like, like a waste of time. Pointless.

Hays: Mary, I think I know you quite well. You are obviously not feeling yourself. Are you feeling sad, or worried about something? Mary: Not really sad, and I don’t think I’m worried about anything In particular, It’s just that nothing seems worth bothering with. Hays: Have you spoken with your mum or dad lately? Mary: Not since Easter. I send them e-mails, but they hardly ever reply. And they are never in when I try to phone them. Always out filming. Hays: Yes, Mary. That Is sometimes the problem with very successful parents. They get so wrapped up in their work that they neglect the kids, Not intentional, but it happens. Mary: I guess. But at least I could speak to them sometimes when they were here in London. But now - well, I feel really alone at Canterbury. Hays: Have you made any friends there, Mary? You were always such a popular person here. It seemed you were In every club and sports team. President of the Chess Club. Have you joined any university clubs? Mary: Not really. Suppose I should. I’ll check out the debating society once I get back. Hays: That's a good idea. Let me know how you get on. SECTION 4 Good evening. Good to see so many people here to learn about the fascinating civilisation of the Aztecs. By the way, is the microphone working? You can hear OK at the back? Good. Let’s go back to 1519 AD. Anyone know what happened in that year? Right, Hernan Cortez landed on that part of Central America that is today known as Mexico. He expected to find gold, and he did. What he did not expect to find, however, was the great Aztec civilisation. Aztec legend said they originated in the plains of northwestern Mexico and slowly migrated southward. When they arrived at Lake Texcoco, in 1325 they founded their great capital, Tenochtitlan, on the site of what is now Mexico City. The Aztecs developed a complex society and governmental structure, at the head of which was the Emperor. They made many scientific advances, especially in the areas of astronomy and medicine.

They also had a complicated religion, and interest in the arts, agriculture and social conditions occupied much of their time. Let’s talk about their remarkable achievements in some of these areas. You cannot do much if you don't have food to eat, so let’s first take a look at their farming practices. The land that the Aztecs farmed was not fertile enough to grow enough food to support the growing population, so they were forced to invent methods to increase productivity, including irrigation, fertiliser, and even building terraces on hills, to protect soil from running off, like we see today in China, the Philippines, and many other parts of the world. But one thing we don’t see was their very original idea of chinapas, spelt C-H-I-N-A-P-A-S. Chinapas were floating gardens built on swamps. Actually, they were quite simple to make. First, canals were dug through the marshes and swamps. Then, mud from the canals was placed on mats woven from weeds and straw. These mats were quite big, maybe five or six meters long and two across. Trees were then planted in the bed of the swamp at the corners of each mat The trees took root, and the chinapas were held firmly in place. The Aztecs used these floating gardens to plant their main, corn, and also vegetables, like beans, chili peppers, avocados, squash, and tomatoes, The Aztecs were very advanced in some ways, but they didn’t use animals or plows to help them work the land. In fact, they didn’t even have the wheel. No problem, the soil on the chinapas was soft: enough that pointed sticks were all they needed to plant crops on them. But the Aztecs were much more than imaginative gardeners. They made great advances in the sciences, especially astronomy. I’m sure many of you have heard of the Aztec’s Calendar Stone. It took them 52 years, from 1427 to 1479 to build the Calendar Stone. It was huge: a massive piece of rock 3 feet thick, 12 feet in diameter and weighing about 24 tons, on which they carved pictographs for the days and months of the Aztec calendar. This showed just how advanced the Aztecs were in the science of astronomy. It makes me think of the clean air they enjoyed in those days, when they could see all the stars shining so brightly in the night sky. They would have had a big problem doing this in most parts of the world nowadays. But back to the Calendar Stone. It had 18 months, each of 20 days, namely, 360 days made one year. But they had long before worked out that there are 365 days in a year, so they added 5 days, which they called the “Nemontemi”, or sacrificial days, to get 365. Remember, this was 103 years before the Gregorian calendar that we use today. Very sophisticated, those Aztec astronomers.

And they were not only clever astronomers. The Aztecs made great advances in medicine. At the time, many Europeans looked down on the herbal medicine of the Aztecs as a “heathen” practice, just like they used to look down on traditional Chinese or African medicine. But in fact, Aztec doctors could do more than even the best doctors in Europe. Their medicine was primarily based on spiritual healing and herbal healing, Spiritual, because they believed many illnesses were caused by such things as an angry god or bad birth signs. So their first step in treating an illness was always prayer, and sometimes animal sacrifice. But they also used herbal medicine, and concentrated much of their medical science on finding out what herbs could do. Just like the ancient Chinese doctors. So, over generations, the Aztecs accumulated a vast knowledge of the herbs in the world around them and the medicinal properties of each one. One difference with traditional Chinese medicine is that the Aztecs concentrated more on curing the symptoms of a disease than getting at the cause of the disease. They felt that if a god or goddess wished to make them ill, then they could do nothing about the root cause, namely, a god. If the medicine worked, it meant that the gods approved of the patient getting well again.


SECTION 1 Jane: Who is it? Sally: It’s me, Sally. Jane: The door’s open. Hi. Sally: Hi. So, have you decided where to go for your big holiday? Jane: Finally, I narrowed it down to Southeast Asia or India and Pakistan, and decided on Southeast Asia.

Sally: that’s a long trip. Three months nearly. Don’t you think it’s too long? Jane: I have to be back in time for the new term, so I want to leave by July I". Sally: That's a long trip. Three months nearly. Don't you think it's too long? Jane: No. I want to do research on recycling while I'm there - for my environmental studies course next year, so I've got tons of things to do. I don't know where to start. Sally: First things first. Passport, air ticket, and money. How much money are you taking? I hear it's not cheap like it used to be, Jane: The passport's OK for another two years, I'll go to the travel agent tomorrow, and I reckon 3,000 pounds should be plenty. I'm glad I kept doing that horrible waitress job this past three years, Sally: A thousand a month. Sounds plenty. Including airfare? Jane: No. Dad's got a freguent flyer award, so I should be able to get to Singapore and back for nothing. Sally: Yeah, but you have to be careful. Normally those free ticket things mean you can only fly when there are empty seats. Don't want you to get stuck there until all the rich Asian students have flown back here after seeing their families. Jane: I'll manage. But I'll see what the travel agent has to say. Gosh, July 1K, that's only a bit over three weeks Sally: Inoculations. All sorts of nasty diseases in those tropical places. Have you checked out the health requirements? Jane: Didn't think of it. How do I start? Sally: I think there's a Ministry of Health web page that tells you what injections and pills you need before you go to different countries. Yellow fever, malaria, that sort of stuff. How many countries do you plan on visiting? Jane: As many as I can. Singapore, Malaysia - I'd like to get to Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia if I can - Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Indonesia for sure. Sally: That's pretty ambitious. How do you plan to get around?

Jane: As cheap as I can. Don't fancy flying much, Mavbe I can get a boat from Singapore to Borneo. Sally: You didn't mention Borneo. Jane: Oh, that's the big island where Sabah and Sarawak are. Most of it belongs to Indonesia. Sally: Oh, I know. And Brunei, right, that little place with tons of oil. Jane: Right, Sally: Have you still got your camera? Jane: Yeah, and Dave has promised me a digital video camera for my birthday. Sally: But your birthday isn't until late July. Jane: An early birthday present. That's what brothers are for.

SECTION 2 Good morning, everybody. I’m Richard Smethers from International Students. Consulting, and welcome to today’s talk on what you need to know and think about prior to going to study In the UK. Probably the biggest question is that of housing. It can be very expensive, especially In London. And the halls of residence in most universities are certainly not cheap: that’s what you pay for convenience. Probably the best thing for most of you. I believe It’s the first time any of you have studied in the UK - is to try to find a vacancy In a co-op house with other students. If you are keen to make maximum progress with your English, I would suggest that you try to find accommodation with at least one native speaker. So many foreign students end up living only with people from their own country, and I’ve actually known cases where their English is worse after three years than when they arrived. One advantage of living with British students is that they'll probably have experience of dealing with landlords, looking after the bills and other things that might be done quite differently in your home country.

So how to find shared housing, any housing? Arrive early. It’s best to try and be in the town or city where you’ll be studying at least a week before the start of term. If you leave it too late, you'll be competing with thousands of other students all looking for a place to live. And one of your first stops should be the Housing Office. They have a database of all types of off-campus accommodation, and the early bird catches the worm, as they say. You’ll probably meet other students at there in the same boat you are. And chat with people. If you meet any that seem to be the type of people you could get along with, then you might well sort out your accommodation quite quickly with them. Now, I know that a few of you will be going with your spouses. Sharing a house or a flat with other students is probably not what most of you would prefer. If you are trying to save money, a studio flat, which has a bedroom and living room combined and a place to cook, is usually cheaper than a flat with a separate bedroom and a kitchen. But remember, you will probably need somewhere to study at home. Once you have found a place to live, there are a few things you should check out very carefully with the landlord or the estate agent - quite a few estate agents look after the renting out of housing for one or several landlords, First, how are you going to pay the rent? By the way, I forgot to mention that you should open a bank account very soon after you arrive. You might want to open a savings account for the bulk of your money, and keep some in a current account for paying the bills. The advantage of the former is that you get more interest on your deposit, but you usually can't write cheques or arrange to pay such things as electricity, gas, telephone and water bills, plus what you owe the landlord. These are normally paid on a monthly or quarterly basis with what are called direct debits and standing orders. The rent, of course, is usually paid monthly, and most landlords want a deposit of one or two months’ rent to pay for any damage you might do. Accidents happen, and it’s sad but true that there are thieves everywhere. Make sure you have good locks on your doors and windows, and insist that the landlord or estate agent changes them if they are not up to scratch. You should take out insurance for major items such as personal computers. If you have a car, then Insurance is required by law. And if you think you may want to get a car, make sure you take your current driving licence with you, because it may help you get cheaper car Insurance.

But the most important type of Insurance you should take out is medical insurance. Falling off your bike and breaking your arm can be a very costly business if you are not protected by insurance. Unlike the student union advisory service in your university, I am not allowed to offer you the best advice on what insurance company to use. Now, what about working? If you have a student visa for longer than six months, you can work for up to 20 hours per week during term time or 40 hours per week otherwise without applying for permission from the Home Office. And if you have a UK visa based on a relationship to someone with a long-term visa in the UK, you will normally be free to take up any sort of employment In the UK. SECTION 3 Rick: Hello, everybody, and welcome once again to the How to Study programme on the Oxbridge TV Educational Channel. As usual, we are your hosts, Rick and… Rita: Rita. OK, Rick, what's today's topic? Rick: Note-taking. Rita: Right, note-taking. It’s one of those things most of us students do, but has anyone ever told you how to do it so it can be the greatest help to you? If you had teachers like mine all your life, probably not. Rick: Same here. Rita and I thought of this topic a few weeks ago, did some research, and found that most students don't take or use notes in the best way. Rita: Of course, different things work better for different people, but we did manage to come up with some useful basic principles. Rick: But first. How do we know it helps? How do we know it isn't better to listen carefully to everything the lecturer savs, rather than scribble away taking notes? Rita: Well, we found that research on note-taking has been going on since this guy Prof. C. C. Crawford began his studies in the 1920s.

Rick: But we don't have time to tell you all about the different studies that have been done. The important thing is that most researchers agree that taking notes is better than not taking notes, and that reviewing notes is the key to their usefulness. Rita: Both are really important. For example, in 1970, Prof. Howe concluded that students were seven times more likely to recall information one week after it was presented if the information had been recorded in their notes. He argued that ‘the note-writing activity per se makes a contribution to later retention ...' But another important thing is that you shouldn’t take notes like a human tape recorder. Listen to this, and I quote, 'there is growing evidence that note-taking combined with critical thinking facilitates retention and applications of the information.’ Rick: In fact, in 1979, two researchers found that students who took notes verbatim scored lower on comprehension tests than those who processed information at a high level, which is inhibited by taking notes this way. Similarly, in 1985, another researcher found that the most successful students thought about the relationships between the facts the lecturer told them and the better organisation of their notes reflected this process. Rita: And putting information in different geometric figures, squares, triangles, rings, etc. - like in computer programming - to stand for different functions and alternatives improves this reorganisation. OK. Now for some practical basics. You start, Rick. Rick: One. Be prepared. Have your notebook open and pen in hand when class begins. Rita: Two. Listen for what the teacher emphasises with words like ‘to summarise 'the main point is ...’, and if something is written on the board, you should probably write it down. Rick: And if something is repeated, it's probably important! Rita: Don’t try to write down every word. Just the main ideas, content, and information. Rick: And develop your own way of abbreviating words. Rita: Go over your notes as soon as possible after class, Rick: Underline or highlight main ideas, concepts, and information. Rita: And last thing. Reorganising notes while reviewing leads to higher test scores. SECTION 4

Good afternoon, everybody, and welcome to our hospital’s recreational therapy department. I’m Dr Gillian Roberts, and I’m the department head. You all have children who have some form of disability, and your family physicians have recommended that they come here for treatment. Many people don’t know very much about recreational therapy - it sounds rather like playing to get better. Well, in a way, it is. But it is much more than this. So today I’ll give you an overview of the basic principles and some common activities of this form of therapy. Please don’t hesitate to interrupt me if you have any questions. Let me start by painting a picture in your minds. Imagine a young child with a disability and an adult splashing around, playing and laughing in a swimming pool. For the child, this happy scene is very different from the daily struggle of, for example, learning to walk without crutches. The adult is a recreational therapist. It’s fun, but it's also work, and successful work as she sees the improvement in the child’s balance, leg motion range, and lower body strength, Equally important, she sees that the child is slowly but surely gaining confidence. So, this probably gives you an idea of what recreational therapy is all about. How about a definition? The American Therapeutic Recreation Association describes it as “a health care and human service discipline that delivers treatment services designed to restore, remediate and/or rehabilitate functional capabilities for persons with injuries, chronic illnesses, and all types of disabling conditions.” Well, that’s quite a mouthful. But you can see that it covers a wide range of conditions and patients. At this hospital we used to specialise in children under twelve, while older people went to St James, very close to here. But we found that children can be encouraged by seeing adults doing similar things to what they are doing, and they also get very attached to their therapists. So now both hospitals treat both youngsters and adults, and we work very closely together, especially on research projects. OK. Who are the therapists? Well, most of them are certified therapeutic recreation specialists, usually simply called recreational therapists. They are certified through the National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification, which requires a bachelors degree or higher, a formal internship and passing a certification examination. To maintain their certification, they must also participate regularly in professional education activities.

Recreational therapists work in a wide range of clinical service areas, but they play an especially important role in the rehabilitation of children with disabling conditions. Their work with children includes such activities as physical play focused on restoration or maintenance of functioning, and the one-on-one bedside play with a single child or small group activity. By the way, it seems that so far I have been talking about physical problems. In fact, our work also includes trying to help with psychological problems. For example, educational play focused on understanding upcoming surgery; dramatic or expressive play focused upon coping with fear and anxiety; and family or sibling play to help overcome such things as excessive shyness, hostility, and other emotional problems. What makes recreational therapy different from other forms of therapy? As the name suggests, it is the use of recreational activities as the mode of treatment. The treatment goals that a recreational therapist may work towards are similar to the goals of other disciplines on the rehabilitation team, but the way of achieving those goals is different. Also, the recreational therapist has a holistic perspective that includes the patient’s leisure, social, cognitive, and physical needs. This means that a recreational therapist may work with a child on one or more of the following functional areas: Physical functioning - things like mobility, strength, and motor skills Cognitive functioning - such as attention span, memory, and problem -solving Emotional functioning - things like self-esteem, confidence, and coping skills Social functioning - how to communicate and interact with others Sadly, sometimes we also have to help patients learn to manage pain. Other areas include developmental play skills, leisure interests, and abilities. Well, that sounds more like something to do with recreation than the other things I just mentioned. As you can imagine, with all those different things that might need to be worked on, a recreational therapist may use a wide range of techniques to meet the needs of each child. After completing a comprehensive assessment, the recreational therapist identifies appropriate treatment goals and decides on the methods to be used. These methods might include leisure skill building, adaptive sports, aquatic therapy - I mentioned splashing around in a pool at the beginning of my talk -

therapeutic art, and animal-assisted therapy - this is increasingly popular, it’s wonderful how a friendly dog can do more than all the doctors in the world for some disabled kids.

TEST 8 SECTION 1 Student: Hello. My name is Garcia. I phoned earlier about finding accommodation. Saleswoman: Ah yes - Mr. Garcia. I took your call. Please take a seat. You said on the phone that you are studying at the university. Student: That’s right. I’m currently in university digs, but I have decided to move out. Saleswoman: May I ask why? Student: Well, the accommodation itself is fine - very nice in fact - but it’s catered accommodation and I find having to have my meals at fixed times somewhat restrictive. I tried to get into selfcatering accommodation, but there’s very little of that available and, as I will be a second-year student next academic year, I wasn’t given a place. Saleswoman: I see. We have many students coming to us who are in the same situation. Do you intend to live alone or share with someone? Student: I have two friends, from Spain and from Columbia, who would like to share with me. We thought it would be a good idea to rent a small house together. Does that sound sensible to you? Saleswoman: Sure. In fact, I recommend it. Where are you from, Mr. Garcia? Student: I’m from Mexico. Saleswoman: Really? I went there on holiday last year. Lovely. So, you’re looking for a threebedroom house. How about a flat? Would that be OK?

Student: Yes, that would be fine too, but if the rents are roughly the same, we’d prefer a house with a small garden - just somewhere where we can sit outside in the sunshine. Saleswoman: Of course. We do have houses, but more flats are available at the moment. Is there any particular area you’d like to live in? Student: Obviously, we’d like to be close to the university if possible, but not too dose. My experience is that people living in the proximity of the uni tend to get a lot of people dropping in. We’d like to avoid that. Saleswoman: I understand. Places further from the uni are also a little cheaper, in general. Before we go on, could I take down a few details? Student: Of course. My full name is Manuel Garcia. I currently live at 35c Campus Lane. Saleswoman: Thank you. And your telephone number and e-mail address? Student: My mobile number is 0453 672 348. My e-mail address is [email protected] Saleswoman: How old are you and your future housemates? Student:

I’m 19. My friends are 19 and 20.

Saleswoman: And are you all male? Student:


Saleswoman: Smokers? Student:


Saleswoman: OK. How much would you be prepared to pay altogether? Student:

We heard that 200 to 250 pounds a month would be possible.

Saleswoman: Yes, that’s about right. Accommodation in this town is below the average for the country as a whole. I’d recommend something closer to 250 pounds, since the lower-paid accommodation can be rather poor quality. Student: Yes. It’s important to feel good in a home. We intend to move in at the beginning of July. We’ve all got placements over the summer holiday.

Saleswoman: That’s good. A lot of landlords will offer a small discount if they know that you’ll be there throughout the year. I think we’ll find something decent for around 230 pounds a month. I should point out that utilities are not included. Student: I understand. We expected that. By the way, we understand that you will charge us a fee for arranging accommodation. Is that correct? Saleswoman: Yes, it is. We charge you half a month’s rent and the landlord half a month’s rent. That includes the cost of drawing up a rental agreement. All our landlords require a deposit of a month’s rent, payable with the first month’s rent upon signing the agreement. Student: That’s fine. Saleswoman: Now, I’ll just write down the kind of place you’re looking for. I don’t think that’ll be a problem. Do you have any other requirements? Student: Er... Let me think for a minute. Oh, of course - how could I for¬get! It must be furnished. We don’t mind buying kitchen utensils. A TV - yes, we’ll need that. We don’t need a video or DVD player. Oh, and a washing machine. That’s essential, as is an Internet connection. I presume all the accommodation you offer has a cooker? Salewoman: Yes. You don’t have to worry about that. Do you prefer a bath or a shower? Student: We would prefer to have a shower, but we’re not fussy about that. Saleswoman: Right then. I’ll send you details of three or four of the most suitable properties later today by e-mail. Then you can let me know whether you’d like to see any of the properties or whether you’d prefer to see details of some others. Thank you for dropping by, Mr. Garcia. SECTION 2 Interviewer: What was your holiday location and how did you hear about it? Interviewee: My holiday location was Waiwera, in New Zealand. It is a thermal spa resort. I was there last year with my parents, my sister and a couple of friends of my parents. My father and my little sister, who inherited the medical problems from my father, need to go to a thermal spa every year for treatment. They used to go to the Polynesian Spa in Rotorua, another famous resort in New Zealand, but last year they decided that they fancied a change. I had never gone with them to

a spa because I preferred to spend my holiday at home or go to other places, but last year when they changed the location I decided to go with them. I also decided to go because my sister really wanted me to go with her. My parents found out about this location from some of the people they met in Rotorua. These people said that they were more satisfied with the accommodation and facilities at the Waiwera spa, so my parents were curious and when they returned home they asked me to search on the Internet for some information. They were impressed with the information I found and it was then that they decided to plan a trip there. Interviewer: So you went with your family and your parents’ friends? Interviewee: Yes. I travelled with my parents, my little sister and some family friends with their three children, so that altogether we were nine people. I was lucky because in the other family there was a boy one year older than me, so I had someone to pass the time with and have some fun. There were a lot of elderly people and kids at the spa town, so I was happy that he was with me. We had similar interests. It’s good to be with someone with your own age when you are on holiday. Interviewer: How much time did you spend finding out information about this spa? Interviewee: I didn’t spend so much time searching for the information because the spa has website that was easy to find. We wanted some more information that wasn’t on the website, particularly about how to get there, but we went to a travel agency and they gave us the informa¬tion that we didn’t have and made there the reservations for all of us. Interviewer: Can you tell us the thing you like most at the spa? Interviewee: There were so many things that I liked there. I especially liked the accommodation. We stayed at the Waiwera Holiday Inn which is situated right on the beach. It offers spectacular sea views. I think that I will never forget it. Interviewer: Were there any things that you were not satisfied with? Interviewee: I think that the bad side of this vacation was that there were so many old people and many, many children. Luckily, there were some play areas for children and they stayed there most of the time. Interviewer: How was your room? Did you have everything you needed?

Interviewee: Yes, we had everything we needed. Everything was comfortable and the conditions were great, so I have nothing to complain about. Interviewer: Did you make any new friends? Are you still in touch? Interviewee: Everyone was very gentle and warm. They really made a good impression. When we needed some help, they were very helpful and I felt great. I’m still in touch with the son of my parents’ friends. Interviewer: How did you spend your time? Did you participate in any recreational activities? Interviewee: I don’t have any medical problems like my father and sister, but I still went to the thermal spa. There were a lot of recreational activities to enjoy if we wanted. For example, I played golf because there was a minigolf course. Basketball and volleyball were also available, but we couldn’t get enough people together for two proper teams. I also went to swim and I also went scuba diving on the reef not far from the hotel. There was a small group of us with an instructor. It was truly amazing. I cannot describe in words how I felt down there. It was like I was in paradise. SECTION 3 Tutor: So, you have all told me that you have been having difficulties with taking part in seminar discussions. I’ve invited you here to see if we can come up with some suggestions and solutions. Sometimes talking about these things can be helpful. Mika, you said that you think speaking and listening abilities are related? Mika: Yes, it was really difficult because basically I... I wasn’t good at listening during discussions. You know, you need to understand what is going on so if you miss some things that people say. Ít’s very difficult to catch up with the topic. Also, when the tutor asked me a question, sometimes I couldn’t understand the question and I was answering by making a guess about what he was asking. Usually, the result was that he said something like ‘I think you didn’t understand my question,’ which was quite embarrassing for me. Tutor: Martina, have you personally had many difficulties taking part in discussions? Martina: Oh, yes. Definitely. Especially at the very beginning of the course. In terms of speaking, I think I feel that the students, when they talk in class, there is no end to the conversation. They sometimes talk continuously regardless of whether you raise a hand. However, they will usually

stop and, let you speak if you just interrupt someone. At the beginning, I think I was trying to adapt to this kind of environment or classroom chemistry. It was also difficult because of my language ability. At the beginning, students, especially native speaker students, well, their English is, well, I don't need to comment about their English, but the speed and the fluency of their English made interaction or intervention,... I mean interruption, very difficult for students like me, like us, nonnative speakers. One thing I learnt to try and do is to think and try to anticipate where the discussion might go, so that when, for example, they talk about something, you know, like,... when they talk about, for example, how children think, I can get some ideas in my mind and then I can join in. Before, by the time I had collected all my thoughts and was ready to join in, the discussion had moved on. So, basically, I think it requires you to think quickly and think ahead if you want to join in. Tutor: Michal, have you done anything to try and improve and to participate in such discussions? Michal: I think I have. For example, now, I have more discussions with my classmates outside the classroom and talk with them about some of the questions raised in the seminars. If you ask tutors about your concerns, they listen to you very carefully and they pay attention to the issue in future seminars. They also try to, how do you say it in English?... catch your eye and see if you are ready to make a comment, If you are, they interrupt the native speakers and ... what’s the other idiom? ... give you the floor. That’s it. Tutors are very good at accommodating all people in the room, but you have to let them know you want to speak. Eye contact and body language can be useful. Tutor: Martina, with regard to speaking in discussions, what advice would you give to another student coming to study in England? Martina: Be polite when you discuss something or argue something. Don’t be aggressive. Just be polite and argue in a polite way and if you say something wrong, just admit it. English students don’t mind if you make a mistake, and you should admit it and then continue the argument or discussion. If I have really good idea or previous knowledge about the subject under discussion, my view is respected, but if I don’t have anything to say about the topic, that’s not good, so I advise the students from overseas to be prepared and to be polite. It’s a good chance for you to talk and share. Take it.

Tutor: Mika, what advice would you give to international students about how to prepare for discussion activities? Mika: If you ... if you want to improve your English abilities it takes some time. You must be realistic. You cannot make a quick improvement easily, but what you can do immediately is to have enough knowledge on that subject. If you have enough knowledge, for example, if you know technical terms, you can ... there is a much higher probability that you will understand the content of the seminar. You can also help yourself by using your English outside seminars. If you make some friends from your seminar groups, you will also find that they like to discuss, er, discuss topics with you in the seminars. So that’s the advice I would give. I agree with Martina about being prepared before the discussion. I find that English students are very interested in how things are done, or tackled, in other countries. However, they can be impatient if you take too long to express yourself. Tutor: Well, thank you very much. I hope that’s given you a few ideas. Now, there is something else I can suggest... SECTION 4 Lecturer: Hello, everybody and thank you for coming. I know that you’re all very busy at this time but I hope that by coming to this talk, you’ll at least get some useful information for when you go to study overseas. Well, today I want to talk about the effect of cultural background on learning style; that is, how a learner’s culture might impact on his or her approach to study. I want to begin by looking at some basic cultural values and how these affect teaching and learning. I’ll then go on to present evidence which shows that approaches to learning which are acceptable in one culture may not be acceptable in another. If you have any questions, I’d be happy to answer them at the end of the talk. Now, I want to start by introducing the two concepts. They are actually contrasting concepts, these are conserving and extending cultures. What do these terms mean? Experts have categorised cultures as being either basically conserving or extending in their attitude to the transmission of knowledge. Let me give you an example to try to make this clear. A good example of a conserving cultural attitude is demonstrated by most Arabic cultures. Here there is the requirement to learn the holy book - the Koran - by heart. This demands a huge effort of memorisation, as you can imagine. The way the Koran is learnt impacts on the way other subjects

are learnt generally. It might also have an effect on learners’ perception of what constitutes an acceptable teaching style. By this I mean that the unquestioning acceptance of the messages in the Koran and the concentration and repetition necessary to memorise those messages are transferred to the learning of school subjects and to the expectations students have on teachers. That’s Arab culture. Let’s turn now to Chinese culture. There is evidence to suggest that Chinese culture is conserving in nature. For example, keeping quiet in the classroom, listening to the teacher, not talking to other students, not interacting; these tend to characterise the Chinese classroom. As a result, Chinese learners do not develop argumentation skills as quickly as their American counterparts. American students tend to be actively encouraged to question their teachers, their materials and to interact with other classmates. However, I have to say - in the interests of balance - that Chinese students tend to work with greater concentration - but this is not the point I’m trying to make. The point is that some cultures display a conserving attitude to teaching and learning, while others display a more extending attitude to learning. Now, the memorisation and non-interactive styles of learning encouraged, for example, in Arab and Chinese cultures may disadvantage learners, at least initially, when they progress from secondary school to university. Why is this? Well, it’s because universities worldwide are increasingly adopting - with a few local variations - the Western requirement for students to show argumentation skills in written assignments and effective interpersonal skills in tutorials and seminars. In other words, the world model for university teaching and learning is now the Western model, the interactive model if you like. Now, of course, students from conserving backgrounds who go on to study in an extending culture will obviously need to adapt to a different learning style to accommodate to the new conditions. This, unsurprisingly, can often prove to be a painful process. However, such learners are able to make the transition quite successfully with guidance from academic staff and a lot of determination from their own part to “unlearn” or dismantle the study-related approaches and strategies acquired in their own cultures. Let me give you some examples from real life to try to illuminate this issue. I’ve put these on slides. Now, let’s look at the comments made by three Asian students who found the Western university system of teaching and learning very different from their previous experience. If you just look at the screen - I’ve put these comments on slides... as I said. This is what a Chinese undergraduate

from Shanghai studying at an Australian university had to say: “Generally, many of us are trained in a system where you don’t contribute much to classroom discussions; some students even hesitate to ask questions from lecturers.” Here’s what a Master’s student from Japan studying at an English university in London had to say: “In Tapanese culture and education, the emphasis on training seems to be on intuition rather than logical construction of arguments. This makes it much harder to study at my British University.” Finally, let’s take a look at the comments by an Indian research student studying at an American university: “One problem was getting used to the American system where a student is expected to find out for herself or himself the requirements and facilities of the university. This contrasts with the system at home whereby a person, generally the lecturer or supervisor, is responsible for the needs of the student.” To sum up, then, there is certainly evidence to show that the cultural values of a society affect the way that society’s educational institutions function and how the teaching in them is carried out. While ensuring the continuation of cultural identity and solidarity, the existence of culturally determined patterns of teaching and learning means that individual learning style - the way a learner would prefer to learn - is largely ignored in classrooms around the world. Well, that’s all I want to say for the moment -1 hope you’ll find what I’ve said interesting and useful when you go overseas to study. Are there any questions?

TEST 9 SECTION 1 (A - Accommodation Officer, S = Student) A: Hello. How may I help you? S: Hello. My name is Martina Bila. I made an appointment to see you at 10 o'clock. I’m a little early. Is that OK? A: No problem. We’re not very busy at the moment. You said on the phone that you weren’t happy with your accommodation and were thinking of changing.

S: That’s right. A: May I ask what the problem is exactly? S: To be honest, there’s more than one problem. The main problem is that the accommodation is further than I imagined from the university. A: I see. And the other problem or problems? S: The other problem is that the landlady is quite a heavy smoker. I’m a non-smoker, and I’m afraid that I find it quite unpleasant. A: I’m sorry about that. Weren’t you given the option of accommodation with smokers or nonsmokers? S: I’m afraid that’s really my fault. I don’t mind light smokers, but I didn’t get my accommodation organised very much in advance, so most of the accommodation had gone by the time I applied. However, a friend told me that there is sometimes accommodation ... er ... you know ... er ... accommodation becomes available mid-term because some people leave the university or change their place ... er... the place where they live, so I thought maybe ... A: I see. Yes, it is important to arrange accommodation well in advance, though it isn’t always possible. However, your friend was correct. We do get some accommodation available mid-term. Just give me a minute to find your details on the computer.... S: Yes, of course. A: Now, your current address is 43 Parkway Drive, isn’t it? S: Yes. A: Yes, that’s a fair way away. The bus connection isn’t too good either, is it? I think that it would be better to focus on that as the reason for moving, rather than the smoking issue. However, I will change the information in the computer to say that this accommodation is only suitable for smokers or people who don’t mind heavy smokers. That way we can avoid similar problems in the future. S: That sounds like a good idea.

A: Now, the good news is that there is plenty of accommodation available nearer the university. The bad news is that it is more expensive. S: That’s OK. I expected that. Is there any catered or self-catering university accommodation available? That would be ideal. A: I thought you might be interested in that. The day after you phoned, a place became available. It’s catered, so it’s the most expensive type of accommoda¬tion, but it’s yours if you want it. S: There’s no self-catering accommodation available? A: Not at the moment. Something could become available at any time, but, then again, you might have to wait weeks. S: I understand. Can I just check the cost? A: It’s £37.50 per week. You also have to pay £23.15 during the Christmas and Easter holidays, regardless of whether you are there or not. That sum doesn’t include meals during those periods. S: But summer holidays are not included? A: That’s right. Students are permitted to stay in university accommodation during holidays but they usually have to move to a different flat. S: I see. And do I pay monthly? A: Yes, but don’t worry if you’re a few days late. It happens quite often and we don’t mind too much. S: Can I see a picture of the accommodation? A: Sure.... It looks like this. You can see that there is a single bedroom for each student and a common living room and bathroom. There are no cooking facilities, but many students buy a microwave. S: Can you tell me anything about the people I’d be living with? A: There are two girls there. One is British and one is Indian. They are studying law and marketing respectively. They’re the same age as you, 20. And they’re not smokers!

S: That sounds perfect. If I don’t give my landlady a month’s notice, she gets to keep the deposit, doesn’t she? A: That’s normally stated in the rental agreement, yes. I’d like to be able to keep this university accommodation available, but I’m afraid I can’t. If someone else wants it and takes it. S: I understand. I’ll take it. Can I move in on the first day of next month? A: What day is it today? 22m! Yes. That should be fine. Give me a minute to print out the standard rental agreement SECTION 2 Presenter: Welcome everybody. Are you all sitting comfortably? My name is David Price and this is our first meeting in a series of presentations called “Countdown to Departure”. I know that you have just arrived here for your year-long course prior to going abroad, but it is certainly worth taking the time to consider... to think about events that will take place a year, or almost a year, from now. I have handed out this useful guide to planning your time abroad. Please follow the suggested timetable closely. It is vital that you get each thing done on time. If you can get things done earlier than we suggest in the guide, that’s great, but certainly don’t leave them later than we recommend. If you do not get these things done on time, it could jeopardise your study abroad or at least delay it by a year. Now, we are currently one year from departure, so you should start applying for postgraduate programmes and scholarships immediately - if you haven’t already. Consult your tutors for further advice on these points. You should also calculate a rough estimate of your study and living expenses and consider how to pay for them. We’ll be looking at that in more detail during the next meeting. You should start arranging accommodation abroad as soon as you have accepted a place on a course. Arranging accommodation can be a rather bureaucratic procedure and can take a while. At the same time, ask the university about your options for paying your fees. The next point on your timetable is six months before you leave. At that point, you need to check your passport and, if you are going to need a new one, deal with that immediately. Remember that your passport might need to be valid for the whole of the period you intend to be abroad, but that you can often renew your passport at your embassy in the country where you are studying. In any

case, your passport needs to be valid for at least six months after you enter the country where you intend to study. It might seem unnecessary to get your passport in order so early before you go, but remember that you have to get your visa as well. You should do that around six months before leaving too. Bear in mind one final, simple point. Make sure that your passport has a few empty pages left: for visas and stamps. Two or three months before departure, you should ask your bank about the options for transferring money to the country you’ll be studying in and setting up a bank account there. You should also start looking at booking your flight to the country you’ll be studying in, in order to get the best rates. The cost of flights varies considerably from carrier to carrier, and even between different travel agencies, and depends a lot upon the time of year you are flying. Booking in advance can save you a considerable sum of money. When you book your flight, you should check with the airline or travel agent to find out what your baggage allowance is. At the same time, look into booking your other travel within the country you’re going to from the airport where you will arrive. Don’t forget to buy travel insurance when you book any flights. Finally, still two or three months before departure, make sure that you have an unconditional letter of acceptance from the university you’re going to attend. This is vital as it facilitates entry clearance if into the country. Next, about one month before leaving, find out whether you will be entitled to receive free health treatment in the country you are going to and find out how much you will have to pay if not. Look into arranging health insurance if necessary. Also buy currency and traveller’s cheques to cover your first few weeks in the country. Watch the exchange rates and pick a good time, but do not leave it too late. If you are buying traveller’s cheques or a large amount of money or currency, your bank may need a while to arrange this. Another thing to do is to find out what you can take into the country and what items are prohibited. Finally, find out whether your home insurance policy will cover your belongings while they are abroad. If not, arrange suitable insurance or look into the possibility of arranging a policy in the foreign country. The last point on this timetable is two weeks before you leave. At this time, you need to do two things. One is to ask your doctor to write a letter explaining any prescription medicines - what they are and why you are taking them. The second is to request a reference letter from your bank in your own country as this will help you to open a bank account abroad. Now, let’s take a closer look at...

SECTION 3 Professor: Hello, Dinesh. Come in. You said on the phone that you had a few problems to discuss with me. Tell me what they are and I’ll see what I can do to help. Dinesh: Thank you very much, professor. I’ve been having some problems adapting to the style of learning at a British university and was hoping you could give me some advice. Professor: I’ll do my best. You won’t be the first overseas student to have problems. What’s your first problem? Dinesh: Well, my first problem is organising my time. I mean, after I worked out my timetable for lectures, seminars and tutorials, I was surprised to find that I had quite a lot of free time. However, that’s how it looked on paper and not as it has turned out in reality. Professor: I see. Take control of this time and organise it carefully. Time that is not organised can disappear very quickly, leaving you rushing to catch up on your work or even running out of time altogether. Learn the essentials of time management. First, make weekly or monthly plans that set out your study targets for the week or month ahead. Schedule time for reading, and work out roughly how much you want to read in each session. Plan time to research and write your essays or prepare projects so that you do not have to stay up late doing them at the last minute. Have you made such a plan? Dinesh: No, I haven’t. That’s obviously something I should do. I can easily fill that free time with extra studies. Professor: No, no. That’s not what I mean. Don’t plan to spend all your extra time studying. Remember to leave some time free for hobbies, sports, seeing friends or simply relaxing. If you do not take time to enjoy yourself, your work will suffer and you will miss out on many other worthwhile experiences. Make a timetable for your free time, if you like. Plan when to see your friends, play your favourite sport, or just hang out. Don’t forget to revise your plans if you need to. As you progress through your course, you will get a better idea of how much time you need for different activities. Adjust your schedules and keep them realistic. So, you’re saying that I need to keep a balance between work and play and keep an eye on things to make sure that I’m not doing too much or too little?

That’s right. Feel free to show me your plan when you’ve made one. Thank you. My next problem is coping with my course. Living abroad in a new environment makes studying more challenging than usual. I’m worried about my progress and about how I will cope with examinations. Professor: These concerns are natural, but do not let them overwhelm you. Here are two simple ways you can stay in control of your studies. First, ask for regular meetings with your tutor - in your case, that’s me - to review your progress and discuss any problems. You’re doing that now, so you’ve taken the first step. Let me know if you are having any language difficulties, though in your case that seems doubtful. As you are probably aware, there is a language centre here where all students can use language learning materials, but it’s probably not of much use to you. Second, why not try to form a mutual support group with other international students to discuss common challenges and to share useful ideas? This can be particularly helpful if you find the teaching methods very different from those you have experienced before. Another type of support group could be other students in your subject area - get together with students on similar courses to discuss the issues, swap ideas and give each other support.

Dinesh: Yes. The second idea is particularly good. As you know, there are not so many overseas students on this course, but I know some other students from my country on other courses here. I think that I feel overwhelmed because I have set myself unrealistic goals. Just talking to you has made me realise that I need to take a more realistic approach and put my problems into perspective. Professor: Just remember that whatever concerns you may have - about new learning methods, managing your time, or handling your workload - there is someone here who can help. I’m happy to be that person. All you have to do is ask. Hopefully, I can offer you a practical solution. Dinesh: Thank you very much. There is one other thing. When we had the orientation, the International Student Advisor mentioned a book that’s available from the campus bookshop. It’s not specifically for overseas students, but she said it was useful. I didn’t write it down. You wouldn’t happen to know the book I mean, would you? Professor: I know it. I recommend it. It’s called Learn How to Learn, by David Warner. I’m popping over to the bookshop myself now. Perhaps we could go together?

SECTION 4 Lecturer: Part of the role of university education is to prepare students for their professional life and career. Part of this preparation is to introduce and train students in lifelong learning - preparing them to approach their career as a continuous learning experience, rather than assuming that the end of their university education represents an end goal beyond which there is no need for further learning. Therefore, students are encouraged to develop as independent learners. An independent learner is one who takes responsibility for his or her own learning and is not always dependent on teacher being available to guide and correct. Such a student sets their own learning goals, makes their own decisions as to when and how to study for these goals, and also evaluates their own progress and develops further goals. This is not always easy for students, particularly those whose secondary education has been very teacher focussed, with teaching conducted mainly in lecture format and with little opportunity for the students to take any control of the learning process. At university, while much teaching is conducted via lectures, students are expected to become increasingly independent in their learning. Departments approach this issue in a number of ways. For example, they might provide personal mentors. This could be a student or a member of staff who is available to discuss problems that the student might have and who will support the student in the process of becoming an independent learner. The second one requires the student to make certain choices about their course, either in the elements they choose to learn or in the way in which they choose to learn them. Thirdly, there is the provision of learning opportunities outside the confines of the campus, including study trips and student exchanges. In the English Language Centre, we try to help the development of learner independence. This English Language Centre is a self-access one. A self-access centre is a place where learners come voluntarily to improve the subject that they are studying. In the case of the English Language Centre, we focus on English language. In a self-access centre, it is the student who decides what to study, when to study, how long to study, what materials to use, how to use the materials, and how to assess effectiveness. The learner is not, however, left totally alone. Learners are encouragcd to come to the centre in groups so that they can help each other in the learning process, and there is also always an English teacher available to answer any questions that students might have, to discuss their progress, and to help the learner assess their work.

Let’s take an example. Mary and her friend Jim have decided they need to improve their report writing skills. They decide to go to the ELC twice in the next week, for two hours each time, from five o’clock to seven o’clock. The first thing they do is to talk to the English teacher there, to help them identify what particular elements of writing a report they find especially difficult. Having done this, they identify suitable books, videos, or computer programs from the index, with help from the teacher if needed. Looking at the materials, they decide which to use first, and how to best use it. Working through the materials, they discuss problems with each other, compare notes, and evaluate each other's work and progress. This process of working together is important, as the students are able to support each other in the learning process. Of course, sometimes they need more help and so they ask the English teacher at the centre. When they have finished their studies, they review what they have studied, with help from their notes, and evaluate the extent to which they have, or have not, achieved their initial aim. In the light of this, they will decide to either do more work on the same topic, or move to another topic, either related to this one or something completely different. There are many ways students can improve their English independendy of a teacher. Firstly, they can use English language videos in conjunction with learning activities such as exercises to practise particular listening skills, questions to lead discussion on the topic introduced by the video. They can do follow-up tasks that use the content of the video to focus on other language skills, such as learning vocabulaiy or understanding the grammar used by the characters in the video. Secondly, they can use a computer program to improve their pronunciation, by identifying, and then practising, the individual sounds used in English. Thirdly, they can use a book to find a model business letter, for example, writing one of the same type, but with different information, and then discussing it with the ELC teacher before finally rewriting it. Finally, they can use newspapers or magazines as stimuli for discussion activities with a brief report written at the end, summarising the discussion. However, the development of an independent learner is not dependent on a centre like the ELC. Within the university, as well as within individual depart-ments, the library, the Student Affairs Office and the Student Union all provide a range of opportunities for the student to develop as an independent learner.

Outside the campus, the opportunities are both physical and virtual. The physical ones include libraries, museums and other centres, as well as various special interest groups. In the virtual world of the Internet, the opportunities are both global and vast. To conclude, in a world in which change is central to our con-tinued survival, the professional must have the adaptability and flexibility of a lifelong learner. A lifelong learner must be an independent learner, able to take responsibility for all stages of the learning process. It is the student’s responsibility to take advantage of the various opportunities on offer.


SECTION 1 MAN: Hello, this is Land Transport Information at Toronto Airport. How may I help you? WOMAN: Oh, good morning. Um. I'm living to Toronto Airport next week, and I need to get to a town called um, Milton. Could you tell me how I can gel there? MAN: Milton, did you say? Let me see. I think that's about 150 miles southwest of here. In fact it’s 147 miles to be exact, so it’ll lake you at least say, three to four hours by road. WOMAN: Wow! Is it as far as that? MAN: Yes, I m afraid so. But you have a number of options to get you there and you can always rent a car right here at the airport, of course. WOMAN: Right. Well, I don’t really want to drive myself, so I’d like more information about public transport. MAN: OK. In that case the quickest and most comfortable is a cab and of course there are always plenty available. But it’ll cost you. You can also lake a Greyhound bus or there’s an Airport Shuttle Service lo Milton. WOMAN: Hmnm, I think lor that kind of distance a cab would be way beyond my budget. But the bus sounds OK. Can you tell me how much that would cost?

MAN: Sure. Let’s see, that would be $15 one way or $27.50 return... that’s on the Greyhound. WOMAN: Oh. that’s quite cheap great! But whereabouts does it stop in Milton? MAN: It goes directly from the airport here lo the City Centre and it’s pretty fast. But you have to bear in mind that there is only one departure a day, so it depends what time your flight gets in. WOMAN: Oh. of course. Hang on, we’re due to get there at 11.30 pm. MAN: Hmmtn, too bad. the bus leaves at 3.45, so you would have quite a wait more than 4 hours. WOMAN: Oh. I see. Well, what about the Shuttle you mentioned? MAN: OK. I hat s the Airport Shuttle that will take you from the airport right to your hotel or private address. It’s a door-to-door service and it would suit you much better, because there’s one every two hours. WOMAN: So how much docs that cost? MAN: Let’s see. Yeah, that’s $35 one way, $65 return, so I guess it’s a bit more expensive than the Greyhound. WOMAN: Oh, that doesn’t sound too bad, especially if it'll take me straight to the hotel. MAN: But you do need to reserve a scat. WOMAN: OK, is it possible to make a booking right now? Through you? MAN: Sure. MAN: OK, I just have to fill this form out for you. So what date do you want to book this for? WOMAN: The 16th of October oh, no, sorry, that’s my departure date. I arrive on the 17th, so book it for then, please. MAN: So. that’s the Toronto Airport Shuttle to Milton. And this is for just one person or... ? WOMAN: Yes, just me, please. MAN: Right. And you said your expected time of arrival was 11.30? So if I book your Shuttle for after 12.00 let's say, 12.30: that should give you plenty of time to, you know, collect your baggage, maybe grab a coffee?

WOMAN: Yeah, that sounds fine, as long as we land on tune! MAN: Well, we’ll take your flight details so you don’t need to worry too much about that. Now. what about the fare? What sort of ticket do you want? One way or . . .? WOMAN: Yes, that'll be fine, provided I can book the return trip once I’m there. MAN: No problem just allow a couple of days in advance to make sure you get a seat. And what’s your name, please? WOMAN: Janet. Janet Thomson. MAN: Is that Thompson spell with a ‘p’? WOMAN: No. it s T-H-O-M-S-O-N. MAN: OK. And you’ll be coming from the UK? What flight will you be travelling on? WOMAN: Oh, it’s Air Canada flight number AC936, from London Heathrow. MAN: Right. Now. do you know where you’ll be staying? We need to give the driver an address. WOMAN: Yes. it’s called the Vacation Motel and I think it's near the town centre. Anyway, the address is 24, Kitchener Street that's KITCHKNER Street. MAN: I hat’s fine. Right, so that’s S35 to pay please. Have you got your credit card number there? WOMAN: Yes. it's a VISA card, and the number is 3303 8450 2045 6837. MAN: OK. Well, that seems to be everything. Have a good trip and we'll see you in Toronto next week! WOMAN: Yes, bye oh, thanks for your help!

SECTION 2 Thank you all for coming to my talk this evening. It's nice to see so many people in the audience. For those of you who don’t know very much about PS Camping, let me start by giving you some background information about the company.

The company started twenty-five years ago. It actually opened us a retail chain selling camping equipment, and then twenty years ago, it bought a small number of campsites in the UK, and began offering camping holidays. The company grew rapidly and has been providing holidays in continental Europe for the last fifteen years. If you book a camping holiday with us, you'll have a choice of over three hundred sites. In Italy we now have some 64 sites that we either own, or have exclusive use of. France is where we have the majority of sites, and we currently have a project to expand into Switzerland. We also have a number of sites in Northern Spain, particularly in the mountainous region of Picos de Europa. We’ve upgraded all these Spanish sites, and improved them considerably from their original three-star rating. We believe our holidays offer superb facilities for the whole family. Parents who want their children to be fully occupied for all or part of the day can take advantage of our children's activities. These are organised by our well-qualified and enthusiastic staff. Each day kicks off with a sports match, perhaps football, or volleyball, followed hy an hour of drama for everyone This may include singing or dancing, mime or other activities. In the afternoon, there’s a different art activity for each day of the week including a poster competition or model making. What’s more, our sites are truly child-friendly, and. with this in mind, we operate a no-noise rule in the evenings. Children’s evening activities usually finish at 9.30, or occasionally 10, and from 10.30 holiday-makers are expected to be quiet in the areas where there are tents. We want nothing to go wrong on a PS Camping holiday, but if it does, we also want all customers to be insured. If you haven't organised an annual insurance policy of your own you'll need to take out the low-cost cover we offer and we require that you arrange this when you make your holiday reservation. There are many advantages to choosing PS Camping, and to recommending it to others. As a regular customer, you'll he kept informed of special offers, and your friends can benefit from ten per cent off their holiday, or book a luxury tent for the price of a standard one. In return, we'll send you a thank- you present, which you can choose from a list of high-quality items. When it comes to our tents, these are equipped to the highest standard. We really do think of every essential detail, from an oven and cooking rings fuelled by bottled gas, to mirrors in the bedroom

areas. If you don't want to cook indoors, you can borrow a barbecue if you ask in advance lor one to be made available, and there's even a picnic blanket to sit on outside your

tent. Inside, a box

of games and toys can be found, and childrens tents can be hired if required. All tents have a fridge, and if you want. In spend the day on the beach, for example, ask for a specially designed PS Camping cool box, which will keep your food and drinks chilled. There are excellent washing facilities at all our sites, with washing machines and clothes lines in the central areas, along with mops and buckets in case your tent needs cleaning during your stay. All sites have a cale and/or a shop for those who’d rather "eat in’ than dine at a local restaurant. SECTION 3 TUTOR: Well, you’ve both been looking at different styles of managing individuals in companies and the workplace. How’s the research going. Philip? PHILIP: Well. I’ve been looking at why individualism. I mean individual differences, are such an important area of management studies. When you think about any organization, be it a family business or a multinational company, they are all fundamentally a group of people- working together. But it’s what these individuals contribute to their places of work that makes you realize how important they are. Of course they bring different ideas, but it s also their attitudes and their experiences of learning. Diversity is important in these areas too. TUTOR: So why do people behave so differently from one another at work? PHILIP: There are lots of reasons but research has shown a lot of it comes down to personality. And the other factor is gender. It’s a well known fact that men and women do lots of things in different ways, and the workplace is no different. TUTOR: Did you look at the effects of this variation on companies? PHILIP: Yes, I did. On the positive side, exposure lo such diversity helps encourage creativity which is generally an assel lo a company. But unfortunately individual dilferences are also the root of conflict between staff and they can lead to difficulties for management, which can sometimes be serious.

TUTOR: Thanks, Philip. So now I guess the two main things to remember here are to identify individual talent and then to utilize it. So Janice,you were looking at identifying different talents in workers. Do you think this is easy for managers to do? JANICE: Well, currently teamwork is hi fashion in the workplace and in my opinion the importance of the individual is generally neglected. What managers should be targeting is those employees who can take the lead in a silnation and are not afraid to accept the idea of responsibility. TUTOR: Thai’s true Janice but unfortunately many managers think the entire notion of encouraging individuality amongst their stall is far loo hard. JANICE: Yes, that may be true but I think one of Ihe most important tasks of managers is to consider the needs of the individual on one hand and group co-operation and conformity on the other. It requires creative thinking on the part of management to avoid tension. TUTOR: So Janice, what kind of people do you think companies should be looking lor? JANICE: Well, it has to start from the very beginning when companies are looking for new employees. When the personnel department is choosing between applicants they need to look for someone who's broken the mould and can think for themselves. Instead, people making these decisions often use a range of psychological tests to see if a person is a problem solver, or will do as they’re told. I’m not convinced these qualities are actually the most important. TUTOR: So do you think being a good team player is overrated? JANICE: No. it's not overrated. You do need to learn the rules and learn them fast. No individual can get around this if you’re working in an organization. TUTOR: So how should managers deal with this? JANICE: Rewards. When an individual demonstrates the behaviour the organisation expects, some kind of incentive can be given. What’s important here is that this happens right at the beginning so new recruits learn the rules of the system immediately. Also the incentive should be something the individual actually wants, and this isn't always just money. TUTOR: To come back to you. Philip. You were saying that recognition of good performers is essential. What else should managers be looking for?

PHILIP: Well, managing people means you not only have an understanding of your employees, but you also recognise the culture of the organization. In fact, for some organizations creativity and individuality may be the last thing they want to see during working hours! TUTOR: Very true. PHILIP: Yes, but managing people isn't as easy as it looks. For example, change in the workplace can be quite tricky, especially if there's a need to increase profit. And at times like these managers may have to give priority to profit rather than individual staff needs. TUTOR: Yes, and that creates difficult situations for people. PHILIP: Yes but what's important is that managers are able to deal with quite high levels of personal stress. During times of change they should be thinking not only about the strain on their stall' but take time out to think of themselves. TUTOR: Absolutely. So what are the implications of that for

SECTION 4 Good afternoon, everyone! This is the first seminar in preparation for our archaeological fieldwork in Namibia: we are fantastically lucky to have received partial research funding for this trip from our Institute so I shall expect 200% attention and participation from you all. First in this seminar. I’m going to give a brief introduction to contemporary research on rock art and in the second part I’m going to give you some do’s and don’ts for our fieldwork trip in April so please listen very carefully. I'm first going to focus on the interpretation of rock art in Namibia. We are very fortunate to be going to an area where you can find some of the most important sites in the entire world. And I hope to show you how easy it is for everyone to make mistakes in looking at cultures which are different from our own the first and most important lesson we have to learn. In Namibia there are both paintings and engravings that's where the surface of the rock is cut out. Many of the engravings show footprints of animals and most scholars used to think that the purpose

of these was simple and obvious: this rock art was like a school book with pictures lo teach children about tracks: which track belonged lo which animal - giraffe, lion and so on. But there were some mysteries. First, when you look at a typical Namibian painting or engraving, you see the tracks are repeated, there are dozens of tracks for the same animal. Youd expect just one clear illustration if the reason the aim was to teach tracking. Now there were two more problems. Why are some of the engravings of animals very accurate as you'd expect all clearly identifiable and others quite unrealistic? And another mystery some of these unrealistic animals that's in the engravings seem to be half human. Some, for example, have got human faces. Many researchers now think that these were pictures the wise men engraved of themselves. They believed they could use magic to control the animals they had drawn, so the hunters could then catch them for food. This shows you some of the dangers of coming from one culture to another, as we’ll be doing, without understanding it fully. Scholars imagined that children looked al rock art pictures to learn to track just because they themselves had learnt skills from pictures: many researchers now believe that rock art had a much more complex purpose. And we'll talk more about it next week! Now before I invite you to join in a discussion in this second part of the seminar. I'd like to make some very important points about our fieldwork and in fact any field lrip to look at rock art. We're going to a number of sites, and we won't always be together. I he single largest problem faced by people who manage the sites is - yes. I’m sure you’ve guessed damage caused by visitors, even though it’s usually unintentional. Whenever you do go to a site, don’t forget you can learn many things from observing at a distance instead of walking all over it. This can really help to reduce visitor pressure. People often say. ‘Well, there's only two of us and just this one time’, but maybe thousands of people are saying the same thing. And then some basic rules to guide you - we'll have our own camp near a village, but remember never to camp on a site if you go on your own It may be disrespectful to the people of that culture, and certainly don’t make fires, however romantic it may seem. It’s really dangerous in dry areas, and you can easily burn priceless undiscovered material by doing so.

So, how are we going to enjoy the rock art on our field trip? By looking at it, drawing it and photographing it - NEVER by touching it or even tracing it. Rock art is fragile and precious. Remember that climbing on rocks and in caves can destroy in a moment what has lasted for centuries. So no heroics in Namibia, please! Try to be extra careful and help others to be too. And lastly please don't even move rocks or branches to take photographs you should leave the site intact. I'm sure I can rely on you to do that. Well, that’s about all I want to say before today’s first discussion, but if you have any questions please ask them now and don’t forget you’ll find some fascinating information about world-wide sites on the Internet. Right, first question then?

LISTENING & READING ANSWER KEYS TEST 1 LISTENING 1. driving license 2. benefit book 3. insurance certificate 4. electricity bill 5. 9.30 – 3.30 6. ground floor 7. no/ nothing 8. F 9. A 10. C 11. work samples 12. job description 13. employees 14. experience or skills 15. ten minutes 16. take your time 17. ask for clarification 18. salary 19. confident 20. appearance 21. university 22. interesting 23. vocational 24. careers service 25. A

26. C 27.









90,000/ ninety thousand


4 km/ four kilometres


40 km/ forty kilometres








(the) earthquake / shock waves


(the) explosion




(the) (huge) waves

READING 1 iii 2 ii 3 viii 4 vi 5v 6-9 A C F G 10 disorientating 11 DNA protein 12 natural processes 13 forensic investigators/scientists 14 G 15 A 16 E 17 D

18 E 19 C 20 F 21 No 22 Not given 23 Yes 24 Yes 25 No 26 Not given 27 D 28 C 29 B 30 C 31 A 32 E 33 militant linguist 34 first Russian Revolution 35 postmodern caricature 36 formal 37 personal champion 38 – 40 B D F

TEST 2 LISTENING 1. Went blank 2. Plugged in 3. On the/ using the Internet 4. Not sure 5. Morningside (area)

6. 7:45 7. Branston 8. Sarrencen 9. 60 10. Half an hour 11. B 12. A 13. C 14. A 15. A 16. B 17. B 18. C 19. D 20. E 21. an article 22. puzzled 23. record 24. 50 references 25. (the) requests 26. E 27. F 28. C 29. G 30. B 31. the sossil record 32. changed physically 33. reason and/or imagine 34. thought 35. experiments 36. great apes

37. presence of 38. altruism 39. social deception 40. moral and political

READING 1. tropical 2. (a) (twig) snake 3. (a/the) forest (of Magombera)/Magombera (forest) 4. (the) nose 5. TRUE 6. FALSE 7. FALSE 8. FALSE 9. NOT GIVEN 10. TRUE 11. TRUE 12. NOT GIVEN 13. FALSE 14. F 15. D 16. C 17. A 18. B 19. B 20/21. B/D 22/23. C/D 24. moods 25. milestone 26. pessimistic 27. C

28. A 29. C 30. A 31. NO 32. YES 33. YES 34. NOT GIVEN 35. NOT GIVEN 36. YES 37. E 38. D 39. B 40. H

TEST 3 LISTENING 1. Laffterty 2. Abbeyfield 3. BR8 9P3 4. 25m 5. 20m 6. Music albums 7. Stationery 8. £ 3000 9. B 10. B 11. Gift Shop 12. Art Gallery 13. Main exhibition Centre 14. 3D Theatre

15. Modern Art Studio 16. B 17. A 18. C 19. A 20. B 21. Appliances 22. Practical 23. Lower arm 24. rehabilitation 25. high-performance athletes 26. £ 1,500 27. 2 28. 15 29. 5 recovery patients 30. Gym members 31. A 32. B 33. B 34. C 35. C 36. Visualize 37. Apologies 38. Body language 39. 25% 40. Realistic


4. TRUE 5. NOT GIVEN 6. TRUE 7. FALSE 8. reptiles 9. monkeys 10. habitat(s) 11. behavior / behaviour 12. vets 13. conservation 14. E 15. B 16. E 17. F 18. A 19. birch trees 20. (Russian) rivers 21. pumps 22. cables 23. volcanic explosions 24. C 25. D 26. A 27. B 28. A 29. D 30. NO 31. YES 32. NOT GIVEN 33. NO 34. YES

35. NOT GIVEN 36. NO 37. C 38. E 39. A 40. B

TEST 4 LISTENING 1. Jacobs 2. Rod 3. Highfield 4. NH 87 18 12 C 5. Dr (Kevin) White 6. A 7. B 8. C 9. A 10. B 11. 5 pound fee 12. University card 13. Daily 14. Friday(s) 15. 6 16. 1 week 17. Computers 18. Non-leading section

19. Arts 20. Basement 21. Tomorrow 22. Reliability 23. 4000 words 24. E-mail attachment 25. Market surveys 26. Stack system 27. Plagiarism/ using their conclusions 28. Extension 29. Doctor’s note/ certificate 30. Mortgage interest rates 31. B 32. B 33. A 34. Seismic detection system 35. Buoys (at sea) 36. Offshore landslide 37. No wave/ zero feet 38. Submarine earthquake 39. 26,000 people 40. None

READING 1 iii 2 vii 3v 4 ii 5 viii 6 – 7 B D (in either order) B

D 8 FALSE 9 TRUE 10 NOT GIVEN 11 TRUE 12 NOT GIVEN 13 TRUE 14 D 15 B 16 F 17 A 18 E 19 C 20 useful nourishment 21 exoskeleton 22 nitrogen 23 TRUE 24 NOT GIVEN 25 FALSE 26 TRUE 27 industrial development 28 economic growth 29 literacy 30 human potential 31 resource-intensive 32 poverty indicators 33 climate change 34 Yes 35 Yes 36 Not given 37 No

38 Yes 39, 40 B E (in either order)

TEST 5 LISTENING 1. Mike 2. four/ 4 3. creche facilities 4. 24th July 5. 4 hours 6. Spain 7. path (through fields) 8. minibus (NOT “bus”) 9. 5 minutes 10. family run 11. continental (style) 12. blackboards 13. fish + seafood 14. extra supplement 15. main bar 16. (2) lifeguards 17. freshwater showers 18. water spors office 19. notice board 20. children/ under 16s 21. Hindi 22. 322 million 23. Arabic 24. 20

25. secondary speakers 26. economic power 27. Brazil 28. Raw materials 29. Bangladesh 30. 2500 and 7000 31. nervous functions 32. protein 33. tonsils 34. (food) disinfection treatments 35. the UK 36. genetically inherited 37. late 50s 38. coordination 39. sheep 40. calves/ young cattle

READING 1. NOT GIVEN 2. TRUE 3. FALSE 4. NOT GIVEN 5. FALSE 6. TRUE 7. TRUE 8. stonemason 9. Gian Giorgio Trissino 10. Inigo Jones 11. temple (architecture) 12. Quattro Libri dell’ Architettura 13. benevolent calm

14. v 15. viii 16. vi 17. vii 18. iii 19. i 20. ii 21. equal opportunity 22. internal costs 23. C 24. C 25. A 26. B 27. C 28. A 29. B 30. D 31. I 32. D 33. J 34. F 35. C 36. YES 37. NOT GIVEN 38. NO 39. NOT GIVEN 40. YES


1. C 2. B 3. B 4. Blond Dynamite 5. Ghana 6. A 7. injury 8. Students’ Union 9. Bitter 10. 8759 765 11. board member 12. staff member 13. stockholder 14. C 15. E 16. long battery life 17. medical imaging 18. interested sourcing 19. energy efficiency 20. minimum 21. university 22. New Zealand 23. Canterburry Catheral 24. A 25. E 26. Easter 27. filming 28. London 29. Chess 30. debating society 31. Mexico City

32. building terraces 33. dug canals 34. beans, chili peppers, avocados, squash, tomatoes ( any three of these ) 35. 52 36. 12 37. 20 38. sacrificial days 39. bad birth signs 40. using herbal medicine

READING 1. D 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. A 6. Not Given 7. No 8. Yes 9. Not Given 10. Not Given 11. Yes 12. in recycle paper 13. most to lost 14. B 15. vi 16. xi 17. viii 18. vii 19. iv 20. v

21. viii 22. skeletal anatomy 23. eosuchians 24. two long bones 25. B 26. G 27. H 28. F 29. Yes 30. Not Given 31. Yes 32. No 33. D 34. C 35. C 36. A 37-40. A,C,E,F

TEST 7 LISTENING 1. new term 2. recycling 3. waitress job 4. frequent flyer 5. empty seats 6. yellow fever 7. malaria 8. C 9. B 10. Dave

11. Convenient 12. co-op house 13. native speaker 14. arriving early 15. to housing office 16. chatting with people 17. C 18. E 19. Home Office 20. any sort 21. C 22. D 23. reviewing notes 24. note- writing 25. critical thinking 26. F 27. C 28. A 29. E 30. B 31. balance 32. leg motion range 33. lower body strength 34. St James 35. a formal internship 36. a certification examination 37. C 38. E 39. cognitive 40. animal assited therapy

READING 1. Imagine 2. citizen 3. crocodile 4. obelisk 5. obelisk 6. pharaoh 7. uprising 8. mind/minds 9. propaganda 10. subtle 11. D 12. D 13. A 14. B 15. English lexicographer 16. (0f) human knowledge 17. advent of printing 18. Renaissance man 19. easy access to information/easily accessible information/easy information access 20. all-knowing 21. stream of information 22. the most singular failure 23. a natural human instinct 24. a vortex/a veritable vortex/a large information machine 25. disillusionment and stress 26. No 27. Not Given 28. No 29. C

30. E 31. D 32. B 33. A 34. Not Given 35. Yes 36. Yes 37. Yes 38. A 39. B 40. D

TEST 8 LISTENING 1. D 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. 35C Campus lane 6. [email protected] 7. 200-250/ 200 to 250 8. D 9. A 10. B 11. C 12. D 13. C 14. 9/nine 15. year older 16. travel agency

17. (the) accommodation / hotel 18. (in/ the/ some) play areas 19. gentle, warm, helpful 20. basketball and volleyball 21. catch up with 22. guess 23. (quite) embarrassing 24. raise a hand 25. (just) interrupt (someoneO 26. think quickly 27. eye contact 28. C


29. C 30. C


31. teaching and learning 32. present evidence 33. conserving 34. Memorisation 35. interacting/ interaction 36. argumantation 37. undergraduate 38. hesitate 39. logical arguments 40. Lecturer or supervisor

READING 1. C 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. A

6. D 7. B 8. C 9. FALSE 10. NOT GIVEN 11. TRUE 12. FALSE 13. A 14. E 15. B 16. G 17. C 18. A 19. D 20. F 21. B 22. TRUE 23. NOT GIVEN 24. TRUE 25. FALSE 26. D 27. Taxes 28. interest rates 29. budget deficit 30. Asian currencies/ economies 31. Labour standards 32 – 35 B C D F (in any order) 36. C 37. E 38. D 39. A

40. B

TEST 9 LISTENING 1. ten/ 10 o’clock 2. farther 3. heavy smoker 4. bus connection 5. D 6. C 7. D 8. £37.50 9. British and Indian 10. (her) deposit 11. Countdown to Departure 12. (a) guide 13. A 14. D 15. D 16. F 17. B 18. C 19. free health treatment 20. write a letter Section 3 21. free time 22. time management 23. weekly or monthly 24. revise

25. progress 26. realistic 27. C 28. D 29. D 30. C 31. teacher focussed 32. (personal) mentor 33. (the) campus 34. self-access 35. identify suitable 36. compare notes 37. initial aim 38. B



39. A 40. C

READING 1. A 2. G 3. D 4. E 5. B 6. creative 7. quite and dreamy 8. unusual ways 9. suicide 10. D 11. C 12. C 13. B

14. ii 15. i 16. vi 17. viii 18. iv 19. YES 20. NOT GIVEN 21. YES 22. NO 23. D 24. F 25. A 26. E 27. H 28. A 29. F 30. C 31. G 32. Paragraph C 33. Paragraph E 34. Paragraph G 35. Paragraph B 36. Paragraph B 37. Paragraph G 38. Paragraph D 39. Paragraph D 40. Paragraph H


1. taxi/cab 2. city centre/center 3. wait 4. door-to-door 5. reserve (a seal) 6. (the) 17th(of) October 7. 12.30 8. Thomson 9. AC 936 10. 3303 8450 2045 6837 11. B 12. A 13. B 14. C 15. C 16. A 17. C 18. A 19. C 20. B 21. attitude(s) 22. gender/sex 23. creativity/creativeness 24. A 25. B 26. A 27. B 28. culture 29. profit(s) 30. stress/strain 31. April

32. children 33. repeated 34. human 35. magic 36. distance 37. culture 38. fire(s) 39. touching 40. intact

READING Section 1 1. False 2. True 3. Not Given 4. True 5. True 6. Not Given 7. True 8. False 9. Vibrant 10. Polar-opposite 11. Grainy picture 12. Adamant 13. Imagery hovering Section 2 14. C 15. G 16. B 17. A

18. H 19. D 20. E 21. F 22. Perseverance 23. Catapult 24. Improvisation 25. Network 26. C Section 3 28. A 29. A 30. B 31. C 32. luminaries 33. downside 34. novel 35. issue 36. frown 37. True 38. True 39. Not Given 40. False

Model and Sample Answers for Writing Tasks

TEST 1 TASK 1 Model Answer The line graph shows different average daily maximum temperatures throughout the year for Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, and London and Edinburgh, the United Kingdom. Auckland and Christchurch both recorded wanner temperatures during January and February of approximately 24°c and 23°c rcspcctivcly. The temperatures in both cities then dropped steadily, reaching a low of 15°c in Auckland in July and in August and ll°c in Christchurch in July before beginning to rise back up to just over 20°c in December. In contrast, the data for London and Edinburgh shows a temperature slightly above 5°c during January, prior to climbing to a peak of about 23°c during July in London and approximately 18°c in Edinburgh during the same month. The temperatures for both cities then dipped to approximately 7°c and 6°c in December respectively. Overall, the average daily maximum temperatures of the two cities in New Zealand show completely the opposite pattern to the two British citics, although British cities had lower temperatures than New Zealand on the whole, regardless of season. (171 words) TASK 2 Model Answer Television has becomc an integral feature of almost every household in the world As a result, children undoubtedly spend more time watching television than previous generations and less time being active. There are several reasons for this phenomenon and also a number of strategies to encourage children to be more act VC. Firstly, televisions have become much more accessible through pricc reduction. Also, interesting programmes which target children, such as cartoons, have increased in number and improved in quality, which attracts a greater number of children viewers. Another reason for the increase in television viewing is related to the amount of time young people and children have these days. Often by the time they have studied a full day, they arc simply too tired to go outside and play or do sports. However, it is still vital that children spend enough time outdoors playing and being activc. One approach which could be taken to motivate young children is to take the time to do fun outdoor

activities with them, such as ice-skating or going to the bcach for a swim. Running children’s outdoor fun groups and camps is another way to cncourage young people to be active. As well as these, schools can run physical education classes as part of their curriculum to ensure the rccommcndcd levels of activity are completed cach day. Finally, television programmes can build awareness and ideas for physical activities into thcừ shows. All in all, the reduction in the pricc of televisions together with high quality of children’s programmes and the time children have have contributed to the problem. However, as discusscd above, there arc several initiatives which could help to combat the issue of increased television viewing and decreased physical activities in today’s children. (289 words)

TEST 2 TASK 1 Model Answer The table indicates the proportion of land covered by forest in four different countries in 1990 and 2005 as well as projected figures for 2015. The figures for two countries showed an increase in the amount of forested land, including New Zealand at 28.8% in 1990, climbing to 31.0% in 2005, with a predicted rise to 32.3% in 2015. Likewise, the proportion of forested land in Chile also rose from 20.4% in 1990 to 21.5% in 2005 and is expected to increase to 22.0% in 2015. However, in Australia and Brazil, the percentage of land covered by forest decreased. Australia’s 1990 figure of 21.9% fell to 21.3% in 2005 and is estimated to continue to fall to 20.0% until 2015. Brazil had a drop from 62.2% in 1990 to 57.2% in 2005, and this figure is projected to dip further to 53.5% in 2015. Overall, New Zealand and Chile had an increase in the proportion of forested land, whereas Brazil and Australia experienced a decrease and these trends are expected to continue in the future. (172 words) TASK 2 Model Answer International air travel has become progressively cheaper over the past decade. As a result, many more people arc utilising this mode of transport more frequently. Proponents of cheap air travel argue that it provides more opportunities in the areas of business and tourism. For instance, it is now cheaper for business people to attend meetings or conferences abroad, thus contributing to a global knowledge economy and opening up business opportunities

and economic growth. Furthermore, there has been huge tourism growth as access to some countries has become cheaper through reduced airplane fares. For these countries, the economic benefits of tourism are clear more money is spent locally. However, others feel that cheap air travel has associated with detrimental environmental costs. Firstly, aeroplanes use huge amounts of fuel, a non-renewable resource. They also emit high levels of carbon dioxide, which is the main contributor to climate change and global wanning. At a more local level, air travel has a negative effect on air quality and noise levels. Cheap airlines offering £2 flights from London to Rome and Madrid only exacerbate the problem by encouraging more people to fly for shorter stays, thus compounding the environmental effects. All in all, it is certain that people will continue to utilise air travel, as it is so convenient for business and leisure. However, in my view, it would be beneficial for travellers to be more aware and informed of the true cost of their air travel in relation to the environment and to make their choices accordingly. (258 words)

TEST 3 TASK 1 Model Answer The bar chart shows how many library books from each category were borrowed from Lammertown Public Library in 1991 and 2001. Two genres of books, crime novels and children's fiction, showed a reduction in the number of books borrowed. The borrowing of crime novels decreased from approximately 500 in 1991 to slighdy over 200 in 2001, whereas the number of children’s fiction books taken out nearly halved from close to 700 to just under 400 during the same time period. However, all other categories of books experienced an increase in the number borrowed, with the biggest jump in the self- improvement category, which increased from just over 200 in 1991 to slightly under 1,000 in 2001. Romance books also had a surge in popularity to 1,400 in 2001. All in all, the number of books lent in most categories increased with the exception of the categories of crime novels and children’s fiction. The pie chart gives information about the gender of Lammertown library members in 2010: approximately two thirds were female and about one third were male. (176 words) TASK 2

Model Answer The advent of new technology has meant that nowadays, machines are more than capable of doing many of the tasks and jobs that people used to do. There are both advantages and disadvantages to this development. One of the main advantages of having machines do work relates to speed and efficiency. Machines tend to be much fester and more efficient at doing repetitive type tasks such as those performed in factories. In addition, the human error factor is eliminated, further saving time and cost Also, although machines might require a more expensive initial outlay, their long-term usage is much more economical than paying human wages by the time factors such as sick leave, annual leave, and wasted time are included. However, there are also several disadvantages. Machines cannot be used for every task, as often the “human touch” is necessary in completing certain tasks. For instance, a machine cannot as yet interface with a customer or client in the same way as a human employee. Nor can they create new ideas or concepts in the innovative way that people can. Machines are also unable to show initiative. In addition, many types of machinery require considerable and sometimes costly maintenance which can reduce their overall cost-effectiveness. In conclusion, machinery certainly has its place in society, supporting and freeing up people’s work time so that they are able to concentrate on more interesting work and work to their strengths. However, machinery also has its limitations, and these need to be recognised in weighing up their advantages and disadvantages. (256 words)

TEST 4 TASK 1 Model Answer The diagram shows the various stages of development in the life cycle of the salmon. At the very beginning of the cycle, in fresh water or rivers, eggs take approximately three months to hatch. After hatching, the baby salmon called alevin not yet looking like a fish - feeds off the yolk sac. Several weeks later, it takes the form of a young fish, identified as fry, which can swim. The fry is about five to ten weeks old. By the time it is several months old, the salmon, now known as parr, has developed typical finger-shaped markings. At some point between the age of one and three years old, the salmon or smolt forms groups and swims out to sea. The fully grown adult spends up to eight years swimming in the ocean until it is time to spawn. The spawning adult then returns to fresh water or upriver and after spawning dies within a couple of weeks.

Overall, the life cycle of the salmon covers seven distinct stages over approximately eight years from the hatching of the eggs till death. (181 words) TASK 2 Model Answer International celebrities come from many different fields these days, with a considerable number of them famous for little more than good looks and expensive fashion. However, they all serve to act as role models for society. There are positive and negative aspects to this phenomenon, but on the whole 1 see it as a detrimental development. First of all, many celebrities have achieved their fame not through admirable behaviour but for public misconduct. For instance, many young pop stars with very little talent have exploited media focus on their party lives, courting photographs of them with little clothing or involvement in drugs or alcohol. Affairs and celebrity scandal provide young people with poor examples of how to conduct themselves morally and with integrity in the public eye, which is an extremely worrying trend that some of these celebrities have exerted on young generations. In addition, marketing cclcbritics these days has become a billion dollar industry. Social networking pages such as Face book and Twitter ensure that people can focus on and obsess about their idols twenty-four hours a day. This constant following of celebrities only serves to perpetuate the idea that their shallow lives are worthy of this constant attention, when in reality, decisions about which jewellery to wear and which premiere to attend distract young people from the real issues facing modem society. All in all, being a celebrity comes with the responsibility of having others look up to you. Unfortunately, in my opinion, too few celebrities take this responsibility seriously, which has corresponding negative effects for those who choose to adore them. (262 words)

TEST 5 TASK 1 Model Answer The pie charts compare the expenses of an average American household in 1970 and in 2004. The most significant change that can be seen was in the proportion that went towards paying the mortgage; and the other increase was in the outlay for childcare. In 1970, about a quarter of the household income was spent on mortgage payments, whereas by 2004, this doubled to account for half of all expenditure. The 1970 family spent only one per cent of income on childcarc, while the 2004 family allocated ten times more of the budget to this.

Expenditure on entertainment remained the same at 13%, but the percentage spent on food halved from 25% to 12%; and 8% less of the total income was taken up by transport costs in 2004 (only 5%). Clothing costs consumed more of the budget in 1970, at 22%, but this fell to only 10% in 2004. (150 words) TASK 2 Model Answer Imprisonment has long been the most popular form of punishment for criminals in society, but many also believe that rehabilitation should take the form of psychological treatment. Those in favour of long-term imprisonment argue that criminals are not fit to live alongside normal members of society. The obvious reason for this is that they represent a danger to others’ personal safety, and it is true that society would not tolerate violent criminals living in its midst. The thinking behind imprisonment is to take away prisoners’ rights to individual freedom: this is their punishment. In addition, it is thought that prisoners use their time in prison to reflect on and consider their illegal behaviour, hopefully regretting and feeling remorseful about their crimes. However, some people argue that prisons are not the best place for all criminals. Advocates for psychological rehabilitation believe that psychological therapy may be a better alternative to imprisonment for some offenders. Psychological therapy may address the root causes of the criminal behaviour and offer strategies and possibilities for change in the future. This approach may be more successful in preventing reoffending in the long run because it does not assume the same solution (that is, prison) works for all. On the whole, I believe prison definitely has its place as a form of punishment, as no one would wish to live in fear of violent crime, and criminals need to be removed from society for this reason. However, I think a combined approach which has a strong focus on psychological treatment is essential in addressing the core causes of crime, as prison alone offers no hope for future change and eventually, almost all criminals are released back into society. (279 words)

TEST 6 TASK 1 Model Answer The bar graph illustrates the quantity of carbon emissions produced by six countries in 1975,1990, and 2005.

The USA emitted the largest amount of carbon for all three years, showing an increase from slightly over 1,200,000 thousand metric tonnes in 1975 to just under 1,600,000 thousand mctric tonnes in 2005. China’s level of carbon emissions more than doubled from 300.000 thousand metric tonnes in 1975 to over 600,000 thousand metric tonnes in 1990 before more than doubling again to approximately 1.6 million thousand metric tonnes in 2005. In contrast, Germany’s carbon emissions reduced slightly from approximately 250,000 in 1975 and 1990 to roughly 200,000 in 2005. The only other country to reduce emissions was the United Kingdom between 1975 (approximately 180,000) and 1990 (about 160,000), although this was quite slight and rose again in 2005 to 170,000. Canada’s level increased slightly each year to match the UK in 2005, and carbon emissions in India jumped from approximately 80.000 in 1975 to 350,000 in 2005. On the whole, the two largest contributors to carbon emissions were the USA and China. (181 words) TASK 2 Model Answer As part of a varied and stimulating curriculum, many universities and tertiary providers often offer student internships with companies or other organisations as a component of study. This trend has both benefits and drawbacks. One of the mam advantages is that an internship in an appropriate place ofTers students the chance to integrate their theory and knowledge in a real-life, practical setting. The example of student doctors and nurses illustrates the value of practical internships: how else would students learn to practise medicine but in an authentic, supervised context? In addition, internships and practicum placements can often lead to a job opportunity for the student upon graduating, or at the very least, a good set of contacts for the commencement of their professional life. In terms of assessment it also gives the university a clear picture of how the student is progressing against industry standards, and whether the course is meeting the needs of that particular industry. However, there are several disadvantages to these types of placements. First of all, universities can sometimes have difficulty in securing good quality, suitable placements for their students or, even worse, students are left to their own devices to arrange a placement. This is unsatisfactory and puts students at a disadvantage. As well as this, sometimes students in these types of placements get used to doing menial task which are well beneath their capabilities, simply because they are perceived as inexperienced and incapable. To conclude, student placements arc an excellent way to provide practical experience and support our future professionals to gain the skills they need to succeed, but these placements must be monitored and facilitated carefully. (273 words)

TEST 7 TASK 1 Model Answer The graph shows unemployment levels in three countries from 1991 to 2005 while the table gives the proportion of men and women in these countries who worked in 1991. In 1991, Spam had the highest unemployment rate at 13% increasing markedly to 18%( 19931995), then falling steadily to 9% in 2005. In contrast, unemployment was low in Germany starting at 4% but climbing gradually to 9% in 1997, dipping to 6% in 2001 and increasing to a high of 11% in 2005. Italy’s unemployment rate fluctuated less than the otheis, starting and finishing at 8% over this period and reaching a maximum of 12% from 1997 to 1999. In 1991, just over half the female population in Germany (54.4%) was working compared with more than three quarters of the men. However, in Spain, about a third of the women were working and a third of the men were not Italy’s employment rate among men in that year was similar to Germany’s, but not as many female workers were employed (37.8%). Overall, in Germany, the rate of unemployment rose while there was a downward trend in the other two countries. (190 words) TASK 2 Model Answer Worldwide, steadily increasing demand for houses and accommodation has left many cosmopolitan cities unable to meet die bousing needs of their citizens. One of the main reasons for housing shortage in urban areas is an increase in urban populations. Many individuals have migrated from rural areas to the cities in search of a better life for themselves and their families. Similarly, foreign immigration rates to large cities continue to rise. Another cause behind the shortage in bousing supply is tbc desire of citizens and councils to protect ‘green spaces’ and environmental areas within the city. As admirable as this goal may be, it actually ties up valuable land which could be used for housing. In addition, the economic recession has caused investment in construction projects to drop away, which has slowed development in this area accordingly. A final contributing factor in some cities is a lack of coordinated planning and vision for the future, which fails to consider population growth and the needs of future residents. It is clear that solutions to this housing crisis need to be found. One suggestion is to implement town planning systems which encouragc the concept of satellite cities to give residents the best of both worlds. These satellite cities have all the benefits of small town living in regard to environment and community, but are situated only a short commute from the nearest city for

employment purposes. Thus, they take the pressure off city infrastructure and in particular housing stock. Pockets of high density inner-city housing could also assist in alleviating the housing shortage. All in all, the answers to the urban housing crisis lie in effective planning for future population growth while addressing current needs. (282 words)

TEST 8 TASK 1 Model Answer The different components of household rubbish in the United Kingdom in 1985 and 2002 are shown in the two pie charts. The percentage of kitchcn/organic waste jumped from 28% in 1985 to 44% in 2002, representing the greatest increase in that time. In contrast, paper waste was significantly reduced from 36% in 1985 to 16% in 2002. The proportion made up of plastic waste remained the same in both years at 7%. Similarly, the percentages of wood and textile waste remained relatively stable at 5% (wood) and 3% (textiles) in 1985 and at 6% and 2% in 2002 respectively. The miscellaneous category which appeared in the 2002 pic chart did not feature in Ac 1985 pic chart. Also, the category of dust and cinders, which represented 8% of household rubbish in 1985, disappeared from the 2002 breakdown. In general, the proportions of most categories of household waste remained similar from 1985 to 2002, but the two major changes were represented by increased kitchcn /organic waste and rcduccd paper waste. (168 words) TASK 2 Model Answer Animal testing has become a highly controversial debate in recent years, with strong and emotive arguments presented on both sides. The view that testing medicines on animals is necessary is supported by those who argue that if not animals, then who? Animals are seen as the only logical testing population close enough to humans to accurately identify and test the efficacy of different types of medicines, including those involved in cancer treatment, and other potentially life-saving drugs. Furthermore, there is the notion that animals do not feel or experience pain and suffering in the same ways that humans do, and that all research on animals is ethically conducted to minimise any pain that is felt.

However, the other side of the debate revolves around the argument that animals do experience pain and suffering, and it is simply unacceptable to subjcct them to medical testing. Also, opponents of medical testing on animals point out that the results are not necessarily reliable when applied to human populations: even though as mammals we might be very similar, we are not the same. This brings into question the entire philosophical base behind testing medicine on animals. There is also the moral question of whether we humans actually have the right to subject animals to testing and inhumane experiments against their will. In my opinion, the use of animals for medical testing should be avoided at all costs, as I feel that animals deserve human’s respect and kindness. Alternatives to medical testing on animals must be sought (252 words)

TEST 9 TASK 1 Model Answer The table shows population figures for four countries from 1990 to 2000 and projected growth for 2020 and 2050. The country with the lowest population and the lowest projected growth rate is New Zealand with 3.4m in 1990 rising to 3.8m in 2000 and cxpcctcd to increase to 4.7m in 2050. The United States has a similar growth rate but a much larger population, starting at 249.9m in 1990, reaching 275.1m in 2000 and anticipated to increase by almost 100m over the 60-year period. Canada’s population rose from 26.6m to 31.0m between 1990 and 2000 and is cxpcctcd to have increased by 50% from where it was in 1990 by 2050. The highest growth rate occurs in Australia where the population grew by 2.1m to reach 19.2m in 2000 and is predicted to reach 26.0m by 2050. Overall, the countries represented had, and are forecast to have, fairly stable rates of growth over the time period although their total populations differ markedly. (162 words ) TASK 2 Model Answer With communication technology constantly developing, working from home has become a reality for many workers, which some would argue only benefits employees. However, I disagree with this argument for several reasons.

Keeping office overheads down is a key benefit to having staff work from home. For instance, the cost of paying rent or even a mortgage on office space so that each staff member can have their own office spacc can be saved when employees work from home. Likewise, the day-to-day running costs of an office, such as power, water, and phone costs, can all be kept to a minimum when staff arc based at home. Maintaining low staff stress levels is the key to increasing productivity in the workplace, and working from home has been proven to increase or maintain worker productivity while facilitating higher levels of happiness. This is due to the fact that employees feci trusted with the responsibility of managing their own time and tasks without the need for a supervisor monitoring their performance. This, coupled with the increased flexibility that those who work from home can have for activities such as picking up children, walking the dog or going to the gym, all contributes to worker well-being and satisfaction. There is also evidence to suggest that allowing employees to work from home actually helps employers to retain staff which is a definite advantage. Provided with the flexibility of working from home, staff remain loyal and committed to the company, and the company retains their knowledge and experience which are valuable aspects of any organisation's human resource. To sum up, I disagree with the idea that working from home represents a drawback for employers for the reasons stated above. (283 words)

TEST 10 TASK 1 Model Answer The diagram demonstrates the process of converting potatoes into potato chips. First of all, when a batch of potatoes arrives at the manufacturing plant, they arc examined by hand for quality before being washed in cold water. The potatoes are then sent to a peeling machine to remove their skins and eliminate potato peels and starch. Then, the peeled potatoes arc transported to a bucket conveyor, which moves them one by one into a slicing machine, after which the slices are distributed on another conveyor belt and air-dried as they move along into the deep fryer. The chips arc then cookcd in the deep fryer, and after the completion of this process, they are salted and transported by a flat belt conveyor to the bag packer machine, which feeds chips into cach bag. Alternatively, if the chips are to be packaged in a can, a different machine is used. In summary, potatoes are washed, peeled, sliced, and fried in order to produce potato chips. (164 words)

TASK 2 Model Answer Mobile phones are now so commonplace that it seems as though everyone owns one, in comparison to just a decade ago. There are both beneficial and negative aspects to this development. On a positive note, mobile phones are fun and enjoyable to use, with games, messages, pictures, music, and even email available as a function. They arc also highly personalised, expressing individual style and fashion through colour, shape, and ringtone. Cell phones make communication straightforward and very convenient, whether they are used for business or pleasure. Communication has bccome instant and efficient. The other positive aspect of cell phones is that they are a relatively economical method of communicating with others. On the other hand, there have been several negative impacts due to increased cell phone usage. It has made people constantly available and placcd high demands and expectations on response times, particularly for employees. It has also had a detrimental cflfcct on people’s social skills and manners as they arc constantly on alert for their latest call or message, even to the point of rudeness when chocking their phone while having lunch or coffee with others, for instance. Some young people have had problems with repetitive strain injuries caused by constant texting, and there have also been conccms about the link between cell phone use and certain types of cancer. Finally, there has been considerable community resistance to the construction of mobile phone signal towers in their neighbourhoods, on the grounds of safety and aesthetics. On the whole, mobile phones have dramatically changed the way we live and communicate, which has both negative and positive consequences. (268 words)


Can you tell me something about the town or city you grew up in?

I grew up in a really small town close to Madrid. I have a long family history in that town. •

Do you still live in the same town or city?

No, I don’t. Madrid is a more interesting city for young people, so now I live here while I’m attending university. •

Which tourist attractions would you recommend in the town or city you grew up in?

My town is recognised for its architecture and in fact, it’s a world heritage area, so I would recommcnd just wandering around the town and enjoying the houses and history. •

After graduating, do you intend doing any further study?

Yes, I would be quite keen on doing some further postgraduate study, perhaps overseas, which is the reason I’m taking the IELTS test •

Tell me about what you like to do in your free time.

In my spare time, one of the things I love to do is to go out dancing and singing karaoke. I love it because we always sing together in group and it’s really funny hearing other people singing out of tune! •

Does it cost much money to do this activity?

No. In my country, karaoke bars and clubs arc really cheap because this activity is so popular. We go practically every weekend. •

Do many of your friends enjoy the same types of activities?

Almost everyone I know loves karaoke. It’s never difficult to get a group together to go to a karaoke bar, and in fact, 1 think it’s getting more popular with all the recent talent shows on television, and so on. •

Do you think you will have more or less free time in the future? Why?.

I'm pretty sure I will have more, because once 1 finish studying, I will have a job which, hopefully, will only take up 40 hours a week of my time, so my weekends will be free! That's my dream anyway. •

Which season of the year is your favourite? Why?

Well, it probably sounds strange, but winter is definitely my favourite season. I love being warm and cosy inside while it’s freezing cold outside, and I really enjoy winter sports like ice skating and skiing. •

What is the weather typically like where you live during the season?

Cold! It snows all winter and in the middle of the winter, the temperature gets down to about minus 20 degrees. •

Do you think you will always prefer this season? Why?

I think so, although perhaps when I get older. I might feel the cold more, I guess. And if I couldn't enjoy winter sports, then probably wouldn’t like winter very much. •

What types of things do you enjoy doing during this season? Why?

Well, apart from winter sports, I love to stay indoors with my family and watch movies. Shopping is also pretty good because all the shopping malls have good central heating. Also, we have the ice sculpture festival during winter and that’s a lot of fun. •

Which outdoor places or locations do you enjoy going to? [Why?]

I like to spend time walking along the river, because I love to be near the water. I also like to be up high, where I can get a good view and perspective of where I am, so I like going to the top floor of my city's tallest buildings and enjoying the views. •

Do you prefer to spend time indoors or outdoors? [Why?]

Of coursc, coming from a cold climate in winter, that really depends on the season! But for the most part, I like to be outdoors, as long as I've got the right type of clothing. •

What are some of your outdoor hobbies?

I enjoy walking, hiking, and playing sports outdoors. I also love skiing and ice skating because of the thrill I get of going fast. •

Do some parts of your country have more beautiful outdoor spaces than others?

Yes, just like any country I suppose, the UK is quite diverse in that some areas are noted for lush, green outdoor spaces, and other areas for their beaches and lakes. It depends.

PART 2 You might have heard of the story I’m going to tell you about, because a movie was made in English about it It’s called Mulan. Anyway, this is an ancient story which is sourced from a poem written a long time ago. Mulan, the daughter of a former army general, lived with her family in a little village. Her father taught her to ride a horse and use a sword, which was quite unusual because normally only boys learned these skills. One day, the government callcd for one soldier from each village to help boost the army who were fighting important wars. Mulan’s father was chosen from her village, but she knew that he was too old to fight but too honourable to say so. She was faced with a dilemma, as she had no older brother who could go, and her younger brother was much too young to go to war. So, she had the idea that she would go instead. She dressed in her father’s armour, bought a horse, and rode away in the middle of the night to join the army without telling anyone in her family. Mulan spent ten years fighting and was even awarded a special prize from the emperor. During this time, no one knew she was a woman. She was offered a wonderful job by the emperor but refused, saying she only wanted to go home to be with her family. So she did and returned home to find her father alive but old and frail. She swapped her armour for beautiful silks and was a beautiful woman. When her friends from the army came to visit, they could not believe their eyes! The story spread across China but no one knows if it was based on fact or not, but I think it was. The story was well known in China because it was popular with young children, especially girls, but then when Mulan, the movie, was made by Disney, it became popular worldwide. My grandmother told me this story when I was about seven years old. What I learnt from this story was that keeping face and honour is really important, as well as protecting one’s family above all else.

PART 3 • Many people believe that traditional stories are irrelevant to modern society. Do you agree or disagree? Actually, I couldn't disagree more. I think that traditional stories often contain strong morals or messages for how we should live our lives, and these morals remain constant regardless of time. Traditional stories are an excellent reminder to return to these values and morals and remind as what is simple but important in our lives. Anyway, you see these same morals repeated in modem forms of storytelling such as movies, so they are definitely still topical and relevant. • What type of traditional stories do children generally enjoy? Why do you think this is so? I think young children tend to enjoy stories which have a little of everything because they lik to feel all the emotion, such as suspense, fear, happiness, and courage. They also need to be fast moving to keep children entertained. As well as this, children like stories which have happy

endings. That’s because happy endings make them feel more secure and confident and don’t give them nightmares! •

What can traditional stories tell us about a culture?

I think that traditional stories express many things about a culture. Obviously, there are cultural references to basic everyday things like food, clothing, and housing, but beyond that, there are messages about the values a society holds important. For instance, that might be family values, or it might be related to love or fidelity, things like that. Stories also tell us about the position of certain people in society, such as men and women, rich and poor. Therefore, I believe that there is a lot of cultural information contained within traditional stories.


Can you tell me something about the town or city you grew up in?

I grew up in a really small town close to Madrid. I have a long family history in that town. 

Do you still live in the same town or city?

No, I don’t Madrid is a more interesting city for young people, so now I live here while I’m attending university. 

Which tourist attractions would you recommend in the town or dty you grew up in?

My town is recognised for its architecture and in fact, it’s a world heritage area, so I would recommend just wandering around the town and enjoying the houses and history. 

Where are you studying at the moment?

I’m studying at the Independent University in Madrid. My major is philosophy. 

How do you hope to use your studies in the future?

I hope to go on to complete postgraduate study, and then I am interested in teaching at the university or maybe at another university abroad. 

What do you like most about your studies?

I love the fact that every day, we have great discussions and debates at university. If s never dull. 

What time do you usually get up in the mornings? Why?

I always get up at the same time, at 6 o’clock. I don’t have an alarm clock or anything. I just always wake up at that time and can’t get back to sleep, so I get up.

What sort of things does your morning routine include?

Well, the first thing I do is take the dog for a walk at the local park, then I come back home and have a shower and eat breakfast. Then, I catch the bus to work and on my way, I grab a coffee. 

Have you always had a similar morning routine?

I used to get up much later when I was a university student I had late lectures, so I would go to bed late and sleep in for hours. It was great! 

Would you say you are a person who prefers mornings or nights? Why?

I’m definitely a morning person now. But I think given the choice, I would be a night person. I don’t really enjoy the early mornings. 

What types of reading material do you prefer to read? Why?

I don’t really enjoy reading, so I don’t read much at all. I suppose the material that I read most often is on websites and online material. 

Do you read as much now as you did when you were younger? Why/Why not?

I think I probably read more when I was younger, but not much more because I’ve never enjoyed reading. Of course, I had to read for school, so I probably read a lot more then. 

Where do you usually read? Why?

As I mentioned, I usually read online, so it’s either in my office at home, on the laptop, or at work. Oh, and occasionally, I read a magazine while Fm relaxing in the lounge at home. 

What do you like most about reading? Why?

Well, I know I said I didn t like reading much, but the one thing I do enjoy is keeping up to date with new trends, so I suppose I do like that aspect of reading. 

How do you normally relax? Why?

I guess I relax by having a hot bath or doing some yoga on my mat at home. If I’m feeling really stressed out, then I usually need to switch off for a bit, so I watch some television. 

Have you always relaxed in the same way?

I think I used to relax more by playing sport. Oh, and I also used to go to the beach just to think and try to relax, but I don’t do that so much anymore because we don’t live near the beach. 

Do you prefer to relax by yourself or with other people? Why?

Most of the time I prefer to relax by myself, and then spend time with other people because I don’t like being stressed out around others.

Do you think men and women relax in different ways? Why?

Yes, I think they do. I think that men relax more by playing sport and expressing physicality, while perhaps women relax by talking things through with friends or pampering themselves in some way. PART 2 I’m going to talk about a dress that I bought which I hardly ever wear. The dress is black, which is usually a very useful colour because it s so versatile. Anyway, I bought it when I was on holiday in London last year and everything was on sale. I was with a friend of mine who has quite unusual fashion taste in the sense that she is quite wild, I guess - much less conservative than my own taste in clothes. So, we spent a great day together having lunch in London and shopping in the afternoon. My friend saw this black dress which had a very low back with gold chains across it and quite unusual detail around the waist and hem, and well, she loved it. She took it off to the changing room and tried it on but came out to show me and well, it was just too tight There was no way I could lie, so I just said perhaps we could ask the sales assistant for another size. But of course, it was the last dress and the last size, and that was that My friend was so disappointed but thought that I loved the dress as much as she did, so she forced me to try it on as I’m slightly smaller than she is. Reluctantly, I tried the dress on and could see straight away that it wasn’t my style at all, but my friend was so enthusiastic and over the top that she practically bullied me into buying it. She kept telling me how fantastic I looked and how glamorous the dress was that I couldn’t say no. So of course, I ended up buying it because I didn’t want her to feel bad. The only good thing was that it wasn’t too expensive, but because it was on sale, I couldn’t even return it the next day. So now, I have this inappropriate black dress hanging in my wardrobe that I will probably never wear! 1 know 1 should try and sell it or even give it to charity but I haven’t got around to it I keep thinking there will be an occasion to wear it but perhaps not. 

Did it cost a lot of money?

No, not really. I think the sale price was $50 or something. 

Do you often buy things that aren’t useful?

I try not to! PART 3 

There is a growing trend towards introducing public recycling schemes in many countries. What are the reasons for and the results of this?

The main reason for introducing these recycling schemes is simply that people are producing too much rubbish and the amount needs to be reduced. Recycling plastic, glass, and paper means that the amount of waste is reduced, and thus the amount of rubbish in landfills is also reduced. In turn, this has positive effects on the local environment Also, recycling saves money. 

Do you believe individuals or governments should be responsible for recycling? Why?

I think that both individuals and governments need to take responsibility and initiative for recycling schemes. At the level of local government in particular, there needs to be coordination of recycling pickup, centres, and processing plants. At the individual level, people need to commit to sorting their rubbish so that it can be easily collected. Ultimately, it has to be a combined effort in order to be successful. 

What can be done to encourage people to recycle more?

There are several main initiatives which I believe encourage recycling. First of all, when people understand what happens to their recycled items, I think they are more motivated. And they are also motivated by knowledge about what can be recycled and what can’t So education and information is important Secondly, I believe people are really quite lazy, so recycling has to be made as simple and easy as possible for them, so schemes which involve kerbside collections are the most encouraging for people. Then, all they have to do is put their recycling out with their everyday rubbish. 

Some people think that owning the latest products and goods is extremely important. What’s your opinion?

I feel that having the most up-to-date products and clothes is fun but not essential. I think that too many people place too much status on money as opposed to style and innovation. Money can’t buy you style, but with creativity and flair, you can show your style, definitely. So for me, it’s not important to have the most expensive, latest phone or item of clothing. 

Are there any disadvantages to having a wide array of choice of similar items?

Yes, I think there are. On the whole, I just think it’s unnecessary to go to the supermarket and be faced with 100 different types of toothpaste to choose from. I mean, competition is necessary but that kind of thing seems wasteful. And you see it in every supermarket aisle, whether it’s types of cheese or types of shampoo. So yes, I think the feet that it is wasteful is a disadvantage of having too much choice. 

Do you think people will buy more or less in the future?

Oh more, definitely. I mean after the recession, people have slowed down in the retail consumption area, but I don’t think that will last for long. People have to feel good about themselves by buying lots of products that they don’t really need but just want to show off to their friends. Purchasing things will become even more related to status and wealth in the future.


Do you live in a house or an apartment?

At the moment, Tm living in an apartment downtown.

How many other people do you live with?

My uncle and aunt as well as their young son. 

Do you enjoy living in this type of accommodation? Why/ Why not?

Yes, I really enjoy apartment living because it’s safe, easy, and convenient. 

What type of accommodation is common in your town? Why?

High-rise apartment buildings are definitely the most common where 1 live. Probably because that’s all there really is, until you get to the outskirts of the city. 

What are you studying currently?

I’m studying medicine at university. 

Are there any subjects which you do not enjoy as much as others? Why?

No, not really. I really enjoy every class although some teachers are better than others. 

Do you have to complete a lot of homework?

Yes. They require us to memorise a lot, of course, and that takes up a lot of my free time. 

What do you plan to do after you finish your studies?

I hope I can join a volunteer organisation and get some experience that way. That’s why Fm also learning English. 

How do you normally keep in contact with friends? Why?

Mainly through Facebook and social networking sites like that. For me, if s the easiest way and all of my friends are on there. 

What do you enjoy about this way of keeping in touch?

Just that it’s so easy and you can log on any time of the day and catch up with what your friends are doing all over the world. 

Is there anything you don’t like about this method of keeping in touch? Why?

Not really. Some people say they spend too much time online, staring at a computer screen. But I don’t mind that. It’s just the way socialising works now. 

Do you ever find it difficult to keep in touch with friends using this method? Why / Why not?

The only thing I would say is that I think it is more difficult to keep in touch with people one on one, as ifs quite a group form of communicating. Although in saying that you can always ‘privatemessage’ people anyway which is similar to email. Sometimes, I find it annoying when people don’t check their pages very often.

Do you enjoy looking at art? Why / Why not?

It depends on the type of art. I definitely enjoy photographic exhibitions and modem art, but Fm not really keen on the classic, old-fashioned types of paintings and so on. I find landscapes really boring, and I hate sketches and art with no colour or life. 

What type of art do you like best? Why?

As I said, I enjoy modem art the most because I think it is more interesting. 

Have you ever been taught to do any type of art?

We had art as an efective at high school, and we learned to do all sorts - working with clay, photography, painting, and sketching. Our ait tcachcr was really passionate about all forms of art. 

Do you know any artists?

That depends on how you define an artist I don't know anyone famous, if that’s what you mean, but I do know some university students who I think are very talented. One is a photographer who only takes extreme close-ups of people so that one tiny aspect of their face is shown. The results arc fascinating. 

Which colours do you like the most? Why?

I love blue because it is the colour of the sea and the sky. My other favourite colour is green because I connect it with nature as well. 

Have you always liked these colours? Why?

No, actually when 1 was a little girl, I used to love pink and purple. Fm not sure why, probably because they are thought of as quite feminine colours, I guess. 

Do most of your friends like similar colours?

I haven't really thought about that. I think everyone has their own preferences, particularly related to what they wear. Many of my friends wear a lot of black, but I'm not sure if that is their favourite colour as such. 

Do certain colours have any special significance in your culture? Why?

Some colours have a meaning of good luck, including red, which symbolises wealth and good fortune. Other colours like white stand for purity, but beyond that, I can’t really think of any strong meanings or significance. PART 2 An important decision I made was quite recently, about three years ago. My family was very keen for me to study English abroad and gain the advantages of learning about foreign culture at the same time. I was also really excited about the prospect of travelling and improving my English, but I didn’t want to leave as my wife was here in China and couldn’t come with me. Then, just as

we had to make the final decision and commit to buying a tickct, wc found out that my wife was pregnant So, 1 talked and talked with her and also with my parents, because I value their opinion also, and finally I decided that I wouldn't go abroad to study as I didn’t want to miss the birth of my child and also I wanted to support my wife through her pregnancy. They really helped me to make my decision just by listening to me talk it through and giving their own opinions and ideas. The alternative that we came up with was that I would study here at night and work very hard on my English, with perhaps an opportunity to study at post graduate leveloverseas instead of just studying English. My daughter was born over two years ago, and I think it was the best decision I’ve ever made. And it has worked out really well, as now we arc going to travel altogether as a family to live in Oxford in the UK, where I am going to complete an MBA. And my wife has an excellent job offer there as well. It was a huge decision at the time, but I'm so confident that it was the right one for my family and me. 

Do you often make decisions in this way?

Yes. I always find it helpful to talk my decision through with someone. 

Do you find it difficult to make big decisions?

Yes, sometimes I do, and it can take me a bit of time to think things over. PART 3 

Describe some of the important life decisions people need to make at various points in their lives.

Well, I think there are many, but possibly the most important decisions are in young adulthood when people usually make lots of choices about their future - which carccr to choose, choices about marriage and starting a family, and so on. These are the decisions which have such a long-lasting impact on the rest of life, so they arc incredibly important Then, there are the decisions which comc later, maybe about finances and retirement and that type of thing. And when we’re younger, I suppose our choices are in some way made for us by our parents who dccidc which kindergarten or school we will attend. 

Some people think that an important decision should be made quickly and based on intuition, while others believe an informed choice is better. What's your view?

Personally, I believe it’s a combination of the two. I ccrtainly think you need to have all possible information available to you before a decision can be made, but I also think that a ccrtain degree of intuition, or ‘gut feeling’, can really help to guide the decision-making proccss. It’s unexplainable, but I know that some of my best decisions have been based on intuition more than anything else. 

Do you think that individuals nowadays have more or fewer important choices to make than those in the past? Why?

Today’s society certainly confronts people with more important decisions than in the past. For a start, there is so much more choice in lots of different areas, like in the area of career and

occupation, for instance. My parents or grandparents’ generation often had the same job for forty or fifty years, but people nowadays commonly have four or five different careers. In this area alone, there is so much more choice and freedom, and I think that’s part of the reason why there are more important decisions to be made now, along with the fact that constant changc is part of modem life. 

What kinds of decisions are more difficult: those which solely affect you or those which also have an impact on other people?

I think it’s more difficult to make decisions which are going to have an effect on other people’s lives, but I also think that this relates to most decisions wc make - decisions very rarely only impact on one person. Anyway, it is obviously a matter of degree, for instance, if you are the manager of a large company and you have to decide how many redundancies are necessary to keep the business from failing, then that’s a decision which will have a huge impact on many people. On the other hand, if you are deciding which house to buy, then that probably only affects you and your family. Overall, I think it’s wise to consider the potential impact of your decision in any case. 

In your opinion, is there such a thing as too much choice?

I definitely believe that there is too much choice for young people nowadays, and this creates a lot of pressure for them. Whether it is in terms of what career path to take or where to live and study, there arc an overwhelming number of choices available to this generation, and I think it can be extremely difficult to feel as though one has made the right choice, whatever that is. However, choice provides us with options and freedom as well, so I believe it’s important to value that. 

How effective do you believe it is to make decisions based on discussions with other people?

I know that for some people, this method of making decisions is very effective, as they gain perspective from talking with someone else, and this process clarifies their own thought process. However, I believe that choices, in particular personal choices, are best made methodically and carefully, but alone. Sometimes, people have different motives for giving advice, and they cannot always be trusted to give you neutral advice. TEST 4 PART I 

Can you describe the area which you live in?

I live on an island, so the sea and bcachcs arc everywhere and it’s also really green. 

Are there any disadvantages to living in this area?

Yes, I think there are. Because it’s an island, you have to catch a ferry to the city or to get anywhere, and so you’re restricted by timetables and sailings. I'm always missing the ferry. 

How long have you lived in this area?

I've lived here since I was 12, so about five years. We moved because my dad got a really good job on the island. 

Would you recommend living in this area to others? Why/ Why not?

I would definitely recommend the island in summer, but winter’s a different story. I have to commute every day to school, so I get up in the dark and come home in the dark, so I hate it. But summer is fantastic. 

Which university or school are you studying at?

I’m studying at the University of Auckland. 

Which course are you studying? What is your major?

My major is education, so I'm studying to become a primary school tcachcr. 

Why did you select this course/major?

I chose education because I love working with children and I want to help kids to learn. 

Do you have to travel far to university/school each day?

Yes, I do. I have to catch the ferry from the island where I live into the city. It takes about 40 minutes each way. 

Who normally does the cooking in your household?

Mostly my mum cooks all the meals, but sometimes I cook dinner or something, just to give her a break. 

Do you think it’s important to share the cooking duties? Why?

Yes, I think it is pretty important because otherwise, one person can get resentful when they always have to do it, and then they don’t cook good meals! There's more variety if different people cook. 

Do you enjoy cooking?

Well, yes, sometimes I enjoy cooking, when it’s not difficult and it doesn't take me very long. 

Do you think you will cook more often in the future? Why?

Yes, I think so, because I'll probably be living away from home, in a shared flat or something. So, I'll have to cook a lot more. 

What kinds of sounds or noises do you commonly hear?

I hear all sorts of sounds, depending on where I am. At university, I bear people talking and doing stuff, and at home, I hear my family talking, the dog barking, things like that 

Which types of sounds or noises do you enjoy most? Why?

I love music because it can really make me feel good and lift my mood. And I also love hearing birds singing because the sound is so beautiful and unlike anything else I have ever heard. 

Are there some sounds or noises which you dislike? Why?

I don’t like people screaming or talking really loudly. It really annoys me. I also don't like hearing people talking to other people on the phone, or other people's conversations, or when someone reads their text messages out loud. 

Which noises or sounds do you recall from when you were a child?

I can't really remember any - apart from my parents’ voices always telling me what to do and what not to do! 

How do you usually send messages to people?

I usually send emails or messages on Facebook. 

Have you always used this method?

Yes, I think so. Although I only used emails before I knew about Facebook. 

What do you like about sending messages in this way?

I like it because I hate talking on the phone, because it can get really awkward making small talk. So, if you’ve got something to say, it's just a lot easier to message it rather than talk on the phone. It’s faster. 

How much time do you spend sending messages?

It depends, because if someone else is online at the same time, FU spend a bit of time chatting with them, otherwise, I’ll send a message ... probably about an hour a day, I think. PART 2 I’m going to talk about a magazine which I read called New Weekly. It’s a celebrity gossip magazine, so it contains all the latest news and scandal from Hollywood movie stars, actors, singers, everyone who’s famous. It’s not exactly serious journalism. In fact, it probably has more pictures than anything else, you know, pictures of celebrities without make-up or looking terrible in their bikinis while they’re on holiday. But if they can’t get pictures, then the brief gossip column at the back always has some rumours which I actually think are just made up, but then months later, it turns out that they’re true! You know, things like who’s seeing who in celebrity world. It comes out every week, but I don’t actually read it that often as I never actually buy it. I just borrow friends’ copies once they have finished reading it, or sometimes my mum buys it I like to read it while Tm lying on the sofa eating chocolate, during the commercial breaks on television. Or

sometimes, I read it in waiting rooms where they have lots of magazines. I have to confess that I really do enjoy reading this magazine, because I enjoy the gossip and seeing that famous people are just people like the rest of us. Plus it gives me and my friends something to talk about as well. But there’s also a part of me which hates the fact that I enjoy the reading it as it is so trashy and tabloid and doesn't give the celebrities any privacy. My boyfriend always teases me about how embarrassing it is that I actually read it, but then I catch him reading it when I've finished as well! 

Would you recommend this newspaper/magazine to others?

Yes, I suppose so, if I thought they would enjoy it 

Do you have much time to read?

No, not as much as I would like because I’m busy studying. PART 3 

How have the ways people access the media changed in your country over the last decade?

Well, I think for more and more people, accessing electronic media has become much more convenient and easy over the last decade. Thinking back, I don’t think that many people even had their own computers ten years ago, and now almost everyone has a laptop or a PDA or something, so they are constantly able to access the Internet and online material. The Internet and advent of mobile technology has completely changed the way people work, play, and study. 

The issue of Internet-based musk and video piracy has become critical. What do you think can be done about this problem?

This is such a big problem that I’m not sure what the solution is. One approach might be to make the price of the movies and DVDs cheaper so that people can access them for less money, then they might be less tempted to purchase illegally copied material. There could also be higher penalties for selling pirated goods and the police could be stricter and more focused on apprehending people. Ultimately, I think technology has to be utilised to fight the problem, like with an encrypted signature on each song file or video or something. However, I don't think this problem can ever be completely solved. 

As electronic media becomes more and more accessible, many forms of print media are disappearing. Do you consider this to be a positive or negative trend?

I think that it's such a shame that so many magazines and newspapers have gone under, because they certainly had something to offer. On the other hand, the growth of new online publications has been huge, and because it’s so cheap to set up, I think there arc a lot more specific resources out there for people. I think there will always be print media though, because people enjoy the tangible nature of paper in hand. 

What type of responsibility, if any, do you believe the media has to the general public?

I personally feel that the media has a huge responsibility to its public, in particular, the news media. This responsibility includes informing the public about political and other news as well as giving

an unbiased view of current affairs. Often the media is what keeps politicians honest, and I think this is definitely an important part of their role. 

Some people think the media is highly influential in spreading new ideas and trends. What’s your opinion?

Of course it is, I definitely agree. Particularly with the Internet, the way new ideas are quickly distributed around the world through blogs, emails, and social networking sites is amazing. Ideas spread incredibly quickly, especially in the areas of fashion and music. On a political level, I think the media is also influential as certain types of news commentary and opinion are selected for publication whereas others are not, and this reflects a bias which is often then reflected in popular opinion. Ultimately, it is up to the individual to ensure they are informed about a particular issue, though. 

How do you think the role of the media might change in the future? Why?

The media of the future in some ways is already here, through blogging and social networking. Everyone and anyone can publish whatever they like - we’re all editors and journalists and critics. So, the role of traditional media might change to keep pace with this and maintain an online prcscncc. But overall, the role of the media is to provide information, and I don't think that this key function will actually change significantly; just the way it is delivered may alter.


Which region of the country are you originally from?

I'm originally from a region callcd Hunan Province. It’s south of the Yangtze River. 

What do you like most about this region?

I think the climatc is pretty comfortable, and the food is traditionally very spicy, which I love. 

Would you recommend living in this region to others?

Yes, definitely. If s a great place to live and it is developing very quickly, so there are plenty of good job opportunities. 

What type of course are you studying at the moment?

Fm studying law and politics at the University of Political Science and Law in Beijing. 

What type of job or career will this course lead to?

I'm hoping that it will lead to a job with the government or with the university. 

What do you enjoy most about being a student?

I think it’s probably the university environment. I really enjoy attending lectures instead of classes, and 1 have made a lot of good friends here at university. 

What kinds of advertisements do you like to watch or listen to? Why?

Actually, 1 don’t really enjoy advertisements. Although sometimes there are some funny ones on TV, but generally I just ignore them. 

Have you ever bought something as a result of an advertisement?

Well, yes, I suppose I have. Not me but my family. We saw a great deal advertised on a new flat screen television, and it was for a limited time, so we went and bought one. It’s great. 

Which do you prefer: advertisements on television or on the radio? Why?

If I had to choose I would say radio, bccausc I think radio ads are less annoying and easier to ignore. 

What changes would improve advertisements in your country? Why?

The main problem here is the large amount of advertisements. So, 1 think it would be better if the industry was better controlled and if there were slightly fewer advertisements, especially on TV. 

Which season do you enjoy most? Why?

Summer. I love summer because it’s so nice and hot and everybody can be outside enjoying the weather and doing different things. 

What type of activities do you do during this season?

The usual things I guess: swimming, sunbathing, eating ice creams, and having picnics. 

Would you prefer to live in a cold climate or a warm climate? Why?

I would definitely prefer a warm climate, the hotter the better. I love visiting really hot places, and I would love to live somewhere warm. 

Are there any festivals associated with particular seasons in your country?

Yes, actually we celebrate Spring Festival at the very start of spring, although it is usually still quite cold. It’s to celebrate the Chinese New Year and is usually spent with family. 

How long have you been learning English?

I’ve been learning English since I was about five years old. I started when I began school. 

How much of your lime do you spend learning English?

I guess I spend about an hour a day at school, and then I study for a couple of hours each week at home. Apart from that, I also practise speaking with a private tutor for two hours a week. 

What do you enjoy most about learning a language? Why?

I think probably it’s realising that I can communicate with almost anyone. That’s really satisfying. 

Do you find it easy or difficult to learn new languages? Why?

At first, I hated it and found it really difficult, but now I find it easy, but only bccausc I put the time in. PART 2 I find that I have to take a lot of breaks from study bccausc 1 get distracted so easily. I can only concentrate for relatively short, intense periods of study. Anyway, I'm going to talk about a time more recently when I was studying for my mid-year examinations. The examinations are quite important bccausc they give you an idea of how well you know the material, and whether or not you are on track for achieving a good grade for the year’s work. So, although the marks only represent a small proportion of the overall grade, I think it is important mentally to feel as though you are on top of things. So, I was studying quite hard actually, every day and the weather was very hot outside, but I kept studying and every day, one of my friends would call me and say, “hey, we’re going to the beach today, do you want to come?” or, “we’re going away to the coast for die weekend to go surfing, you should come with us" and every time I had to say no, “I'm sorry I can’t, because I have to study”. So, I was being very good and staying focused. Untilfinally, I think it was about a week away from my exams and I was starting to feel really restless and frustrated, when I beard that an old friend of mine was back in town from abroad. Well, he called me up and what could I say? I really wanted to catch up with him because it had been ages since we’d hung out together and he was only in town for a couple of days! So of course, I put my study on hold, and we went out with a whole bunch of friends and had a great night Of course, I felt slightly guilty the next day, but then, I got straight back into the books, and the good news is that I felt much more focused and able to absorb the material, so I think in the end, it was more productive, for me anyway, to take some time out and then return to the studying. It helped me to clear my head and study more effectively. But I have to be really firm with myself on occasion as I am easily tempted to procrastinate and run out of time! In this ease, it worked for me as in the end, I got straight. As on all my exams. 

Do yoa often take breaks?

Yes, I take a lot of little breaks while I'm studying for a test. 

Do you generally find it easy or difficult to relax?

I find it pretty easy actually bccausc Fm quite laid-back to begin with. PART 3 

What do most people in your country do to relax?

People tend to do lots of different things. Some people like to do sports or go running or do yoga, and other people like to go out and relax with friends over dinner and drinks. Others relax by reading a book or doing more quiet things. I guess it depends on the person.

Some people think that relaxation techniques such as meditation should be introduced into the workplace and schools. What’s your opinion?

I definitely agree that techniques such as meditation and learning how to manage stress are very important. I think it would be a great idea to implement systems in the workplace because a stressfree environment is a more productive one. I have heard of a number of companies who offer free massage at work to their staff and it is very successful. And ccrtainly, teaching children relaxation techniques would be very beneficial, so I think that introducing these types of things into schools is a forward thinking idea. 

Do you think that people will be more or less relaxed in the future? Why?

It’s hard to say. As the world becomes busier and there are so many more demands on people, I think it might become more difficult for them to relax. Technology has made us so constantly available to others, particularly in terms of work, that I think people might be less relaxed in the future, but on the other hand, there seems to be more awareness of the negative effects of stress and ways to manage it. 

What do you think are some of the reasons why people experience stress?

I think there are many reasons, and they can be different for different individuals, but it depends quite a lot on personality. For instance, if you are quite a highly strung individual, then this could be a contributing factor to stress, whereas if you are quite relaxed and laid-back, you might not get stressed so easily. However, I think the main reasons people get stressed include work and study concerns, relationship difficulties as well as time pressures and deadlines. 

Do you think there are any advantages to stress?

I guess I hadn't really considered that. But yes, I believe there are because I think a little bit of stress can be quite motivating and can help people to get things done efficiently and on time. It can give people a burst of energy, so in that sense, a small amount of stress can be productive. 

What are some of the effects of stress on people in your country?

I think the physical effects of stress are huge. People get sick more often, have more headaches and neck and back pain, and in the extreme, they can sometimes have heart attacks and so on. And the psychological impact is also considerable, as people can become depressed and anxious as a result of stress, and this in turn can have an effect on their friendships and relationships.


What type of boose do you live in?

I live in a two-storey house, which is made of wood. It’s a nice house to live in, but cold in winter. 

How many rooms are there?

In total, there are five bedrooms plus a lounge, study, kitchen, and two bathrooms. Oh, and the laundry. So, that’s about eleven rooms all in all. 

Which is your favourite room in the house? Why?

My favourite room would have to be the kitchen, because it gets sunshine all day long. My family also spend a lot of time in there, preparing food, eating and talking about our days, so I really enjoy that. 

How many hours do you spend studying each day?

I probably spend about eight hours studying every day. That’s including lessons at school and also the time that I spend doing homework cach evening. 

Are there any subjects which you like studying more than others?

Definitely. I really prefer maths and scicnce to subjects like English literature and history. I find it difficult to understand or be interested in English literature especially, probably bccausc I find it so boring. 

Which subjects are you interested in studying further?

I would really like to study biology at university level. In feet. I'm hoping to bccomc a doctor one day. 

How do you typically use the Internet? Why?

I use it for lots of things, including communicating with friends by email and social networking websites, finding information and doing research for university. 

Do you find it easy to use the Internet? Why?

Yes, I find it very simple. The only thing that is not so easy is that the speed of my conncction is sometimes very slow, which is so annoying. 

What do you like most about using the Internet? Why?

I like the fact that so much information is out there and easily acccssiblc. I can find the answer to anything! 

How much of your time do you spend using the Internet? Why?

Well, as I said, I use it a lot for university research, so probably about four hours a day, at least. More when I have an assignment due. And then, I use it for tun on top of that, so maybe six hours a day in total. 

Do you like animals? Why/ Why not?

I really love animals. In my family, we have two pets, a dog and a cat, and I love most animals because they’re so cute. 

Are there any animals that you arc afraid of or particularly dislike? Why?

Well, I guess I'm kind of afraid of rats bccausc I think they're disgusting and I hate their tails and teeth. I'm also not really a fan of snakes, but luckily, we don’t have any poisonous ones in my country. 

Are people in your country generally fond of animals? Why/Why not?

Yes. In particular, people treat pets as though they are part of the family, and animals are, on the whole, well taken carc of. 

Do particular animals have any special meaning in your culture?

I suppose some animals do, for instance, a black cat can sometimes symbolise bad luck, and lions have long been associated with courage and bravery. Oh, of coursc, the dove stands for peace, but I think that’s a worldwide symbol. 

How do you usually spend your free time?

When I have some spare time, I like to go and have a coffcc with friends, or see a movie, or just talk. 

Do you prefer to spend your free time with friends or with family? Why?

It really depends. I don't have a preference either way - I always enjoy catching up with either friends or family. 

How often do you have free time?

I wouldn’t say that I have a lot of free time, but I make sure that I have time each day. I aim for at least a couple of hours to just relax and have some time to myself. 

What changes would improve the way you spend your free time? Why?

I don’t think that I'd make any changes really. Free time is just for relaxing and having fun, and I feel like that’s what I do with my free time, so I'm happy. PART 2 The image that Tm going to describe is a famous black and white photograph which has been reproduced many times over the years. I think it is called ‘The Kiss’, but Tm not sure. It depicts a man and a woman meeting on the platform of a train station, perhaps after a long absence or maybe even after the man has been a soldier at war. You can't see his facc as he has his back to the camera and he is wearing a hat and there is a suitcase as well, I think. He is embracing the woman who has obviously been running along the train platform to meet him, and he has taken her in his arms and is swinging her around. She is very beautiful, and her expression is joyful at the return of her lover. Neither of them is looking at the camera as they are just in their own world. I can’t remember

exactly when I first saw it, but I think it was as a teenager at the local poster store where there were many prints and pictures. I liked it so much that I saved up my allowance to buy a framed copy of it for my bedroom wall, where it hung for a couple of years. When I look at this image, I feel many things, and many emotions. There is love, of coursc, also sadness that perhaps their reunion might be brief. I also feel it is a very romantic picture. I heard that it was a candid shot taken by chance by the photographer, but then later, I also heard that it was posed, but I much prefer to think of it as a spontaneous moment which was captured on film. It is quite a nostalgic image, but one which tells a real stoTy and that's why I love it. The reason I remember it so well is that 1 thought it was so romantic and heartfelt, and also because I looked at it every day for a few years while it was hanging on my wall at home! I think I still have it somewhere. 

Do you eojoy photographic images/pictures?

Yes, I do. I probably like them more than other types of art such as paintings. 

Would you recommend this to others?

Probably not for someone’s house now, as it has become a bit dated. PART 3 

What kind of visual art forms is popular in your country?

I'm not completely sure, but I know my generation really enjoys street art and sculpture, and installations with light and sound. Also, my friends and 1 love animation and graffiti. As for older generations, I think they probably prefer the more classic type of visual art such as paintings and portraits or perhaps sculpture. That's the great thing about art: there is always something for someone to enjoy and appreciate and ifs always changing. 

Many people argue that art should be freely accessible to the public to enjoy. What’s your view?

I definitely agree as I think it would be ideal if all or at least most art galleries had free admission. And there have recently been a lot of very popular exhibitions in my city which are displayed in public areas, such as parks or squares, or public buildings like railway stations. This really appeals to me that as people go about their daily lives, they meet and can enjoy or think about art, so it’s integrated in their life rather than being something separate that they go and do on weekends or something. Art should be available for everyone to see and take pleasure from. 

What do you think of investing money in the arts?

When corporations and companies sponsor exhibitions, it means that more people get to see and experience that exhibition, so I believe it makes art more accessible and available to more people. It’s the corporate world’s way of giving something back to the community, and if they get a little bit of positive association for doing so, then I think that's fine. It’s not as though they have any creative control. 

It is often said that creative genius is born, not made. What’s your opinion?

Well, I think this is true, to an extent, but I also feel that it is only in very rare cases that pure talent is not nurtured through life experience and events. What I mean is that I believe you have to have natural artistic talent, but that this can only be fully realised through excellent tuition and exposure to influential people and art pieces. It is not any one thing which creates creative genius, it is a combination of everything as well as a case of good timing. 

How have the way's people express their creativity in your culture changed in the last fifty years?

I think in the past, art took more traditional forms such as paintings, sketches and sculpture, but nowadays, it’s like almost anything can be ealied art. I went to an exhibition the other day which included giant images projected onto buildings in the downtown area and it has been very well received. So with technology that is rapidly changing, art is also evolving to be expressed in new ways such as this. While in the past, we might have had movies shot on old-fashioned cameras, now anyone can be a director and shoot video even with their mobile phones! So making art and expressing creativity has become an option for many more people. That is the main change. 

Many artists make valuable contributions to society through their art, yet struggle to succeed financially. What are the reasons for this? What are the implications of this?

Part of the reason might be that artists are more concerned with expressing themselves in a genuine way than with making money. They arc so foe used on creating their works that perhaps the money is of secondary importance to them. Of course, the effect of this is that it becomes difficult to earn a living, and perhaps it could discourage future young people from that type of lifestyle. The other reason is that society doesn’t really value art properly, so artists are underpaid accordingly, which is sad.


Tell me about your neighbourhood.

My neighbourhood is pretty quiet, with lots of apartment blocks and high-rise buildings. It also has lots of parks and green areas, which is nice. 

Which are some of your favourite areas in the neighbourhood? Why?

My favourite area is probably the shopping mall because it has so many great stores and I love to shop whenever I can! 

What type of people tends to live in your neighbourhood?

It’s mainly families with children and retired couples. Lots of young people like to live closer to the city centre, so it’s not very popular with them.

Tell me about your studies.

I'm studying at senior high school and then I hope to enter university to study architecture and town planning. 

Are you a full-time student or part-time student?

Full-time, of coursc, bccausc I’m still at school. When I start university. I'll also be full-time bccausc my parents will support me while I'm studying. 

What are your goals after completing your studies?

After completing my architecture degree, I hope to study at postgraduate level in either Spain or Italy. That’s my dream anyway. 

How do you find out about news?

I read the national newspaper every day or every second day. I like to keep up with what's going on here and overseas, so I make an effort to buy it and read it quite often. 

Do you always use the same method of accessing news? Why?

Yes, actually I do. I think it’s bccausc I have bccome used to this way, and I know where to find my favourite columnists and articles, as well as the TV listings. It’s familiar. 

Which type of news do you enjoy reading the most? Why?

I like international news and analysis. Then for fun, I enjoy the magazine lift out section which has all sorts - recipes, fashion, feature articles, and so on. It’s more magazine style, but it comes free with the newspaper, so that’s a bonus. 

Which type of news do you enjoy (reading) the least? Why?

Well, I have to say I don’t really enjoy the motoring or financc sections, but then. I’m not really interested in either of those topics. Also, I don't really enjoy sports news, either. 

What kinds of things make you feel happy? Why?

Um, I guess the kinds of things which make me feel happy are mainly when I'm with people that I care about. Oh, and I love hiking and enjoying nature, so if Tm outside in the forest or the mountains, Tm usually pretty happy. And I love chocolate, that makes me pretty happy. 

What do you tend to do when you fed this way? Why?

Well, I suppose I just enjoy it while it lasts and try to make it last for a long time! 

Have similar things always made you happy?

Now that I think about it, yes. I've always been happy when I’m around people and just relaxing and talking. Of course, when I was a child, I wasn’t able to go off hiking or anything, but I still used to enjoy beaches and parks, so I enjoyed the outdoors that way.

Do you feel it’s important to feel happy every day? Why?

Definitely. I mean not all day, every day, but I do think it’s important to have some happiness in a small part every day. Otherwise, life can get you down a bit, so I think it’s good to know what makes you happy and seek it out. 

Where do you typically go on holiday?

Oh, I like a bit of excitement on my holidays, so I prefer to go somewhere where there are lots of young people and activities to do, and also some nightlife for the evenings. I don't really care where it is, as long as it’s fun! 

What kinds of things do you enjoy doing on holiday? Why?

I like adventure sports, like bungee jumping or white-water rafting. I love the adrenaline rush from these things, and it’s such a change from a 9-to-5 office job, isn’t it? And then, in the evenings, I like to go somewhere where there’s a good band and I can have a few drinks with my friends and maybe some dancing. I like my holidays to be full of action! Oh, and I love shopping, too, so if there are some nice clothes shops nearby, that’s always a bonus. 

What form of transport do you usually use to get to your holiday destinations? Why?

Oh, plane is definitely best. It's so much quicker than driving, and I love it when the weather is a bit windy and the plane bumps along. It’s like an exciting start to the holiday! It makes me feel like I have left home and I have gone somewhere new, with no responsibilities for a few days. 

Do you prefer to travel in a large group or a small group? Why?

Well, I think on balance, I prefer a smallish group, but not just one person. I find that a bit intense. Three or four good friends are ideal, because I can be by myself for a while if I want or I can join in the group if I want company. I don’t like large groups much. It feels too much like a package holiday then. PART 2 I haven’t ever really thought about this type of question, but I would probably say that the famous person I would most like to meet is the lead singer from the band U2, Bono. I've always really loved this band, ever since I was just a kid, and 1 think that his campaigns for social change arc quite inspiring. It’s nice to see someone who is using their fame for good, and I have a lot of respect for that. So, he’s famous for his music and also for the work that he does, including his work with Oxfam and the Make Poverty History campaign. He combines the two activities well and some of U2’s music has quite strong messages. So yes, I’d like to meet him because I think he is an inspirational person. As for what questions I would ask him. I'm not really sure. I’d like to know a bit about his private life, I guess, as he’s always been very private and guarded about his family and wife and children, so I'd be interested to hear about them. I guess I'd also be curious about how the band has managed to stay together for so long in an industry which is renowned for break-ups and instability, because they’ve been together for over twenty years and through several big changes in music style. So, Td be interested in the dynamics of the band and how they all get along,

and what their creative process is like. And why they think their music resonates with so many people. Yes, actually I’d have a lot of questions! But I'd also want to know his ideas about ending poverty and how he thinks that might happen within our lifetime, and to learn a bit about that. However, I don’t think it is particularly realistic that I would ever get to meet Bono, but I have been to one of the conccrts and seen him on stage quite close up. In saying that my best friend is a music journalist, so who knows, maybe one day I’ll get a VIP backstage pass and get to chat with him. I hope so! I think I’d be quite nervous, but then famous people are just people like everybody else, aren’t they? 

Have you ever met a famous person?

Yes, a few local celebrities but nobody really famous. 

Do you like to read about famous people?

Not especially, just if I’m reading a magazine in line at the supermarket or something. PART 3 

What do you think motivates people who seek fame?

In some ways, I think there are two types of motivation, or two pathways, if you like, to fame. There are those who deliberately set out to become famous and that is their goal from the beginning. It doesn't really matter if they have talent or anything, they just cravc fame, and I think they arc motivated by wanting lots of people to like them, and the attention and perhaps the money also, but I don’t think that is the main motivation. Then, there arc people who simply do what they love and become famous doing it. They are motivated by their talent, I believe. 

Some people argue that celebrities and famous people have no right to expect privacy because they are in the public eye. What’s your opinion?

I don’t think this is a valid argument at all. Famous people do not bccomc public property simply bccausc they are famous, and I certainly believe they are entitled to as much privacy as the rest of us. Take Princcss Diana as an example - she was hounded by the media and paparazzi to the extent that it killed her in the end. They arc human beings and have the basic right to privacy like the rest of us. The only exception to this would be related to politicians and information which the public needs to be aware of in order to keep them honest! 

Many celebrities have begun using their fame to raise awareness of social issues. Do you think this is a good trend or a bad trend?

I think this is a positive trend, but I also think celebrities have to be informed and knowledgeable about the issues they claim to believe in rather than just lending their names to causes they know nothing about in order to promote their own profile. They can’t just use it for their own gain; they have to be genuinely concerned. When it’s done well, there’s a real benefit in having celebrity power in raising awareness and money for important issues, such as the benefit concert for the earthquake in Haiti, for instance.

How important is it to spend time with family members in your culture? Why?

Family is at the centre of life in my culture, so spending time with family is highly valued. For instance, we always get together for family meals, and we see each other all the time. It's important because family is simply the most important thing in life and we make it a priority, always. I guess it’s traditional and just reflects my culture’s values. 

How have the ways people socialise in your country changed over time? Why do you think these changes have occurred?

I think the old ways of socialising are still alive and well, for instance, networks through family and friends, school and university, sports clubs, and so on, but this has been added to by other forms of new media socialising such as online social networks. I think these are particularly popular with the younger generation. This change has happened simply because of the growth in new technologies which has made it possible, and while I think it is a positive change, I think meeting people and talking is preferable. 

Some members of society feel isolated and alone. What measures can be taken to combat this issue?

Well, I think this is the responsibility of the family to ensure that people don’t feel isolated and lonely. They can offer strategics to support the person socially and get them the help they need if they are lacking social skills, self-esteem and confidence. And in wider society, I think there could be more of a swing back to old-fashioned ways of meeting people, face to face, rather than such a focus on the Internet, email and social networking, as I think these types of tools can end up making people feel even more alone. TEST 8 PART 1 

Where do you live?

I live in a city called Guilin, which is in the south-west of China. It has beautiful scenery and mountains. 

Have you always lived in this area?

No, my parents moved here when I was five years old. Before that, we lived with my grandparents in Shanghai, but we moved because my parents found good jobs here. 

Which part of the area where you live do you find most interesting? Why?

I think the mountains and unusual rocks that we have are the most interesting, because they are such a pretty landscape. I never get tired of looking at the different views around the city. 

Do you have a job or are you a full-time student at the moment?

At the moment, I do both: I'm a full-time student, but I also have a part-time job related to my studies so that I can gain good work experience. 

What type of job will your studies lead you to?

I’m studying to be a vet, so that’s the earner that I hope to get into. It’s very competitive though and I have to maintain a high average. 

For bow many years will you need to study in order to become qualified?

In total, five years. There’s a lot of practice in the final year but of course that’s unpaid work, so I can’t wait to graduate and start working to pay off my student loan. 

Which types of shops do you usually like to shop at? Why?

All kinds of shops, I suppose, as it depends on what I'm buying. I do tend to prefer shopping in a large shopping mall, as there’s everything you need in one place, so it’s very convenient 

What types of things do you buy most often? Why?

Well, I feel like I'm always running to the supermarket to buy things I’ve forgotten to make dinner, so probably the thing that I buy the most is food. 

Do you prefer shopping alone or with others? Why?

I can’t stand shopping with other people because I waste so much time! I definitely prefer shopping on my own as I know what I like and where I'm going. 

Would you describe shopping as a bobby or a chore? Why?

You know, I think shopping can be both. It totally depends on the circumstances - if you’re running late and there’s no car park and the supermarket is busy, it can be a total nightmare. But if I have lots of time, I really enjoy it. 

What types of books do you enjoy reading? Why?

I don’t really get that much time to read for fun, but when I do, I love the latest vampire books that have become really popular. I think they are just the right mix of romance and horror. 

Do most of your friends enjoy reading similar types of books?

Yes, I guess so - although everyone has their own preferences as well. Some of my friends prefer classic literature while others like science fiction, but we all love to talk about the Twilight books. 

Which do you generally prefer, a book or the movie version of that book? Why?

I have to say that the book is, nine times out of ten, always better. Having said that I really enjoyed the Twilight and Eclipse movies as well, as I think they were great adaptations of the book. But most of the time. I'd say the book is better. 

Is there anything that you don’t like about reading? Why?

I hate reading boring scientific articles for university because they make me feel sleepy and they are so difficult to understand! It’s like reading another language. 

What is your preferred way of relaxing? Why?

I hadn’t really thought about that - I suppose I just like to watch TV or a movie, or hang out with friends. Those are the ways that I relax because I like to switch off and do nothing. 

What is the effect on you when you take time to relax?

Well, I suppose my muscles become less tight and any tension I have kind of disappears. My mind starts to feel calm, and my whole body just unwinds. It’s a great feeling! 

Do you think you have more or less time to relax nowadays than you used to? Why?

I actually probably have a bit more time to relax just at the moment, because Fm on holiday from university, but when the semester starts again, I would say I definitely have less time than 1 used to when I was at high school. Study takes up most of my time. 

Do other people you know have much time to relax? Why/Why not?

I think so. I mean most people are busy and work hard, but finding time to relax is important to them too, so they make time. My fellow students are like me though, always studying for the next test, so we don’t really get that much time to just chill out and relax. PART 2 An advertisement that I saw on television recently, which I actually really enjoyed, is for a company called Expedía, I think. The company has something to do with booking online hotel rooms and flights or something. Anyway, the advertisement has lots and lots of people outside in a field and each of them is a hotel housekeeping staff member, making up a beautiful hotel bed. It starts with them unfolding the sheets and tucking in the comers, and they all do it in unison, so the effect is quite interesting, kind of like a dance. Then, they all fluff the pillows and ifs funny, because it’s all quite serious, but one man does his a bit too hard and feathers come flying out. After that, all the staff stretch their backs, again all together, and finally they place a couple of chocolates on the bed so that everything is perfect. Then finally, they all stand by the bed they have made. Overall, the advertisement is beautifully made with great styling and no terrible voice over or rushed talking. I think the number of beds is quite dramatic and is designed to show that the company has a really wide network and can offer lots of choice to their customers. It's also like a little story and makes you wonder about all the people all over the world who work hard making hotel beds, so in that sense, it's not only quite a charming story but it’s also something we can all relate to. However, 1 think what makes the ad really special is the song which it features, which is so catchy and melodic that it is very memorable. 1 remembered the song before I remembered what the ad was for. The song is by an Australian singer who wrote it especially for the ad, but now, her singing career has really taken off, and she is releasing an album which I think is great. I don't know if this ad would influence me to buy flights or hotel rooms online at Expedia, but it certainly did make me aware of the brand and I even googled the song to see who it was by, so in

that way, it is kind of like double exposure, for Expedia and also for the singer. I think it’s very clever marketing. 

Do you often watch advertisements on television?

No, I don’t. It’s only occasionally that one catches my eye. 

Do you generally find advertisements interesting?

No, not really. There are too many and they are too frequent PART 3 

Why do you think that some people become annoyed with advertising? Would you agree that advertising can be irritating? Why?

I think the reason why people get annoyed with advertisements is due to the fact that they arc everywhere: on the bus, on the train, on the television, on the radio, on the Internet It sometimes feels like advertising is never-ending, so I think a lot of people find this really intrusive, repetitive, and well just boring, as a lot of ads are not well designed or thought out and seem basic and boring. 

How effective do you think the medium of advertising is? Why?

That's the funny thing: it’s effective in many ways. 1 think it has a role in making people aware of new and innovative products and services, and in that way, it is very effective. However, I think some types of advertising are more effective than others, such as targeted advertising to a particular demographic, or even more subdue types of advertising such as sponsorship and product placement. There are many different methods of advertising. 

What changes have there been in the way products are advertised and promoted over the last decade?

Well, as I mentioned, I think die industry is evolving in the sense that it is finding more subtle ways to express advertising messages. For instance, product placement in popular television shows or movies is growing in popularity. Sponsorship of anything from a radio show to the Olympic Games is another change which has become more and more popular over the last ten years. Also, formats of advertising have had to change as lots of people have in many ways gone online for their main media source, so ads on websites and blogs are now commonplace. Fm’ sure there will be more changes in future, too. 

Advertisements for social issues such as drink-driving often use graphic images to convey their message. What in your opinion is the impact of these types of advertisements?

I think when these types of advertisements first came on television, they were extremely effective because they were so shocking and people responded to them, so the effect was positive in that people definitely thought twice before drinking alcohol and then getting into their cars to drive home. However, over time, I believe people have become quite desensitized to these images, particularly the drink-driving type ads, and they just tend to switch off. 1 think this has made people tired and bored of die issue.

Increasingly, a number of charities are utilising advertising and marketing as a method of promoting their causes. How effective do you think these types of campaigns are?

In today’s market everything is a product or service, and charity campaigns arc no exception, so I think some of these charities who have taken on board marketing concepts or even used professional agencies to take care of their branding have been very clever. These campaigns can be incredibly effective, because they use advertising and marketing psychology to build awareness of an issue and accordingly, turn that awareness into donations, and so on. Nowadays, charities have to compete for our attention just like any other business. 

Some people feel that using celebrities to back a particular cause or social issue is a very effective way to encourage public support of that cause. What’s your opinion?

My opinion is that celebrity endorsements of a cause are fine, as long as they believe in and understand what it is they are backing. For instance, you can’t have a celebrity standing up and supporting an anti-fur campaign and then being photographed the next day wearing a fur coat as it has zero credibility. That’s an extreme example, but I guess what Fm trying to say is that a lot of these celebritics who endorse a cause don't actually know anything about it nor do they live their lives according to the cause. So, I think charities have to be very careful about who they approach for this type of role.


What is your town famous for?

Well, my town, or city really, because I live in Beijing, is famous for the National Palace Museum, which used to be called the Forbidden City. If s beautiful old palaces. 

Do many people visit your town?

Yes, they do. Beijing is a popular destination for international tourists and domestic travellers because it is easy to get to and has lots of attractions. 

What sights would you recommend to a visitor to your town? Why?

I would definitely recommend that they visit the National Palacc, also I would recommend that they visit the Hutong area in Nantuoguxiang. This is fun for shopping and enjoying classic architecture. 

Which subjects are you studying at the moment?

I'm studying chemistry, physics, biology, and maths as well as English and English literature. 

Why did you choose to study these subjects?

I chose the science subjects because I want to go on to study science at university, and I’m really interested in becoming a food technologist after I graduate, so I need a good grounding in these science subjects. 

Are there any subjects which you are not studying but are interested in?

Yes, there arc many! I’m really interested in the arts, but it's just not very practical to study these types of subjects long term. 

How do you usually find out about new music?

I suppose mainly when I hear it on the radio, or when my friends recommend it to me. We share a lot of music, so friends are always introducing me to their latest favourite tune. 

Where do you normally buy new music? Why?

To be honest, I don't really buy a lot of new music, I just wait for my friends to get it and then if I like it, I put it on my iPod. I used to buy CDs but nowadays I don’t bother - it’s so much easier with an iPod or MP3. 

Do you think listening to music can have an effect on your moods? Why?

Oh, definitely. When I’m feeling a bit down or sad, I can put on music that will make me feel sadder or music which is uplifting, and I think that’s because of the mood of the music, or the melody. 

What do you enjoy most about listening to music? Why?

I love that listening to good music can make any task belter, for instance, homework or work. When you put on good music, everything seems better, even exercise! That’s why I love it 

How often do you spend time with your friends?

I sec my friends all the time because a lot of them are at school with me, so we hang out at lunchtime or during breaks. So, those friends I see every day except weekends, but sometimes we get together then, too. 

What type of things do you and your friends do together?

At school, we just tend to sit around and talk, or go for lunch or something like that. On the weekends, we might go shopping or out to see a movie. Whatever it is, we always talk a lot. 

What kinds of things do you do to show you are a good friend?

Well, I suppose I make an effort to see people and keep in touch with them, and I think I'm pretty supportive of my friends in that I’m a good listener. I always try to be on time and reliable. 

Would you prefer to have a lot of acquaintances or a few good friends? Why?

I would definitely prefer to have a few good friends than lots of people that 1 didn’t really know, and Fm lucky because that is true for me. Tm not interested in forming fake, superficial friendships with people because there is no point. 

When was the last time you sent or received an email?

Oh, I guess it was probably yesterday. 1 sent an email to my brother, who is overseas, for his birthday. I don’t know if he sent me one back yet or not though, probably not if he's enjoying his birthday celebrations! 

What purpose do you mainly use email for? Why?

I mostly use email to keep in touch with friends and family all over the world. It’s such an easy way to communicate with people, and it can be a one-line email or a whole page, that's what I like about it. 

Do you prefer to receive group or individual emails? Why?

I actually really hate group emails, so 1 much prefer to receive an individual email even if it's just very short. There’s something about group emails that doesn’t make me feel very special! 

Is there anything that you dislike about emails?

Well, not really, apart from, as I mentioned, the group emails. Oh, and the other thing that I can’t stand is when a personal message goes into the spam folder. That's really frustrating as is spam mail in general. PART 2 An activity which I like doing outdoors is swimming at the beach. Actually, 1 love doing anything at the beach, especially in summer when the weather is hot, and also in winter, when I love to go for long walks along the beach as well. In summer, I like to go to the beach for the afternoon with my friends, and we all lie around reading magazines and enjoying the sunshine, although of course we have to be very careful not to get sunburnt, so we’re always applying sunscreen and we also use a beach umbrella to protect us from the sun. Anyway, we tend to go when it’s late afternoon, when the sun is not as harsh. I love being in the water, swimming or just cooling down. Fm quite a strong swimmer and sometimes I like to swim around to the next bay or swim the length of the beach. Sometimes I just float in the dear water and stare up at the sky. It's beautiful. I hate getting out of the water, especially if there is a chilly wind, because it cools me down too fast and then I get cold before I can get dry in the sun again. I think the reason I enjoy the beach so much is because in my country, the beaches are very clean and unpolluted; at the same time, they are not very crowded, so there is a lot of space to stretch out and enjoy. I am also thinking of one particular beach close to where I live and there are lots of rocks for exploring and jumping ofF when the tide is high. Oh, I love ice cream at the beach from the comer store, and sometimes we get takeaway dinner to eat together and that's a lot of fun. Most of all, I think I love this outdoor activity because it brings me close to nature and is so relaxing and calm that I can just forget about all my stress

and enjoy a gorgeous environment. So, that’s what I love about going to the beach. I'm really looking forward to summer! 

Do you often do this outdoor activity?

Not that often, but in summer, I probably go once or twice a week. 

Is the location for this activity close to home?

Yes, Tm lucky as ifs only about a twenty-minute walk, or a few minutes in the car. PART 3 

Do you think that people nowadays are more or less aware of conserving public spaccs for parks and reserves in comparison to 20 years ago? Why / Why not?

I think there is a greater general awareness at present that parks and public spaces for recreation need to be planned for and protected. Everybody enjoys these types of areas, and they contribute to a city’s attractiveness and charm. I think this awareness has stemmed from environmental group lobbying and also from people's experience of what they want for their city or area. 

Some people argue that urban development is more important than keeping public spaces for recreation. What’s your view?

I certainly think it is a mistake to prioritise construction and housing development over dedicated areas for recreation, for many reasons. A well-planned city with lots of parks and green spaces is much more attractive in the long term and helps to build value for all the houses in an area. Take Central Park in New York for example. Recreation areas promote physical activity and encourage citizens to maintain good health, which is another reason to prioritise these spaces. And finally, trees and greenery in a densely populated urban area absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen, making our air easier to breathe and reducing the effects of the greenhouse effect. 

Who tends to enjoy outdoor recreation spaces more: young people or old people? Why?

I don’t really think there is a group that I could say enjoys parks and recreation spaces more than any other, as they have something to offer each age group. For instance, young children enjoy playing on the playgrounds while their parents talk and socialise, and old people often walk or enjoy these spaces as well. Workers and business people often take advantage of a park to enjoy their lunch break, and teenagers often utilise these areas for basketball and hanging out with friends. 

What types of jobs do people in your country do in the outdoors?

There are plenty of jobs, which arc outdoors based, for instance, building and construction work, landscaping, farming, and park ranger, or even adventure tourism guide. I suppose the most common ones in my country would be maintenance and construction type roles, as this industry is very strong at the moment, with lots of new development taking place. However, other types of outdoor roles such as fanning are still popular in rural areas.

What are some of the advantages of working outdoors? Why?

I suppose the main advantage is that you aren't tied to an office job and have the freedom to move around and enjoy the outdoors while the rest of us are stuck indoors with air conditioning and artificial lighting. I guess you have the chance to enjoy your local environment and for some people, their work is also their passion, for example, ski instructors or tourism guides. 

Are there any drawbacks to working outdoors? Why?

The first disadvantage this springs to mind is of course the weather! I suppose working outdoors is great when the temperature is neither too hot nor too cold, but once it gets outside of this range, I imagine working outdoors could be very uncomfortable. There may also be health cfFccts as a result of this, such as sunburn or heat exhaustion in summer, or colds and fever in winter temperatures. However, as many outdoor jobs arc seasonal, I guess these problems could be managed.


PART 1 

Tell me about the area where you live.

The area I live in is located in the subuibs of quite a big city, but it’s a very clean and safe neighbourhood, which has lots of young families and old people. 

What do you find most enjoyable about living there? Why?

The thing that I find most enjoyable is that we have a garden and lots of parks and reserves nearby my house, so it’s quite an attractive area to Uve in for that reason. 

What is the area where you live famous or well known for?

Well, I wouldn’t say that it is particularly famous for anything special, but there is a really popular shopping centre just down the road, which people come to from all over the city. So that’s what people who live in my city think of when they think of my suburb. 

How long have you been studying English?

I've been studying Rnglish only for a short time, for a couple of years. I started learning when I went abroad to Australia on an exchange programme in my last year of high school. 

What do you like most about studying English?

For me, it’s not so much that I like studying it, but when I reach a point of fluency, I really enjoy the opportunities that speaking English opens up for me.

Why are you sitting the IELTS test?

I'm taking the 1ELTS test because I would really love to go back to Australia to go to university in Melbourne, where I hope to study economics and accounting. 

What is your preferred mode of transport? Why?

The way I prefer to get around is by train or subway. I like it because you never have to wait very long for the next train, and you can read a book or whatever on the train without feeling sick. Plus you can also walk around while the Crain is moving, which I like. 

Do most of your friends use this method of transport to get around?

Yes, it’s the cheapest and most convenient way to travel around my city. Buses are hopeless and never run on tunc, so everyone takes the trams. 

Are there any problems travelling around your city? Why?

The city is pretty much gndlockcd during rush hour, every weekday morning and evening. That's the main problem and I think as a result of that, more and more people are using public transport or travelling off-peak if they can. 

In what way do these problems affect you?

To be honest, they don’t really affect me at all, thank goodness. The subway station is elose to my house, and the trains run on time and of course they are not affected by peak traffic or anything. The only thing is that they arc quite crowded now. 

Tell me about a typical day for you.

On a typical day, like a weekday, I get up at around 7:30 a.m., have a shower and grab breakfast on the way to university. Then ifs lectures all day until about 5 p.m., when I get the train home and help ray dad cook dinner. After dinner, I might chat with my friends or watch television, then I go to bed at around midnight. 

Which time of day do you prefer? Why?

I’m not really sure. Probably the late morning, because I think that's when my brain comes to life, just before lunch. I always get a lot done at this time of day. 

Do you think you will always prefer this time of day? Why/ Why not?

Possibly not. Maybe as I get older, m learn to love the early mornings, like ray mum, but somehow, I don’t think so! It’s hard to say really. 

Are there any times of day that you don’t like? Why?

Well yes, I hate mornings. It doesn’t seem to matter what time I wake up, I always feel tired, so I really can’t stand early mornings. They’re a terrible time of day bccausc then you know you have to get up.

Do you or anyone you know collect things? Why/Why not?

Let me think. Yes, actually, my grandmother collects tea towels from around the world. F.very time someone goes on holiday, they have to bring her one back. I'm not sure why. I think it's just something she started when she was younger and now it’s a habit. 

How does she go about collecting these items?

Whenever her friends or family go away, they know they should bring back a tea towel for grandma, so it’s quite easy really they just go into the nearest tourist souvenir shop and buy one for her, pack it in their luggage and bring it home. 

How long has she been collecting these items?

I'm not exactly sure, but I think she started when she and my grandfather went on a trip to Europe, and everything was so expensive that she brought us back tea towels as souvenirs because they were cheap and easy to bring home. I think she would have been about 45 or something at that stage. 

What is the value in collecting things, do you think?

For her, it’s a way to feel like she’s been travelling to these places. And of course, there is a sentimental value to cach tea towel and the story of how she came to get it. Yes, it's mainly sentimental value I suppose. PART 2 Well, it’s hard to remember exactly, but I do recall one time when I suppose I was really quite naughty and disobedient I was probably about nine or ten, I think, and because we lived a short distance from school, about twenty minutes’ walk, my friend and I used to walk to school together every morning. On this morning at school, we were scheduled to have a talk by the local police officer about road safety, including crossing roads, riding bikes and wearing helmets while on our bikes. It was all very serious, and the policeman arrived in his blue uniform and to be honest, I think we were all a bit in awe of him really. This was the last class of the day, and I think he told us some horror stories about traffic accidents to try and scare us into being very careful on the roads. Well, after that, the bell rang and school was finished for the day, and another friend of mine had brought her bike to school and asked me if I wanted to double home with her. Now, our school was on top of a very steep long road, and for some reason, despite having had the safety lecture just beforehand, we decided it would be a lot of fun if she rode the bike and I doubled on the back, sitting just above the back tyre with my legs tucked in on top of the chain. Neither of us had bike helmets. Why we thought this was a good thing to do I have no idea! So off we went zooming down the steep hill of a one-way street where it was great, lots of fun, until towards the end, she hit a stone and of course I fell off the bike as it wobbled, the whole side of one leg was grazed and bleeding and I was bruised as well - not to mention very embarrassed, as there were lots of my classmates who had seen my tumble. But that was nothing compared to feeing up to school the next day, when the headmistress put an announcement over the PA system that two very stupid girls had been very naughty, especially after the kind policeman had taken the time to try to tell us

about road safety. I was absolutely mortified and embarrassed, as everybody knew who it was of course, and I think my friend was banned from riding to school for the rest of the year. As for the impact the accident had on me, I guess after a while, once the embarrassment had worn off, I was actually quite proud of our rebellion but perhaps a little more cautious on the back of bikes! 

Did you ever do the same thing again?

No, not as a child, anyway! 

Did you often get into trouble as a child?

No, not any more than other children, I suppose. PART 3 

Some people believe that smacking or using any type of physical violence as punishment against a child is wrong. What’s your view?

Well yes, I completely agree that any type of violence should not be used as a punishment. There are much better ways to discipline children, and I think that violence sends the wrong message to them, even if it is only a light snack. I think it has been shown that in countries with legislation which prevents the use of smacking as a form of discipline, there have been lower overall rates of child abuse. So that tells us something, doesn’t it? 

Why do you think some people have difficulty disciplining and controlling their children?

I think there are many reasons for people’s struggle to discipline their children, but mainly, I guess it is related to a lack of consistency and perhaps a lack of awareness on the part of parents as to what to do or how to go about disciplining their children. However nowadays, there are lots of television shows which focus on good parenting, and they all seem to talk about the importance of good boundaries and consistent consequences for bad behavior. Maybe some parents are just too easily manipulated by their children! 

What are some of the disadvantages of having a strict upbringing?

I think a very strict upbringing can have a few drawbacks. For instance, if you never get the chance to make your own mistakes and I came from them, then I think it’s more likely that you might have a mid-life crisis or a period later in life where you feel the need to rebel and break the rules, so to speak. Also, I think that if a strict upbringing prevents you from enjoying things in life that your peers arc enjoying, then you are left with a feeling of resentment and a sense of missing out. 

What do you think are some of the reasons why children misbehave?

There are all sorts of reasons! I suppose one of the main ones is that they misbehave in order to get attention, even though the attention might be negative; that is in the form of a punishment or scolding. Or they might play up in order to impress their friends, or they might just be hungry or bored, I guess. Another reason that they might misbehave is if they don’t know the rules, or these haven’t been consistently applied, so they don’t know where they stand. Those are just a few reasons why children might be naughty.

Do you think it is a good idea to ignore bad behaviour or punish it? Why?

In my view, it’s better to punish bad behaviour in some way, but it depends on what the bad behaviour is. For instance, if it's a temper tantrum, then I think it’s probably a better idea to ignore it, because then the children don't receive any attention (good or bad) from their behaviour, so will hopefully be less likely to repeat it. On the other hand, I think there are some instances that need punishment, or maybe not punishment, but information about what is acceptable and what’s not, depending on the child's age and ability to absorb that information. 

Do you think that children nowadays misbehave more or less than those in the past? Why might this be so?

I think that it’s probably about the same. I mean, I know you hear older generations complaining about today’s younger generation and how badly they behave, but really I think it’s just that we are more aware of it nowadays, and there are also more pressures and strains on young people today, so ifs all relative. Although I would say that there has been a move away from extended family life in some countries, which has maybe had an effect on the way children are raised, and accordingly, their behaviour.

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