Social, Economic and Political Thought Part I Notes (Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, Machiavelli)

November 2, 2017 | Author: simplyhue | Category: Thomas Aquinas, The Prince, Reason, Plato, Socrates
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Notes from my Soc Sci II class on Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, Machiavelli, The Republic, Socrat...

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Soc Sci II – Social, Economic and Political Thought Part I Exam (Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, Machiavelli) *the Ionians (group of Greeks) were the ones who rejected popular mythology as an explanation of things around them - also called “natural philosophers” - revolutionary ~we need to investigate to find out where we came from - they were the first ones to answer “rationally”

1. *opens with Cephalus (he was dying, reminiscing life, for afterlife) talking to Socrates; asked if his soul will fare well – Socrates answered if he tells the truth and pays his debt, then he lived a just life; Socrates used the myth of the dagger and the deranged Virtue – it should always be the same and present under any circumstances, otherwise it is a preference

Thales – answered that everything comes from water Anaximander – thought of “dimension;” when something disappears, it just goes back to “the boundless” Anaximenes – basic substance is the air

2. Polemarchus (son of Cephalus) -justice is helping your friends & harming your enemies -question is how do you know who your friends are; is it even right to harm another person?

Pythagoreans Philosophers a. Pharmenides – believe that change is the only thing constant; everything is an illusion; arguing that there is reality beyond what your senses pick up; difference between TRUTH and APPEARANCE came into picture; also differences between REASON and SENSES; there‟s no actual and permanent change

3. Thrasymachus (Sophist) -breaks into the discussion -“just” or “right” means nothing but “what is to the interest of the stronger party” -question is: How do you know what your interest is all the time? –Even if you‟re the stronger party, it does not necessary mean that you are right. -point of Socrates: When you‟re in power, don‟t use it for your interest profession vs. trade -ex. doctor „coz you either want to get rich or to undertand/help -“by-product” of profession *since Thrasymachus is losing the argument, he changed the topic majority of the people seek: more wealth, more power, more pleasure -Socrates says that you should let your desires control you; you‟re truly a happy man if you‟re not a slave of your desires

b.Heraclitus – he agrees with Pharmenides that the only permanent thing is change but believed that what the senses pick up is true c. Empedocles – original captain planet; everything around us is composed of 4 elements: air, fire, water, earth; also added that these elements come together because of love and separate because of strife; also reasoned out the senses ~ the fire in the tree recognizes the fire in your eyes d. Democritus – everything is made-up of atoms SOPHISTS * group of foreign philosophers, prominent, they were the ones who taught young men and served as ambassadors) *the meaning is “wise mean;” skilled craftsmen *they were skeptics about truth because everything is relative for them *forte is rhetoric or the art of public speaking *Socrates never like Sophists *didn‟t care whether they‟re right or wrong because at the end of the day, to convince people was their goal *thought grammar, arithmetic astronomy *believed that man is the measure of everything *did not believe in universal truth

SOCRATES (born 470 BC) *represented a new way of thinking *first philosopher to shift focus from the nature to the individual *had the greatest influence to the European thought *never wrote a single “dialogue” *can be likened to Jesus (“parang si Jesus lang”-Ma‟am) *he‟s ugly, with bulging eyes and big nose *used the art of discourses – he asked questions in order to come up with a generalization *inductive reasoning *accdg. to Aristotle, he‟s like a midwife since he lets you come up with the conclusion with the answers you give *he appeared to be ignorant becaused he asked questions *”mob mentality” was prevalent even before *the only one who told the Athenians to not to go to war (Peloponnesian War) *was blamed for the Athens‟ loss^ & they believed he‟s introducing new god *but Socrates said that ~you shoud thank me because I was right, so the judge got mad and he was condemned through poison intake * “A real philosopher knows that he knows very little” *for him, continuous insight, questioning is good since you have reason, so use that *emphasized that we cannot know anything if we do not acknowledge that we know nothing *discussed how you should nurture yourself as a human being *when you‟re stuck at knowing what‟s right or wrong, you don‟t consult your environment &/or your peers, but you look into your reasoning *don‟t consult the norms of society, consult your reason GREECE *composed of city-states *Social classes: slaves, Metics (traders), citizens (members of the city entitled to political life except women) *Difference bet. city-states then & now: politics was really part of people‟s lives, they only talked about the affairs of the state

PLATO (427 – 347 B.C.) – THE REPUBLIC -morality, education, eugenics, best type of political system 1. See it as a treaty on justice 2. Seen as a guide to appease the soul 2. Gives what is the ideal/how the society should be

4. Adeimatus and Glaucon -Adeimatus: society-children are taught to be honest and just; dishonesty pays a lot than being honest; sevice -Glaucon: justice started as a convention; ok or desirable to do wrong things as long as no one sees it; Myths of Gyges – laws, midway bet. the best & the worst things; justice is necessary, not desirable; justice is compromise of the weak accdg. to Socrates, State: individual & refreet(?) justice in state Plato: Principles of Justice 1. Division of Labor -fulfilling the potential of the individual -helping the community -“luxurious state” (having extras) State: promote the good life – farmers; auxiliaries, philosopher kings (guardians) -Republic –imaginary state Justice – virtue 1st Principle – division of labor (social classes based on merit – what you are capable of, what you can do) -if you‟re basic needs are fulfilled, you will have other needssecurity (auxiliaries) and leaders (philosopher kings) [aux. & phi.k = guardians] -there is aristocracy since for Plato leaders are born not made Myth of the Metal – gold, silver, bronze/iron soul -it tells us that we all came from mother earth -we may come from the same origin but we have differences (skills) -technically, there is equality in determining if where you will “be.” So how will you know? through education Guardians – not allowed to own anything, communal (but not communism), should not enjoy any luxuries *goal of the city-state is to achieve the greatest possible happiness for the community as a whole *justice (in the state) as a virtue requires: wisdom, courage and temperance 1. Wisdom: (for the philosopher kings only) doing what is right from wrong, use of knowledge 2. Courage: knowing what to fear & not to fear (auxiliaries) 3. Temperance: moderation, restraint, everyone should have it Soul is consists of: (justice in the individual) 1. Reason 2. Appetite (the strongest) 3. Spirit – the one that pushes you to do the right thing *reason and spirit must come together to control the appetite *Plato believes that this is attainable through school -- the dialogue focused on the importance of education 3 waves of opposition (reforms needed to rehabilitate the city-state) 1. equality bet. men & women – women should be educated too 2. abolish property & family of the guardians 3. philosophers must be kings – power and wisdom must be tied together

Education of the Guardians 1. Starts with elementary education -up to 18 yrs. old -focus on: gymnastics (body) & music (soul; disciplines passion, brings impulses under control) -includes reading poetries except Homer‟s & other mythical gods -> presence of violence = censorship 2. Followed by compulsory 2 yrs. education -gymnastics & military service -there will be 1st selection: the “chosen few” will pursue higher education (2nd selection: study mathematics; for 10 yrs.) -at age 30, it will be determined whether you‟re a philosopher king or auxiliary 3. Additioanal 5 yrs. to the chosen ones (3rd selection) -study philosophy & morality -if not selected (to be philo. king) = adviser 4 Levels of Cognition: 1. Imagination – archaedia (?) - everybody has this for Plato - believe in the shadows (that it‟s real) 2. Belief – tistis (?) -able to distinguish/differentiate the shadow & the object -you are able to have a correct opinion -this is still in the world of appearances since you “see” it (sense of sight is used) *in order to go to the 3rd & 4th stage, you need a bridge and that is education (you‟ll be able to go beyond the senses  intelligible world: 3rd & 4th) 3. Level of Thought – dianola (?) -if you think in mathematical terms (through diagrams & models) -even if they‟re representations, you don‟t really see it but you understand -abstract reality: there‟s a world of forms beyond what we see -what makes thing a thing is not because of appearances but functions (ex. chair) 4. Intelligence -you now have dialectal inquiry -you question/subject them to inquiry; you verify -you produce new knowledge through verifying the assumptions/hypotheses -it‟s not that you don‟t have a trust (your friends will never test your loyalty/trust) Allegory of the Cave -people were chained inside a cave watching shadows -one person found himself able to move, he explored the cave, went outside uphill, dazzled by the sun; he went back to the cave since he sympathized with the remaining people & tried to free them, they didn‟t believe him *it depicts the life of Socrates (philosopher king) -being a king is given by nature (reason why that person was suddenly able to move) -the climbing uphill was the 35 yrs. of education -outside was the way of the philosopher king -the reaction of the people to that person was the same reaction of Athens to Socrates

ARISTOTLE (348 – 322 B.C.) – POLITICS *I was absent for two meetings (or one?). Dang =( Points: *Human beings are social beings: we always relate to others, someone alone is not normal in a broad sense *Human beings are also political beings: if you combine two entities, there‟s always the relationship of the dominant & the less dominant (associations  authority) *Since human beings are the only ones with reason, we would know what is good & bad, therefore we‟re the only ones with sense of justice (there‟s a concept of moral being)  so you are obligated to participate in the polis – to do what is good *If you are to choose a leader, don‟t based it on looks but based it on goodness *natural life is life of justice, so you have to be part of the polis for you to be called a human being Why justice? – you are responsible to fulfill your purpose *flourish as a human being – ideal; self-development

-if you follow the law good man – exercises his virtue, has absolute goodness; not necessarily a good citizen *being a good man & a good citizen is impossible *it is only within the state that you will develop ethical values (being a good citizen is translated; in every associations there will always be the one/s who will rule) *what differentiates the state is the form of ruling -household rule is natural for Aristotle (man & woman) -the difference of political rule is it‟s not natural since there is consent involve (therefore there is rational persuasion) *humans can only develop rationally if he involves in political activities Friendship – “philia” (mutual) -you need something from them (lowest king) -you see something in common (pleasure) -you see something in them you don‟t have (you want to emulate) *polis is held together by mutual economic advantages & “friendship” *whatever the virtues the polis have, that‟s the same virtues that will develop among its citizens Classification of Political Constitution Who should rule? (the answer is “distributive justice”) 2 arguments: 1. ruling part – for who are you ruling? *ideal: ruling for “others” (interest of his subject = common good) *x: ruling for themselves (own interest) 2. Aside for whom, identify how many are the members Types of Constitutions # of rulers 1 monarchy Others (good)

self

few aristocracy

tyranny

oligarchy

many Polity (best/ideal) *statesmanship is practiced here; also the virtues Democracy (perverted)

-Citizen -somebody born on that place, with parents that have connections -defined by holding public offices *problem: when can you say that a decision is an act of state & not just an act of one person/leader *constitution depends on the nature of governing class/elite (able/to impose/enforce its values on society) *Aristotle focused on oligarchy and democracy *for him, revolution is if the existing constitution is replaced (way of life) *basis of leadership is not on the members alone Bases who will be the leader: 1. wealth 2. nobility of birth 3. goodness of character *the state must encourage to an end – goodness *the polis must pursue goodness & just *Aristotle is a realist – he analyzed first what was happening, the good & the bad, then gave solutions *Plato is an idealist Friendship in the Constitutions 1. Kingship/Monarchy – father & son 2. Aristocracy – husband & wife 3. Tyranny – master & slave 4. Democracy – distorted friendship *no such thing as absolute equality - elementary associations

*obligations of the state: to make sure there is enough resources, provide basic needs & security *polis makes it possible for human beings to live a good life *the moral laws of the different states are the concept of “political justice” *Aristotle used the state since for him you will see justice in the state unlike Plato that only discussed the state because of his concept of justice *whatever your nature is, you have to flourish that ex. slave – he should flourish himself as the perfect slave What is a good citizen? -varies on what society you‟re living in -for Aristotle, a good citizen is not necessarily a good man -be a productive member of the society

Polity – the best constitution - a truly happy life is a life of goodness - here you will get the mean (middle) of goodness - you should get the rulers from the middle class - the mean is always the best because it is attainable for everyone

ST. AUGUSTINE (354 – 430) – THE CITY OF GOD *background: 2 opposing power: senate & army * polis – in a decline during Aristotle‟s time *Roman Empire – in a decline during St. Augustine‟s -why the fall? 410 A.D., the rise of Christianity was the star of the fall *413 – 426 A.D. duration of writing the book

1st Ten Books: City of God -about defense of Christianity against the allegations -apology of Christianity for Christianity

*the state has positive functions; that you do not need to die; humans can still realize their nature, even while engaging in politics *St. Thomas Christianized Aristotle, help the Church to be more grounded

3 Points: 1. Christianity like the pagan religions is teaching the same things – same virtues. -not just about Christianity, also about the other religions -Christianity does not hinder community/state service 2. It is not the rise of Christianity that cause the fall of the Roman Empire but the decadence of pagan religions -the pagans were no longer giving what is due to their gods -pagan gods are jealous gods 3. Rome was no longer a city when it fell -Rome was no longer just -Background of Christianity -rise = interest to Jesus ( a Jew) -different from the Greek & Roman gods & goddesses -at that time, they believed that the world is about to end, so they preach the good news that through Christianity they will be saved -since those who attend the honoring of the emperor are declining, they blamed it to Christianity -Christianity did not acknowledge the divinity of the empire -all the bad things happening to the empire, Christianity was blamed (during Nero‟s time) -200-300 A.D. Roman Empire – there was government reconstruction; Rome was divided into Latin & Greek (Western & Eastern Part) -Constantine constructed a new capital – Constantinople (now Istanbul); somehow Christianity was “protected;” Constantine was baptized when he was about to die (considered the 1st Christian Emperor) -last emperor Augustus (Western part left) -529 A.D. Roman Catholic Church officially closed the Academy -Edict of Milan: came as Christianity -chaos is everywhere during that time so everyone turn to the church (burning of the Academy was symbolic; monopoly of knowledge) -since Christianity has gotten big, there was internal conflict -Nicene Creed: 381 A.D.; summary of what you should believe in

Human Nature *What makes you human?  reason *cultivate reason – ultimate indicator of humanness *how do we realize our nature? -we can only be rational by being with other rational beings; through social interactions (predisposed to live with one another) Nature-purpose, potential, end-point (Aristotle: human nature is something we aspire to develop) Human Beings are: St. Thomas Aristotle *Social animal; also political *human beings are political animal *at first social then becomes political *unnatural for humans to rule over one *not unnatural another *humans by nature are social (we are not self-sufficient) *the state is natural Ways of Democracy: elections, draw lots, rotation -*the Church was panicking since there‟s conflict bet. faith & reason (you need reason) *what St. Thomas did: claim in faith + claim in law = synthesis *he was trying to reconcile reason & revelation *Theology due to St. Thomas *Christianity needed Plato to be born, but needed Aristotle to survive

*City of God has 22 books; 1st ten books: defense of Christianity 2nd Half *Accdg. to God, if you will love Him, it‟s because of your own will – free will *first rebellion of humans: disobedience; eating of the forbidden fruit; weakness was introduced – original sin -rebellion against their status; infected everyone – we became arrogant, self-centered *human nature = sinful *therefore, St. Augustine believes that we‟re always in a predicament: predispose to do wrong/commit sin *because of original sin, we find it difficult to do what is right; 3 results: 1. Political Dominion (State) – rule of men over men *but helps not to commit sin (state laws) *also considered as partial remedy 2. Private Property 3. Slavery *no one is exempt from punishment that God gave to those who are bad *the only way to be saved is through God Doctrine of Pre-Destination -controversial; God as omnipotent -God already knows where you are going: hell or heaven City of God – heavenly city city of man – earthly city *How do you know where you belong? Even if you know it‟s hard. – Community of followers of God & worshippers End of City of God: enjoy eternal life & peace w/ God End of city of man: you do what you want even though you sin; glory for man: earthly peace *difference is vices & virtues *what excludes for becoming members of city of God is sin *there is no city of God on earth – not even the Church *for St. Augustine, the government/the state is not natural, it‟s a product of sin, only made since humans are inclined to sin; function is antithesis to its origin *for him, don‟t engage in politics *I was absent the next meeting =(

ST. THOMAS AQUINAS (1224 – 1274) – Summa Theologica and On Kingship *Summa Theologica – law

*for Aristotle, happiness is living a life of virtue *for St. Thomas, happiness is salvation of the soul *there is no conflict bet. philosophy & reason, supplementary to each other *if for St. Augustine, state is to prevent us to sin, state exists to scare us so it‟s unnatural; against in man ruling one another; state is a monster; monastic life *but for St. Thomas, the state is natural even if we‟re all angels; so even if Adam & Eve did not commit sin, we still need the state since accident happens; even if your intentions are good, it may still harm other people as long as human interacts; state is empowering; not every time monastic life *Aristotle – everything that‟s natural is good Functions of State: 1. To provide for external & internal peace & order -Why does it have to come from the state? = to have even (equal) peace & security, not just the elites etc. 2. To promote the moral well-being of the citizen -only as far as it can be done through laws -your law will make the kind of citizens you want -back-up by sanctions -carrot & stick approach 3. To ensure that there‟s an adequate supply of material necessities -not doted so the citizens won‟t be dependent *if done & have the 3, potentials & virtues will be realized (you‟re responsible for your citizen & fellow) *for St. Thomas, society, government 7 law can all help in human development *secular authority is not a threat, it has + advantages *the state exist to provide the environment for the life that is founded to cultivate relationship with God Why due law is important? -intended to attain the common good (welfare of the entire community) What is law? - an order based on right reason for the common good, made by those in charge of the community, promulgated, backed by a system of sanctions 4 Types of Laws (to show there‟s no conflict bet. reason & faith) 1. Eternal Law -made by the creator; doctrine of the pre-destination understood only by God; created to rule the universe; for everything -we cannot understand this since this is beyond human reason (divine reason) 2. Natural Law -kind of law humans can perceive -because we are given reason, we can perceive orders by God through nature -the right reason of man -based on participation of eternal law in rationality of man -assumption is that it can guide human beings, society & political order (since human has the capacity to grasp truth from nature through reason; but still what we perceive have differences sue to different experiences) 3. Divine Law -10 commandments -directs human beings to our supernatural ends - reconciles the conflicting laws human have 4. Human Law -adopted the natural & divine law

-trying to apply & enforce natural law -important since it addresses particular problems the human beings experienced -practical application of natural & divine law -tries to direct our human actions -if it does not conform the natural & eternal law, it si distorted/perverted *importance of human development: you can help your fellowmen *the state exists to provide the conditions for good life ON KINGSHIP *functions of state & what your leader should be *believes that the best kind of government is monarchy why? – if you emulate God, that could be good -worst kind of government is tyranny – violates all types of law -still subjected to the priests since they know the laws & rules) -aim is to attain peace -one individual is much more capable of ruling than 2 or 3, why: divine universe – there is only one ruler) -monarchy is the best but hard to implement since it has the tendency to become tyrant

2. citizen army – recruit army from your own citizens; loyalty since they identify with the prince (assumption) 3. ? (I fell asleep -_-) 2. you must have the ability to fight as a man & as a beast *as a man – follow the rules; not always efficient *as a beast – physical ability; be like the lion (feared by all) & fox (witty & cunning) *learn to use force & fraud 3. the possession of the apparent possession of good qualities *to actually possess them is a disadvantage *only appear to be benevolent, not necessary to have it

*Aristotle: double capacity – knows to follow & knows to rule (copied by St. Thomas)

4. it’s better to be feared than to be loved, if you can’t have both *why? love is a weak bond that can be easily broken if it‟s not to your interest *fear, it is not founded on any self-interest; founded on apprehension of punishment; always work *caution if you‟re feared, make sure you are not hated; the moment you become hated, people will revolt prevent by: do not touch their property, includes women; don‟t increase taxes without their consent

*”right to resist” – doctrine of tyrannicide -worst of tyrant – kill by a representative of the people (sense of legitimacy & for the common good) -if humans can‟t get rid of the tyrant: God will make sure & pray for the tyrant

why do you need the people? *the elites know everything about you *the people are busy, easily swayed by appearances *easily sway the majority; they do not ask a lot of things

*state is independent from the church (spiritual matters)

5. you should be good at timing *give punishments immediately & give benefits gradually

Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)– The Prince

6. virtu vs. fortuna *fortuna: either bad or good; you cannot rely on things you can‟t control *virtu: good qualities – strength, power, honor; can predict the outcome, control

*Machiavelli was talking only about the leader as a ruler of the state; first realist, saw the world the way it was; cunning, ruthless, deceiving; *politics – currency is power *The Prince – a pamphlet; handbook on practical knowledge of statecraft *so revolutionary & shocking *M. was modern thinker at that time; objectively approach the state – scientific approach to statecraft *managing the state could be learned *state is not art; it‟s simple to lead – look at the history, look at the stories, emulate, done *if you are a student of politics, if you want to be a good leader, look at history *M.‟s view of human nature: predictable, we are all ego-centric, self-interested; selfish, undependable, cowardly, deceivable 1st part: how different parts of the state can be governed; all city-states are only of 2 kinds: 1. The Republics – people themselves/representatives are leaders 2. Principalities – ruler is the prince; tools needed to govern it: an army & virtu (?) – skills as a person rather than good fortune 3 types of municipalities: 1. old – the prince/ruler is a descendant of the previous (inherit); easiest to govern; tells you that the system works; maintain 2. new – most difficult; you conquered them; 2 options: either remove/kill all people on that area, or you colonized them (put your own people to „interbreed”); inflict all cruelties, be the worst but over time give them benefits 3. mixed – you are a new prince, conquer a new state; hard to maintain; the act of you becoming a prince already offended them; do you have the same language/culture? maintain in 2 steps: 1. kill the family of existing ruler. why? so nobody will revenge on you 2. shouldn‟t change the laws or taxes.. thinking? doesn‟‟t matter who the prince is, comfort is there *what if different language/culture? – colonized them, treat as new (no. 2^) *Machiavelli doesn‟t make politics with ethics; governments are judged based on power *end of state: to acquire, maintain & expand political power *epitome of separation of church and state *M was amoral – a person who does not based on ethical conduct *politics is governed by conflict; politics vs. ethics “The end justifies the means” *talking about politics *if a ruler contrives to empower the state, then the means he used will be judged *if the state‟s power is protected, the mean is justified *as long as the interest of the state is promoted, whatever the action taken will be justified Qualities how to be a successful prince: 1. concentrate on the study of war 3 types of army: 1. mercenaries – work for you as long as you pay them; their loyalty is not to you

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