RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 1. Carrying out an organized inquiry is called Research 2. Logical reasoning process used in research is important to - Draw inferences 3. Research really begins when the researcher experiences Confusion 4. Observable experience in research is also called as _ Empirical evidence 5. “The assignment of numbers to represent properties” is a definition related to - Measurement 6. Stability means - Consistency 7. Construct validity will be developed by the researcher based on _ Theoretical reasoning 8. When ranks are assigned to objects based on their properties or characteristics then the level of measurement is described as Ordinal measurement 9. Delhi’s temperature in the last 2 days was less than 10 degrees compared to Chandigarh’s which was 12 degrees. This kind of study uses which level of measurement? Interval 10. Testing of hypothesis means to tell whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid. 11.From which of these a research problem could be identified? Advertisements 12. When the respondent is given enough time and opportunity to answer questions given in a questionnaire, then such type of questionnaire is called as - Unstructured 13. LS design This is used in agricultural research. 14. “F” tests and “t” tests are used in which level of measurement? Interval 15. Collecting sample units in a ‘hit and miss’ style is applicable in which of the following sampling methods? Convenience sampling 16. Formularize research is also called as Exploratory research 17. In ANOVA, V stands for - Variance 18. A distribution of respondents based on their age group is represented in what type of frequency distribution table? One-way table 19. Length, weight and height are considered as - Physical characteristics 20. The most commonly used statistical average is - Arithmetic average 21. When petrol price is increased, inflation rate is expected to rise - this could be an example depicting Cause and effect relationship 22. Coefficient of correlation is indicated by the letter - ‘r’ 23. These are the examples of secondary data - Statistical survey reports, Government publications, trade journals 24. When there is correlation between any 2 variable then it is Simple correlation 25. To calculate ---- data should be arranged according to ascending order. Median 26. Since Mail surveys are more impersonal they provide more anonymity 27. Who introduced standard deviation in statistics? Karl Pearson 28. __ Data is readily available. Secondary 29.When the characteristic of a measurement level is having no order or distance or origin, then it is ____________ level of measurement. Nominal 30. How many quartiles are there? 3 31. A value which is most repeated in a distribution is Mode 1
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 32. The mid-point of a particular class interval say 25-35 is - 30 33. Null Hypothesis is denoted by - H0 34. A good measurement scale should follow Straight line model. 35. Scatter plots and Stock plots are examples for - Graphs 36) Ethics in a research context refers to “the appropriateness of your behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of your work, or are affected by it.” This is applicable to you when you are Researcher 37) In this type of level of measurement, there is no quantitative value as it doesn’t have the characteristics of order, distance and origin. This level of measurement is - Nominal 38) In Hypothesis testing, the level of significance is usually chosen at 05% 39) Which of the following is an example for continuous variable? Temperature of a city 40) Which of these statements is true a measuring instrument that is valid is always reliable? 41. Following are the bases upon which measurement can be classified Distance and Origin 42) Identify from the following, the class interval which is considered appropriate in a frequency distribution - 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, and 31-40 43) Which of these could be an example for pure research? Newton’s law and Einstein’s theory of relativity 44) The two type of Content Validity are – Face validity and Sampling validity 45) Name the two type statistical techniques that are applicable in Ordinal measurement. Median and Coefficient of rank order correlation 46) identify the true and false statements a. Mail surveys are less expensive than personal interviews. T b. Mail surveys are subject to interview’s bias. F 47) Type II error occurs when - H0 is false and is accepted 48) If A’s savings is `5000, B’s savings is `10000 and C’s savings is `30000, then their average savings is `15000 49) A person having a Critical and imaginative mind and who is also sensitive to practical problems could easily identify a research problem for study. 50) Co-efficient of range is obtained by the following formula - (H – L) / (H + L) 51) Non-parametric tests usually assume __________ data. Original 52) Identify the correct statement from the following – Research design has to be kept within manageable limits. 53) The scientific method involving a systematic step-by-step procedure following logical processes of reasoning is called Research 54) What are the internal criteria for a female researcher in order to formulate a problem? 1. Her interest 2. Her competence 3. Her expectations 4. Her importance 5. Her feasibility 6. Her resources B. 1, 2, 6 55) Which are the two most important parametric tests? T-test and z-test 2
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 56) While defining a problem, the next steps in the process after developing a title are – A. Building a conceptual model and defining the study objectives 57) Mention the two rights of respondents with respect to privacy Right not to participate in any research study and Right to participate beyond a certain limit 58) When a null hypothesis stating that “Average test score of Gautham Gambhir is 88.25 runs” is accepted, then it is - True 59) A conjectural statement of the relationship between the two or more variables is defined as – Hypothesis 60) Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs out of which 2 are Principle of replication and Principle of randomization 61) identify the characteristics of research – 1. Systematic 2. Controlled 3. Rigid 4. Empirical 5. Elastic C. 1, 2, 4 62) Which type of data is described here? Primary 1. It is expensive to obtain 2. It is time consuming 3. It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled 4. It is difficult to administer 63) match the following types of research with its example or meaning – 1. Applied research - Finds solutions to real-life problems or situations 2. Action research - Type of evaluation study 3. Descriptive research - Provides factual information for investigation 4. Diagnostic research - Tests the relationship between variables 64) match the types of sampling methods with its feature – 1. Simple random sampling - Each element has an equal chance of being selected 2. Stratified random sampling - Increases sample’s statistical efficiency 3. Cluster sampling - Useful in socio-economic surveys 4. Multi-stage sampling - Estimating sampling error is complicate 65) identify the characteristics of a good hypothesis 1. Simplicity 2. Acceptability 3. Objectivity 4. Clarity 5. Durability 6. Flexibility C. 1, 3, 4 66) Identify and arrange the steps to be followed in research design 1. Designing the methods of data collection 2. Selecting the sample 3. Collecting the data 4. Formulating the objective of the study 5. Reporting the findings 6. Processing and analyzing the data B. 4, 1, 2, 3, 6, 5 67) match the types of reports with its guidelines – 1. Popular report - More headlines and graphs can be used 2. Interim report -Provides what was done so far and its outcome 3. Summary report- Written in non-technical and simple language 4. Technical report - Contains all details as it is comprehensive
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 68) Mr. Mukesh had analysed and processed some statistical data which now he wants to put in a tabular format. What should he include in the Heading while preparing this table? Designation of units 69) Which type of sampling is discussed here? 1. It is used when it is not important to study the sampling units’ overall representativeness to the population 2. It is less costly and more convenient as it guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample 3. It requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics. 4. It is also called as purposive sampling B. Judgment sampling 70) match the following research designs with its perspective or through which the study is viewed – 1. Descriptive Nature -of relationship between variables 2. Exploratory Degree- of formulation of the problem 3. Observational Mode -of data collection 4. Case method -Scope of the topic and depth of the study
71) Identify the true and false statements regarding Observation method – 1. Observation method poses difficulties in understanding events. 2. It is slow and expensive process that needs constant technological inputs. 3. Observer has to be present at the scene of the event when it takes place. 4. Observer has to wait for the event to happen and be able to tell where and when exactly it takes place. B. 1 is true and 2, 3, 4 is false 72) identify the correct and incorrect rules for graphical representation of data from the following 1. Title of the chart should be placed below it. 2. Each curve or bar should be numbered. 3. Only grey shades to be used in case of more curves or bars 4. They should precede the textual content 5. Measurements should be indicated from left to right in a horizontal line 6. For vertical lines, measurements should be from top to bottom. A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 is incorrect 73) In a research study, it was revealed that 40% of students did not use the learning resources provided to them while another 28% complained that they didn’t get adequate resources. Based on these results, the researcher cannot assume that remaining 32% don’t care to use the resources or its availability. What would be the responsibility of the researcher in this situation? D. Find out the actual opinions and views of the 32% of students 74) What are the requisites of a good and successful presentation? 1. Communicate to a specific audience 2. Communicate to all respondents 2. Structure the presentation 3. Advertise research expertise 4· Be elaborate on the research complexities 5· Address validity and reliability issues 4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 6. Involve other researchers to carry out the presentation B. 1, 2, 5 75) From the below, identify the criteria for constructing hypothesis – 1. It should be specific and precise 2. It should describe at least 2 issues 3. It must be empirically testable 4. It must have contradictory statements 5. It must indicate the relationship between variables A. 1, 2 Unit: 1 1. Arbitrary (or unscientific) Method: It’s a method of seeking answers to question consists of imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression. 2. Young defines Research as “a scientific undertaking which, by means of logical and systematic techniques”. 3. Kerlinger defines research as a “systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”. 4. Research is a scientific Endeavour. 5. The scientific method is based on certain “articles of faith. 6. Ethical Neutrality: “Science never imposes anything, science states. Science aims at nothing but making true and adequate statements about its object.” 7. Pure Research: It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e.g., Einstein’s theory of relativity, Newton’s contributions, Galileo’s contribution, etc 8. Applied Research: It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. 9. Exploratory Research: It is also known as formularize research. 10. Descriptive Study: It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simples type of research. 11.Diagnostic Study: It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. 12.Evaluation Studies: It is a type of applied research. 13.Action Research: It is a type of evaluation study. 14.It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme, initiation of organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process, and post experimental evaluation. 15.According to a famous Hudson Maxim, “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”. 16.Research is a repetitive search. T 17.Applied research gives a solution to problem. T 18.Scientific method is systematic. T 5
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 19.Objectivity is not required for all types of research. F 20. Pure research is not fundamental research. F 21. The scientific method is based on certain “articles of faith.” These are: 1. Reliance on empirical evidence: 2. Use of relevant concepts 3. Commitment of objectivity 4. Ethical neutrality 5. Generalization 6. Verifiability 7. Logical reasoning process UNIT: 2 1. According to Stevens, measurement is “the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules.” 2. Campbell defines measurement as “the assignment of numbers to represent properties.” 3. In the words of Torgerson, measurement is “the assignment of numbers to objects to represent amounts or degrees of a property possessed by the entire object. 4. Measurement may be classified into four different levels, based on the characteristics of order, distance and origin. • Nominal measurement • Ordinal measurement • Interval measurement • Ratio measurement
5. There are two dimensions of reliability – stability and equivalence or nonvariability. 6. Reliability can be improved in three ways – 7. 1) By reducing the external sources of variation. This in turn can be achieved by standardizing the conditions under which measurement is carried out, by employing trained investigators and by providing standard instructions. 2) By making the measuring instrument more consistent internally, through an analysis of the different items 3) By adding more number of items to the measuring instrument, in order to increase the probability of more accurate measurement. 8. Research is concerned with the measurement of objects. F 9. A person’s emotions may be directly observed. F 6
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 10. Linearity means that the measuring scale should not measure more than one characteristic at a time. F 11. The problem of extraneous variables arises in the case of construct validity. F 12. Validity is determined mainly by predictive validity. F 13. the most powerful level of measurement is ratio measurement. T 14. Validity and reliability do not always go together. T 15. Different research situations require different levels of reliability. T UNIT: 3 1. R. L. Ackoffs analysis affords considerable guidance in identifying problem for research. 2. five components of a problem: • Research-consumer • Research-consumer’s Objectives • Alternative Means to Meet the Objectives • Doubt in Regard to Selection of Alternatives • There must be One or More Environments to which the Difficulty or Problem Pertains. 3. Formulating the Problem: a. internal criteria: • researchers interest • researchers competence • researchers own resource b. external criteria: • research ability of problem • importance and urgency • novelty of the problem • feasibility • facilities • usefulness and social relevance • research personnel 4. The process of defining a problem includes: • Developing title • Building a conceptual model • Define the Objective of the Study 5. Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research: a. Verifiable evidence b. Accuracy c. Precision d. Systematization e. Objectivity f. Recording g. Controlling conditions 6. Selection of problems is the first step in research. 7. Journals are sources of problems of research problems. 8. Internal criteria of research problem consist of researcher's interest and competence. 7
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 UNIT: 4 1. According to Theodor son and Theodor son, “a hypothesis is a tentative statement asserting relationship between certain facts. Kerlinger describes it as “a conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more variables”. 2. Black and Champion have described it as “a tentative statement about something, the validity of which is usually unknown”. 3. Characteristics of Good Hypothesis : a. Conceptual Clarity b. Specificity c. Testability d. Availability of Techniques e. Theoretical relevance f. Consistency g. Objectivity h. Simplicity 4. Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha 5.
6. In case we take the significance level at 5%, then this implies that H0 will be rejected when the sampling result (i.e., observed evidence) has a less than 0.05 probability of occurring if H0 is true. 7.
8. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if, say, the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypnotized value of the mean of the population. 9. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to 10.test, say, whether the population mean in either lower than or higher than some hypothesized value. 11. The factors that affect the level of significance are: a. The magnitude of the difference between sample ; b. The size of the sample; 8
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 c. The variability of measurements within samples; d. Whether the hypothesis is directional or non – directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between, say, means). In brief, the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry. 12.Z-test is based on the normal probability distribution and is used for judging the significance of several statistical measures. 13.T-test is based on t-distribution and is considered an appropriate test for judging the significance of sample mean or for judging significance of difference between the two means of the two samples in case of samples when population variance is not known (in which case we use variance of the sample as an estimate the population variance). 14.X2-test is based on chi-square distribution and as a parametric test is used for comparing a sample variance to a theoretical population variance is unknown. 15.F-test is based on f-distribution and is used to compare the variance of the two-independent samples. This test is also used in the context of variance (ANOVA) for judging the significance of more than two sample means at one and the same time. 16.Null is a positive statement. 17. Type II error is accepting a statement that is false. 18. Hypothesis is tentative statement.
Unit: 5 1. Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe, “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. 2. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. 3. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable, when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. 4. Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. In the example considered, the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. 5. There are a number of crucial research choices, various writers advance different classification schemes, some of which are: 1. Experimental, historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association). 2. Exploratory, descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz, Jahoda, Deutsch and Cook). 3. Experimental and expost fact (Kerlinger) 4. Historical method, and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) 5. Sample surveys, field studies, experiments in field settings, and laboratory experiments (Festinger and Katz) 9
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 6. Exploratory, descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) 7. Exploratory, descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) 8. Experimental, „quasi-experimental designs‟ (Nachmias and Nachmias) 9. True experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). 10. Experimental, pre-experimental, quasi-experimental designs and Survey Research (Kidder and Judd). hose different categorizations exist, because „research design‟ is a complex concept. In fact, there are different perspectives from which any ven study can be viewed. They are: 1. The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized) 2. The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study (a case or a statistical study) 3. The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey, laboratory experiment) 4. The time dimension (one-time or longitudinal) 5. The mode of data collection (observational or survey) 6. The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost factor) 7. The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal) 6. Three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about: a. The survey of concerning literature b. Experience survey c. Analyses of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples are 7. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies: 1. Formulating the objective of the study 2. Designing the methods of data collection 3. Selecting the sample 4. Collecting the data 5. Processing and analyzing the data 6. Reporting the findings. 8. Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs: 1. The principle of replication 2. The principle of randomization 3. Principle of local control 9. Formal Experimental Designs: 1. Completely randomized design (CR design): It involves only two principle viz., the principle of replication and randomization. 2. Randomized block design (RB design): It is an improvement over the C Research design. In the RB design the principle of local control can be applied along with the other two principles. 3. Latin square design (LS design): It is used in agricultural research. The treatments in a LS design are so allocated among the plots that no treatment occurs more than once in any row or column. 4. Factorial design: It is used in experiments where the effects of varying more than one factor are to be determined. They are especially important in several economic and social phenomena where usually a large number of factors affect a particular problem. 10. A research design is a logical and systematic plan. T 10
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 11. Exploratory research studies are also called formularize research studies. T 12. Descriptive research is concerned with describing the features of a particular individual or group. T 13. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. Unit: 6 1. Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit or entity, be it a person, a family, an institution or a community. The aim of case study method is to locate or identify the factors that account for the behavior patterns of a given unit, and its relationship with the environment. 2. The major credit for introducing case study method into social investigation goes to Frederick Leplay. Herbert Spencer was the first social philosopher who used case study in comparative studies of different cultures. William Healey used case study in his study of juvenile delinquency. Anthropologists and ethnologists have liberally utilized cast study in the systematic description of primitive cultures. 3. Case study of particular value when a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities. 4. Blummer points out that independently, the case documents hardly fill the criteria of reliability, adequacy and representativeness, 5. John Dollard has proposed seven criteria for evaluating such adequacy as follows: a. The subject must be viewed as a specimen in a cultural series b. The organic motto of action must be socially relevant. c. The strategic role of the family group in transmitting the culture must be recognized. d. The specific method of elaboration of organic material onto social behavior must be clearly shown e. The continuous related character of experience for childhood through adulthood must be stressed f. Social situation must be carefully and continuously specified as a factor. g. The life history material itself must be organized according to some conceptual framework, this in turn would facilitate generalizations at a higher level. 6. The exploratory investigator is best served by the active curiosity and willingness to deviate from the initial plan, when the finding suggests new courses of enquiry, might prove more productive. 7. Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit. T 8. Case study of not particular value when a complex set of variables may be at work. F 9. In-depth analysis of selected cases is not of particular value to business research. F UNIT: 7
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 1. Simple random sampling technique( homogeneous) gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected. An equal chance means equal probability of selection. 2. Stratified random sampling is an improved type of random or probability sampling. In this method, the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata, and from each stratum, random sample is drawn. 3. Proportionate stratified sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in proportion to the latter’s share in the total population. 4. Disproportionate stratified random sampling does not give proportionate representation to strata. 5. Systematic random sampling method is an alternative to random selection. It consists of taking k th item in the population after a random start with an item from 1 to k. It is also known as fixed interval method. 6. Cluster sampling means random selection of sampling units consisting of population elements. 7. In Area sampling larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific geographical areas like districts, taluks, villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. 8. Multi-stage sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. 9. Double sampling and multiphase sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. 10.Replicated or interpenetrating sampling involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population. 11.Non-probability or non random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element. 12.Purposive (or judgment) sampling method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined criteria. This is also known as judgment sampling. 13.Quota sampling is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex, age, social class, etc. it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. 14.Snow-ball sampling is the colorful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants. 15.Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. It is also known as random sampling. It provides a known non-zero chance of selection for each population element. 16.A sample must be representative of the population. 17. Probability sampling technique yield representative sample. 18. accuracy is defined as the degree to which bias is absent from the sample. An accurate sample is the one which exactly represents the population. 12
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 19.Precision is measured by standard error. 20. A good sample must be adequate in size in order to be reliable. A part of the population is known as sample. The method consisting of the selecting for study, a portion of the ‘universe’ with a view to draw conclusions about the ‘universe’ or ‘population’ is known as sampling. 21.Sampling helps in time and cost saving. 22.Sampling has the following advantages: a. The size of the population b. Amount of funds budgeted for the study c. Facilities d. Time 23.The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: a. Purpose of the Survey b. Measurability c. Degree of Precision d. Information about Population e. The Nature of the Population f. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population g. Financial resources h. Time Limitation i. Economy 24.The characteristics of a good sample a. Representativeness b. population c. Accuracy a d. Precision e. Size 25.Sampling techniques or methods may be classified into two generic types: a. Probability or Random Sampling: Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. It is also known as random sampling. It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. b. The following are the types of probability sampling: i) Simple Random Sampling ii) Stratified Random Sampling: a. Proportionate stratified sampling, b. Disproportionate stratified random sampling iii) Systematic Random Sampling 26.probability Proportional to size (PPS) Unit: 8 1. The search for answers to research questions is called collection of data. Data are facts, and other relevant materials, past and present, serving as bases for study and analyses. 2. The data needed for a social science research may be broadly classified into (a) Data pertaining to human beings, 13
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 (b) Data relating to organization and (c) Data pertaining to territorial areas. 3. Personal data or data related to human beings consist of: a. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age, sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation income, family size, location of the household life style etc. b. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc. c. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth. d. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talluks, districts, state and the nation. 3. The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources and (b) secondary sources. 4. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. 5. a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are (a) observation, (b) interviewing, (c) mail survey, (d) experimentation, (e) simulation and (f) projective technique. 6. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. 7. Evaluation of Secondary Data a. Data Pertinence b. Data Quality c. Data Completeness 8. The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources and (b) secondary sources. T 9. Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc. T 10.The secondary sources consist of readily compendia and already complied statistical statements and reports. T 11.The important methods are observation, (b) interviewing, (c) mail survey, (d) experimentation, (e) simulation and projective technique. T UNIT: 9 1. Observation means viewing or seeing. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. Observation is classical method of scientific study. 2. Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics: a. It is both a physical and a mental activity b. Observation is selective c. Observation is purposive and not casual d. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools 14
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 3. process of observations: a. First, the researcher should carefully examine the relevance of observation method to the data needs of the selected study. b. Second, he must identify the specific investigative questions which call for use of observation method c. Third, he must decide the observation content, viz., specific conditions, events and activities that have to be observed for the required data. The observation content should include the relevant variables. d. Fourth, for each variable chosen, the operational definition should be specified. e. Fifth, the observation setting, the subjects to be observed, the timing and mode of observation, recording, procedure, recording instruments to be used, and other details of the task should be determined. f. Last, observers should be selected and trained . 4. Observations may be classified in different ways. With reference to investigator’s role, it may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. In terms of mode of observation, it may be classified into (c) direct observation. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation, and (f) uncontrolled observation. 5. Observations may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. T 6. In terms of mode of observation, it may be classified into (c) direct observation. T 7. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation, and (f) uncontrolled observation. T 8. Observation involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. T UNIT: 10 1. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. It should preferably contain mostly closed-end and multiple choice questions so that it could be completed within a few minutes. 2. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered. 3. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent. 4. Questionnaires may be classified as: a. Structured/ Standardized Questionnaire b. Unstructured Questionnaire
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 5. A covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. Exhibit 7.1 is a copy of a covering letter used by the author in a research study on ‘corporate planning’. 6. some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents. They are: (1) personal delivery, (2) attaching questionnaire to a product (3) advertising questionnaire in a newspaper of magazine, and (4) news stand insets. 7. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. They are: a. Quality Printing b. Covering Letter c. Advance Information d. Incentives e. Follow-up-contacts f. Larger sample size: 8. The disadvantages of mail surveys are: a. The scope for mail surveys is very limited in a country like India where the percentage of literacy is very low. b. The response rate of mail surveys is low. Hence, the resulting sample will not be a representative one. 9. Mail survey can cover extensive geographical areas. 10. Mail surveys, being more impersonal, provide more anonymity than personal interviews. 11. Mail surveys are totally free from the interviewers bias as there is no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator.
Unit: 11 Greatest drawback of interview method is that it is costly both in money and time. T Greatest value of the interview method is the depth and detail of information that can be secured. T 3. The interviewer cannot do more to improve the percentage of responses and the quality information received than other method. F 4. One limitation of interview method is that it is not possible for interviewer to use special scoring devices, visual materials and the like in order to improve the quality of interviewing. F 5. Match the following a. Advantages of group interview: Respondents comment freely and in detail b. Disadvantages of group interview: Group can be interviewed in the time required for one personal interview. c. Difficult to get representative sample : Possibility of a group being dominated by one individual The interview does not require preparation and preplanning. F 7. The interviewer should find out the general daily routine of the respondents in order to determine the suitable timings for interview. T
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 9. 10.
8. Before starting the research interview, it is not necessary for the interviewer to establish a friendly relationship with the respondent. F It is essential to record responses as they take place. T Choices when personal interview is feasible? a. When the area covered for survey is compact or when number of interviewee is very large b. When sufficient number of interviewers are available or when the number of interviewee is very large c. When the area covered for survey is compact or when sufficient number of interviewers is available. Interview results are adversely affected by interviewer's mode of asking questions and interaction. T Like that of a chemical technician, it is rather a flexible psychological process. f 13. The extent of his success as an interviewer is very largely dependent upon his insight and skill in dealing with varying socio-physiological situations. f 14. Interview is a conversation with specific purpose, i.e., obtaining information relevant to a study. T 15. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-to-face basis, because interview can be conducted over the telephone also. T 16. What is the limitation of Non-directive interview? a. It can closely approximate the spontaneity of natural conversation b. More prone to interviewer's bias c. Provide less opportunity to explore the problem in an unrestricted manner d. Data obtained from one interview is not comparable to the data from the next. Choices Interview calls for Interviewing skills 18. The semi-structured interview where the investigator attempts to focus the discussion on the actual effects of a given experience to which the respondents have been exposed is termed as Focused interview What do you understand by Depth interview? a. This is an intensive and searching interview aiming at studying the respondent's opinion, emotions or convictions on the basis of an interview guide 20. What is Non-directive interview? a. This is the least structured one where the interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely about a give topic with a minimum of prompting or guidance 21.Which of the following is not a requirement for a successful interview? Vastness of knowledge of the interviewer 22.Which type of interview is similar to focused interview but with a subtle difference? Clinical interview 23. ________ is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. Interviewing. 24.Interviewing is the one of the prominent methods of data collection. 25.Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. 26.Interview can add flesh to statistical information. 27.Types of interview: Structured or directive interview, Unstructured or nondirective interview, Focused interview, Clinical interview, Depth interview. 17
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 28. Types of approaches: The participants The relationship the participants is a transitory one Interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange Interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally Interview is an inter-actionable process Interviewing is not a standardized process 28. quality of interviews: a. data availability b. role perceptions c. the interviewer should also know his role d. respondent motivation
29. interviewing techniques: a. Preparation b. Introduction c. Developing Rapport d. Carrying the Interview Forward e. Recording the Interview f. Closing the Interview g. Editing 30.establishing friendly relationship with respondent: rapport 31. interviews problems: a. inadequate response: kahn and cannel five principles b. interviewers bias c. non- response d. non-availability e. refusal f. inaccessibility g. Methods and aims of controlling non- response: kish suggested. This is an interview made with a details standardized schedule. T 33. The focus interview is concerned with the effect of specific experience; clinical interview is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of the individual life experiences. T Unit: 12 1. Which of the following are the important characteristics of a statistical data? a. Central tendency b. Dispersion c. Color d. Odor e. Skewness f. Kurtosis 2. Median is the most repeating value of a distribution. F 3. Mode is the most typical and frequented value of the distribution. T 4. Mode cannot be determined for series with open-ended classes. F 5. Mode can be graphically determined. T 18
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 6. When open ended responses have been received, classification is necessary to code the responses. T 7. Classification should be linked to the theory and the aim of the particular study .T 8. The main aim of transition is to minimize the shuffling proceeds between several responses and several observations. T 9. When the sample size is manageable, the researcher must use any computerization process to analyze the data. F 10.Coding need not necessarily be numeric. T 11.A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the variable may be given an alphabetic coding. T 12.A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable. T 13. What is the main requisite for a transcription process? A. Preparation of the data sheets where observations are the row of the database and the responses/variables are the columns of the data sheet 14. How the transcription of data can be used? a. It can be used to summarize and arrange the data in compact form for further analysis 15.What is SPSS? It is an integrated set if programs suitable for analysis of social science data 16.Social science reach conclusion using -Secondary data 17.Which of the following is not involved in the data preparation – a. Identification of the data structures b. Coding of data c. Grouping of data for preliminary research interpretation d. Identification of investigators 18. Data processing is an intermediary stage of work between data collections and data interpretation. 19.The various steps in processing of data may be stated as: a. Identifying the data structures b. Editing the data c. Coding and classifying the data d. Transcription of data e. Tabulation of data. 20.The editing step checks for the completeness, accuracy and uniformity of the data as created by the researcher. 21.Coding process assigns numerals or other symbols to the several responses of the data set. 22.Numeric Coding: Coding need not necessarily be numeric. It can also be alphabetic. Coding has to be compulsorily numeric, when the variable is subject to further parametric analysis. 23.Alphabetic Coding: A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the variable may be given in an alphabetic coding. 24.Zero Coding: A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable. In many instances, when manual analysis is done, a code of 0 would imply a “no response” from the respondents. 25.An illustration of the coding process of some of the demographic variables is given in the following table:
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 Question number Code 1.1
Variable observation Organization
Owner of Vehicle
5.1 1 5.2
Response category Private Pt Public Pb Government Yes 2 No 1 Excellent 5 Good 4 Adequate 3 Bad 2 Worst 1 Up to 20 years 21-40 years 2 40-60 years 3 Salaried S Professional P Technical Business Retired Housewife,
other= 26.long worksheet:
27.The transcription of data can be used to summarize and arrange the data in compact form for further analysis. The process is called tabulation. 28.Manual Tabulation
29.Computerized tabulation is easy with the help of software packages. 30.Frequency tables provide a “shorthand” summary of data. 20
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 31.
32.Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical averages. Averages are classified into two groups. 1. Mathematical averages 2. Positional averages 30. Merits of Median 1. Median is easy to calculate and simple to understand. 2. When the data is very large median is the most convenient measure of central tendency. 3. Median is useful finding average for data with open-ended classes. 4. The median distributes the values of the data equally to either side of the median. 5. Median is not influenced by the extreme values present in the data. 6. Value of the median can be graphically determined. Demerits of Median • To calculate median, data should be arranged according to ascending order. This is tedious when the number of items in a series is numerous. • Since the value of median is determined by observation, it is not a true representative of all the values. • Median is not amenable to further algebraic treatment. • The value of median is affected by sampling fluctuation.
33.Mode Mode is the most repeating value of a distribution. When one item repeats more number of times than other or when two items repeat equal number of times, mode is ill defined. Under such case, mode is calculated by the formula (3 median – 2 mean). Mode is a widely used measure of central tendency in business. We speak of model wage which is the wage earned by most of the workers. Model shoe size is the mostly demanded shoe. 34.Merits of Mode 21
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 • • • •
Mode is the most typical and frequented value of the distribution. It is not affected by extreme values. Mode can be determined even for series with open-ended classes. Mode can be graphically determined.
35.Demerits of Mode 1. It is difficult to calculate mode when one item repeats more number of times than others. 2. Mode is not capable of further algebraic treatment. 3. Mode is not based on all the items of the series. 4. Mode is not rigidly defined. There are several formulae for calculating mode. 33. Dispersion is the tendency of the individual values in a distribution to spread away from the average. 34. Dispersion is a statistical measure, which understands the degree of variation of items from the average. 35. Properties of a Good Measure of Dispersion A good measure of dispersion should be simple to understand. 1. It should be easy to calculate 2. It should be rigidly defined 3. It should be based on all the values of a distribution 4. It should be amenable to further statistical and algebraic treatment. 5. It should have sampling stability 6. It should not be unduly affected by extreme values. 36. Measures of Dispersion 1. Range 2. Quartile deviation 3. Mean deviation 4. Standard deviation 5. Lorenz curve 36.Lorenz curve is a graphical measure of dispersion. 37.Quartile deviation is defined as inter quartile range 38.
39. Merits of Quartile Deviation 1. Quartile Deviation is superior to range as a rough measure of dispersion. 2. It has a special merit in measuring dispersion in open-ended series. 3. Quartile Deviation is not affected by extreme values. 40. Demerits of Quartile Deviation 1. Quartile Deviation ignores the first 25% of the distribution below Q1 and 25% of the distribution above the Q3 22
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 2. Quartile Deviation is not amenable to further mathematical treatment. 3. Quartile Deviation is very much affected by sampling fluctuations. 41. Range and quartile deviation do not show any scatter ness from the average. 42. Steps for mean deviation: 1. Calculate mean, median or mode of the series 2. Find the deviation of items from the mean, median or mode 3. Sum the deviations and obtain ΣD 4. Take the average of the deviations ΣD/N, which is the mean deviation. 43. Standard deviation is the most important measure of dispersion. It satisfies most of the properties of a good measure of dispersion. It was introduced by Karl Pearson in 1893. Standard deviation is defined as the mean of the squared deviations from the arithmetic mean. Standard deviation is denoted by the Greek letter. 44. Standard deviation can be computed in two methods 1. Taking deviation from actual mean 2. Taking deviation from assumed mean. 45.
46. According to L.R. Connor, “if two or more quantities vary in sympathy so that movements in the one tend to be accompanied by corresponding movements in the other(s) they are said to be correlated”. W.I. King defined “Correlation means that between two series or groups of data, there exists some casual connection”. 47. Types of Correlation Analysis Correlation can be: • Positive or negative • Linear or non-linear • Simple, multiple or partial 48. Non-linear is called curvilinear correlation because graph of such correlation results in a curve. 49. scatter diagram: This is a graphical method of studying correlation between two variables. If the trend is downward sloping, correlation is negative.
50. PROBABLE ERROR: If the coefficient of correlation is less than Probable Error it will not be significant. If the coefficient of correlation r is more than six times the Probable Error, correlation is definitely significant. If Probable Error is 0.5 or more, it is generally considered as significant. Probable Error is estimated by the following formula. 23
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 51. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Method Charles Edward Spearman, a British psychologist devised a method for measuring correlation between two variables based on ranks given to the observations. This method is adopted when the variables are not capable of quantitative measurements like intelligence, beauty etc. in such cases, it is impossible to assign numerical values for change taking place in such variables. It is in such cases rank correlation is useful. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is given by 52. Concurrent Deviation Method In this method, correlation is calculated between direction of deviations and not their magnitudes. Steps in the Calculation of Concurrent Deviation • Find out the direction of change of x-variable. When a successive figure in the series increase direction is marked as + and when a successive figure in the series decrease direction of change is marked as -. It is denoted as dx. • Find out the change in direction of y-variable. It is denoted as dy. • Multiply dx and dy and determine the value of C. C is the number of positive products of dxdy (- X - or + X +). • 53. The value of Co-Efficient of Correlation always lies between +1 and –1. It can be interpreted in the following ways. • If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 1 it is interpreted as perfect positive correlation. • If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is –1, it is interpreted as perfect negative correlation. • If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0 < r < 0.5, it is interpreted as poor positive correlation. • If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0.5 < r < 1, it is interpreted as good positive correlation. • If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0 > r > -0.5, it is interpreted as poor negative correlation. • If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is –0.5 > r > -1, it is interpreted as good negative correlation. • If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0, it is interpreted as zero correlation.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 36.The following are the important characteristics of a statistical data: a. Central tendency b. Dispersion c. Skew ness d. Kurtosis Unit: 13 1. An interim report narrates what has been done so far and what was its outcome. T 2. Introduction should provide audience interest. T 3. Along with the related skill of working with and motivating people, the ability to communicate effectively is not a must attribute a manager should have. F 4. It is important to generate a research report that will be interesting to read. T 5. Mention which of the following items will be included under which category. a. Prefatory Items : List of tables b. Body of the report : Limitations of the study , Theoretical background of the topic , Method of data collection c. Reference Materials : Bibliography, Appendix 6. Under which of the following categories, research report can be classified a. Technical reports b. Popular reports c. Summary reports d. Technical abstracts e. Research article f. Technical article 7. When there is a time lag between data collection and presentation of the result, then also there is no chance of loss of significance and usefulness of the study. f 8. Summary report is meant for general public. t 9. _______ is a short summary of technical report. Research abstract 10._________ is designed for publication in a professional journal. Research article 11.In a research report, each piece of presentation should fit into the whole, just as individual pieces into a jigsaw puzzle. T 12. It is better to keep the body of the presentation intact without breaking into parts to keep the constancy in the report. F 13.In a technical report, a comprehensive full report of the research process and its outcome are included. T 14.In popular report the reader is less interested in the methodological details, but more interested in the findings of the study. T 15.Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. T 16.Research report provides highly specific information for a clearly designated audience. T 17.The purpose of the research report is to communicate to interested persons the methodology and the results of the study. T 18.Research report is a narrative and authoritative document. T 19.A research report requires clear _______. ORGANIZATION 20.Choices Research report is a means for _________. COMMUNICATING 25
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 21.In a research report, the audience should feel that there is __________. A natural flow from one section to another 22.The presentation should help the audience to avoid _______. Misinterpreting the results 23.When the content refers genders, ______ nouns and pronouns should not be used. masculine 24.Which of the following is not a function of research report? a. It is a means for judging the quality of research project b. It is a means for evaluating researcher c. It provides a systematic knowledge on problems and issues analyzed d. It provides steps to undertake research. 25.Which of the followings should be used to communicate the content of the materials discussed? a. Underlined text b. Headings and subheadings c. Bold text d. Marked text Unit: 14 1. Match the following a. Confidentiality: Not revealing information of a sensitive nature
b. Objectivity : Recording respondents c. Honesty: Admitting that the research can be done at a lower cost d. Anonymity: Conducting research under a fictitious name Identify the ethical issues in the data collection stage a. Informed consent of participants b. Time of contacting participants c. Manner of observation of participants d. Use of the internet for online surveys e. Manner of recording responses f. Confidentiality and anonymity Identify the responsibilities of suppliers of research from the following a. Refraining from stealing information from competitors b. Projecting a positive image of the research profession to society c. Proving truthful answers to questions d. Hiding the real purpose of the study e. Respecting the rights of respondents f. Providing truthful estimates of the cost and time needed for research Informed consent means: Revealing information about important aspects of the study to participants Which of the following is an example of objectivity in data collection? a. Filling in incomplete answers in a questionnaire b. Leading the respondent into giving a particular response c. Wording questions in a neutral manner d. Leaving out certain information provided by respondents which you think may be irrelevant 26
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 6. Which of the following is not an example of honesty in research? a. Refusing to answer questions of a personal nature b. Overestimating the cost of research to the client c. Encouraging the researcher to be objective in data collection d. Revealing the true purpose of a study to respondents 7. Which of the following questions could be perceived by respondents to be of a sensitive nature? a. Reading habits b. Occupation c. Lifestyle d. Relationship with family members 8. Objectivity is a key issue in which of the following stages of the research process? Data collection 9. Participants need to be informed about all the following, except: a. Purpose of study b. Method of collecting data c. Use of information gathered d. Personal details of other participants 10.The bulk of the responsibility for ethical research lies with : Suppliers of research 11.Which of the following is not an ethically questionable research situation? a. Doing a sales pitch in the name of a survey b. Undertaking research dictated by top management c. Using jargon in a technical report d. Doing research under a fictitious name to obtain data that would be difficult to get otherwise 12.Which of the following is not part of respondent rights? a. Right to refuse to answer questions of a personal nature b. Right to refuse to take part in a survey c. Right to be untruthful d. Right to want to keep information confidential 13.Which of the following methods of data collection can lead to greater invasion of privacy? a. Face to face interviews b. Depth interviews c. Telephone interviews d. Mail surveys 14.One of the rights of respondents is to refuse to be contacted over the telephone. F 15. Participants of a study should be informed about the sampling procedure before getting their consent. F 16. Filling in incomplete answers in a questionnaire is an example of lack of objectivity. T 17. Observation is not an ethical method of data collection. F 18. Confidentiality implies that you may have to change the name of the organization that was researched when reporting the findings. F 19.Using cameras to observe respondent’s reactions to advertisements is unethical. F 20. The bulk of responsibility for ethical research lies with clients or managers. F 27
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 21. It is ethical for top management to modify the findings of a study to highlight the strengths of the organization. F
EXTRA 1. Answer: 80 2.
Answer: 29.46 3. Answer: 99.967 4.
Answer: 11.235 6. 28
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 Answer: 21.834 7. Answer: 378689 8. Answer: Q1=15, Q3= 40
9. ANSWER: Q1 = 120, Q3 = 160 Q D: 20; CQD: .0714 10. ANSWER: Q1= 33.33; Q3= 69.33 QD= 18; CQD=.3505 11. ANSWER: Mean=20; MD=10.1 CMD=.505 12. ANSWER: AM=28.8; MD=10.332 29
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MB 0051 CMD=.3762 13.Answer for median for same question are: ME=17; MD= 7.38; CMD= .434; MDMode= 18.33 MDM= 7.13; CMD= .3912 14. ANSWER: 7.836
ANSWER: 0.714 17.