December 4, 2017 | Author: Glenn Michael M. Flores | Category: Target Audience, Brand, Correlation And Dependence, Variance, Strategic Management
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ISSN 2277-5846 The International Journal Of Management


Brand Positioning Of Automotive Lubricant In Indian Market Gautam Srivastava Research Scholar, University Of Petroleum And Energy Studies, Dehradun, India

Abstract This research paper is based on the impact of brand positioning on the consumer purchase decision of lubricant consumers. First of all researcher has found the different attributes of brand positioning . The attributes of brand positioning are independent variables whereas the attributes of consumer purchase decision are dependent variables. After that the researcher has found the relationship between the attributes of brand positioning and consumer buying behaviour by using multiple regression analysis. So this research helped the PSUs to find out the important factors on which they should focus to increase their market share. Multiple dimensional scaling has been used to identify the important dimensions of brand positioning based on consumer perception. Different brand has been mapped on perceptual mapping to determine the points of parity and points of differences. Key words: Brand positioning, Perceptual mapping, PSUs, Multiple regression analysis

1.Introduction 1.1.Brand Positioning Kotler aptly defines positioning as the ‘the act of designing the company’s offer so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the mind of the target customers. Bovee et al defines positioning as the ‘the process of promoting buyers to form a particular mental impression of our product relative to our competitors. David Aaker considered Brand Positioning a ‘part of brand identity and value proposition that is to be actively communicated to the target audience, and that demonstrates an advantage over competing brands.’ Branding is the “added value” or augmented elements that determine a brand’s positioning in the market place. Al Ries and Jack Trout said that to develop a positioning program, six critical questions must be answered. They are;  What position do you own in the mind of the prospect, now?  What position do you want to own?  Whom must you outrun to achieve that position?  Do you have enough money?  Can you stick it out?  Does your communication match your position? The market position of a brand shows where a specific brand is located. It also shows the relationship to competitive brands. We can determine the market position of a brand on the basis of the answers to the following four questions:  Why (which benefits and advantages does the brand bring to the consumers).  When (determining the opportunities for which the brand is most suitable).  For whom (it is about the determination of the consumer of a brand or target group).  Against whom (determining the main competitive brands).


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The International Journal Of Management Product positioning is an important strategy for achieving differential advantage. Positioning reflects the “place” a product occupies in a market or segment. A successful position has characteristics that are both differentiating and important to consumers. 1.2.Tips Of Brand Positioning All forward looking companies now regard positioning at the heart of competitive strategy. As the ultimate aim of any business strategy is to satisfy the customer, gaining a valued position in the minds of customers is essential. Some people argue that branding is really positioning, stating that unless a brand has a position, it has no unique value in the minds of consumers. You can establish a brand personality, and through precise market segmentation identify and reach your target audience, but what links them together is positioning the brand in the minds of that audience. But, what is a position and how do you arrive at a good strategy for achieving one. The branding process seeks to create a unique identity for a company, product or service, which differentiates it from the competition. And every brand has to have a strategic platform. One half of that platform is created by carefully by carefully formulating a distinct brand personality, which makes the identity of the brand unique. The other half of the strategic brand platform is positioned. Positioning is critical to brand building because it is responsible for projecting the brand identity and creating the perception and image of the brand in people’s minds. In other words, positioning is the process of offering the brand to the consumer. It is positioning that makes the brand appear to be different and better than all competing brands. Keller et al argue that managers often pay too much attention to points of differentiation but pay little attention to two other aspects. Frame of reference and brand’s common features with competitors. Effective competitive positioning does not require only paying attention to points of differences but also to points of parity. Exclusive focus on creating points of differences often causes the managers to ignore another important issue. That is, the point of reference that customers use to see and evaluate the brand. For instance, a fast food brand tries to differentiate itself from the other players in the fast food category on the key proposition of health. But a brand so promoted on the health platform may change the point of reference customers use to judge the brand. Customers may see health and taste as two different categories. Thus, differentiation so pushed on the health basis may pull the brand out of the fast food category and place it in the health food category. Each category may have different size and growth prospects. Such moves should be deeply contemplated upon before being pursued. Once the point of reference is correctly established, the next positioning challenge is creating compelling points of differences. Mere promotion of the brand on the basis of differences is not a good strategy. Developing strong, favourable and unique associations are fundamental to creating effective brand differentiation. Three ways of building differentiation could be identified: brand performance, brand imagery and consumer insights. Depending upon the route chosen, the brand associations could be developed accordingly. A brand could develop distinction in a chosen field by developing associations related to product performance. It focuses on the brand’s delivery on the functionality expected by customers. The brand could develop associations on the intrinsic product dimensions like durability, reliability, price, style or service. A brand can take the imagery route to developing strong, favourable and unique associations focusing on user and usage situations in communication. The class of people who are associated with the brand often differentiated brands powerfully. Brands like Rolls Royce and Armani draw their imagery from the class of people who are considered users of these brands. On the other hand, the ordinary or average person imagery is also an effective way of differentiating a brand. Brands like Wheel and Fair & Lovely seek to connect with ordinary households who want solutions to the washing and dark skin problems being faced by housewives and young girls respectively. Finally, when the above two methods of differentiation do not provide much scope for differentiation, the marketer can turn to consumers for possible insights into their problems or goals, in order to position the brand. For dishwashing, brand Vim was for long promoted as a means of winning acceptance and approval from a demanding mother in law. Close Up toothpaste attracts young customers by subconsciously making them ever ready to face a close encounter and thereby reduces imagined insecurities. Establishing a correct point of reference and points of differences is important for competitive positioning. A brand must first signal the category it wants to participate in, through parity associations. Then it must create compelling points of differences to differentiate itself from the rest in that frame.


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Figure 1: Kevin Killer Model Of Brand Positioning This model is used to identify the optimal positioning and value proposition for the brand. It helps to consider for effective brand positioning.  Differentiated from the competition  Relevant to its audience  Defendable by the product  Aligned with the core brand values Dr Kevin Killer has suggested a model for effective brand positioning. This model is able to answer the following questions:  What do the brand consumers presently believe about or value in the brand?  What might consumers believe or value about the brand in the future?  What is the organization currently claiming about the brand?  What would the organization like the brand to become down the road?

Figure 2: Kelvin Killer Model Source: Dark Matter Matters 1.3.Lubricant Oil Lubricating oil is used to reduce the friction between the moving surfaces. The property of reducing the friction between the surfaces is called lubricity. The lubricant oil have following characteristics:  High boiling point  Low freezing point  High viscosity  Thermal stability


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The International Journal Of Management  Hydraulic stability  Corrosion prevention The function of lubricant is to separate the moving parts in the system.  Keeping moving parts apart  Reduce friction  Transfer hit  Transmit power  Protect against wear  Prevent corrosion  Seal for gases India is the third largest lubricant market in the world after the U.S.A. and China. India produces 5 to 6 percent of the total global lube production. The Indian lubricant market is mainly divided into two parts industrial lubricant and automotive lubricant. Indian automotive lubricants constitute 65% whereas industrial lubricant oil constitutes 35% of the market share. The majority market share of the India lubricant market is covered by automotive lubricant. Presently the Indian lubricant market is growing at the rate of 5% per annum. Year Rate 1990-91 - 1996-97 2.5% 1996-97 - 2001-02 2.0% 2001-02 - 2006-07 4.5% 2004-05 - 2009-10 3.5% 2009-10 - 2014-15 4.0% Table 1: Growth Trend Of Indian Automotive Lubricants Market Source: http://www.Indiastat.Com (2012) The India auto lubricant manufacturer produces classified into two types: Company Name

Brand Name

Major Product

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.


MAK Supreme, MAK Multigrade, MAK Gold, MAK Gold Plus, MAK Diamond

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.


HP Extra Super Motor Oil, HP Cruise, HP Racer, HP Laal Ghoda, HP Milcy Power, HP Pumpset OIL

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.


SERVO 2T Supreme, SERVO Pride, SERVO Ultra, SERVO Premium

Table 2: Psu’s – Indian Oil Corporation, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Company Name

Brand Name

Major Product

Castrol India Ltd.


Castrol GTX Modern Engine , Castrol GTX 20W50 Castrol Edge , CASTROL GTX DIESEL

Gulf Oil Corporation Ltd.


Superfleet LE Max 15w-40, Superfleet Max 15w-40, Gulfco 1049 Max

Tide Water Oil Corporation Ltd


HDB 30, 40, 50, HDB 20W, 40, HDB 30, 40, HDC30, 40, HDC Fleet 30, 40

Table 3: Private Lubricant Manufacturer- Castrol Indian Ltd., Tide Water Oil Corporation Ltd., Gulf Oil Corporation Ltd. Indian Lubricant market in India divided into diesel lubricant and petrol lubricant. Market size and Demand of Lubricant Oil in India


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30% Petrol Lubricant Diesel Lubricant 70%

Figure 3 Source: www.scribd.com The original equipment segment and retail trade are the two major marketing channels in the Indian automotive lubricants market. PSUs sell their lube oil through petroleum retail outlet whereas major private players like Castrol sell their lubricant through bazaar trade. 2.Literature Review PSUs companies have lost market share from 90 percent in 1991 to 58.5 percent in 2012. The increasing dominance of Castrol, a well enriched MNC in the lube oil sector, has added their woes. Castrol, which had a market share of six percent in 1991 had increased it to 18 percent. To major gainers in market shares during this period are Tide water oil and Gulf oil India (A Hinduja group). 100 P e r c e e n t a g


80 58.6

60 40 20 0 1991

2012 Year

Figure 4: Market Share Psus In Lubricant Oil Source: The Financial Express, June 7, 1997

3.Motivation Of The Research  Indian lubricant market is the third largest in the world.  Demand of auto lubricant in Indian market is increasing continuously.  PSUs (IOCL, BPCL and HPCL) are continuously losing their market share. 4.Statement And Proposal  Business Problem Loss of market share of PSU in Lubricating Oil. (IOCL, HPCL and BPCL). NOTE: During the 90’s the market share of the PSU Lubricant sector were 90% and currently it is 60%. Now a days PSU is spending significant amounts on Brand Positioning to influence consumer behaviour which was missing during 90’s. 5.Research Objectives  To determine the important attributes of brand positioning of lubricant oil.  To determine the impact of important attributes of brand positioning of lubricant oil on consumer purchasing decision.


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The International Journal Of Management 6.Scope Of Study PSUs lubricant brand (Servo, Mac and HP Lube) is continuously losing their market share in the Indian lube market. So this research is focused on finding the important attributes of brand positioning which affects the purchasing decision of lubricant consumer which helped the PSUs to increase their market share by repositioning their brands. Year

1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Personal Vehicles Commercial Vehicles Personal Vehicles. M. Auto Taxis Buses Good cars & Jeeps cycles/Scooters Rickshaw Vehicles 22.48 64.13 3.83 1.20 1.52 6.85 21.74 67.51 3.51 0.57 1.06 5.61 26.64 64.53 2.52 0.53 1.20 4.59 30.66 63.64 1.43 0.48 0.90 2.89 30.73 63.58 1.33 0.54 0.93 2.85 30.92 63.17 1.40 0.66 0.91 2.91 31.21 62.85 1.34 0.70 0.89 2.99 31.34 62.64 1.27 0.84 0.89 3.02 31.50 62.43 1.19 0.94 0.86 3.08 Table 4: Percentage Distribution Of Registered Vehicles Of The Total Source: Offices Of State Transport Commissioners


100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

7.Research Design 7.1.Exploratory Research Exploratory research has been used to find out the different factors responsible for brand positioning of lubricant oil and the impact of that factors on consumers purchasing decision. 7.2.Descriptive Research Descriptive research has been used to find out the relationship between the attributes of brand positioning and consumer purchasing decision. 8.Sources Of Data Collection 8.1.Sources Of Data 8.1.1.Primary data Primary data will be collected from the four strata: Four Wheeler segment consumers Four wheeler segment consumers will be divided into the following strata • Non commercial four wheeler (petrol) • Non commercial four wheeler (diesel) • commercial four wheeler (petrol) • commercial four wheeler (diesel) 8.1.2.Secondary Data Secondary data are required for the study and will be collected from the annual report of the lube companies, magazines. 8.2.Sampling Total No. Of four vehicles in Delhi = 2412893 (Source: Population census 2011) The sample size will be calculated by using Yamane, 1967 formula. n=

N 1 + N e2 Where n = The sample size N = The size of the population e = The error of 5 percentage points. n= 2412893 1 + 2412893 (.05) 2 = 399.93 = 400


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The International Journal Of Management 8.3.Area of Sampling The sample will be collected from the Delhi region. Delhi region will be divided into following sub region: East West North South Central The sample size will be divided in the ratio of commercial and non commercial four vehicles which are registered in Delhi. A further four vehicles are further classified on the basis of the ratio of petrol and diesel four vehicles. 8.4.Sampling Techniques Convenience sampling will be used. The researcher will collect the data from the different petrol pump by asking drivers, owners and users fill up the questionnaire. 8.5..Hypothesis  H0: Brand positioning does not have any impact on consumer purchasing decision of lubricant oil.  H1: Brand positioning has an impact on consumer purchasing decision of lubricant oil. 8.6.Factor Analysis Factor analysis has been used to find out the most important following factors:  Price  Quality  Accessibility  Consumer Benefits Standard attributes of consumer buying behaviour has been used which is following: Purchase Decision The purchase decision is a dependable variable of consumer buying behaviour whereas price, quality, accessibility and consumer benefits are the independent variables of brand positioning. 8.7.Reliability Analysis Reliability analysis has used to measure the reliability of the factors price, quality, accessibility and customer benefits. It is used to measure that whether these factors are able to measure the satisfaction of lube consumers. Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 99 98.0 Excludeda 2 2.0 Total 101 100.0 a. List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Table 5

Cronbach's Alpha .214

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha Based on StandardizedItems .225 Table 6

Item Statistics Mean Price Quality Accessibility Consumer Benefits


2.41 2.17 2.78 2.25 Table 7

Std. Deviation 1.421 1.204 1.337 1.063

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N of Items 4

N 99 99 99 99


The International Journal Of Management

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix Price Quality Accessibility Price Quality Accessibility Consumer Benefit

1.000 .137 .049 .207

2.404 1.597 .068

Scale Mean if Item Deleted Price Quality Accessibility Consumer Benefits

.049 -.249 1.000 .241

Summary Item Statistics Minimu Maximu Range m m 2.172 2.778 .606 1.129 2.021 .891 -.249 .241 .490 Table 9

Mean Item Means Item Variances Inter-Item Correlations

.137 1.000 -.249 .022 Table 8

7.20 7.44 6.84 7.36

Consumer Benefits .207 .022 .241 1.000

Item-Total Statistics Scale Corrected Variance if Item-Total Item Deleted Correlation 4.306 .217 6.433 .045 5.749 .011 5.111 .284 Table 10

Maximum / Minimum 1.279 1.789 -.969

Squared Multiple Correlation .062 .087 .124 .099

Varianc e .072 .152 .029

N of Items 4 4 4

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted .021a .349 .300 .043a

In the above table all the value of Cronbach’s Alpha is positive which shows that the variables are fit into the reliability model 8.8.Multiple Regression Analysis Multiple Regression has been used to find out the relationship between the independent variables Price, Quality, Accessibility and Customer Benefits and dependent variables consumer purchase decision. Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation PurchaseDecision 1.28 .453 Price 2.41 1.421 Quality 2.17 1.204 Accessibility 2.78 1.337 Consumer Benefits 2.25 1.063 Table 11


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N 99 99 99 99 99


The International Journal Of Management

Correlations Purchase Decision Price Pearson Correlation

Purchase Decision Price Quality Accessibility Consumer Benefits Purchase Decision Price Quality Accessibility Consumer Benefits Purchase Decision Price Quality Accessibility Consumer Benefits

Sig. (1-tailed)


1.000 .038 -.034 -.030 .083 . .354 .370 .384 .206 99 99 99 99 99 Table 12

.038 1.000 .137 .049 .207 .354 . .088 .315 .020 99 99 99 99 99



-.034 .137 1.000 -.249 .022 .370 .088 . .007 .416 99 99 99 99 99

-.030 .049 -.249 1.000 .241 .384 .315 .007 . .008 99 99 99 99 99

Consumer Benefits .083 .207 .022 .241 1.000 .206 .020 .416 .008 . 99 99 99 99 99

Coefficient Correlationsa Model 1



Consumer Benefits


Consumer Benefits 1.000 -.058 Quality -.058 1.000 Price -.191 -.140 Accessibility -.243 .264 Consumer Benefits .002 .000 Quality .000 .002 Price .000 .000 Accessibility .000 .000 a. Dependent Variable: Purchase Decision



-.191 -.140 1.000 -.036 .000 .000 .001 -4.492E-005

-.243 .264 -.036 1.000 .000 .000 -4.492E-005 .001

Table 13


R .114a


Model Summary Std. Error Change Statistics of the R Square F df1 df2 Estimate Change Change .013 -.029 .459 .013 .310 4 94 a. Predictors: (Constant), Consumer Benefits, Quality, Price, Accessibility

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Sig. F Change .871

Table 14 ANOVAa Model 1

Sum of Squares


Mean Square













Table 15


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The International Journal Of Management 8.9.Multi Dimensional Scaling Collinearity Diagnosticsa Model






2 3 4 5

.274 .202 .131 .053

Condition Index 1.000

Variance Proportions Constant








Consumer Benefits .01

.43 .16 .02 .38

.22 .04 .31 .42

.03 .01 .88 .07

3.982 .00 .02 4.641 .01 .91 5.766 .01 .03 9.067 .98 .04 a. Dependent Variable: Purchase Decision Table 16

Multi Dimensional Scaling has been used to measure the perception of consumers towards the different brand of lubricant oil. First of all two dimensions price and quality has been identified on the perceptual map on which perception of consumers towards different brands has been mapped. After that consumers perception responses have been mapped on the perceptual map. 8.10.Perceptual Mapping Perceptual map has been used to map the different brand of lubricant oil on two attributes price and quality. Following brand has been mapped on the perceptual mapping:  Servo  MAK Lubricant  HP Lube  Veedol  Superfleet Step 1: Perceptual Map of the lubricating oil in Indian market. Step 2: Entered the two labels of the horizontal axis For the upper side of the map Low Price For the bottom side of the map High Price Step 3: Entered the two labels of the vertical axis For the left side of the map High Quality For the right side of the map Low Quality Step 4: Entered the brand to be mapped Step 5: Scored each brand for the two attributes price and quality Used a 1 to 9 scale Horizontal attributes 1 = Low Price 5 = Equal mix of both 9 = High Price Vertical Attributes 1 = Low Quality 5 = Equal mix of both 9 = High Quality Step 6: Size of the circles shows the market share of the different brands. 1 = Small 5 = Medium 9 = Large Brand Servo MAK Lubricant HP Lube Castrol Veedol Superfleet


Horizontal axis 6 7 7 5 8 8

Vertical axis 7 6 5.5 7 4 3 Table 17

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Size of the circles 3 2 1 3 1 1


The International Journal Of Management

Perceptual Map of Lubricant Oil Brand in Indian Market Low Price



Low Healthy Quality

High Quality

Mak Lubricant HP Lube

Veedol Superfleet

High Price

Limited Choice


Figure 5

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

BranServo Mak HP Lube Castrol Veedol Supeerfleet 0






Quality Figure 6


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The International Journal Of Management 10 9




7 Castrol Servo




Mak HP Lube

5 1



4 4 5



7 Veedol 8 9 Supeerfleet

HP Lube 10

Castrol Veedol Supeerfleet

2 1 0 Price Figure 7

9.Conclusion With the help of factor analysis for factors price, quality, accessibility and customer benefits. Multiple regression analysis has been used to find out the relationship between the independent variable price, quality, accessibility and customer satisfaction and the dependent variable purchase decision. Multiple correlation coefficient concludes that the Pearson correlation coefficient between purchasing decision and the price is 0.38, purchasing decision and consumer benefits is 0.83, purchasing decision and quality is -0.34, purchasing and accessibility is -0.30. It means there is a positive correlation coefficient between purchasing decision and price, consumer benefits whereas there is negative correlation between the purchasing decision and quality, accessibility. Major brand of lubricant oil Servo, HP Lube, MAK Lubricant, Castrol, Veedol and Superfleet has been mapped on perceptual map. The two dimensions of perceptual map are price and quality. 10.Limitations  This research will be limited only to Delhi region.  This research will be limited to four wheeler segment (Petrol and Diesel). 11.References 1. Ahuja, P. (2010).s Indian consumers response towards online branding. LBSIM , 35-37. 2. Arthur Fishman, a. S. (2010). The Economic of collective brands. Journal of IIAn Univeristy ,25. 3. Carman Lages, L. F. (2006). The relationship between e-marketing strategy and performance: A conceptual framework in a web context. FEUNL , 446. 4. Chernatory, F. D. (2003). The service brand as relationship builder . British Journal of Mgt. , 137-150. 5. Dierre R Berthan, M. T. (2007). Brand Mgt. in small to meium sized enterprises. Journal of small business mgt. , 27-45. 6. Luis M B Cabrol, L. N. (2008). Optimal Brand Umbrella Size. 1-6. 7. Lhotakova M., Klosova A.. (2009), Identification of a Target consumer in process of positioning. ACTA OECONOMICA PRAGESSIA , 22-24 8. Sudhir, J. S. (2007). Managing customer relationship under competition punish or reward current customers. 9. Tim Coltman, T. M. (2009). Customer relationship mgt. and firm performance. INSEAD . 10. Tushneet, R. (2011). Towards Symmetry in the law of branding Fordhan intellectual property. Law journal Geagetown University Law Centre , 11-26. 11. Alexandre, A. D. (2008). Petrol Price and government nond risk premiums. 12. Ajay Kumar (2005). Brand Management text and cases. Wisdom publication, first edition, pp-92. 13. Anand, M. (2009). Castrol India Limited: managing in challenging times. 14. Book, B. (April 2004). Advertising ad Branding in social virtual. Journal of Marketing, , 32-45. 15. C.R., P. (2007). Oil and Gas. J.P. , 76. 16. Colber, J. (2009). The Indian lubricant market: Survival of the slickest. 17. Dellaert, N. B. (2002). An analysis of terminology use in place branding, European Journal of Marketing vol(3) 17-22. 18. Dr, G. S. (n.d.). The impact of customer relationship management. USJP Occassional paper , 6-13. 19. Dresel, T. m. (2004). Lubricants and Thier Market. Lubricants and Lubrication . Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 3-5.


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